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GII HN HNG IU KHIN BP SNG TRONG H ANTEN THNG

Trn Xun Vit ULA (uniformly linear array) l mt dng anten mng c nhiu ng dng trong k thut vin thng. Trong to dng bp sng hp v iu khin qut in t l mt trong nhng k thut c quan tm lu nay. Nhiu c tnh v rng bp sng v mc cc i ph c kho st kh k cng. Xc nh gii hn hng iu khin bp sng p dng c cc iu kin l cc kt qu c trnh by trong bi vit ny. GII THIU Sng in t lan truyn trong khng gian l mt dng tn hiu khng gian thi gian. i vi mt anten n gin, chng hn mt anten thu c lp, th bn thn tn hiu nhn c t anten khng phn nh c c tnh khng gian ca tn hiu. Cn i vi mt h anten (nhiu phn t), vic x l tn hiu kt hp cho php khai thc c c lng tin tc cha trong cc c tnh khng gian ca phn b trng sng in t v ca c phn b khng gian ca cc phn t anten, mang li nhiu ng dng thc t [1]. Cc phn t ca mt h anten c th c sp xp trong khng gian theo nhiu dng hnh hc khc nhau, nh theo mt vng trn, theo mt mt phng hay theo mt hnh khi, tuy nhin thng gp hn c l h anten thng vi cc phn t sp xp theo mt ng thng v c khong cch u nhau (ULA-Uniformly Linear Array). Cc ni dung c kho st trong bi vit ny xoay quanh mt s c tnh to dng bp sng v cc iu kin gii hn ca hng li tia trong ULA. M HNH S LIU Cu trc in hnh ca mt ULA nh trn hnh 1 [4] . N bao gm N phn t t 0 n N-1 c sp xp dc trc ox, cch u nhau mt khong bng d .( / 2) , trong d c coi l khong cch chun ha (so vi /2), chn gc ta trng vi v tr phn t 0, v hng dng trn trc ox th hin trn hnh v. Cc phn t anten l ng hng trong mt phng nm ngang cha trc ox. l mt cu trc c mt s gi thit n gin ha trong kho st. Hng sng n lm vi trc ca ULA mt gc . Ta biu din s iu ch ca mt sng n bi gi tr (ng bao phc bng gc) - s(t). Gi thit rng tp m tt c cc phn t ring bit c cng ln mi hng v nh. Chn phn t 0 lm chun, tn hiu z (t ) u ra l:

z (t ) = w iui (t ) = As (t ) wi e j . .i.d .cos = As (t ) f ( )


Hm f ( ) c gi l h s h anten:
i =0 i =0

N 1

N 1

(1)

f ( ) = wi e j . .i.d .cos
i =0

N 1

trong :

wi = e j . .i .d .cos

(2)

H s h anten xc nh t s ca tn hiu thu c ti u ra ca h anten z (t ) , trn tn hiu As (t ) , o c trn phn t gc, n nh l hm ca hng sng ti DOA (direction-

of-arrival). Bng vic iu chnh gi tr trng s {w i } c th thu c cc i ca bp sng chnh ca h s h anten theo hng mong mun , gi l hng li tia, chnh l mt trong cc chc nng ca h anten c gi l to dng bp sng (beamforming).

2 Khi h s h anten l:
N 1 i =0

f ( ) = e j . pi.i.d .(cos cos )

(3)

Hnh 1 : M hnh (ng bao phc bng gc) ca ULA thu mt mt sng n t hng T (3) ta thy gin hng ca h s h anten f ( ) c my c im: - khi i du, f ( ) gi nguyn gi tr. Nh vy ch cn kho st gin hng ca h anten khi bin thin t 0 n1800, gin hng i xng qua trc = 0. - i vi mt hng li tia ( ) b vi mt hng li tia khc ( ), gi tr cos i du, hon ton khng lm thay i kt qu kho st nu chn phn t chun v hng trc ox ngc li. Do khi kho st cc hng li tia khc nhau ch cn xt bin thin t 0 n / 2, ri ni suy kt qu cho cc bin thin t / 2 n . QUAN H GIA RNG BP SNG VI S PHN T V HNG LI TIA Mt trong nhng ng dng quan trng ca ULA l to nn bp sng hp v iu khin qut bp sng. y, ta kho st thng s rng bp sng ca ULA theo s phn t N v hng li tia . Hm phng hng chun ha, theo [1], l:

1 sin( N . .d . .u ) 1 2 F (u ) = . N sin( 1 .d . .u ) 2

trong :

= .d .u ( , ) u ( , ) = cos cos

(4)

rng bp sng (na cng sut) c tnh gia cc im lm cho F (u ) = 3dB (tc l 0.5 ). Nhiu ti liu a ra s ph thuc ca rng bp sng na cng sut vo hai thng s l N (s phn t ca ULA) v hng li tia [1, 3]. Khi N ln, rng bp sng c tnh gn ng theo [3]:
3

3 = 0.4429.

4 N .d .sin

hoc: 3 ()

100 N .d .sin

(5)

T (5), ta thy: - rng bp sng t l nghch vi s phn t N, N cng ln, khu anten cng ln, bp sng cng hp. chnh l mt trong cc ng dng ca ULA - to dng bp sng (beamforming). - rng bp sng t l nghch vi gi tr sin ca hng li tia , hng li tia = 900, sin = 1, rng bp sng hp nht. cc hng li tia nh, theo (5), rng bp sng s c gi tr bin i ln, c th ni l k d, tuy nhin cc kt qu a ra trong [3] cha lun gii c cc im k d ny. - khi s dng ULA to dng bp sng hp v iu khin hng li tia, th mun gi rng bp sng mt hng li tia (khng qu nh) c nh theo hng li tia = 900, th phi tng s phn t N bng ng s ln suy gim ca gi tr sin .

