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Ayumi Nghiem AP World History B3 Ranta Chapter 27 Guided Questions 1.

. Larger, faster ships made transporting laborers halfway around the world affordable, though voyages from Asia to the Caribbean still took an average of three. 2. Indian laborers were another alternative as well as freed African slaves. Many China and Pacific Islands recruits were kidnapped or coerced into leaving their home. Both groups would leave in hopes of better economic and social conditions. 3. The Ottoman rulers were earlier than the rulers of other Eurasian empires to experiment with financial and military modernization 4. The Sultan Selim III failed for political reasons more than economic. The Janissaries became a significant political force, ad their conservative attitudes dissuaded many Ottoman rulers and officials from pursuing reform. 5. Europeans considered the war for Greek independence a campaign to recapture the classical roots of their civilization from Muslim despots. The victory of the Greeks also showed triumph of European civilization over the Ottoman Empire, and Mahmud II agreed that the loss of Greece indicated a profound weaknessconsidered backwardness in Ottoman military and financial organization. 6. The Tanzimat was a series of reforms announced by his 16 year old son and successor, Adbul Mejid in 1839. It was a historical significance because it called for public trials and equal protection under the law for all, whether Muslim, Christian, or Jew. Also guaranteed some privacy rights, equalized the eligibility of men for conscription in to the army, and provided for a new, formalized method of tax collecting that legally ended tax farming in the Ottoman Empire. 7. Examples of European cultural diffusion in the Ottoman Empire are the public rights and political participation granted during the Tanzimat was explicitly restricted to men. There came a time there was question of political and reformed education participation for women. The reforms decreased the influence of women. 8. Crimean War was a war between the Russian and Ottoman Empire about whether Russia could claim to protect Christians in the Ottoman domains in 1853-1856. The war was fought at sea as well as on land. It brought importance changes to all the combatants. 9. The Qing Empire begin to decline from 1800 because of the failure in 1793 of the British attempt to establish diplomatic and trade relations with the Qingthe Macartney missionturned European opinion against China. They didnt have the time or inclination to explore new contacts with far-off Europeans. 10. Opium was grown in India and it had a major naval base at Singapore, through which it could transport opium to East Asia. Addiction spread at all levels including very high ranking officials in the Qing society. 11. Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) was a great civil war of social unhappiness and foreign intrusion was the great civil war which was in Guangxi.

12. The Tongzhi Restoration was when the Qing government was so deeply in debt Britain and France had to step in to help the recovery of China that followed the rebellion. The western European helped to some degree with modernizing China to help with recovery. 13. Japan was ruled in the 12th century by government by shogunatesdecentralized secular government under a military leader who was loyal to the emperor. Disadvantages were things such as it not permitting coordination of resources and communications on a national scale that would be necessary to resist a major invasion from abroad making it vulnerable to foreign threat. 14. In 1853 the arrival of a small U.S. fleet with demands for an opening of Japan to trade with the United States started a process that ended with the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate by leaders of the more powerful provinces. 15. The nationalistic ideology of the Meiji Restoration coexisted with intense interest in European practices in government, education, industry, dress, and even popular culture. The achievements were the oligarchs were extremely talented and far-sighted men. They overcame regional resistance to political and social reform, and gradually by systematically they affected the dissolution of the traditional provincial governorships and the samurai class. Even with Tokugawa government being poor, there was some wealth in a few provinces. Literacy rate became the highest of 35%.