The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the

views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Human Trafficking: Myths and Realities
Insight Thursday 23 August 2012

Sonomi Tanaka Lead Social Development Specialist (GAD) Regional and Sustainable Development Department Asian Development Bank

Outline

• Myths and Realities of Trafficking • Performance in Asia and the Pacific • Implications for ADB

1. The Definition
“Recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse power for the purpose of exploitation…. [which] shall include ….prostitution…or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery,…servitude or the removal of organs.” – UN

In reality…. • Prostitution vs. sex trafficking • Physical transportation • “Women and children” vs. all persons But growing consensus on “harms” on victims; affects all persons

Trafficking Protocol, 2000

2. “Traffickers come to your village to kidnap you”
In reality…..
• “Traffickers fish in the stream of migration” • Can happen to “voluntary” move or working in local teashops or garment factories without moving out • Relatives, individual job brokers, recruitment agencies, employers, consumers, law enforcement ---all responsible (see Cambodia case)

Thailand

Case of Phirun in Pursat, Cambodia

KEPT IN JAIL
Cambodia

Captured by Thai Police

Escaped from fishing boat

• Voluntarily crossed border to Thailand (illegal) • Worked as agricultural laborer

Phirun, a landless male farmer from Pursat Province, Cambodia

Locked and forced to work for 3 months without payment
Fishing boat Samut Prakan Province

2. “Traffickers come to your village to kidnap you”
In reality…..
• “Traffickers fish in the stream of migration” • Can happen to “voluntary” move or working in local teashops or garment factories without moving out • Relatives, individual job brokers, recruitment agencies, employers, consumers, law enforcement ---all responsible (see Cambodia case) • But there ARE cases of kidnapping as well (see Nepal case)

Sunita in Sindhupalchok Distrct, Nepal, looks for her daughter Tara who disappeared from house and is allegedly trafficked to Mumbai

2. “Traffickers come to your village to kidnap you”
In reality…..
• “Traffickers fish in the stream of migration” • Can happen to “voluntary” move or working in local teashops or garment factories without moving out • Relatives, individual job brokers, recruitment agencies, employers, consumers, law enforcement ---all responsible (see Cambodia case) • But there ARE cases of kidnapping as well (see Nepal case)

Need approaches specific to each target group and risk factors informed by evidence (e.g., gender, safe migration)

3. “Globally 2.4 million people are trafficked with 43% sex, 32% labor, 25% mix and 50% minor”
East Asia and Pacific
Year
2009 2010 2011

South and Central Asia
Year
2009 2010 2011

Victims Identified
5,238 2,597 5,357

Victims Identified
8,325 4,357 3,907

In reality no reliable statistics. More efforts to identify who, how, and why

4. “It is an issue of law enforcement”
No!! Anti-trafficking program is diverse:
• Prevention (e.g., public campaigns, vulnerable group empowerment) • Rescue/protection/prosecution/repatriation (e.g., PPP in raid, legal assistance, shelters) • Reintegration (e.g., psycho rehab, skills development)

ADB can play a role in prevention and regional institutional framework

Performance in Addressing Trafficking (2012 TIP Report)
• Tier 3: Do not fully comply nor effort – PNG • Tier 2 Watch List: Between 3 and 2 – AFG, AZE, MYA, PRC, MAL, MLD, FSM, THA, TKM, UZB • Tier 2: Do not fully comply but significant efforts made – ARM, BAN, CAM, FIJ, IND, INO, KAZ, KIR, KGZ, LAO, MAR, MON, NEP, PAK, PNG, PHI, SOL, SRI, TAJ, TIM, TON, VIE • Tier 1: GEO

Vast majority of DMCs are in 2, 2WL, and 3!!

ADB’s Approach to Trafficking
• Since the late 1990s, grew with poverty reduction and RCI • Two-tracked approach
– Regional TAs – preventive measures in investment projects (along with HIV/AIDS)

• Institutionalized in
– RCI Strategy – project poverty and social analysis

• Targeting the “vulnerable” not victims • Partnerships with specialized agencies

Key Achievements (1)
Policy, knowledge and capacity • Four regional TAs (1 South, 2 GMS, 1 both)
– Collected evidence and developed knowledge base (e.g., GIS vulnerability mapping) – Piloted targeted interventions (radio for EMs) – Developed capacity of regional bodies (GMS), governments, NGOs, communities – Strengthened regional, bilateral, and national institutional and legal frameworks – Developed tools (e.g., Guide to antitrafficking)

Key Achievements (2)
Project level • Trafficking risks assessment part of mandatory social analysis • Trafficking prevention awareness program in bidding documents of contractors • Gender and local governance initiatives included trafficking awareness raising

Lessons and Ways Forward
Policy, knowledge and capacity • Significant improvements but gaps exist (e.g., Central Asia, ASEAN, South Asia) • Continued need for quality research • Work on the employers and with private sector (e.g, The Mekong Club) Project • Needs dedicated budget and approach • From “awareness raising” to “behavioral change communication” • Modes of implementation matter

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