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SCAFFOLD SAFETY

Safety Section EFSL IRPC Project

OBJECTIVE
After attending the session, all the participants should be familiar with scaffolding standard to be followed at EFSL IRPC & secure 100% marks in scaffolding certification test. Moreover, effective today, there should be no unsafe scaffoldings in the field.

Contents
Background When fall protection is required? Scaffolding Definition and Types Common Hazards Associated with Scaffolds Scaffolding Terms Safety Rules for Scaffoldings

Background
Falls from height are second leading cause of work place fatalities. 17% of the falls result in disabling injuries. Each year, on average, between 150 and 200 workers are killed and more than 100,000 are injured as a result of falls at construction sites. EFL shall follow the OSHA standard for installation of all scaffolding at the site.

When Fall Protection Required


1926.501(b)(1) "Unprotected sides and edges." Each employee on a walking/working surface (horizontal and vertical surface) with an unprotected side or edge which is 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above a lower level shall be protected from falling by the use of guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems.

Scaffold Definition
Any temporary elevated platform and its necessary vertical, diagonal and horizontal members used for supporting workmen & materials.

NOTE Scaffolding must be installed when working overhead more than 6 feet.

Scaffold Types
Supported scaffolds, which consist of one or more platforms supported by rigid, load- bearing members, such as poles, legs, frames, outriggers, etc.

Suspended scaffolds, which are one or more platforms suspended by ropes or other non-rigid, overhead support.

Other scaffolds, principally man lifts, personnel hoists, etc., which are sometimes thought of as vehicles or machinery, but can be regarded as another type of supported scaffold.

Suspended Scaffolding

Supported Scaffolding

Supported Scaffolding Types


Tube and Coupler Scaffold Tube and coupler scaffolds are so-named because they are built from tubing connected by coupling devices. Properties
Strength Suitable for heavy loads multiple platforms must reach several stories high Versatility to be assembled in multiple directions Hard to build correctly

Scaffold Types

Common Hazards Associated with All Scaffolds


Falls from elevation, due to lack of fall protection; Collapse of the scaffold, caused by instability or overloading; Being struck by falling tools, work materials, or debris; and Electrocution, principally due to proximity of the scaffold to overhead power lines.

Scaffolding Terms
Maximum Working Load is the total of all loads including the working load, the weight of the scaffold, and such other loads as may be reasonably anticipated. Light Duty Scaffold is a scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed twenty-five (25) pounds per square foot. Medium Duty Scaffold is a scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed fifty (50) pounds per square foot. Heavy Duty Scaffold is a scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed seventy-five (75) pounds per square foot.

Scaffolding Terms
Column (Post) A pipe used as a column or vertical in the construction of a scaffold & transmitting a load to the ground via a base plate. The poles, legs, or uprights of scaffolds shall be securely and rigidly braced to prevent swaying and displacement. Tie (Runner/Bearer) A pipe used to connect two columns horizontally. Ties can be longitudinal ties or cross ties depending on which columns are tied. Ledger A cross tie which also acts as a support for Deck Boards.

Scaffolding Terms
Guardrail A barrier secured to uprights and erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms to prevent falls of persons.

Handrail A rail connected to a ladder stand running parallel to the slope and/or top step. Mid Rail A tie erected midway between the Deck Boards & the Hand Rail for further safety of men and material.

Scaffolding Terms
Sole Plate or Sole Board Also known as spreader. A plate of adequate size suitable to be used to distribute the load from the base plate over an area of ground and generally used in unfloored area to prevent sinking of scaffold. Base Plate A 6 x 6 (150mm x 150mm) steel plate providing a flat bearing surface for load distribution from columns. Bay The space between two adjacent columns along the face of a scaffold. Lift The height from the ground or floor to the lowest tie or the vertical distance between two adjacent ties.

Scaffolding Terms
Platform Also known as Deck. A close boarded scaffold platform which provides space to work on. Longitudinal Bracing Pipes secured diagonally across the face of a scaffold to ensure stability. Diagonal bracing shall be provided to prevent the poles from moving in a direction parallel with the wall of the building, or from buckling. Cross Bracing Pipes secured diagonally between lifts from tie to tie or column to column to ensure stability. Cross bracing shall be provided between the inner and outer sets of poles in independent pole scaffolds. The free ends of pole scaffolds shall be cross braced. Full diagonal face bracing shall be erected across the entire face of pole scaffolds in both directions. The braces shall be spliced at the poles.

Scaffolding Terms
Fixed Coupler Also known as 90 coupler. A load bearing coupler used for connecting two pipes together at right angles.

Swivel Coupler Used for connecting two pipes together at any angle through 360. Not to be used for the load bearing purposes for which a fixed coupler has been designed.

Scaffolding Terms
Joint Pin Also known as a Spigot. Used for connecting two pipes end to end. Fitted internally it expands to apply grip against the wall of the pipe.

