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Report The threatened oceans

how to choose fish and shellfish

THE THREATENED OCEANS HOW TO CHOOSE FISH AND SHELLFISH

Table of contents
Fishing
Overfishing Social aspects Illegal fishing Bycatches and discards Fishing methods - pros and cons The common fisheries policy of the EU Partnership Agreements 3 3 3 3 4 7 7

Fisheries policy

The climate impacts of fishing Environmental toxins in fish Global consumption of fish Eco-labelling of fish
The WWF Fish Guides

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9

10 11
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Aquaculture

The scale of aquaculture production Negative effects of aquaculture production Tropical shrimp farmed Tropical shrimp wild caught

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Text: Ellen Bruno, Kajsa Garpe, My Sellberg and Markus Holmquist Translation: Gran Eklf Cover: Istockphoto.com Layout: Ingela Espmark / Carina Grave-Mller ISBN: 978-91-558-0083-3 Swedish Society for Nature Conservation 2012 Produced with economic support from Sida. Sida has not participated in the production of the publication and has not evaluated the facts or opinions that are expressed. 2

THE THREATENED OCEANS HOW TO CHOOSE FISH AND SHELLFISH

Fishing

Overfishing
The worlds oceans continue to be under heavy pressure from human activities. 53 percent of marine fish stocks are fully exploited, 28 percent are overexploited and 4 percent are depleted.1 Every year about 80 million tonnes of fish are harvested from the oceans. 60 per of the harvest is used for human consumption, while the remaining 40 percent go to producing fish meal and fish oil that is used in aquaculture or as fodder for other animals. The resources of the oceans have proven to anything but infinite. Catches have not increased in the last 10 years, in spite of the use of increasingly efficient methods for fishing. The level of catches is being maintained through increasing efforts to fish deeper and in more inaccessible waters, such as in the polar regions. We also fish lower and lower down the food chain, for species that previously were not valued. There are no longer any new waters or deep oceans left for fisheries to expand to.2 As overfishing capturing more fish than the oceans can reproduce continues, catches will successively decline. At the current rates of exploitation, stocks of all large food species will be depleted by 2048.3

global fisheries were sustainable, some 20 million people in developing countries would not suffer from malnutrition. 6 The situation is particularly serious in Africa: researchers estimate that up to half of Africas potential fisheries are lost because of overfishing. 7

Illegal fishing

Social aspects
Fish is the primary source of protein for approximately one billion people.4 Worldwide, at least 30 million people are directly engaged in fishing. The total number of people who work with fishing, in one way or another, is at least 500 million.5 A large majority of these people live in developing countries, and half of them are women. The incomes gained by fish workers contribute to the health and education of millions more, including many children. Global overfishing, which is driven by consumption in rich countries, reduce the opportunities for many poor people to livelihoods, health, education and a decent life. If
1. 2. 3. 4. FAO 2010, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010 Swarts W, 2010, The spatial expansion and ecological footprint of fisheries (1950 to Present), PLoS One 5:1-6 Worm et al, 2006. Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services. Science Vol. 314 no. 5800 pp. 787-790 Millenium Ecosystem Assessment, 2003, Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing: A Framework for Assessment. Chapter 2: Ecosystems and Their

Every year illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing (IUU) accounts for between 10 and 23,5 billion dollars worth of fish. Such fish is frequently exported to the EU, where it is served to unsuspecting customers.8 For obvious reasons the blue-fin tuna, which can fetch a price of more than half a million dollars for a singe fish, is particularly prone to be targeted by pirate fishers. Illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing can be restricted by improving the traceability of fish, increasing controls and closing loopholes such as the pirate states where fishing vessels can register without any requirements to report catches etc. A few years ago the EU adopted a regulation that aimed to do just that, but greater international efforts and more concerned consumers are needed in order for such measures to be effective. Traceability is an important component of environmental labelling; the labels inform consumers that the fish has been legally fished.

