SCPNT Symposium November 7, 2007 Systems Technology for Remote Sensing of Near-Earth Space

Umran S Inan
Professor of Electrical Engineering Director, Space, Telecommunications and Radioscience (STAR) Laboratory Electrical Engineering Department Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 http://www-star.stanford.edu/~vlf/

1

Very Low Frequency (VLF) Group
 Largest group within Space, Telecommunications & Radioscience (STAR) Lab, one of five EE Labs  VLF Group Personnel
    3 Senior Research Associates, 3 Research Associates Several active Emeriti & Consulting Professors 1 to 2 full-time engineers, 1 Data Aide Currently 26 MS/PhD Students, graduated 27 PhDs since 1990

 Experimental & theoretical research on waves & energetic particles in near-Earth space, ionosphere, radiation belts, very low frequency remote sensing, lightning discharges & high altitude effects, such as sprites, elves  Design & construction of sensitive receivers and autonomous systems, deployed worldwide

2

Electromagnetic Waves in Near-Earth Space

3

Electromagnetic Waves in Near-Earth Space

4

Electromagnetic Emissions in Near-Earth Space

5

Stanford at Palmer & South Pole Stations, Antarctica

6

Lightning-generated Whistlers
 Very Low Frequency (VLF) waves launched by lightning propagate in the Earthionosphere waveguide (vp=c) Wave energy also couples upward to the radiation belts, propagating along filamentary “ducts” of enhanced ionization The magnetospheric plasma is a dispersive slow wave medium (vp=0.01 c) Signal arriving at the conjugate region sounds like a “whistler”

 

7

Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) on DEMETER
 LEP bursts on DEMETER. (top to bottom) (left) Broadband VLF data and (right) narrowband VLF data from ground stations showing sferics caused by lightning strokes; Spectrograms of electric field from ICE on DEMETER showing 0+ whistlers from the same lightning strokes; Electron spectra from IDP on DEMETER showing bursts of precipitated electrons; integral flux (99.6 to 304.3 keV). The map shows the trajectories of DEMETER satellite; blue and green respectively for the cases on the left and right.
GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 34, L07103, doi:10.1029/2006GL029238, 2007

8

Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP)

9

Subionospheric VLF Remote Sensing

Many VLF transmitters operate worldwide, providing a range of coherent laser-like signals with which to probe the ionospheric regions through which they propagate
10

Measurement: Simple Receivers Allow Continuous Monitoring
VLF receivers at 13 high schools Provides excellent opportunities for outreach

11

Non-ducted LEP Events
(a) (c) In general whistler waves propagate in non-ducted mode, illuminating large regions of the radiation In each event, onset delay (Δt)an onset duration (td) are measurable, corresponding to wave/particle travel times and duration of LEP pulse

(d)

(b)

12

Subionospheric VLF Signatures of LEP Events: Spatial Extent
Dashed line VLF paths perturbed; solid line ones are not; theoretical precipitation region superposed
VLF Amplitude Data for 24 March 2001

Full extent of the ionospheric disturbance produced by an LEP burst (due to a single flash) is captured Corresponding region of the inner radiation belt is affected by whistler waves from a single lightning flash

13

Theoretical Modeling

Peter and Inan [2006]

14

Stanford VLF Receivers
(sun never sets on Stanford VLF)
Preamp

Line Receiver

Palmer Station Antarctica

Transmitter at Pole (7-km antenna)

Antenna
15

IHY/UNBSS Program

16

Antarctic Unmanned Receivers

Single-chip LNA
17

ELF/VLF Applications with HAARP
Control of Charged Particle Effects on Satellite Operations
ELF / VLF Radio Waves

100 km 60 km

ELF / VLF Radio Waves

ELF / VLF Radio Waves

HAARP HF Transmitter Comm Submarine Imaging Buried Targets Detect Submarine Comm Buried Receiver

18

High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP)

19

HAARP VLF Signals at Chistochina, Alaska (~30 km from HAARP)

