You are on page 1of 124

1.

.
:
) ,
.
)
.

, .
,
,
, .
, ( ),
.
2 ,
.
,
.
.
3 .

.
, 4
.
, .
, -
, , ...

2.
2.1.
2.1.1.


.
, .
:
1.
.
.
, .
2. ,
. , ,
.
.
.
.
,
. , ,
, .

. , ,
,
.
,
, .
,
. , .
, , .
.

- :
1 (),
( ) 2 (),
, 1.

, ,
. W (),
. ()
W.
,
.

(, ), .
.

.
, ,
.

.
. ,
, ,
.
,
.

2.1.2.

(...) ,

,
.
...
. .

A, B, C
. , ... :
C,
(
). 4 .

4 , ,
.
C A B
.

2.1.3.

1 2
. ,

" R 1 () 2 ()
(),
1 2 ".


( )
( ).
'' (R) 1 2.
,

, . ,
1, 2, 3 .
R .

,
R ,
. ,
,
.

, ,
.
:
,
, ,
.

2.1.4.

1 2
.
1 2,
,

, , R, 1 2
, :

R ,
.
,

90,
:

1 2 R.
,
, 180.
()
. , ,
.

:
"
".

,
. :
, ,
() .

,
y.
1,2,3 .
R,
.
1,2,3 R
y.

,
(1,2,3,...,i,...,)
RX = i = icosi
Ry = iy = is
R :

R,

2.1.5.

:
R x,y ,
R Fx Fy,
.
.
R .

, R ,
. ,
:

Fx = R Cos
Fy = R Sin

.

, , :
F1, F2, ..., Fn.
Oxy,
, Ox F1x, F2x, ..., Fnx
y F1y, F2y, ..., Fny. R
Rx= F1x+ F2x+ ...+ Fnx Ry= F1y+ F2y+ ...+ Fny.

R = Rx2 + Ry2 .
8

,
.

2.1.6.

:
" ,

".

.

. ,
- (
).
- .

.
( )
.

, ' , .

2.1.7.

P1 , P2 ,...Pn ,
, :
n

P
i =1

=0

, ,
, ,
.
,
, ,
, , ( ).

,
, .
n : P1 , P2 ,...Pn

Pix , Piy , Piz , i = 1...n ,


Oxyz. ,
, :
n

R x = Pix = 0
i =1
n

R y = Piy = 0
i =1
n

R z = Piz = 0
i =1

.
, .
.

2.1.8.


P1 , P2 ,...Pn
. ... ,
. ,
.
( ).
() , :

.
. ...,
, .
,
.
1,2,3.
, ,
.
R.

10

,
, , ,
, . ,
1,2,3. ,
. ,
. ,
, .
1,2,3.
.
R.
R.
,
(R = 0)
. ' :
') .
') (
).
, ,
. , "
,
, ".

2.1.9.

1: ,
=140. P=80KN.
, .

11

.

:

R = P12 + P22 + 2 P1 P2 Cos = 80 2 + 80 2 + 2 80 80 Cos(140 O ) = 54.72 KN



KRP, :

Sin Sin
P Sin 80 Sin(140 O )
=
Sin =
=
0.93 70
R
P
R
54.12
= 70 =

140
=
. ,
2
2

( ).
.
2: r = 12cm W = 250 N
l = 20cm
. R
.

12

A T


. :
W,
.
. .
R .
() ,
.
, ...
.
,
. (
,
).

( ), :
n

P
i =1

ix

P
i =1

iy

=0
(1)

=0

,
.
x R
y W.
:

13

Rx = R
Ry = 0
Wx = 0

(2)

W y = W
Tx = T Cos ( )
T y = T Sin( )
:

Cos ( ) =

KB 12
=
= 0.6 53.13 Sin( ) = 0.8
KA 20

(3)

(2) (3) (1), :

= 0
R x + W x + Tx = 0 R + 0 0.6T = 0 R = 187.5
i =1

n
R y + W y + T y = 0 0 250 + 0.8T = 0 T = 312.5

Piy = 0

i =1
n

ix

3:
P1 , P2 , P3 , .
.

P1

A
a

P2
c

P1

P3

c
d

P2
R

P3

d
D

, AB = P1 ,

BC = P2 , CD = P3 .

R = AD .
R , :
. , OB, OC, OD,
a, b, c, d .

14

a, b, P1 .
, ,
. a
a . a , P1 b.
b b ,
a , P1 .
, c
b, P2 d c, P3 .
, a, d, R ,
. . .
R a d.
, , R ,
a d.

2.1.10.
1. 12,5 .
SCA SC . .

2. 25
C,
. , ) ) ,
S R .

3. 20 cm 20
, .
S
R .

15

4. F
, 100 , .

20. W
.34 .
W =120 . C
.

2.2. . .
2.2.1.

, ,
.
( ).

-F1
F1

16

,
, .

F1

-F1


.
,
.

, ,
. , ,
.

2.2.2.

P

. :

M = rP
2.2.3.

Varignon .

P1 , P2 ,...Pn . R .
Varignon R
.

17

2.2.4.

,
.
.


R = 1 + 2
1, 2
Varigno,

R, 1,2.
,

1, 2
2 ( ). ,

R , .

2.2.5.

1, 2,. . . ,
i, ... , Oxy.

')

') ,
.

18


i = 0 iy = 0

, . '

, . = 0.

,
:
:

, ,
.


,
.
.
,


.
, ,

19

2.2.6.

1: R P1 , P2
P1 = 200 KN P2 = 500 KN 20m.
y

P2

P1
P2
R

y
P1
. :

P1x = P2 x = 0
P1 y = P1
P2 y = P2
, :

R x = P1x + P2 x = 0
R y = P1 y + P2 y = P1 + P2 = 700 KN
y (
).
R .
.
Varignon R
P1 , P2

P1 , P2 .

. , :
20

rR R = rP1 P1 + rP2 P2 rR R Sin( ) = rP1 P1 Sin( ) + rP2 P2 Sin( )


rR 700 Sin(90 O ) = 0 0 Sin(90 O ) + 20 500 Sin(90 O )
20 500 100
=
14.29m
700
7
R = 700 KN , P1 , P2
rR =

P1 rR = 14.29m .
2. :
') = 80 .
') . = 3
m, -- 50.