Pipe 1-1/2 I. D. pipes of different lengths varying from 6 to 20 which are used as columns (vertical supports) ties, braces, handrails and midrails.

Spanners Special 7/8 spanners are used in scaffolding work.

Scaffolding Terms
Decking Boards or Planks All planking or platforms shall be overlapped (minimum 12 inches) or secured from movement. Toe Boards The standard size of these boards is 1 x 5 x 10. These boards are positioned at the edges of a platform to prevent persons, tools & materials from falling. Scaffolds shall be provided with a screen between the toe board and the guardrail, extending along the entire opening, where persons are required to work or pass under the scaffolds. Rope Various standard sizes are used. 3/8 for tying planks and 1/2 for lifting light tools/materials to the platform.

Illustration

Scaffolding Rules General


Scaffolds and their components shall be capable of supporting without failure at least four times the maximum intended load. Scaffolds shall not be altered or moved horizontally while they are in use or occupied. An access ladder or equivalent safe access shall be provided. Extend ladder at least 3 feet above the working deck. The access gap shall be guarded with a flop bar or chain. Overhead protection shall be provided for men on a scaffold exposed to overhead hazards. Employees shall not work on scaffolds during storms or high winds.

Tools, materials, and debris shall not be allowed to accumulate in quantities to cause a hazard
Scaffolds shall be secured to permanent structures when possible.

Scaffolding Rules Columns / Ties


First ties should be 6 inches above grade & the first lift should be 5 feet to 6.5 feet above grade (as required). All longitudinal ties must be supported by cross ties.

Fasten all joints & couplers securely. Do not over-tighten as it will damage the fittings and threads.
Plumb and level all scaffolds as erection proceeds. Use only fixed coupler to make 90 joints & adjustable couplers for angles other than 90.

No columns are to be spaced more than 8 - 6 apart longitudinally and more than 6 apart across. 10 is acceptable only for light work load i.e. 15 lbs. Per square foot uniformly distributed load or less. For bigger loads the spacing of columns should be reduced from 10 feet to 6 feet accordingly.
Diagonal braces must be installed on all four sides of all scaffolds 10 in height & for each additional 10 of height. For lesser heights bracing on any two adjacent sides is enough. Ties are not to be spaced more than 6 - 6 apart in height.

Guard rail must not be less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches high.

Scaffolding Rules General


All pole scaffolds shall be securely guyed or tied to the building or structure. Where the height or length exceeds 25 feet, When the height of scaffold exceeds three times the width of the base, scaffold should be guyed or fastened to other fixed structures to provide additional stability to avoid tripping. See that no hot line or bare electric wire is passing near the scaffold. The footing for scaffolds shall be sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the maximum intended load without settling or displacement. Unstable objects such as barrels, boxes, loose brick, or concrete blocks shall not be used to support scaffolds or planks. Ensure that the ground is firm and solid to support the columns and the intended load on it. Except on solid concrete foundation/flooring, always use base plates. In case of soft ground, provide additional 2 x 12 x 12 sole plates or 2 x 10 x 10 sole board under the base plates.

Scaffolding Rules General


Scaffold planks shall extend over their end supports not less than 6 inches nor more than 18 inches. All decking boards must be of good quality Deodar/Partal / Cheerh wood, surfaced on one side & two edges. Actual size of the boards should be minimum 2thick, 12 wide and not more than 10 long. The ends should be bound with Hoop Iron. Working platform should be 2.5 to 3.0 below the place of work. Working platforms should be a minimum of 18 wide. The platform should be close boarded so that tools or other material do not fall through the spaces in between.

Scaffolding Rules (Planks / Toe Board)


Install toe boards at all open sides of scaffold to avoid falling of material. Toe boards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor. Toe boards shall be a minimum of 4 inches in height. Handrails, midrails & toe boards shall be installed inside, not outside columns. For welding jobs at height, scaffolding planks must be kept wet to avoid fire. Scaffolding Plank must not touch any hot line passing near by. No naked wires / hot lines must be taken inside scaffolding.

Safety Rules for Mobile Scaffolds


The maximum work level height shall not exceed four times the smallest base dimension. Check the locking arrangement of mobile scaffold before use. The minimum platform width for any work level shall not be less than 20 for mobile scaffold towers. A mobile tower scaffold shall only have a single working platform and the maximum distributed load shall be 30 lbs/ft2 (145 Kg/M2) distributed over the working platform. No persons, equipment, materials or deck boards shall be on the working platform or elsewhere on the structure whilst is in motion.

Safety Rules for Fixed Scaffold


The scaffolding certificate should be displayed at the scaffolding ladder. The approving supervisor should mention location, date and his name along with signatures on the scaffolding certificate. All Maintenance/Project Supervisors can certify scaffolding provided they have qualified test on scaffolding certification. No Supervisor can certify scaffolding for jobs under his direct supervision.

Criteria for de-certification/re-certification will be defined & approved by SOC.

Typical Scaffold

Typical Scaffold

Typical Deficiencies

Typical Deficiencies

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