20

Natural and HAARPinjected ELF/VLF Signals

21

Whistlers, Auroral Hiss and HAARP ELF/VLF Signals

22

Very Strong HAARP ELF/VLF Signals

23

Amplified Signals and Triggered Emissions on Tangaroa & Alaska

24

Multiple Traverses Between Hemispheres

25

ELF/VLF Wave-Injection Experiments with HAARP

26

Quickly Developing Storm Systems

Feet
27

Stanford VLF Buoy in New Zealand: Integration & Launch

28

HAARP VLF Buoy in Construction

29

Buoy Electronics Integration

30

Stanford VLF Buoy at Sea

31

Stanford VLF Buoy at Sea and back in New Zealand

32

Photos

33

Photos

34

Systems Overview

GPS ARGOS

Loop Antennas

Antennas

Preamp

IRIDIUMs

Solar Panels Charge Controller Batteries Electronics Package

35

Main Electronics

CF
IRIDIUM Interface IRIDIUM Interface

ADC DSP Main Atmel GPS
IRIDIUM Atmel

VLF Filter
Power Filtering/ Housekeeping

IRIDIUM Atmel

Data Bus Main Power Bus

IRIDIUM Power VLF Filter Power

IRIDIUM Serial Data GPS Serial Data

36

Motherboard, DSP. ADC, CF & Iridium Interfaces
Motherboard • ATMega128 Main Controller • 100Mhz Bus interface for all subsystems • 100khz Sample Clock Generation • ATMega128 Iridium controllers CF Interface • Direct interface to Compact Flash – full throughput • Stackable design • Max 15 per memory space • Subject to bus signal integrity

DSP TI TMS320C6711 DSP • 150 MHz, 100MHz bus • Floating point capabilities • 64MB Ram • Onboard FPGA

ADC • 3 Channels • 16 Bit ADC, up to 200Khz sampling • 512 deep 18bit FIFO buffers • CPLD • Bus interface controller • ADC Controller Iridium Interface • Iridium Modem brick interface • Rx/Tx Indicators • Optically isolated from main system
37

GPS, Line Receiver, Housekeeping/power, & AAF
GPS • Low Power Motorola • Battery Backup • 1PPS Generation

Line Receiver • Three differential channel • Selective Gain (0,2,5,10,20dB) • 8th Order Min-Q Elliptic Filter

Housekeeping/Power • Switching 5V, 12V regulators • Housekeeping filter and ADC • Reset Circuitry • Modem Power Controls • Power Indicators

38

Buoy 1.5 Hardware Stack

Pic needed

39

Buoy 1.5 Hardware Stack

40

Stack In Mumetal Can

41

Charger Section

External Power

Solar Panel

Switch

14.45V

System

Charge Control

Battery Battery

Battery Battery

Battery

x4

42

Buoy 1.5 Power Box

43

Iridium Enhancements

 Performed a study in May 2005 on colocated Iridium terminals
  Interference and blanking detected at 3’ separation Rooftop antenna array created to minimize interference and maximize horizon exposure

44

Back End Software: Cluster Mode
Server
Modem Handler
MySQL Node Manager

Iridium Modem Brick Iridium Modem Brick Iridium Modem Brick

Modem Handler Modem Handler

Web Front End
HTTPD

PHP Module

Server
Modem Handler
MySQL Node Manager

Iridium Modem Brick Iridium Modem Brick Iridium Modem Brick

Modem Handler Modem Handler

45

Roof Testing

46

Roof Testing

47

HAARP VLF Buoy 2.0

48

Stanford Buoys Launched from the Tangaroa

49

Deployment of Buoy

50

51

Amplified ELF Signals on the HAARP Stanford Buoy

52

15 dB/s Amplification & Triggered Emissions

53

Transmitter-Induced Precipitation of Electron Radiation (TIPER)

54

VLF Receiver at Kwajalein Atoll

55

VLF Receiver at Waimea High School, Kauai

56

Stanford System at Midway Atoll

57

Tern Island Autonomous System

58

VLF Data from Tern Island

40

Radio Impulses from Lightning VLF Transmitters

Unprecedented low levels of ‘hum’

80

Frequency (kHz)