') Varignon,

,y .

. , (
, ),

=y3 =Psin3 -80sin50" 3 = 183.9 Nm


') ,

2.3. .
,

P1 , P2 ,...Pn , :

21

R x = Pix = 0
i =1
n

R y = Piy = 0
i =1
n

R z = Piz = 0
i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

M A = rix Pix + riy Piy + riz Piz = 0

,
( x y),
.
:
n

R x = Pix = 0
i =1
n

R y = Piy = 0
i =1

i =1

i =1

M A = rix Pix + riy Piy = 0


A,B,C,
:
n

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

M A = rix Pix + riy Piy = 0


M B = six Pix + siy Piy = 0
M C = t ix Pix + t iy Piy = 0
r,s,t A,B,C .

2.3.1.

1: 5 P=10KN
C, 2m .
.
.

22

y
P

=60
C

HB

C
V

,
. , x
.
, ... ,
, :

. VA
.

( ).
,
.
x,y VB , H B .
, P
x,y :

Px = P Cos ( ) = 10 Cos (60 O ) = 5 KN


Py = P Sin( ) = 10 Sin(60 O ) = 8.7 KN
,
x y
.

H B = 5KN H B = 5 KN


V A + V B Py = 0
V A + V B = 8.7 KN V A = 5.22 KN


0 V A + 0 H B + 5 V B 2 Py = 0 V B = 2 8.7 KN V B = 3.48 KN
5

H B Px = 0

2.4.
,
, .

.
23

,
, .
.

,
, ,
, .
, " ".
, :
') ,,,IV ...
') 1,2,3,4 ...
') S,
. , 4 S4
.
') ()
.
, :
1) , .
2)
3) ,
.
:
' ) .
' ) - Rtter.
' ) w - Cremona.
,
.

2.4.1.

24

1: 20. ,
O
: P1 = 800 N P2 = 900 N . = 60 .
.

.
S . ..
1 S1.

x, y , x .
:

V A S1 Sin( ) = 0

(1)

S 5 S1 Cos ( ) = 0

(2)

S1 Cos ( ) S 2 Cos ( ) = 0

(3)

S1 Sin( ) + S 2 Sin( ) S 6 = 0

(4)

S 5 + S 7 Cos ( ) + S 4 = 0

(5)

S 6 + S 7 Sin( ) P1 = 0

(6)

25

S 2 Cos ( ) S 7 Cos ( ) S 3 Cos ( ) + P2 = 0

(7)

S 2 Sin( ) S 7 Sin( ) + S 3 Sin( ) = 0

(8)

S 4 + S 3 Cos ( ) H B = 0

(9)

V B S 3 Sin( ) = 0

(10)

(
). :
. P1 , P2
.
. :

V A = 10.29
V B = 789.71
H B = 900
S1 = 11.88
S 2 = 11.88
S 3 = 911.88
S 4 = 444.06
S 5 = 5.94
S 6 = 20.58
S 7 = 900
S 4
.

2.5.
2.5.1.

,
,
,
(.28.).
, Coulomb
:
') .
') .
, W
. , ,
26

()
.

,
. R
W. (.28.)
,
,

' .
= t.
.
.

, . '

.
.

. :

27

"
".

- = 30,
W=4 (.). =6 ,
,
= 0.30.


, .
(.).
,
().

.

, :

mx=4.3 . =6.0 > max
, .

2.5.2.


,
,
R. R
.

= 0,

28

, = r.

f/r = fr f
. .

:
' )fr = 0.02
' )fr = 0.006 .

: r = 2 cm W,
(.).
f = 0.12 mm.
.
(.).
, ,
. W :

, ,

29

2.5.3.

1: l = 20cm

W=4KN = 30 ,
. (
f = 0.30 ).
T2
T1

P
W2
W

W1

... o :

. T1 , .

, . T2 , .
W .
, W1
W2 . :

W1 = W Cos ( ) = 4 Cos (30 O ) = 3.46 KN


W2 = W Sin ( ) = 4 Sin (30 O ) = 2 KN

:

30

T1max = f W1 = 0.3 3.46 = 1.04 KN


, .
y x
. . :

F
F

= 0 P + T1x N 1x = 0

(1)

= 0 T2 y + N y + T1 y W = 0

(2)

l
l
= 0 P l Cos ( ) + T2 l Sin( ) + W (1 Sin( )) Cos ( ) N = 0
2
2

(3)

( T1 , T2 , P, N ). .
T1 :

T1 = 1.04 KN

(4)

(1),(2),(3),(4) :

P = 0.86 T2 = 0.36 T1 = 1.07

N = 3.68

, T2 :

T2max = fP = 0.3P = 0.3 0.86 = 0.26


T1 = 1.04 KN .
T2 . :

T2 = f P = 0.3P

(5)

(1),(2),(3),(5) :

P = 0.97 T2 = 0.29 T1 = 1.02 N = 3.7

(6)

, :

T1 = 1.02 < f N = 0.3 3.7 = 1.11


, T2 :

T2 = 0

(7)

(1),(2),(3),(7) :

P = 1.41 T2 = 0 T1 = 0.78 N = 4.17

(8)

, T1 = 0.78 < fN = 0.3 4.17 = 1.25

31

, T2
, , (6) (8),
:

0.97 P 1.41 0 T2 0.29 0.78 T1 1.02 3.7 N 4.17



, (
).
, ,
.

2.6.
2.6.1.

dF

Oxy , dS

.

dF

dS x = y dF
dS y = x dF
S F
,
F. , Oxy, :

S x = dS x = y dF
F

S y = dS y = x dF
F

32

F
dF

Oxy
Oxy,

x' = x + a
y' = y + b
y'

y
F
a

dF

O
b
O'

x'

F
:

S x ' = y ' dF = ( y + b)dF = ydF + b dF = S x + bF


F

S y ' = x' dF = ( x + a)dF = xdF + a dF = S y + aF


F

:


.

2.6.2.

F ,
F,

33

F, . (
).

.
.


