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Guns, Germs, and Steel Part 1 1. How did Europeans develop these advantages in the first place?

Why did the world ever become so unequal? 2. Yali asked Diamond, "Why do you white men have so much cargo and we New Guineans have so litte?" To a New Guinean "cargo" is used to describe material goods that were first brought to their country by westerners. It was regarded as evidence as a white mans power, treated religously. Part 2 3. All civilizations had advanced technology, large populations, and well organized workforce in common. 4. Prehistoric people thrived in the Middle East because they had a variety of different plants to gather such as 2 prominent grasses, barley and wheat, which were far more plentiful and nutritious then sago, this was the main source that set off modern civilization. Part 3 5. Archaeologists found an oval shaped mud wall building which was a place that could store grain collectively, primarily wheat and barley. 6. During the drought people started growing their own food which lead them to become the first farmers of the world. 7. Under human cultivation and domestication they changed the plants around them without them knowing that themselves. 8. 4 regions that developed farming independently were China, Americas, Africa, and mostly the highlands of New Guinea. Part 4 9. Farmers of New Guineas didn't develop advanced civilizations like other farming communities around the world did because the crops they have cant be stored for years like others but instead for a very short amount of time and also most are very low on proteins unlike wheat. 10. 9000 years ago in the middle east the first settlement were giving away to larger villages and were only to live on this scale by become much more productive farmers of wheat and farmers but they began to have a production in animal domestication. Animal Domestication helped humans in 3 ways -fertilizer, fur for warmth, protein, plowing. Part 5 11. Large plant-eating, muscles, meat, are good animals to domesticate. (like horses) 12. Goat, sheep, pigs, calves, horses, donkeys, bactrian camels, arabian camels, water buffalo, llamas, reindeer, yaks, mithuns, and valley cattle. Most of them came from Asia, North Africa, and Europe. 13. Positive effects that came from food surpluses were metal workers, metal

tools, and specialists. Part 6 14. Even though Middle East had the best crops they lost their head start because their climate was to dry and ecology was to fragile to support the intensive farming. 15. The area shared the same length, day, and often the same climate and vegetation. Animals/plants started domesticating to torwards the area which began human civilization once more. 16. A simple explanation of why sone places thrived but not New Guineans is because of the few raw materials they have at their exposable, acquiring of only pigs (no cattles), but ultimately geography played a major role. Some of the criticism that has been raised against Diamond's arguments that he was to deterministic and for ignoring the part where people shaped their own destiny.