Bycatches and discards


Bycatches are the incidental catches of species that are not targeted or wanted. Bycatches can be other species of fish, young fish, birds, sea turtles, corals or marine mammals. They can also be fish of the correct species and size, but for which the vessel does not have a valid quota and is therefore not permitted to land the catch. Bycatches can be minimised through the use of selective fishing gear that sorts out unwanted fish already in the ocean, such as net with coarser mesh sizes or special escapement windows through
Services FAO 2009, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2008 Srinivasan TU, 2010, Food security implications of global marine catch losses due to overfishing, J Bioecon DOI 10.1007/s10818-010-9090-9 Ibid. Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF) 2009, Dirty Fish

5. 6. 7. 8.

THE THREATENED OCEANS HOW TO CHOOSE FISH AND SHELLFISH

which small fish or fish that behave differently compared to the target species can escape. Fishing can also be avoided in areas and seasons where the likelihood for catching fish fry is high, or there is a high risk for bycatches of marine mammals and birds. In order to encourage fishers to reduce bycatches, fisheries managers can require that all bycatches must be landed, but without any payment. As the bycatces will take up storage space in the fishing vessels, the operators will make efforts to minimise the volume that is caught. This system has been introduced in Norway. Fisheries managers can also regulate the use of fishing gear in order to reduce bycatches, such as by requiring the use of acoustic deterrent devices in order to reduce bycatches of whales and dolphins in gillnets. In countries where the practice is allowed, such as in the EU, bycatches are disposed of by throwing them over board. This practice is called discharges. Some of organisms including sharks and starfish survived such treatments, but most fish die. Discharges have been heavily criticised in the EU, by environmental organisations as well as by fishermen who cay that EU fishery regulations force them to throw away fish. In fact, there are many reasons why fish is discarded: The fishing operator does not have quotas for the fish Maximation of profits. By throwing away the less profitable parts of catches, operators can catch more of the fish that bring higher revenues. This is called high grading, and has only been prohibited in the EU for a few years. The fish may not be landed because it is too small, or because the fish belong to species that are protected. The volumes of bycatches vary greatly between different fisheries. The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, FAO, estimates the annual global discharges to more than 7 million tonnes of bycatches. However, discharges may in fact be as high as 20 million tonnes, or 25

percent of all global catches from marine fisheries. For a long time, environmental organisations as well as member states want to eliminate discharges from EU fisheries. Norway, which has adopted a national ban against discharges, is also pushing for the EU to adopt similar regulation. There is now a proposal, within the current process to reform the EUs Common Fisheries Policy, for a ban on discharges, but the proposal only covers selected species of commercial interest.

Fishing methods pros and cons


Many different methods are used in commercial fishing. All of them have advantages and disadvantages form an environmental point of view. The following section presents schematic pictures of what different fishing gear look like, how they are used, and their environmental impacts. In cases where there are efficient ways of reducing the negative environmental impacts, these are also mentioned.

Gillnets Gillnets catch the fish by their gills. They are anchored to the bottom, and are used in more shallow waters, often near the coast. Gillnets are used for many species of fish including cod and different species of flatfish. Nets that are not anchored to the bottom are called driftnets, and their use is banned globally.

THE THREATENED OCEANS HOW TO CHOOSE FISH AND SHELLFISH

+ Selective against fish that are too small to get caught in the net, but not selective with regard to different species + Do not harm the ocean floor May cause large bycatches of seabirds, whales, porpoises, and turtles Are easily lost, and become ghost nets that can fish independently for many years. The environmental impacts can be reduced through the choice of materials (some materials are more easily seen by large animals, but have no effect on the effectiveness of catching target species), area, time and depth (seabirds mainly bet caught in certain specific places, during certain months and at certain depths), or by furnishing the nets with acoustic deterrent devices (which warn propoises of the nets).

May give large bycatches of seabirds that are attracted by the bait The environmental impacts can be reduced through the choice of large hooks that do not catch small fish. A wide range of methods can be used in order to minimise bycatches of seabirds, such as setting the lines at night and scaring the birds away from baited hooks.