F, Oxy :
Kx ' y ' ,
.
F
, :

S x' = S y ' = 0

(1)

F
( ) :

S x = S x' + yk F

(2)

S y = S y ' + xk F

(1) (2) x k , y k
:

xk =

Sy
F

2.6.3.

yk =

Sx
F

1: " ".
. , b h.
(xk,yk),
.

34

Oxy,
() . ,
dF ,
( ) (k).

, h, d dF=hdx.
= 0 , = b .
, (7.3 ),

, dF' = bdy
y, y = 0 y = h ,
.. , yk=hl2. , (xk,yk)=(bl2,hl2).
2: " ".
,
.. b h.
y,
() .
(xk,yx).

35

dF y,
z, dy dF= zdy.
yk.

,
y .
',

, z, :

k ,
k=2b/3. , (xk,yk) =
(2b/3,h/3).
3:
. .

36

dF

dr
R

R. Oxy
.
, (r,)
Ox .
dF ,
r Ox . dF
dr r
d .
dF :

dF = c dr

(1)

c :

c = 2r tan(

d
)
2

(2)

d , tan(

d
d
)
, (2)
2
2

c = 2r

d
c = r d
2

(3)

(1) (3) :

dF = r d dr

(4)

x = rCos ( )
y = rSin( )

(5)

37

, Ox Oy
:
R 2

S x = y dF = r Sin( ) r d dr = r 2 Sin( )d dr =
F
F
0 0

= r ( Cos (2 ) Cos (0) ) dr = 0dr = 0


2

2 2

S y = x dF = r Cos ( ) r d dr = r Cos ( )d dr =
F
F
0 0

= r 2 ( Sin(2 ) Sin(0) ) dr = 0dr = 0


0

,
, , .
,
, .
4:
, .

, :
1. Oxy,
( ) () .
2. F1 F2
, (i , yi)
.. Oxy,

3. xk,yk . .
y,

38

4. ,
, ,

2.6.4.

1:
.
2: ,
.

2.7.
2.7.1.

dF

.
, dF
x, y :

dI x = y 2 dF

dI y = x 2 dF

F
,
F . x, y F
:
I x = y 2 dF
F

I y = x 2 dF
F

4 (L4),
.

39

i x x
, F ,
.
:

I = i x2 F
x, y :
ix =
iy =

Ix
F
Iy
F

2.7.2.

F
r dF ,
F . :
I p = r 2 dF
F

2.7.3.

Steiner .

F Oxy K
. x k , y k ,
.
Ix k , Iy k
x k , y k ,
F x :

40

I x = y 2 dF = ( y '+ ) 2 dF = y ' 2 dF + 2 y ' dF + 2 dF


F

y'
F

(1)

dF

x k .

y' dF
F

x k , .

dF

F . , (1)

I x = I xk + 2 F
Steiner.

2.7.4.

1: ,
.
.
) Oxy ,
.
z dy .
, :
h

I x = y dF = y 2 zdy
2

(1)

z :

z=

b( h y )
h

(2)

41

(2) (1) :
h

Ix = y2
0

h
h

b
b
bh 3
(h y )dy = h y 2 dy y 3 dy I x =
h
h 0
12
0

) Steiner x k
:
2

I xk

bh 3 h 2 bh
bh 3
h
= Ix F =

I xk =
12
9 2
36
3

42

3.
,
.
, .
, .
, ,
, .
, ,
.
,
(, ...),
, '
, ,
,
.

,
,
.
, , :
i.
,
.
.
,
, (
) ,
:
') ,
.
') ,
,
, ...
' ) .
iii.
,
( ),
.
,
.
, ,
, ..
:
"
, , (

43

)
".
(..
, , :..),

,
, , ...

3.1.

. , ,
,
, , .

3.1.1.


, ,
. :
.
.
.

( ) .
s
s, :
=

s
s

,
.

3.1.2.

.
.

.
.
( )
, :
,
.
.

44

,
.
.

-P

-P

-P

-M


.
.
.

. , ,
.
( ) .
. ,
, .
.
, .
, ,
, .
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ...,
. , ,
, ,
, ...

45

, , (t >
0) , ,
, .

3.1.3.

( ), ,
, )
) )
:

:

. .. , ..
( )
. ..
.
( ) ,
. .. , .

46


:
()
, .
, ,
.

:

. ,
, ' .
,
().

, . (
). , ,
, (
), , . ,
,
.
, .
, ,
.
, 1 /3 ( 2/3 )
.


, ...,
()
.
.
,
, m, tm.
.. m, m ...

47

, ,
,
.
,
. ,
-
, .
, .


. ,

,
. ,
,
.

3.1.4.

.

.
:
,
,
.
.
,
.
.
, .
,
. ,
.
.
, , ,
. .
.

48

3.1.5.

,
(, ...).


,
. ,
.


.
, .
,
.

.
,
,
.


,
, .
, ,
.
,
, ,

.
,
,
. ,

. ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
.
(
). ,
,
, ' .
, ,
,
( ).
,
Saint Venant, :

49

" , ".
q
(.1.2), , .. - "
" ,
. ,
.
" "
. ,

, .

, , ,
.
,
.

3.1.6.

,
.
, :
-
. ,
(...) -
().
() ,
( ) ,,2,...,, .
,
()
.
.
, ,
50


(, , ...)
. ,

.
,
, :

"
, ".

,
,
.
, ()
.
, (),
1 , 2 ,..., .
- (),
() ,
() (). ,
. ,
, ( )
, .

.
, Newton (action =
reaction, = ), .

51

,
,
, ( )
, Q ,
.

,
,

(...). ,

52


.

.

3.1.7.

,
.
, ,
.
,
.

.
() (P)
(F) . :
=

P
F

.
Pa() 1Pa=1N/m2.

.

.
:

.

.

3.1.8.

,
. ,
,
.
,
, ,
.

,
. ,
.

53

,
.
,
, ...,
.
,
, .
, .
, ,
, .

.
, .
,
, .
(
.. 1 ) ,
.

, .
,
.

,
.
,

.

,

, .

,
.

