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Road Safety in Cambodia

22nd, October, 2007 Meas Chandy Handicap International Belgium


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Agenda
1. 2. 3. 4. Road Safety issue in Cambodia Government Action Plan Overview of road traffic law in Cambodia HIB Road Safety Program in Cambodia

1-Road Safety Issues


Worldwide Context

Road traffic injuries are a huge public health and development issue More than 3,000 people die and 15,000 are disabled for life every day in the world. Second leading cause of death globally among young people aged 5 to 29. 90% of dead related to road traffic accidents occur in developing countries. Road traffic fatalities are estimated to increase by 80% by 2020 in developing countries, outstripping AIDS related fatalities. Huge economic losses (between 1 and 3 % of GDP).

Source: WHO,2004
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1. Road Safety issue


Cambodian Context General facts and figures

Every day, 4 persons die and almost 100 are injured Cambodia is at the bottom of its motorization curve and exponential growth can be expected for the forthcoming years
Evolution of road traffic accident and casualties (base 100 = 1995)
1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Population Traffic Number of accidents Fatalities

Road traffic accidents, casualties and fatalities increase more proportionally than road traffic and population. Over the last five years, the number of fatalities has doubled. The road network is rapidly improving, allowing speed increases.

Sources: Population: First Revision of Population Projections for Cambodia 1998 -2020, National Institute of Statistics, Ministry of Planning, June 2004; Traffic and accident figures: Ministry of Public Works and Transport.

2. Road Safety issue


Cambodian Context General facts and figures The road network is rapidly improving, allowing speed increases.

0.18 0.16 Paved road density (km/km2) 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 Japan Malaysia Thailand Vietnam Cambodia

Notes: The paved road density of Cambodia is currently 15 times lower than in developed countries and 6 times lower than neighbors countries Current length of the paved road network in Cambodia: 1,991 km Source: Study of the Road Network Development in the Kingdom of Cambodia, JICA-MPWT, 2005

1. Road Safety issues


Cambodian Context General facts and figures In the same time, the motorization rate is rapidly increasing`. Cambodia is at the bottom of its motorization curve and exponential growth can be expected for the forthcoming years.
Motorization rate (number of vehicles/1,000 people)

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Developed Malaysia countries Thailand
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Vietnam

Laos

Cambodia

1. Road Safety issues


Cambodian Context General facts and figures Number of fatalities in comparison with the number of 10,000vehicles in use in the country is already very high in the region.

25 19.7 18.1 15 15 9.2 8.7 8.6 6 5 6.8 6.5 3.9 13.6

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Fatality rates

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0 China Laos Vietnam Cambodia Ecuador Malaysia Botswana

Number of fatalities per 10,000 registered vehicles


Source: RTAVIS annual report 2006

Number of fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants

1. Road Safety issue


Cambodian Context General facts and figures

50% 45%

Cambodia SEA World

P e rc e n ta g e o f fa ta litie s

40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% <5 5 -14 15 - 29 30 - 44 45 - 59 60 +

Age category
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1. Road Safety issues


Cambodian Context Type of Transport Very high share of 2-wheeled vehicles in the vehicle fleet (75% of motorized vehicles).

1. Road Safety issues


Cambodian Context Type of transport

As a consequence: Motorbikes riders account for the large majority of casualties (72%), followed by pedestrians (8%).
Motor tricycle Tricycle Bus Minibus Type of transports Pick-up Remorque Car (taxi) Other Heavy truck Light truck Car (private) Bicycle Pedestrian Motorbike 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 1% 1% 2% 2% 2% 2% 3% 2% 3% 1% 3% 3% 5% 3% 5% 5% 8% 16% 59% 72% 60% 70% 80%

Fatalities

Casualties

Source: RTAVIS annual report 2005

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1. Road Safety issues


Cambodian Context Traffic mix Heterogeneous traffic mix (e.g. ox carts and bicycles sharing the road with high-speed 4-wheelers).

