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MovingTowardsEnvironmentally SustainableWaterAllocationinSouthAsia

LunaBharati,VladimirSmakhtin,PratibhaSapkota

WaterAllocationisnot Water Allocation is not


WaterSharing W Sh i
Prioritiesforsupply

Distributionofirrigationwaterwithininasystem

Optimisationofdam p releases
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WaterAllocationis Water Allocation is


the clear and stable apportionment of a specified theclearandstableapportionmentofaspecified QUANTITYandQUALITYofwater,toauserorgroup ofusers,withaSPECIFIEDRELIABILITY(Securityof Supply)thataccountsfornaturalvariationinwater resourceavailability,andcontainsprovisionsfor changingtheallocationintimesoflowwater h i th ll ti i ti fl t availability.

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Whenallocationbecomesimportant..
Renewable
Allocation

Re allocation Re-allocation
B

Utilizable
A

Development

Utilization

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WaterAllocation Water Allocation


Beginswithpoliticaldecisions: whoownsH2O?(State) whoadministersit&how? h d i i i &h ? Objectives? equityorefficiency? q y y Economic? Whoandwhatusesgetwater, h d h howmuch? Whataretheinteractionsover spaceandtime(withinariver d ti ( ithi i systemorBASIN)?
WATERACCOUNTING WATER ACCOUNTING Whatresourcesdowehave (hydrology)? Whatusesaretherealready? Whatuses(andpriorities)do weexpectinthefuture? Environmentaldemand?

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TheLivingGangaProgramme:EnvironmentalFlowsAssessment
Thetermenvironmentalflows(EFs)is nowcommonlyusedtorefertoaflow regimedesignedtomaintainariverin someagreedecologicalcondition. WWFIndiacoordinatedagroupof Indianandinternationalspecialiststo assesstheenvironmentalflow requirementsintheUpperGangaRiver stretchingfromGangotri toKanpur. Thiswasthefirstdetailedattemptto assessenvironmentalneedsforan IndianRiver Fourstretchesalongthemainchannel werechosenforEFA

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BuildingBlockMethodology(BBM)
Standardinvestigationsaredesignedtorelatetheecology,geomorphology, waterqualityandsocioeconomicissuestoparticularflowrequirements duringdifferentseasons Typically,specialistswillchooseindicatorspecies,processesoractivitiesthat ll l ll h d h aresensitivetoflowmodifications,ontheassumptionthat,ifflow requirementsfortheseindicatorsaremet,thentheotherflowrelatedissues forthatspecializationwillalsobesatisfied for that specialization will also be satisfied Attheassessmentworkshop,thespecialistteamswillusetheseindicatorsas thebasisforrecommendingparticularflowconditionsduringeachseason,in the basis for recommending particular flow conditions during each season in ordertomaintain/restoretheconditionswhichwillmeetthepredetermined environmentalobjectivesforeachriverzone

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QuantifyingSpiritualWaterRequirement
Ch i f i di t Choiceofindicators: holybathing,worship, carryingofGangawater backhome

Analysis Investigationscarriedout Investigations carried out throughinterviews statementsmadeby respondentsforfulfillment ofculturalandspiritual activitiesintofigureswhich couldbeconvertedtoflow requirements

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QuantifyingSpiritualWaterRequirement: ResultsandInterpretations p
Theflowrequirementsdefinedbyrespondentsareinoftenintermsofdepthat thebanks,andalsodepthsandwidthofthechannel.Theratedhydrauliccross sectionssurveyedateachsitecouldthenbeusedtoconvertsuchrequired depthsandwidthsintoflowrequirements.

Thesurveyshaverepeatedlybroughtouttheinterconnectednessofallelements oftheriverecosystem.Culture thelivingoflifewithdignityandpleasure is affectednotonlybythequantityandqualityofwaterinwhichtoconductrituals, affected not only by the quantity and quality of water in which to conduct rituals butalsobythequalityofwater,andtheotherriverinebiota

Theperennialnatureoftheriverwasimportanttoalltherespondents.Most peoplefoundtheideaofGangaasaseasonalriverimpossibletocomprehend. y g , TheybelievedthatiftheGangawouldceasetoflow,theworldwouldend.


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Results Zone3:Narora Farrukhabad


MaintenanceFlows
14000 12000 Flow Volume, MC V CM 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0

Site EF3 Kachla Bridge

45% MAR

10

11

12

Months
maintenance low
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maintenance high

natural total

Present

AnalysisofbasinwatersupplyanddemandusingWEAP
Unmetdemandsoccurredduringwintermonthsof y y p December,JanuaryandFebruaryunderpastandfuture climates AddingEFalsoincreasedunmetdemandsbyover100% inthesamewintermonths in the same winter months Scenarioanalysisresultsshowthatplantinglesswater p g y intensivecropsandincreasingwateruseefficiencyare effectivemeasurestoreduceunmetdemands. Reducingcroptypetolesswaterintensecropswasmore effectiveinreducingunmetdemandsthandecreasingthe effective in reducing unmet demands than decreasing the totalcroppedarea. Waterallocationisintendedtoallowtransparentand sustainableuseofavailablewaterresources
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Thankyou
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