54


, ,

.
, ,
,
.
, ( )
. -
.
, ,
,
, .
,
,
.
,
( )
,
, .
,
, (
),
() ().
. ,
.
, , ,
, , , ,
, , ...
. ,
,
, , .

3.1.9.

, .
, .
.
.
,
(.2.4.).
( ).
" ",
" ",
,
- .

55

- ,
S,
.
"
" ( ),
,
.
,
- ,
.
,

, ,
.

, F
(),
: S = F= :

/F
/m2, kp/cm2, t/m2, ..
, ,
...

F ,
( ).
,
, (+).
,
,
(-).

( ),
,

56

,
.
,
(.2.5) dF y.
,
dF, dF
.
S ,

, y S xk,yk ,
, "
S
dF, "

F
y, Fxk.
, , S
, ,
.
ii.
, F
. ,
F
Q, F.
, , , :
= P/F , F
= N/F , F
= Q/F , F

57


- ,

Q
, .

,
.
, , F .
.
, ,
, .
,
.
.
dF,
. ,

.
.
:
' )

58

' )
' )

( ),
,
..
.
,
,
( ), ..
,
.
,
,
,
, ..
.

3.1.10.
,
,
( ) ,
.
,
. ,
.
.

i.
~ ,
,
'. l = (')
.
l' ,
l'_ l + l. ,
l.

59

, ,
'. l = (
.

.
, :


>0, ,
<0 .
,
(%)
, ( )
.
,
l, l' _ (l + l) (
).

, ,
1
d 2 , (
) :

60

,
.

.

, .
(
, , ..).
,
( ),
, ,
.


( ) ,

.
ii.
;
;
,
r.
" Cauchy " ,
,
, (.2.10).
,
, , , (
).
, ,
''.

' , '='=,


(rad)

.

( ), .
61

3.1.11. -

- .

,
( ),

.

,
F ( = /F ),
l
( =l/l ).
, ,
.
= , Hooke
3.
Young .

/,
()
.
. , ,
.

, 0.12% ( = 0.0012).
,
,
,
. ()

.
(12)

. ,

. .

62

,
,
.
,
,
2 .

, ,1,2
( 12)
,
, 0.12% 2%.

()
45 .
Luders
.
Luders
45
.
2, .
(2)
( )
. (2
.


, =PmaxlF.

.
.

63

,

.

,
F ,
.


, ,
'= /F'.


, .
,
.
,
,
,
. , ,

.
,
,
= 0.2% ( = 0.002),
.

.
, ,
(),
.
, ,
() .
,
,
() ().
,

64

( ()
()
( ).


, ,
,
.

3.1.12. Hooke .
, ,
.. , , , ..., ,
, ,
.
Robert Hooke (1678)
, .
i. -
,

(.3.1.). F (
) .

,
e ,
', , e'.

65

,

, Hooke ,

, 2
F, Q /F.
Hooke :

: l = l' = (),

, ( m, cm, mm, ...).

, () ( , t, ...).
F ( m 2, cm2,
...).
, ,
.
ng ( /m2, at, ...).
0 Hooke ,
:
Hooke
') .
')
.
') .
,
, .
') . '
.
') .
')
.
' )
.
, Hooke
-.
,
.
,
.

66

,
(
) ,
=PlF, ( ) ,
=l/l.
,
Hooke :

,
Hooke :
" ".

, .
,

(
), .
,
=1, l = l, ,
,
,
.
, 2.1.106
at = 210 GN/m2, 90 GN/m2, 25 GN/m2,
...

=
. -

( ),
.
- , ' .
, ,

67

- ,
, 89.9 .

,
.
l'
, : l' = l + l = l + l :


. ,
, .

68

69

3.1.13.
,
. , (
( ).
, .
, .
;
.
, ,
.

.
2, ,
, :


, ,
.
F ,
,
,

max .
,
. ,
. '
,
.
, :
')

. ,
.
') ,
, ,
( ) .
,
.
,
.

70

,
1, 2,. . . , n
. , 1
, 2 ..
, ,

.
, ,
,
.
, . ,
l , ,
1 /250 l.

, .
,
. ,
,
.

3.1.14.
1: s=10m
di=20mm d=22mm
P=6000 N.
=200 GPa.
:

F=

d o2 d i2 2
3.14159

= ( d o d i2 ) =
(
0.022 2 0.02 2 ) = 6.6 10 5 m 2
4
4
4
4

P
6000
=
= 9.1 10 7 N / m 2 = 91MN / m 2 = 0.091GN / m 2
5
F 6.6 10

Hooke :

= =

0.091GN / m 2
=
= 4.55 10 4
2

200GN / m

s = s = 4.55 10 4 10m = 4.55 10 3 m = 4.55mm


2:
P=30t.
. .

71

.

.
1
:

= 266 MPa
,
:

P
P 30 10 3 Kp 30 10 3 9.81N
< < F >
=
=
= 1.1m 2
3
2
F

266 MPa
266 10 N / m
1.1m2,
:

d=

4F
>

4 1.1m 2
= 1.18m
3.14159

3.1.15.
1: ( )
P=2t.
) ) .
2: , s=0.4m, d=1/20mm
20cm, 8Kp.
.

3.2.
3.2.1.

,
,
. .. , , .
,
. ,
.
.
, :

72


.

.
,
,
.

3.2.2.

( ) (
) .
,
.
(), .

:
( )
.
. ..
.

.
: .
,
. .. .

.
( ) . ..
.

3.2.3.

,
( . 4 5).
:
,
, :
n

R x = Pix = 0
i =1
n

R y = Piy = 0
i =1

i =1

i =1

M A = rix Pix + riy Piy = 0

73

,
, :

R x = Pix = 0
i =1
n

R y = Piy = 0
i =1
n

R z = Piz = 0
i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

M A = rix Pix + riy Piy + riz Piz = 0

3.2.4.

,
:
1.
.
2. .
,
.

,
.

3.2.5.

1 : l = 7 m
.
3m
q =

x
KN / m . .
2

.
... P ,
, .

74

x/2
q=

P
A

VA

x
.
:
5

x
x2
F = dx =
2
4
2

x =5

=
x=2

25 4 21
21
=
P=
KN
4
4
4

F.
. 7.
5

Sy

xk =

xdF x qdx
F

x3
6

x =5

x =2

125 8
6
=
3.71m
5.25

F
F
F
y
.