Hnh 2 : S ph thuc ca rng bp sng v mc cc i ph vo s phn t N v hng li tia C th xc nh gii hn ca hng li tia ( min1 ), sao cho khi bin thin, khng lm thay i t bin rng bp sng, c th p dng cng thc (5). S dng cng c tnh ton MATLAB, vi mi gi tr N, ly mt s gi tr t 3 n 50 (hnh 2a), tm mt ngng ca m khi bin i qua ngng , rng bp sng (-3 dB) c t bin xp x 2 ln, ta c c s ph thuc ca min1 vo N. Hnh 3 (ng cong bn di) l th cho php xc nh gi tr min1 ng vi cc gi tr N khc nhau, tng ng l cc cp gi tr ghi li bng 1.

Hnh 3 : S ph thuc ca min1 v min2 vo s phn t N Bng 1 : Cc gi tr ca min1 tng ng vi N N 3 48 4 41 5 36 6 33 8 29 10 26 12 24 14 22 16 21 18 20 20 19 25 17 30 15 40 14 50 12

min1

S dng phng php xp x bnh phng ti thiu trong phn mm MAPLE, gii tch ha s ph thuc trn, c cng thc tnh gn ng:

min1 =

1 , a1 0.0015, b1 0.0244 a1.N + b1

(6)

QUAN H GIA MC CC I PH VI S PHN T V HNG LI TIA T biu thc (4) ta thy cc hng suy gim khng ca gin hng c xc nh t cc iu kin lm trit tiu t s, tc l:

1 2.n .N .d . .u = n. , u = cos cos = , n = 1..N 2 N .d

(7)

Gia hai hng suy gim khng lin tip s c mt cc i, trong cc i ti hng = chnh l bp sng chnh (main lobe), c gi tr chun ha bng 1, cc cc i khc c gi tr nh hn 1 c gi l cc cc i ph (sidelobes). Tuy nhin cng c nhng trng hp (d 1 ) xut hin mt s cc i ph c gi tr bng bp sng chnh (=1), v gi l bp sng ph (grating lobes). Mt trong nhng khi nim thng c quan tm lin quan n cc cc i ph l mc suy gim cc i ph (SLR sidelobe rate), chnh l t s gia bin bp sng chnh v bin cc i ph th nht (lin k bp sng chnh). Khi N ln ( > 8), gi tr ny vo khong 13 dB [3], tc l khong 5 ln [1]. Tuy nhin khi hng li tia kh nh, s xut hin cc i ph = 1800 c th c gi tr cn ln hn cc i ph th nht. C th xc nh gii hn ca hng li tia ( min2 ), hn ch bin cc i ph = 1800 . Vn s dng cng c tnh ton s MATLAB, vi mi gi tr N, ly mt s gi tr t 3 n 50, xc nh mt gi tr ca , ti mc cc i ph ln nht bng 105% mc cc i ph = 900 (hnh 2b), ta c c s ph thuc ca min2 vo N. Kt qu th hin trn hnh

5 3, ng cong th hai ( pha trn) cho php xc nh gi tr min2 vi cc gi tr N khc nhau, v ghi li cc cp gi tr bng 2. Bng 2 : Cc gi tr ca min2 tng ng vi N N

min2

3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 51 45 41 35 32 29 27 25 23 22 20 18 17 16 15 14

Cng s dng phng php xp x bnh phng ti thiu trong MAPLE, gii tch ha s ph thuc ca min2 vo gi tr N, c cng thc tnh gn ng min2:

min 2 =

1 , a2 0.0011, b2 0.0192 a2 .N + b2

(8)

chn min = max { min1 , min 2 } = min 2 .

Kt hp cc iu kin gii hn trn sao cho khi iu khin gim nh hng li tia, va khng to t bin v rng bp sng, va khng lm gia tng cc i ph = 1800 , ta

KT LUN ULA to c bp sng hp v c th iu khin qut in bp sng. hp bp sng khng ch t l vi s phn t N, m cn ph thuc vo gi tr sin ca hng li tia. Tuy nhin khi iu khin qut bp sng hng li tia nh, s ph thuc trn khng cn ng theo cng thc (5) na, vic tm gii hn ca hng li tia khng lm thay i t bin rng bp sng c trnh by trong phn 2. Cng cc hng li tia nh, s xut hin cc i ph = 1800 , c mc ln dn khi gim hng li tia dn v 0. Tm c gii hn th hai ca hng li tia cc i ph ny khng vt qu mc cc cc i ph khc l kt qu tip theo trong bi vit ny, phn 3. Cc kt qu trn c th ng c lu khi nghin cu cc ULA trong iu kin iu khin qut bp sng cc hng li tia nh, quanh gi tr 0 (dc trc hnh hc). Ti liu tham kho [1] Phan Anh, L thuyt v k thut anten, Nh xut bn Khoa hc v K thut, H ni 2003. [2] Phan Anh, Trng in t & truyn sng, Nh xut bn i hc Quc gia H ni, H ni 2000. [3] Robert C. Hansen, Phased array antennas, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998. [4] Liberti & Rapport, Smart antennas for wireless communications: IS95 and third generation CDMA applications, Pretice Hall PTR 1999. [5] XuanNamTran, Subband adaptive array for mobile communications with application to CDMA systems, PhD Thesis, The University of Electro-communications, Tokyo 2003. [6] Robert & Thomas, Introduction to adaptive arrays, A wiley-intercience publication 1980.