Trawl nets Bottom trawls are dragged along the bottom, where heavy sinkers or chains frighten the fish into the net. There are other types of trawl nets, such as snurrevad, which are attached to a buoy while the boat encircles the fish shoals. Bottom trawls are used to catch most species of benthic fish, including haddock, cod, shrimp and flatfish. Midwater trawls never touch the ocean floor. They are dragged by one or two boats, and are used to catch herring and sprats in the open water. Longlines Longlines are lines that are 100 to 200 meters long, with baited hooks at every 1-3 meters. Several longlines can be joined together to make a line that is several kilometres long. Longlines are used primarily to catch large pelagic fish like tuna, sharks and swordfish. In the Baltic Sea, longlines are used for salmon, and also for cod. + No impact on the ocean floor + Can be selective against smaller fish Not selective with regard to fish species + Can be selective, provided that they have designs that allow smaller fish to escape. Bottom trawls have large negative impacts on the bottom. They disturb or kill bottom-living animals and plants, and damage habitats that are important for fish reproduction. Not selective with regard to species Large bycatches of benthic organisms: starfish, crabs, sea urchins Pulling a heavy trawl net consumes much boat fuel, which causes large emissions of greenhouse gases
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THE THREATENED OCEANS HOW TO CHOOSE FISH AND SHELLFISH

FAD Fish Aggregating Devices, FADs, are floating devices that attract pelagic species like marlin, tuna and dolphinfish. Most FADs are buoys or floats that are anchored to blocks of concrete. Fish that are attracted by the FADs are harvested by fishing with trawl or seine nets around and under the floating devices. FADs are used in more than one third of all tuna fishing High bycatches of fish, turtles and whales Not selective with regard to species Surrounding nets/Seine nets Seine nets are often very long nets (more than 1000 m) that are used to catch smaller fish such as herring, sprats and mackerel. They can also be used to catch shoals of tuna. Once a shoal has been localised, the vessel sets the net around the area. When a wire that runs along the bottom of the net is contracted, the net is closed like a sack around the shoal and the catch can be hauled aboard. + No impact on the bottom + Selective when the right shoals are targeted May give large bycatches of dolphins, which are traditionally used to help find fish shoals

Traps and cages The use of traps and cages to catch salmon and cod is increasing in Swedens coastal fisheries. Designs are available that protect the caught fish from being eaten by seals. + Limited impacts on non-target species, as these bycatches can be released alive + Limited bycatches with the appropriate design of seals and other large animals

+ No impact on the bottom

THE THREATENED OCEANS HOW TO CHOOSE FISH AND SHELLFISH

Fisheries policy

The common fisheries policy of the EU


Member states of the European Union share their exclusive economic zones (200 nautical miles, or 370 km) with all other member states. Fisheries are considered to be a common resource, which is best regulated at the level of the Union. Coastal and inland fisheries are not, in principle, covered by the EUs management, but the EU does regulate fisheries of migrating species like salmon and eel. The EUs Common Fisheries Policy, CFP, includes hundreds of regulations that are immediately enforceable as law in all member states. The regulations set the frameworks for fishing quotas and management plans, and define common rules for markets, subsidies and controls. The CFP is currently being reformed, and a decision on the new policy is expected in 2013.

Partnership Agreements
Fisheries Partnership Agreements make it possible for the European fishing fleet to fish in the economic zones of nonEU states. Taxpayers in the EU currently pay 150 million a year for partnership agreements with more than 20 other states. EU vessels that fish under these agreements are usually allowed to fish as much as they want to, without reporting their catches. Studies and small scale fish workers