( H,VA
), VB.
...
. ,
H , V A .

F
F
M

=0H =0

= 0 V A + VB P = 0
A

= 0 3.71P 7V B = 0

3 3 :

H = 0 V A = 2.47 VB = 2.78

75

VB

3.3.

, ( ), .
,
.
.
,
, :
. ,
.
.
, .
. ,
, .
. ,
,
.
,
, .

. ,
.
, , ,
,
.

3.3.1.

, ,
, , , ...

. ,
( )
, , .

( )>
,
(.. ).
, .
, ,
~ ,
.
. ,
(), ,
.
( ),
() ,
76

.
.


( ).
, .
,
,

77

,
Gerber.
, , ,
.
(),
.

,
.
.
,
,
( ). ,
,
. .

3.3.2.


, ,
.

,
, VA ,
VB.

(...) .

78

-
VA.
VB.
,
.

, :
i. ( ). ,

, ,
.
, .
,
, .
. .
,
. .

.
.
,
, . '

79

, ..
.
iii. .
. ,
,
,
. ,
,
8.

3.3.3.

,
, .
- ,
, .
, ,
. VA
y, , .

,
,
,
,
.

(..),

(
), .

80

, ,
,
, q
, . q = q() (
),
, , .
,
, , Q
q() , :

Q [
Snt Venant q()]; Varignn ,
.
Q
q() dx, q()d ,

:
" Q
q(),
".
Ay By

,
, .

81

, 0 ,
q
.

, Q
,

,
(..) , 2l / 3.
:
82

3.3.4.

,
.

.

1,2,...,
.
() -,
, () ().
, .. ().
, -, ,
, R
() , .
R 1,2,...
()
,
.
R (),
() -.
R , ,
,
, Q
.

83

, ,
6 . ,

, 6
.
() , R
Q b t, R
.

( ), .
.
, , Q, t, b
. ,

().

.

.

3.3.5.

N , Q , M

,
.
(), (
). , ,
, ,
.
,
,
, . :
. ,
ii. Q
iii. b
, .

84

, Q,
, ,
.
,
, ,
,,
. 14
.
(). Q(), (), () ,
,
, Q, .

,
.
, Q, ,
,
, () .
,
, , Q, ,
.
') ,
,
. , .

85

' ) Q ,
,

. 6
.
')
(
)
. .

3.3.6.

, Q, ,
, 1
2 ,
, 1
2 .
,
, y
, y z .
1 .
1=1 cs ,
1=1 sin .

86

(...)
, .
, y, 2, ,
VA, , VB.
,
, VA, VB. :

87


-, 1, 2
.
, l
, V,
, -
, .

. ,
1, , VA.
,
m
- ( )
. ,
, () Q()
.
(), Q(), (), .

3.3.7.

Q M

- '-
d.
, Q
, .
, .
i. - '-'
, ,
Q (+d), d
.
,
( ),
, :

, :

88

" ,

".

ii. - '-' ,
q() q() + dq()
,

,
, ,
Q=dMldx, .
,
, :

, :
"
(q() -- ), ,
".
, q() ,
Q , (
), ... :
" jq() = 0~,
, ".

89

iii. , - '-' 8
, Q , Q
>
,

,
d, (
).
,
,
. , dldx
, .
, :


" (),
"
,
, .
, .
, .
, , , Q,
, -
, :

, Q,
, < < .
'- ; < < l,
(.8.12.),
,'- ,

90

, , Q,
(),
Q(), (),
.
Q ,
:
" Q ,
( )

.
,
".
"
( )

,
.
,
".
,
,

, Q
Q. , Q + Q = 0
Q=Q :
"
, ".
.
,

.
, ,
, .
,
, q (Nlm).
, ,

91

Q, ( = 0), -
, () ().
(), ql / 2
.
qx /2
. (I)
,

(
),

(ql/2)
, q
. (ql/2),
, () , q,
.
,
, .
,
( ) ,
, .

92


q = q(), q() d
,
, , Q, ,
:

, y By ,
.

,
. 59
.

3.3.8.

N , Q , M

,
, Q,
,
. ,
. ,
,
Q .

(..) (...) (...).
,
,
, :

93

i. ( q=0), Q

. ,
Q.
.
q, Q , - q .
( ).
i. (
), q() , Q
,
.
, q()
, Q + ,
+ 2.
. ( ),
.
. ,
,

.
1
2 2, :
dM = Q dx
x1 x2,


1 1,
.
(...) (...), ,
Q
,
. , ,
. ,
,

.
, Q
, () ,
Q (...) (...).
(...),
, ( )

94

,
.
(...)

( ) (...)
, ()
, ... ,
.
, (...), ,
, .
, Q
. ,
Q (), (...) ,
.
, ,
,

~~ .

3.3.9.

1:
. P = 600 N q = 100 N / m . P

= 60 .

N , Q, M .
P
q
A

Py
q
HA

Px
VB

VA

...
P :

Px = P Cos ( ) = 600 0.5 = 300 N


95

Py = P Sin( ) = 600 0.866 = 519.6 N


q , 4 q ,
:

F
F

= 0 H A + Px = 0

= 0 V A + VB Py 4 q = 0
8

M A = 0 0 H A + 0 VA + 0 Px + 2 Py + x qdx 8 VB = 0
4

Px , Py , q
:

= 0 H A + 300 = 0 H A = 300
8

M A = 0 2 519.6 + 100 xdx 8 VB = 0 8 VB = 1039.2 + 50 x 2


4

VB =

8
4

1039.2 + 50(64 16)


V B = 429.9 N
8
y

= 0 V A + 429 .9 519 .6 4 100 = 0 V A = 489 .7 N


.
x
, .
,
. :

P .
P
q .
q .
x
,
. (
) ,
(N) (Q) (M).
.
:

96

HA

M
N
Q

VA

H A + N = 0 300 + N = 0 N = 300 N

(1)

V A Q = 0 Q = V A Q = 489.7 N

(2)

M V A x = 0 M = 489.7 x

(3)

Py
HA

Px

N
Q

VA


N , Q, M .
:

H A + Px + N = 0 N = H A Px = 300 300 N = 0

(4)

V A Py Q = 0 Q = V A Py = 489.7 519.6 Q = 29.9

(5)

x V A ( x 2) Py M = 0 M = 29.9 x + 1039.2

(6)

.
x q .

