Water and Food Security in Asia Water and Food Security in Asia‐ Addressing a Growing Challenge

Thierry Facon Senior Water Management Officer FAO Regional Office  g for Asia and the Pacific


The objective of this presentation The objective of this presentation
• We all know that “water and food security in We all know that  water and food security in  Asia” is a growing challenge and we know why • Our petition: working on “water and food  security” has become inoperative • A deliberate multi‐sectoral approach is  needed d d • The policy brief that will be presented later  today: towards a renewed framework for  today: towards a renewed framework for action on economic, food and water security 

The essence of the challenge: managing transitions
• From unsustainable growth development patterns From unsustainable growth development patterns  to green growth • From planned to market‐driven economies From planned to market driven economies • From water abundance to water scarcity From development of supply to demand  • From development of supply to demand management • From informal to formal water economies From informal to formal water economies • Rural to urban population shifts From subsistence to commercial farming • From subsistence to commercial farming

To make our case To make our case
• The water investment framework of The water investment framework of  Kedah and Muda river basins in Malaysia • The #1 policy document and 3 red lines of  People s Republic of China  People’s Republic of China


Case Study on Sustainable Water Resource Use in Sungai Kedah and Sungai Muda River Basin Developed by DID Malaysia, Malaysia Water  p y y , y Partnership with local and national  stakeholders with the support of FAO This illustrates where Southeast Asian  countries aspire to be/will soon be countries aspire to be/will soon be

Case Study


The Kedah and Muda River Basins Kedah River Basin • Wholly in Kedah State Wholly in Kedah State • Nearly 3000 sq. km. • 100 km length • 30% f MADA G 30% of MADA Granary in  i this basin Muda River Basin River Basin • Kedah and Penang States • 4,200 sq. km. • 200 k l 200 km length h • MADA Granary not in this  basin but part of IADA  Pulau Pinang 
Case Study

The Kedah and Muda River Basins are part of an intensive Northern Region Water Resources Network • Water Resources Development necessary to support development – The Regional Climate has distinct dry season • Involves primarily 3 States (Perlis, Kedah, Penang) • Supports 2 Granaries – pp MADA & IADA Penang

Case Study


Water Management & Allocation
• Agriculture enjoyed  comfortable water resources  comfortable water resources supply for 50 years – No  competition • N W t S Now Water Supply Sector is  l S t i competing strongly • Present trends are not  sustainable • Water Management for  Kedah Muda Basins is  Kedah‐Muda Basins is becoming more complex:
a) Stiffer Inter‐Sector competition b) The water system is inter‐connected &  ) y integral for basins beyond boundarie of  both basins & involves inter‐state  issues 

Lessons Learnt


Draft Investment Framework Results According to Priority
National Objectives : No.* National Objectives 1 Achieving High Income Status 2 Food Security 3 Sustainable Water Resources M S t i bl W t R Management t 4 Green Mission Agriculture Sector Objectives: A i lt S t Obj ti No. Agriculture Sector Objectives 1 "Agriculture is Business" Agriculture Business 2 Minimum 70% Rice Self‐Sufficiency Level 3 Sustainable Agriculture Water Demand Management g g
4 Green Technology in Agriculture

*In order of priority

Draft Framework Results Sorted According to Priority
Regional Objectives
Regional (Kedah & Muda Basins)  Regional (Kedah & Muda Basins) Objectives 1 MADA

Basin/Local Strategies
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Granary to Sustain Minimum 40% contribution to National Production 2 IADA P. Pinang Granary to Sustain g y 5% contribution to National Production 3 S t i Q lit & Q Sustain Quality Quantity of tit f Water Resource *In order of priority 4 Estate Management for Paddy g y
5 Towards 10ton/ha yield

Strategy Competition for Water (Equity) Increase Production Increase Water Efficiency Commercialising Paddy Farming Restructuring Mitigate Flood Loss and  Damage Environmental Management Water Quality Climate Change Adaptation Climate Change Adaptation

28/08/2012 Basin/Local Strategies


Lessons learned according to our  Malaysian partners Malaysian partners
• Farmers respond for “economic” reasons; not “lack of water”.   • I Inter‐sector competition is a fast emerging issue.  The Water  ii i f i i Th W Supply Sector is now in a “stronger” position than agriculture.   • Agriculture’s  strength is its hisroical control of water resources  and the water distribution networks but this can be taken away. • Supporting legal and policy instruments:
Irrigation Act  restricts/controls conversion of irrigation lands. Irrigation Act – restricts/controls conversion of irrigation lands. Granary Policy – Federal Government commitment to invest in irrigation. Rice Self‐Sufficiency Level  Policy – to produce at least 70% of rice needs. The “Aging Farmers Exit Plan” – recently restructured for the MADA Granary to  accelerate commercial farming to increase yields (10 tons/ha) and better  resources (water) management. • The “National Water Resources Policy” – recently introduced to ensure equity  and sustainability. • • • •

• Water no longer the pivotal point for scheduling farm activities.   • Now machinery services providers dominates the timing for farm  operations and thus irrigation systems operation.   operations and thus irrigation systems operation • Green Technology: Towards improved gravity system operations to  reduce pumping.  • F From single purpose (irrigation) design and use towards be “multi‐ i l (i i ti ) d i d t d b “ lti functional” use. • Other agriculture sectors (e.g. aquaculture) want in.
• Think of what is really happening to develop wise strategies.  

