Water and Food Security in Asia Water and Food Security in Asia‐ Addressing a Growing Challenge

Thierry Facon Senior Water Management Officer FAO Regional Office  g for Asia and the Pacific

28/08/2012

The objective of this presentation The objective of this presentation
• We all know that “water and food security in We all know that  water and food security in  Asia” is a growing challenge and we know why • Our petition: working on “water and food  security” has become inoperative • A deliberate multi‐sectoral approach is  needed d d • The policy brief that will be presented later  today: towards a renewed framework for  today: towards a renewed framework for action on economic, food and water security 
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The essence of the challenge: managing transitions
• From unsustainable growth development patterns From unsustainable growth development patterns  to green growth • From planned to market‐driven economies From planned to market driven economies • From water abundance to water scarcity From development of supply to demand  • From development of supply to demand management • From informal to formal water economies From informal to formal water economies • Rural to urban population shifts From subsistence to commercial farming • From subsistence to commercial farming
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To make our case To make our case
• The water investment framework of The water investment framework of  Kedah and Muda river basins in Malaysia • The #1 policy document and 3 red lines of  People s Republic of China  People’s Republic of China

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Case Study on Sustainable Water Resource Use in Sungai Kedah and Sungai Muda River Basin Developed by DID Malaysia, Malaysia Water  p y y , y Partnership with local and national  stakeholders with the support of FAO This illustrates where Southeast Asian  countries aspire to be/will soon be countries aspire to be/will soon be

Case Study

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The Kedah and Muda River Basins Kedah River Basin • Wholly in Kedah State Wholly in Kedah State • Nearly 3000 sq. km. • 100 km length • 30% f MADA G 30% of MADA Granary in  i this basin Muda River Basin River Basin • Kedah and Penang States • 4,200 sq. km. • 200 k l 200 km length h • MADA Granary not in this  basin but part of IADA  Pulau Pinang 
Case Study
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The Kedah and Muda River Basins are part of an intensive Northern Region Water Resources Network • Water Resources Development necessary to support development – The Regional Climate has distinct dry season • Involves primarily 3 States (Perlis, Kedah, Penang) • Supports 2 Granaries – pp MADA & IADA Penang

Case Study

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Water Management & Allocation
• Agriculture enjoyed  comfortable water resources  comfortable water resources supply for 50 years – No  competition • N W t S Now Water Supply Sector is  l S t i competing strongly • Present trends are not  sustainable • Water Management for  Kedah Muda Basins is  Kedah‐Muda Basins is becoming more complex:
a) Stiffer Inter‐Sector competition b) The water system is inter‐connected &  ) y integral for basins beyond boundarie of  both basins & involves inter‐state  issues 

Lessons Learnt

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Draft Investment Framework Results According to Priority
National Objectives : No.* National Objectives 1 Achieving High Income Status 2 Food Security 3 Sustainable Water Resources M S t i bl W t R Management t 4 Green Mission Agriculture Sector Objectives: A i lt S t Obj ti No. Agriculture Sector Objectives 1 "Agriculture is Business" Agriculture Business 2 Minimum 70% Rice Self‐Sufficiency Level 3 Sustainable Agriculture Water Demand Management g g
4 Green Technology in Agriculture
SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE USE IN SG KEDAH & SG MUDA 28/08/2012

*In order of priority

Draft Framework Results Sorted According to Priority
Regional Objectives
Regional (Kedah & Muda Basins)  Regional (Kedah & Muda Basins) Objectives 1 MADA

Basin/Local Strategies
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Granary to Sustain Minimum 40% contribution to National Production 2 IADA P. Pinang Granary to Sustain g y 5% contribution to National Production 3 S t i Q lit & Q Sustain Quality Quantity of tit f Water Resource *In order of priority 4 Estate Management for Paddy g y
5 Towards 10ton/ha yield

Strategy Competition for Water (Equity) Increase Production Increase Water Efficiency Commercialising Paddy Farming Restructuring Mitigate Flood Loss and  Damage Environmental Management Water Quality Climate Change Adaptation Climate Change Adaptation

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SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE USE IN SG KEDAH & SG MUDA

Lessons learned according to our  Malaysian partners Malaysian partners
• Farmers respond for “economic” reasons; not “lack of water”.   • I Inter‐sector competition is a fast emerging issue.  The Water  ii i f i i Th W Supply Sector is now in a “stronger” position than agriculture.   • Agriculture’s  strength is its hisroical control of water resources  and the water distribution networks but this can be taken away. • Supporting legal and policy instruments:
Irrigation Act  restricts/controls conversion of irrigation lands. Irrigation Act – restricts/controls conversion of irrigation lands. Granary Policy – Federal Government commitment to invest in irrigation. Rice Self‐Sufficiency Level  Policy – to produce at least 70% of rice needs. The “Aging Farmers Exit Plan” – recently restructured for the MADA Granary to  accelerate commercial farming to increase yields (10 tons/ha) and better  resources (water) management. • The “National Water Resources Policy” – recently introduced to ensure equity  and sustainability. • • • •
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• Water no longer the pivotal point for scheduling farm activities.   • Now machinery services providers dominates the timing for farm  operations and thus irrigation systems operation.   operations and thus irrigation systems operation • Green Technology: Towards improved gravity system operations to  reduce pumping.  • F From single purpose (irrigation) design and use towards be “multi‐ i l (i i ti ) d i d t d b “ lti functional” use. • Other agriculture sectors (e.g. aquaculture) want in.
• Think of what is really happening to develop wise strategies.  