97

Py
q
HA

Px

N
Q

VA

H A + Px + N = 0 N = H A Px = 300 300 N = 0

(7)

V A Py ( x 4) q Q = 0 Q = V A Py = 489.7 519.6 100 x + 400


Q = 100 x + 370.1
(8)

x V A ( x 2) Py

x4
( x 4) q M = 0 M = 50 x 2 + 370.1x + 239.2
2

(9)
(1) ... (9)
. :

300 0 < x < 2

N = 0 2< x<4
0 4< x<8

489.7
0< x<2

Q=
29.9
2< x<4
100 x + 370.1 4 < x < 8

489.7 x
0<x<2

M = 29.9 x + 1039 .2
2<x<4
50 x 2 + 370.1x + 239.2 4 < x < 8

,
N , Q, M .

98

A
-

A
+

Q, M Q
M . ,
( )
. ,
.
x = 2 , ,
(=979.3).

3.3.10.
1: (
, , ). .
: p = 1200 N / m q = 600 N / m .
p
B

:
.
99

.
.
N , Q, M .
,
. :
C40 .
.
S400.
:
, x
.

.

.

100

4.
4.1. . ,
4.1.1.


.

.
, .
.
,
1.
.
. ,
, ... ,
.
, .
.
, ,
.
.
,
(, ). , ,
.

4.1.2.

,
( ).

.
: () m, () t, ()
T
: m=5Kg, t=34sec,
T=20oC.

4.1.3.

,
( )
( ).



: u,V,P . :


u , V , P . ,

( u,V,P )
( u,V, P ).

101

:
u=30cm 25 , V=10m/sec
, P=2t 45 .

.
.

4.1.4.

,
,
: .
: .
.
.

I = 1.

I 1,

0 = 0.

0 0,

A (

A 0 )

I = , A
.
A

A, B ,
.
A
B

A, B ,

. A A .

102

A
B

A, B ,
.
B
A

A, B ,

C = A + B , , A B .
B
A

A B , D = A + (B) .

B A C .

, C = A + B :


C = A+ B B= C A.

E = A E = A

A , .

A, B D = A B ,

A
2A

-2A

4.1.5.



i , j , k
Ox, Oy, Oz
Oxyz.

103

k
y
O

4.1.6.
.

A, B, C m, n :


A+B =B+A



A+ B+C = A+B +C


mA = Am


m nA = ( mn ) A

( m + n ) A = mA + nA


m A + B = mA + mB

) (

( )
(

4.1.7.

A ,

Oxyz.
x,y,z .

A x = Ax i , A y = Ay j, A z = Azk

A , , A = A x + A y + A z .

, A = Ax i + Ay j + Azk .

x,y,z A .

104

Az

A
y

Ay

Ax

Ax

Ay

A : A =

4.1.8.

A12 + A22 + A32 .

P
( Oxyz),
p

.

p

.

4.1.9.

P R p
. p
R P.

4.1.10.

1: a, b

r a, b .

D
A
r

a, b ,
, .

105

r . r

, . R r

RC, RD a, b . OD

a OC b . (
):

OD = ma , m

OC = nb , n

(1)
(2)

r = OR = OD + DR

(3)

ODRC , :
(4)

DR = OC
(1),(2),(3),(4) :


r = ma + nb

(5)

(5) r a, b
.

2: a, b, c

r .

Q
r1

r2
c

r
O

b
r1
P

a, b, c , r

. R r RP

a, b QR OP.
OQRP :

r = OR = OQ + QR = OQ + OP = r1 + r2

r2 c , :

r2 = kc

106

(1)

(2)

r1 a, b
:


r1 = ma + nb

(3)

(1),(2),(3) :


r = ma + nb + kc

(4)

(4)
.

3: a, b ,

xa + yb = 0 x = y = 0 .
.

x 0 . xa + yb = 0 :

xa + yb = 0 xa = yb a = b
x

(1)

(1) a, b
( ),
. . :

x=0

(2)

x xa + yb = 0 , :

xa + yb = 0 0a + yb = 0 yb = 0 y = 0

(3)

(2),(3) x = y = 0 .

4: a, b ,

x1a + y1b = x 2 a + y 2 b , x1 , y1 , x 2 , y 2 , x1 = x 2
y1 = y 2 .
:

x1a + y1b = x 2 a + y 2 b x1a + y1b x 2 a + y 2 b = 0 ( x1 x 2 ) a + ( y1 y 2 ) b = 0


(1)

3 (1) :

x1 x 2 = 0 y1 y 2 = 0 .
: x1 = x 2 y1 = y 2 .

107

5: .
B

ABCD .
P. .
:

a + BD = b BD = b a

AC = a + b
BP BD :


BP = mBD = m b a

(1)

, AP AC :


AP = n AC = n a + b

(2)

a + BP = AP a = AP BP

(3)

(1),(2) (3) :

a = n a + b m b a 1a + 0b = ( n + m ) a + ( n m ) b

(4)

(4)
. :

n + m = 1 n = 2

n m = 0 m = 1

2
m,n (1) (2) :

BP =

1
BD
2

AP =

1
AC
2

P .

108

4.1.11.
1: :


r1 = 3 i 2 j + k


r2 = 2 i 4 j 3k


r3 = i + 2 j + 2k

:
) r3

) r1 + r2 + r3

) 2r1 3r2 5r3

2: :


r1 = 2 i j + k

r4 = 3 i + 2 j + 5k


r2 = i + 3 j 2k


r3 = 2 i + j 3k

a,b,c, :

r4 = ar1 + br2 + cr3 .


3:



r1 = 2 i + 4 j 5k r2 = i + 2 j + 3k

4: ABCD. ,
ABCD .
5: ABCD. P Q BC
CD , AP AQ
BD.

4.1.12.

( ) a, b

. .
:


a b = a b Cos ( )

0 .