₋ In the 1980s large scale abandonment of the small irrigation  schemes due to economic diversification led to fruitless investments  h d t i di ifi ti l d t f itl i t t in irrigation. This could have been foreseen.   ₋ Farmers changed to direct seeding at their own initiative and this  required certain management adjustments in designs and  i d t i t dj t t i d i d operations.   ₋ The Granary Policy was the result of an in‐depth study of the  irrigation schemes that were challenged by the economic change. h h h ll db h h

Key lessons
• Policy issues (conflicts and incompatibilities) have direct Policy issues (conflicts and incompatibilities) have direct  implications the spread and depth of all action plans:  “Self Sufficiency Levels”, “The Granaries”, “Irrigation  y , , g Act”, “Water Resources Sustainability” are Federal  Level   States now want their own vision and strategies for  future economic development • Population and non agriculture development pressures Population and non‐agriculture development pressures  on the Granaries and water resources questions the  sustainability of present policy sustainability of present policy

Key questions to address in future work
• Policy Sustainability and Conflicts Policy Sustainability and Conflicts • Attaining “high‐income” for paddy production • Technology and Innovations particularly with  gy p y respect to inter‐sector and within sector water  demand management • Allocation rules including under water stress  conditions • Strategies to introduce and implement water Strategies to introduce and implement water  charges in the agriculture sector


The #1 policy document and 3 red  lines of People s Republic of China  lines of People’s Republic of China
• Since the initiation of reform and opening up, China  p g p, has made considerable achievements: – responded to water‐related natural disasters,  – Developed its water infrastructure Developed its water infrastructure – UN MDG on water and sanitation 6 years ahead of  time.  – supported a high economic growth rate of nearly  10% per annum with a low water use growth of  1% per annum on average 1% per annum on average – increased grain output by nearly 78% with the  same amount of water

Achievements in water and food security
• • • • • • Adopted strategic, policy, institutional and technical measures  Share of irrigation water use declined from 81% to 65%. National irrigation area increased by 5.4 million ha,  Food production capacity increased by 20 million tons 200 million people gained food security.  200 illi l i df d it 1995‐ 2005: average unit irrigation water use reduced from  7,935 to 6,450 m3/ha and irrigation water use efficiency  improved by 10%.  • 1980‐ 2004, while national total water diversion increased by  25%, irrigation water use remained at 340‐360 billion 25% irrigation water use remained at 340 360 billion • To maintain national food security by 2020: increase national  food production by 200 million tons – increase irrigation area by 6.67 million ha – nationwide Water Saving Irrigation development

• In 2006 MWR developed different WSI  scenarios based on: scenarios based on:
– new water resources allocated to domestic and  industrial users – agriculture sector having to maintain food security  with current water allocation 


• Future outlook – further industrialization, urbanization climate change g – increasingly acute problems of flood, logging, draught,  water shortage, water pollution and soil erosion • 2011: #1 policy document 2011:  #1 policy document • Followed by central conference on water conservancy  • 2012: policy document on implementing the most stringent  water resources management system with control indicators  ih l i di of the “Three Red Lines”


What China has done
• China reviewed broad social economic and China reviewed broad social, economic and  environmental objectives through a water lens and  understanding of water availability and use including: understanding of water availability and use including: • This guided bulk water allocation, sectoral policies,  productivity targets, and policy instruments and  investments in all productive sectors including irrigation • Policy and other interventions in water and agriculture  determined by:  d t i db
– Overall economic, food and water security framework – key policy decisions on trade‐offs between economic key policy decisions on trade offs between economic  water productivity and other concerns, rural poverty  reduction, national food security, etc.

• From water and food security to economic, food and water  security y • A multi‐sectoral approach is required to make coherent,  feasible and effective decisions in ALL ASPECTS of agricultural  water management water management • But agricultural water management should have a very high  priority: agriculture has the power to destroy the other sectors • The critical multi‐sectoral nexus related to managing  h ii l li l l d i transitions:
Bridging the income gap for farmers: Achieving a high income or middle income status  Achieving a high‐income or middle‐income status for rice and other grain/staple  producers

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