30

60

20

40 10

1

2

3

4

Time (sec)

dB
59

Transmitter-Induced Precipitation of Electron Radiation (TIPER)
Escaped VLF waves from lightning strikes eor powerful VLF transmitter Precipitation Magnetic field line

e- ePrecipitating charged particles modify ionosphere electron density

D Layer Ionosphere

Use subionospheric VLF method (used for detection of lightning induced precipitation) to observe transmitter induced precipitation

VLF amplitude

Diagnostic VLF Transmitters

Powerful VLF Xmtr

Diagnostic VLF Receivers

Signal Perturbation
Time
60

Subionospheric VLF Detection of NPM-induced Precipitation

61

TIPER Map with Theoretically Determined Precipitation Region
Figure 1 of Inan et al. [2006] (in review at GRL)

62

Observations of NPM-induced Precipitation on NLK & NLM

Figure 2 of Inan et al. [2006] (in review at GRL)

63

NPM-induced Precipitation: Model & Data Comparison

Figure 4 of Inan et al. [2006] (in review at GRL)
64

Mission Payload: Particle Detector
 Energetic Electron Detector
 Pattern after successful DEMETER mission French µ−sat  High geometric factor  High-time resolution
Detector External shielding Foil for p+ and hν rejection Mass Power Energy range Maximum geometrical factor Implanted Si S = 490 mm2 (Φ 25 mm) 2 mm Al 6 µm 525 g 895 mW 0.07-0.7(2.5) MeV 256 channels 1.2 cm2.ster

65

NPM-induced Electron Precipitation on DEMETER

NPM
66

NWC-induced Precipitation on DEMETER [from Sauvaud et al.]

67

TIPER Optical Measurements

68

Current Plan for NWC Keying Experiments

69

Wave-Particle Interactions & Radiation Belts
Wave Propagation

Wave Generation

Wave-Particle Interaction

70

One High Altitude Nuclear Detonation Impacts Multiple Systems
 High-altitude nuclear tests of 1958 and 1962 demonstrated wide-area effects with significant military impacts for numerous systems.
 Radars:  Communications:  Optical Sensors:  Satellites:  Electronics & Power: Blackout, absorption, noise, clutter, scintillation Blackout, scintillation fading, noise, connectivity IR, Visible, UV backgrounds, clutter; γ noise Trapped radiation; radiation damage to electronics Electromagnetic pulse; electrical systems damage

ORANGE 3.8 MT at 43 km

TEAK 3.8 MT at 76.8 km

KINGFISH __ MT at __ km

CHECKMATE __ MT at __ km

STARFISH 1.4 MT at 400 km

From Defense Threat Reduction Agency/Mission Research Corp briefing, 15 Jan 2003

How Could It Happen?
 Collateral damage from regional nuclear war or TMD/NMD intercept:
   Nuclear warning shot in a regional conflict; Effort to damage adversary forces/infrastructure with electromagnetic pulse; Detonation of salvage-fused warhead upon exoatmospheric intercept attempt.

 Deliberate effort to cause economic damage with lower likelihood of nuclear retaliation:
  By rogue state facing economic strangulation or imminent military defeat; Pose economic threat to the industrial world without Senior Pakistani officials have said that causing human casualties or visible damage to economic Pakistan's nuclear warheads have undergone shock and vibration tests and infrastructure.

are ready to be mounted on the country's Ghauri, or Hatf V, intermediate-range ballistic missile.
JANE'S DEFENCE WEEKLY - 3rd JUNE 1998

72

Radiation Belt Remediation
What is the problem?
High Altitude Nuclear Detonation produces huge increase in radiation for satellites – all LEO s/c fail within months
Number of Assets
40

30 Krad (Si)

1.5 MeV Electron Flux Bay of Bengal 50 kT burst At 250 km 100 mil Al

Remaining

30 20 10
Defense Threat Reduction Agency

HAND Belt
50 kT, 31.3 deg, 75.2 deg, 200km

0.1

1.0

10

Months After Burst
Nuclear vs Natural Environment (~800km Polar Orbit)

Remediation can:
 Accelerate the natural decay of trapped particles in narrow HAND region  Save critical LEO space missions  Enable environment for replenishment within 30 days
73

1E+6 1E+5 1E+4 1E+3 1E+2 1E+1 1E+0

Dose (Rads Si)

Nuclear Natural

1

14

Days

30

365

Radiation Belt Remediation
Particle Dynamics
Particles mirroring below 100 km are “lost”

ELF/VLF Waves Control Particle Lifetimes

Electromagnetic wave

L shell = distance/RE

Pitch-angle

To remove particles the magnitude of the velocity need not be changed - just the angle between the velocity and magnetic field!