109


1)a b = b a

2)a b + c = a b + a c




3)m a b = ( ma ) b = a mb = a b m

4) i i = j j = k k = 1

5) i j = j k = k i = 0

2
2
2
2
6)a = a1 i + a 2 j + a3k a a = a = a1 + a 2 + a3

a = a1 i + a 2 j + a3k

a b = a1b1 + a 2 b2 + a3b3
7)
b = b1 i + b2 j + b3k

a0

8) b 0 ab

a b
= 0

( ) (

4.1.13.

( )

a, b

c a, b ,

a, b .
. , , :

c = a b = a b Sin ( )u

0 .

c . :

c = a b = a b Sin ( )
:

110



1)a b = b a

2)a b + c = a b + a c




3)m a b = ( ma ) b = a mb = a b m

4) i i = j j = k k = 0

5) i j = k , j k = i , k i = j

i
j

a = a1 i + a 2 j + a3k

a b = a1 a 2
6)
b = b1 i + b2 j + b3k

b b

( ) (

k
a3
b3

a 0

7) b 0 a b

a b
= 0

4.1.14.

a, b, c


t = a b c .

a, b, c .
:

1)a b c = b ( c a ) = c a b = a b c

a = a1 i + a 2 j + a3k
a1 a 2


2)b = b1 i + b2 j + b3k a b c = b1 b2

c = c i + c j + c k
c1 c 2
1
2
3

a3
b3
c3

4.1.15.

1:

a = a1 i + a 2 j + a3 k


b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k a b = a1b1 + a 2 b2 + a3 b3 .
:

111

)(


a b = a1 i + a 2 j + a3 k b1 i + b2 j + b3 k =

= a1 i b1 i + b2 j + b3 k + a 2 j b1 i + b2 j + b3 k + a3 k b1 i + b2 j + b3 k =

= a1b1 i i + a1b2 j i + a1b3k i + a 2 b1 i j + a 2 b2 j j + a 2 b3 k j + a3b1 i k + a3b2 j k + a3 b3kk =

a1b1 + 0 + 0 + 0 + a 2 b2 + 0 + 0 + 0 + a3 b3 =
= a1b1 + a 2 b2 + a 3b3

2: a = 2 i + 2 j k

b = 6 i 3 j + 2k .

, :


a b = a b Cos ( ) = 2 2 + 2 2 + (1) 2 6 2 + (3) 2 + 2 2 Cos ( ) = 3 7 Cos ( )

a b = 21Cos ( )
(1)
, :


a b = 2 6 3 2 1 2 = 4

(2)

(1) (2) :

Cos ( ) =

4
= 0.1905 79
21

3: a a = 2 i + a j + k

b = 4 i 2 j 2k .

. :


a b = 2 4 2a 1 2 = 0 2a = 6 a = 3
4:

a b a b .

112

a
h

AB = a AD = b
(1)
:

E = AD h

(2)

h = AB Sin( )
(3)
(1) (3) (2), :


E = AD h = b a Sin( ) = a b Sin( ) = a b

5: P,Q,R


a, b, c , p = a b + b c + c a
, P,Q,R.

S P,Q,R s .
PS , PQ , PR P,Q,R .
,
:


PS = OS OP = s a

PQ = OQ OP = b a

PR = OR OP = c a

(1)

PS , PQ , PR ,
, :

113

PS PQ PR = 0
(2)
(1) (2) :


PS PQ PR = 0 ( s a ) b a ( c a ) = 0

( s a) b c b a a c + a a = 0

( s a) a b + b c + c a + 0 = 0

( s a) a b + b c + c a = 0

(
(
(

p = a b + b c + c a

PS = s a P,Q,R.

S . p
, P,Q,R.

4.1.16.
1:
.


a = 3i 2 j + k

b = i 3 j + 5k

c = 2 i + j 4k

(: ).
2: :
114


a = 3 i + 6 j 2k

b = 4 i j + 3k
.
(: ).

3:


a = 3 i 4 j 2k

b = 2 i + 3 j 6k


.
(: ).
4:
.
5: :


a = 3 i + j 2k

b = i 3 j + 4k

(:
).

4.2.
4.2.1.

a11
a
A = 21
...

a m1

a12
a 22
...
am2

... a1n
... a 2 n
... ...

... a mn

, ,
. ..

B = [ b11

b12

... b1n ]

, ,
. ..

115

c11
c
C = 21
...

c m1
- - .

m=n, .

4.2.2.

(m n) C
(m n),
. cij = aij + bij i,j.
D,

. d ij = aij i,j

a11
a
D = A = 21
...

a m1

a12
a 22
...
a m 2

... a1n
... a 2 n
... ...

... a mn

, mXn nXp
, ,
C mXp
cij =

a b
j =1

ij

ji

AT
A

4.2.3.

A
( ) mXm (
) . :

a11
a
A = 21
...
a m1

a12
a 22
...
am2

...
...
...
...

a1m
a2m
... m.
a mm


. m
m m .
i j D ( Aij ) .

116

2, 2
2 . 2 :

A=

a11
a 21

a12
= a11 a 22 a12 a 21
a 22

mXm :

a11
a
A = 21
...
a m1

a12
a 22
...
am2

... a1m
... a 2 m
= ( 1) i +1 ai1 D( Ai1 ) + (1) i + 2 ai 2 D( Ai 2 ) + .... + (1) i + m aim D( Aim )
... ...
... a mm

,
22.

4.2.4.


m m
,

.
:

a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + ...a1m x m = s1


a11

a
a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 + ...a 2 m x m = s 2
21

...
.....

a m1 x1 + a m 2 x 2 + ...a mm x m = s m
a m1

a12
a 22
...
am2

... a1m x1 s1
... a 2 m x 2 s 2

=
... ... ... ...

... a mm x m s m

xi ,
i
, .

4.2.5.

1.

3 1

A = 2 1
1 2

1 0 2
B=
.
1 1 3

: 1. C = A + B T , 2. D = A B
1.

117

3 1
3
T
1 0 2

C = A + B = 2 1 +
= 2

1 1 3
1 2

3 + 1 1
C = 2
+ 1
2 2 + 3
T

1 1
+ 0
1
2 2 3

2.