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1. Road Safety issues


Cambodian Context Lack of education and enforcement Lack of road safety education and awareness. Weaknesses of the responsible institutions leading to poor traffic regulations and insufficient enforcement.

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1. Road Safety issue


Cambodian Context Causes of accident

Causes of accident
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Human error Road condition Weather condition Vehicle defect
11% 2% 4% 94%

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1. Road Safety issues


Cambodian Context Lack of education and enforcement As a consequence, human error is responsible of around 90% of casualties.
Using mobile phone Not respect traffic signs Drug abuse Wrong use of high beam Other Human errors Not respect traffic lights Driving against flow of traffic Fatique or illness Not respect right of way Change lane without due care N/A Dangerous overtaking Alcohol abuse Speed 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40%
0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1%

3% 2% 2% 8% 4% 6% 5% 7% 12% 13% 20% 18% 41% 49% 4%

45%

50%

Casualities
Source: RTAVIS annual report 2006

Fatalities

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1. Road Safety issues


Cambodian Context Poor access to health services Inadequacy of public health infrastructure in providing treatment for traffic injuries. Poor access to health services.

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1. Road Safety issues


Cambodian Context Poor access to health services As a consequence, more than 30% of seriously injured casualties take more than 2 hours to reach the first health facility.

Source: RTAVIS report 2006

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1. Road Safety issues Cambodian Context Head injuries


More than 80% of fatalities are suffered from head injuries

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1. Road Safety issues Cambodian Context Severity of the injuries Severity of the injuries

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1. Road Safety issue


Facts and figures Gender Males account for 71% of casualties, although they account for only 48% of the population
80% 71% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Male
Source: RTAVIS annual report 2006

Percentage of casualties 48% 52% Percentage of population 29%

Female

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1. Road Safety issue


Facts and figures Casualties by age groups Young people from 15-29 years old account for the large majority of casualties (52%) although they share only 31% of population.
25% 22%

20% 14% 14% 12% 11% 12% 11% 8% 8% 4% 2% 4% 5% 16%

15% 10%

9% 6% 6% 5% 8% 6% 4% 3% 3% 6%

5%

0% >5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 >=55

Percentage of casualties
Source: RTAVIS annual report 2006

Percentage of population

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2. Government Action Plan


In 2004, thanks to the support from ADB that helped the government to develop the Road safety Action Plan Action 1: Establishing of a National Road Safety Committee Action 2: Road Accident Data Systems Action 3: Road Safety Funding Action 4: Road Safety Audit and Hazardous Locations Action 5: Road Environment and Road Design Action 6: Road Safety Education for Children Action 7: Traffic Law and Regulations Action 8: Law Enforcement Action 9: Technical Inspection Action 10: Drivers Training Action 11: Emergency Assistance to Traffic Victims Action 12: Road Safety Public Campaigns Action 13: Partnerships with Private and Non-Governmental Organizations Action 14: Road Accident Costing Evaluation Action 15: Road Safety Research Institution

It is just the beginning. The challenges are huge, given the strong increase of traffic and the rapid rehabilitation of roads. Key issues are the weak traffic regulations, the insufficient enforcement, and the lack of road safety education.

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3-Road Traffic Law Introduction

Introduction

Signed by His Majesty the King in February 2007 The old 1991 law is abrogated The new law is a complete one, but some chapters shall be in application only in 2012 (penalty driving license-safety seats for children under 4 years.)
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3-Overview of Road Traffic Law


Chapter 3- Drivers

Drivers Article 9 Driving licenses for motorcycle > 49cm3 Compulsory front seat belt fastening Compulsory helmet wearing for drivers
of Motorcycles of Tricycles of Motorcycles with a trailer

No alcohol > 0.25 mg per liter of gas or 0.5 mg per liter of blood No Telephone and driving (free hand telephones tolerated)
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3-Overview of Road Traffic Law


Chapter 7- Driving Licenses

Driving licenses (article 40- 41 and 45)

Driving license for motorcycles from 49 to 125 cm3. 16 years old minimum. The drivers can only drive the vehicles based on the types of driving licenses they are holding. The disabled people obtain the rights to drive the special vehicles and have the special driving license for only the disabled people.
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3-Overview of Road Traffic Law Chapter 10- Penalty No.