Tenfold increase in particle removal rate requires ~ 17kW => a few FOUO satellites!

Radiation Belt Remediation
Key Processes
Scientific Understanding
VLF wave generation

Ionosphere

Wave-particle scattering
• Are interactions diffusive or coherent? • Can tailored wave forms improve efficiency?

Global wave propagation and amplification
• Where does wave power go in the far field? • Can waves be amplified through plasma processes?

ELF-VLF wave injection efficiency
Wave-particle interaction

• Can ground-based antennas radiate VLF efficiently through the ionosphere? • Can space-based antennas radiate VLF into the far-field at high power levels?

Wave propagation

HAND belt electrons

Outer-zone electrons
75

DSX / WIPER Spacecraft Mission

Active and Passive Observation Objectives
i) Characterize naturally occurring VLF signals a. In the inner radiation belt b. Slot region c. Inner edge of the outer belt. ii) In-situ injection of VLF waves a. Efficiency in injection b. Propagation characteristics c. Effect on energetic particles iii) Quantify pitch angle scattering a. Energetic electrons by whistler-mode waves b. Naturally occurring or injected.

DSX Spacecraft

WIPER: Wave-Induced Precipitation of Electron Radiation
76

WIPER Block Diagram
TATU TATU

TATU

RPI

TATU TCU

IMAGE Spacecraft Instrument Deck

LVDS

Receiver sensitivity vs frequency

77

WIPER Block Diagram

PARX ADC Die Layout
Test Circuitry
LVDS

Functional Circuitry Low-noise amplifier

Stage 0

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3

(a)

Stage 4

Capacitors Anti-aliasing filter Transconductor

Silicon Germanium 0.25µm BiCMOS Flat gain over 5 decades in frequency Negligible flicker noise <100 Hz >100 dB SFDR Responds to Tens of nV (NF 2-5 dB)

(b)

Op-amps

Low Noise Amplifier
78

Block Diagrams

Internal Diagram
Receiver Card SCx
Housekeeping TX Housekeeping RX Heritage TX Micro TX Housekeeping TX Housekeeping RX Heritage TX Micro TX Housekeeping TX Housekeeping RX Heritage TX Micro TX KEY ON/OFF TATU Housekeeping TX Housekeeping RX Heritage TX Micro TX Housekeeping TX Housekeeping RX Heritage TX Micro TX Power Thermistors Heater Calibration 1PPS Thermistors Heaters

External Diagram
WIPER Payload
Housekeeping TX Housekeeping RX LVDS Data

ECS
28Vdc TATU#1 28Vdc TCU RS422 TCU PPS TCU KeyOn TCU

DSX -Z boom

TATU#1 52x29x13cm

Receiver Card SCy

HSB

-Z antenna 28Vdc BBR RS422 BBR PPS BBR LVDS BBR

Receiver Card SCz

Control Card TATU
Therm TASC Heater TASC
passthru

BBR 20x15x15cm

+Y antenna -Y antenna Key -On/Off +Z antenna

TCU incl. NBR 29.5x23x16cm

TNT internal

TNT internal

28Vdc

Receiver Card Ey

TASC analog

28Vdc TATU#2

H

S

TATU#2 52x29x13cm
DSX +Z boom

Receiver Card Ez

TASC

E-Field

TASC 30x30x30cm envelope

DSX -Y Antenna

DSX +Y Antenna

Approximate view towards ESPA Ring

79

BBR Physical Dimensions
 Components
 5 receiver boards
 Y Antenna (Electric Field Dipole)  Z Antenna (Electric Field Dipole)  Bx (Searchcoil)  By (Searchcoil)  Bz (Searchcoil)

15 cm

 1 preamp board
 Z Antenna

Pream p
15 cm

Rece iver Slice s

Powe r and Comm Boar d

 1 combination power board and communications board
 DC to DC converters, RS422, and LVDS links.  BBR Commanded by Software Receiver (SRX) code running in the Experiment Control System (ECS) as an embedded client.