3
D = A B = 2
1
4 1
D = 1
1
1 2

1
3 1 + (1)(1) 3 0 + (1)1 3(2) + ( 1) 3
1 0 2

1
= 2 1 + 1(1)
2 0 + 1 1
2(2) + 1 3

1 1 3
1 1 + 2(1)
2
1 0 + 2 1
1(2) + 2 3
9
1
4

2.
:

1 2
1 0
A=
1
1
2
0

0
3
1
0

1
0
1
1

,
1 :

1 2
1 0
A=
1
1
2
0

0
3
1
0

1
0
=
1
1

0 3 0
1 3 0
1 0 0
1 0 3
(1)1+1 1 1 1 1 + ( 1)1+ 2 (2) 1 1 1 + (1)1+3 0 1 1 1 + (1)1+ 4 1 1 1 1 =
0 0 1
2 0 1
2 0 1
2 0 0
0 3 0
1 3 0
1 0 3
1 1 1 +2 1 1 1 +0 1 1 1
0 0 1
2 0 1
2 0 0
, 4 , 4 3 .
2 .

118

0 3 0
1 3 0
1 0 3
A= 1 1 1 +2 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 =
0 0 1
2 0 1
2 0 0
0

1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
(1)

3
+0
+ 2 (1)
3
+0

0
+
3

0 1
0 1
0 0
0
1
2
1
2
0
0
0
2
0
2
0


. :


1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
=
+ 0 + 2 (1)
3
+ 0 (1)
0+3
0 1
0 1
2 1
0 0
2 0


3(1 1 1 0) + 2( (1)(1 1 1 0) 3(1 1 1 2) ) ( (1)(1 0 1 0) + 3(1 0 1 2) ) =
3 + 2(1 + 3) (6) = 3 + 4 + 6 = 7
A = 03

1 1

3.
:

x 2y + z = 1
x + 3w = 1
x + y + w+ z =1
2x + z = 1
:

x 2 y + 0w + z = 1
x + 0 y + 3w + 0 z = 1
x+ y + w+ z =1
2 x + 0 y + 0w + z = 1
:

1 2
1 0

1
1

0
2

0
3
1
0

1 x 1
0 y 1
=
1 w 1

1 z 1

1
1
1
1
x=
1
1
1
2

2
0
1
0
2
0
1
0

0
3
1
0
0
3
1
0

1
0
1
1
2
=
1 7
0
1
1

1
1
1
2
y=
1
1
1
2

1
1
1
1
2
0
1
0

0
3
1
0
0
3
1
0

119

1
0
1
1
1
=
1
7
0
1
1

1 2 1 1
1 0 1 0
1
1 1 1
2
0 1 1 3
w=
=
1 2 0 1 7
1 0 3 0
1
1 1 1
2
0 0 1

1 2 0 1
1 0 3 1
1
1 1 1
2
0 0 1 3
z=
=
1 2 0 1 7
1 0 3 0
1
1 1 1
2
0 0 1

4.2.6.

1.

2 1 1

: A = 1 0 1
1 1 2

x
B = y
z

1 1 1

C = A 1 1 1 , D = A B , E = B B T
1 1 1
2.
1
3.

1

A B = 2
3

4.3.
4.3.1.

f(x) (x)

d ( x)
= f ( x) : (( x) = f ( x )dx
dx

adx = ax
120

n
x dx =

x n 1
n 1

xdx = x

x dx = ln x

x dx =

1
x

xdx = x
1

x3/ 2
3/ 2

= x

dx = 2 x

= x

dx = e x
1

1+ x

ax
x
a
dx
=

ln a

= x

1
1 x2

= x


)
f (x)
g i (x ) f ( x ) = g1 ( x) + g 2 ( x) + ... + g n ( x) ,
g i (x ) , :

f ( x )dx = g1 ( x)dx + g 2 ( x)dx + ... + g n ( x )dx = g i ( x )dx


i =1

)

f (x) g (x) :

d ( f g ) = f dg + g df
, :

d ( f g ) = f dg + g df
f dg = f g g df

f dg = d ( f g ) g df

f dg

g df ,

)

.

121


. x = s (t ) :

f ( x)dx = f (s(t ))ds(t )


4.3.2.

f (x ) , [,].
[,] n x.
f (x)
f ( xi )x x . :

f ( x)dx = lim f ( xi )x
x 0

i =1

I ( x) =

f ( x)dx ,

f (x)

[,] :

f ( x)dx = I ( ) I (a)
a


.

:
b

f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx
b

f ( x)dx = 0
a

c f ( x)dx = c f ( x)dx , c
b

( f ( x) + g ( x))dx = f ( x)dx + g ( x)dx


b

) f ( x) = c ,

f ( x)dx = c(b a)
a

) f 1 ( x) > f 2 ( x ) x [ a, b] :
b

f ( x)dx > f
1

( x)dx

122


f (x )

[,]

, x x= x=.

f ( xi )
x , [,].
x ,
.

4.3.3.

1:
2
f ( x ) = 3 x 2 x 1

,
:

f ( x)dx = (3x

( )

2 x 1 dx = 3 x 2 dx ( 2 x )dx 1dx =

x3
x2
3 x dx 2 xdx dx = 3 2
x = x3 x2 x
3
2
2

2:
f ( x ) =

1
a x2
2

,
:

f ( x) =

1
a2 x2

a 1

x2
a2

f (t ) =

x
= t , :
a

1 1
a 1 t2

dx = adt ,
:

f ( x)dx = a

1
1 t2

adt =

1
1 t2

dt = t =

3:
123

x
a

f ( x) = x x
d x = xdx . ,
:

f ( x)dx = xxdx = xd x = x x xdx = x x + x


4:

1 x.
1.
I ( x) =

f ( x)dx = x

x2 x .

,

f ( x) = 0 .

1
3

x1 = , x 2 = 1 .
:
1

E=

f ( x)dx = I (1) I (1 / 3) = (1

1 / 3

1
1
32
1
12 1) ( ) 3 ( ) 2 ( ) =
3
3
27
3

.
.
,
. E =

124

32
.
27