- Driving without wearing seat belt or helmet - Using telephone without free hand device - Driving over the speed limit from 1 to 19 km/h - Loading of goods incorrectly - Driving over the speed limit from 20 to 29 km/h - Driving over the speed limit from 30 to 39 km/h - Offenses related to overtaking, to priority, to traffic lights, etc - Driving over the speed limit from more than 40 km/h - Alcohol over the official limit from 0.250.39g per one litter gas -

Motor cycle 3000R

Light Vehicle 5 000R

Heavy Vehicle 10 000R

2 3

4000R 5000R

8000R 10 000R

15 000R 20 000R

6000R

12 000R

25 000R

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3-Overview of Road Traffic Law Chapter 10- Penalty

Penalty not paid within: 30 days = double 60 days = Triple 90 days = Complaint to the court

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4. HIB Road Safety Program


Overview

1. Establishing the mechanism of the national road safety committee 2. Road Traffic Accident and Victim Information System (RTAVIS) and Research 3. Road safety school curriculum development and implementation 4. Road safety public awareness campaigns 5. Partnerships with private and nongovernmental organizations 6. Emergency assistance to traffic victims
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Appendix: HIB Road Safety Program


1. Establishing the mechanism of NRSC Assist the National Road Safety Committee to be actively coordinating the National Road Safety Action Plan

Regularly update and monitor the implementation of the National Road Safety Action Plan (NRSAP) Organize an annual meeting of the National Road Safety Committee (NRSC) every year Advice selected provincial and municipal road safety committees

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Appendix: HIB Road Safety Program


2. RTAVIS Provide road safety related stakeholders with accurate and complete data on road traffic accidents and victims
Permanent database integrating data from various sources (trained staff at hospitals, private clinics and traffic police) through out the country Reports distributed monthly mainly via email Annual report providing recommendations for road safety stakeholders Research on specific topics (e.g. motodop drivers, young drivers behavior,) Traffic police training on the use of GPS Key staffs training within the GSNRSC to progressively manage the database.

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Appendix: HIB Road Safety Program


3. Road Safety Education Improve primary and lower secondary school childrens road safety behaviors by providing them with an effective road safety education curriculum
Grades 1 to 6 Development of the curriculum for elementary; Integration of the curriculum in the formal school curriculum, in collaboration with MoEYS Full implementation in Phnom Penh, and pilot test in 3 provinces in 2005, Extension in all the provinces; Grades 7 to 12 Development of the curriculum; Integration of the curriculum in the formal school curriculum; Implementation in Phnom Penh and other provinces.

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Appendix: HIB Road Safety Program


4. Road safety public campaign Enhance public awareness on particular issues of road safety by setting-up mass media campaigns and targeted awareness initiatives.
Mass media campaigns (TV and radio spots, posters, banners, leaflets, stickers, newspapers articles) Regular events, e.g.: Press conference during World Health Day (7th of April) Helmet Distribution Ceremony to 1,500 children at the Olympic Stadium in Phnom Penh (8th of December) in presence of His Majesty King Sihamoni Water Festival stand Khmer New Year campaign Awareness events in universities and schools.

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Appendix: HIB Road Safety Program


5. Partnership with private and NGOs Increase the involvement and capacity of the civil society in improving road safety
Management and further development the road safety network (RSN) Coordination of actions of local NGOs in road safety. Identification and training road safety ambassadors (along major national roads) Development and distribution of standardized road safety education and awareness material to those ambassadors Organization of road safety workshops and support to the development of a road safety action plan for each village

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Appendix: HIB Road Safety Program


6. Emergency Assistance Improve the capacity of the traffic police in providing first aid response to traffic casualties and to refer them to adequate health structures

Elaborating the guidelines on first aid for traffic polices Training for selected traffic police officers in each province; Follow up and lobby the Ministry of Health for greater emergency assistance services

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THANK YOU
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