20 cm

80

 Physical Specifications

Physical Integration of BBR into DSX

TASC

VLF BBR RECEIVER X: 200mm Y: 150mm Z: 150mm

X: 300 mm Y: 300 mm Z: 300 mm

2X TATU

X: 517 mm Y: 133 mm Z: 288 mm

WIPER TCU

X: 204mm Y: 206mm Z: 295mm

CAD model courtesy Microsat Systems

81

Main BBR Functional Requirements
 BBR shall measure the electric field from 100 Hz to 50 kHz and at high sensitivity (~1×10-16 (V/m)2/Hz) with 16bits of quantization  BBR shall measure the magnetic field from 100 Hz to 50 kHz and at high sensitivity (~1×-11 nT2/Hz) with 16-bits of quantization  BBR shall have a minimum Spurious Free Dynamic Range of 100dB for all channels
 Measured at 1.0 kHz for the Electric Field channels  Measured at 7.0 kHz for the Magnetic Field channels

 The BBR must be radiation tolerant to

82

BBR SFDR Measurement (Using DS360)
Fundamental Tone Scaled to 0 dB

Receiver Response

Preamp Response

83

System Architecture
ADC Key Specifications Electric dipole antenna Resolution Sampling Rate SFDR Power 13 bits 5 MS /s 100 dB 75 mW

Preamplifier ASIC LNA AAF

ADC ASIC ADC FPGA
To On -board Computer or Telemetry

LNA Key Specifications Adjustable Gain 0-20 dB Bandwidth 100 Hz - 1 MHz 1/2 Input-referred Noise 10 nV /m/Hz Input Impedance 1 Gohm || 100 fF SFDR 100 dB Power 5 mW

AAF Key Specifications Architecture Adjustable 3-dB Bandwidth Stopband Attenuation SFDR Power 6 - order Chebyshev (Type I) 30 kHz, 180 kHz, 1080 kHz -80 dB (3 *f c), -96 dB (4*fc) 100 dB 70 mW
th

Fig. 1 Plasma wave receiver block diagram.
84

LNA Measured Results
LNA chip.

Feedback is well-suited to this application Linearity  Feedback increases linear operating range  Reducing gain is worthwhile trade-off  Fidelity by reducing sensitivity to active devices Programmable Gain  Feedback trades gain for bandwidth  Reduce low-frequency closed-loop gain is tolerable  Passive feedback allows gain programming without power penalty Radiation Tolerance  Feedback reduces gain sensitivity & improves hardness  Use of multiple series-series feedback loops Prototype LNA performance  Flat passband gain over many gain settings in 3dB steps  Negligible flicker noise under 100 Hz  Further characterizations (SFDR) underway

Fig. 3 Measured gain (upper) and input-referred noise power spectral density (lower) for LNA.

85

Total Integrated Dose (TID) Test Results
 Irradiation in Co-60 chamber
 High dose rate: 75rad(SiGe)/s  Log steps (1/2/5) up to 2000krad

 LNA irradiation biasing
 Maximum gain setting (20dB)  Powered (all biasing nominal)

 Gain vs Dose
 No change < 100kHz
 Measurement noise

 At 2000krad
 -1dB at 1MHz  f-3dB drops by 22%

 Power vs Dose
 Decreases with dose
 Occurs by design  Conservative pMOS biasing scheme

 At 2000krad
 Pmax drops by 7.1%
Fig. 6 Bode response (upper) and power dissipation (lower) versus dose
86

Single-Event Effects (SEE) Test Results
 Illumination with mode-locked dye laser
 Stimulates charge-pair production in substrate  Pico-second pulse width (tw); Variable intensity (Io)  Variable spot sizes (σo) on the order of 2-10µm2

Sample laser spot cross-section

Latch-up immunity
 Scan entire die (I/O & core)  No latch-up detected over range of beam Io and σo
Scaled version of supply Negative output Positive output

Single-event transients
 No supply glitches detected  No saturation or oscillation  Signal transient ‘hot-spots’
 < 2µs avg. recovery time

Measured Vdd, Out+, and Out- laser-induced SEE transients
87

Design Techniques: ADC
 Design
 PARXADC is a digitally calibrated, pipelined analog-to-digital converter for capturing plasma wave signals in satellite applications. It leverages the spectrographic nature of such analysis to deliver high fidelity at low power.