₋ In the 1980s large scale abandonment of the small irrigation  schemes due to economic diversification led to fruitless investments  h d t i di ifi ti l d t f itl i t t in irrigation. This could have been foreseen.   ₋ Farmers changed to direct seeding at their own initiative and this  required certain management adjustments in designs and  i d t i t dj t t i d i d operations.   ₋ The Granary Policy was the result of an in‐depth study of the  irrigation schemes that were challenged by the economic change. h h h ll db h h
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Key lessons
• Policy issues (conflicts and incompatibilities) have direct Policy issues (conflicts and incompatibilities) have direct  implications the spread and depth of all action plans:  “Self Sufficiency Levels”, “The Granaries”, “Irrigation  y , , g Act”, “Water Resources Sustainability” are Federal  Level   States now want their own vision and strategies for  future economic development • Population and non agriculture development pressures Population and non‐agriculture development pressures  on the Granaries and water resources questions the  sustainability of present policy sustainability of present policy
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Key questions to address in future work
• Policy Sustainability and Conflicts Policy Sustainability and Conflicts • Attaining “high‐income” for paddy production • Technology and Innovations particularly with  gy p y respect to inter‐sector and within sector water  demand management • Allocation rules including under water stress  conditions • Strategies to introduce and implement water Strategies to introduce and implement water  charges in the agriculture sector

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The #1 policy document and 3 red  lines of People s Republic of China  lines of People’s Republic of China
• Since the initiation of reform and opening up, China  p g p, has made considerable achievements: – responded to water‐related natural disasters,  – Developed its water infrastructure Developed its water infrastructure – UN MDG on water and sanitation 6 years ahead of  time.  – supported a high economic growth rate of nearly  10% per annum with a low water use growth of  1% per annum on average 1% per annum on average – increased grain output by nearly 78% with the  same amount of water
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Achievements in water and food security
• • • • • • Adopted strategic, policy, institutional and technical measures  Share of irrigation water use declined from 81% to 65%. National irrigation area increased by 5.4 million ha,  Food production capacity increased by 20 million tons 200 million people gained food security.  200 illi l i df d it 1995‐ 2005: average unit irrigation water use reduced from  7,935 to 6,450 m3/ha and irrigation water use efficiency  improved by 10%.  • 1980‐ 2004, while national total water diversion increased by  25%, irrigation water use remained at 340‐360 billion 25% irrigation water use remained at 340 360 billion • To maintain national food security by 2020: increase national  food production by 200 million tons – increase irrigation area by 6.67 million ha – nationwide Water Saving Irrigation development
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• In 2006 MWR developed different WSI  scenarios based on: scenarios based on:
– new water resources allocated to domestic and  industrial users – agriculture sector having to maintain food security  with current water allocation 

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• Future outlook – further industrialization, urbanization climate change g – increasingly acute problems of flood, logging, draught,  water shortage, water pollution and soil erosion • 2011: #1 policy document 2011:  #1 policy document • Followed by central conference on water conservancy  • 2012: policy document on implementing the most stringent  water resources management system with control indicators  ih l i di of the “Three Red Lines”

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What China has done
• China reviewed broad social economic and China reviewed broad social, economic and  environmental objectives through a water lens and  understanding of water availability and use including: understanding of water availability and use including: • This guided bulk water allocation, sectoral policies,  productivity targets, and policy instruments and  investments in all productive sectors including irrigation • Policy and other interventions in water and agriculture  determined by:  d t i db
– Overall economic, food and water security framework – key policy decisions on trade‐offs between economic key policy decisions on trade offs between economic  water productivity and other concerns, rural poverty  reduction, national food security, etc.
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Conclusion
• From water and food security to economic, food and water  security y • A multi‐sectoral approach is required to make coherent,  feasible and effective decisions in ALL ASPECTS of agricultural  water management water management • But agricultural water management should have a very high  priority: agriculture has the power to destroy the other sectors • The critical multi‐sectoral nexus related to managing  h ii l li l l d i transitions:
Bridging the income gap for farmers: Achieving a high income or middle income status  Achieving a high‐income or middle‐income status for rice and other grain/staple  producers
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