Key Specifications
 Effective Number of Bits  Spurious-Free Dynamic Range 13 100 dB
 Averaging of circuit and quantization noise over FFT bins allows reduction of number of bits and hence the power dissipation. Number of bits chosen to maintain 100dB SFDR, assuming a 20000 point FFT (4ms at 5MS/s).

 Nyquist/Sampling Rate

5 MS/s

 Input signal bandwidth of 100 Hz – 1 MHz. Converter samples faster than Nyquist to accommodate analog anti-aliasing filter transition bandwidth.

 Power Dissipation (analog portion)  Power Supply Voltage  Maximum Input Signal  Radiation Tolerance

< 60 mW 2.5V ±1.0V fully differential > 100krad total dose

88

ADC Implementation
ANALOG INPUT

TRACK AND HOLD
VREFP VREFN

STAGE 1

CALIBRATION ENGINE

Converter composed of two parts: the PARXADC integrated circuit and an Actel A54SX32A FPGA
 Actel FPGA houses calibration engine, performs reconstruction, and defines output interface

STAGE 2

calibration coefficients

STAGE 3
RECONSTRUCTION ALGORITHM

STAGE 4


RESET PRESET

Calibration
 Calibration corrects DAC errors in pipeline converter, linearizing the conversion
  Feedforward (inherently stable) and fully digital (no analog trimming feedback loops) Re-calibration can be initiated at any time

STAGE 5

STAGE 6

STAGE 7

PARXADC Integrated Circuit

OD

OUTPUT DRIVER

May compensate for radiation induced circuit degradation

CLOCK

Actel A54SX32A FPGA

DOUT[15:0] CALIB DAV

Integrated Circuit Design
 Incorporates radiation hardness of design techniques
 Enclosed layout transistor switches, latchup prevention layout methods

Fig. 1. Functional diagram of PARXADC converter implementation.

89

ADC Status
 First version tested
  Complete system, composed of PARXADC silicon and Actel FPGA, operates at 2MS/s. Performance characterization is underway.

Second version fabricated
    Returned mid-2005 Expanded calibration
 Corrects gain error as well as DAC errors.

Additional breakout sections for radiation characterization of constituent functional blocks. Radiation Tests underway

Fig. 2. Reconstructed output from PARXADC converter functioning on PARXADC (version 1) Test Board in time and frequency domains (under 1024-pt FFT). Actel FPGA running UINT code (Rev.04) performs reconstruction; output is shown after calibration. Data is captured directly by logic analyzer. Converter operating at 2MS/s with 50kHz, 500mV amplitude input sinusoid transformer coupled.

90

ADC Die Layout, PARXADCV2
operational amplifier analog biasing breakout for radiation testing operational amplifier (from track and hold stage) breakout for radiation testing

6-stage pipelined analog-to-digital converter with dedicated track and hold stage

select enclosed terminal device breakouts for radiation testing

8-level flash (from stages #1, 2, and 3) breakout for radiation testing

Fig. 3. PARXADCV2 (PARXADC, version 2) die layout. Taped out July 2005. Total silicon dimensions 3.5mm by 3.5mm.
91

New Stanford Center: SCPNT
 Stanford Center for Position Navigation and Time (SCPNT) http://scpnt.stanford.edu/  Formed by faculty from EE, AA, Physics
 Per Enge (AA), Director  U. Inan (EE) and M. Kasevich (Phys), Vice-Directors

 Centimeter accuracy anywhere, anytime  Research includes new signals (e.g., GPS, Galileo), integrated sensors, inertial & atomic clock technologies, directional antennas & signal processing, atmospheric & orbital science  Funded by industry & government  Provides basis for new faculty appointments

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The End
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