in many African countries say that the European vessels more or less devastate their fisheries. The partnership agreements thus contradict the EUs development policy and the UN Millennium Development goals to reduce poverty. As the EUs payments for the right to fish in some cases amount to as much as one third of the partner countries state budgets, there is reason to assume that the governments in some of these countries are more likely to listen to the demands from the EU than to the needs of poor coastal fisherfolk. Criticism against the agreements has increased as the scope of their social and ecological impacts in the partner countries has become more evident. The agreement with Morocco is one of the most criticised. The EU pays for the right to fish in the waters outside West Sahara, which is occupied by Morocco. According to international law, Morocco does not have the right to sell fishing rights in occupied areas unless the population of that area agrees to and benefit from the sale. But the people of West Sahara is opposed to selling the fishing rights in their waters, which rank among the most productive in the world (this being one reason why Morocco wants to control them), and they do not get any share of the 36 million that the EU pays annually under the agreement. Read more about this in SSNCs report To draw the line.9

9.

To draw the line, Naturskyddsforeningen 2009. http://www.naturskyddsforeningen.se/upload/Foreningsdokument/ Rapporter/engelska/To%20draw%20the%20line.pdf

THE THREATENED OCEANS HOW TO CHOOSE FISH AND SHELLFISH

The climate impacts of fishing

The largest part of the climate impacts of fishing be it wildcaught fish, or farmed fish that depend on wild-caught fish for fodder can be attributed to the fuel consumption that is associated with the actual process of fishing.10 The method of fishing is an important variable. Pulling a bottom trawl is a fishing method that consumes a lot of fuel. The beams that are used in order to keep the trawls open can weigh several tonnes, and they are pulled over the bottoms for hours on end. Line fishing and fishing with gillnets is much more energy efficient. It has been estimated that catching 1 kg of cod in the Baltic Sea generates 3,8 kg of carbon dioxide when bottom trawls are used , but only 0,9 kg when gillnets are used.11 As flatfish are caught using approximately the same methods as for cod, these fisheries can also make large reductions of emissions by switching from bottom trawling to using gillnets. The density of fish stocks in the waters is also a significant factor that affects the climate impact of a fishery. Where fish is plentiful, the vessels do not need to fish over extensive areas. The high climate impact of fish farming is due to the fact that fish farms use fodder from the seas. Studies suggest

that some 85 percent of the greenhouse gas emissions caused by salmon farming can be attributed to the production of the feed. The processing of the fish is yet another climate aspect. It is not necessarily true that fish that has been filleted in Scandinavia has a smaller climate footprint than fish that has been shipped to China for processing. Filleting by hand in China produce less waste than automated filleting in Scandinavia. If, as a result, 10 to 20 percent more of the fish reaches the consumers, less fish has to be caught. If our own fish processing could be made more efficient, the emissions caused by the fish industry could be radically improved.12 Transporting fish that is caught in the country by road in refrigerated trucks is also energy intensive. From a climate perspective, exotic fish that has been shipped by air is the worst alternative. By comparison, transport by container ships produce very low emissions. According to the Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, the following types of seafood are good climate choices: farmed mussels, wildcaught hoki, herring, mackerel, pollock and Alaska pollock.13

10. 11.

SIK-Rapport Nr 776 2008 Mat och klimat Ziegler F. & Hansson P.-A. 2003. Emissions from fuel combustion in Swedish cod fishery. Journal of cleaner production 11: 303-314

12. 13.

http://itunes.apple.com/se/app/id350342977?mt=8 Formas Fokuserar, Klimatfrgan p bordet, 2008

THE THREATENED OCEANS HOW TO CHOOSE FISH AND SHELLFISH

Environmental toxins in fish

Fish is not only healthy food. As most environmental toxins end up, sooner or later, in the oceans, many fish contain levels of environmental toxins that are considerably higher than those found in terrestrial animals. Predatory fish are particularly exposed. Fat-soluble organic compounds like PCB and DDT are some of the substances that accumulate in fat fish. Dioxin is one of the most toxic substances known, and exposure to dioxin can cause diminished learning capacity, reduced reproductive capacity, and increased risks for cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis and other conditions. Children are particularly sensitive. Embryos and children are also particularly sensitive to mercury, which can damage the central nervous system. In 2011, SSNC in collaboration with many international partners had common food fish from 9 different countries tested for their contents of environmental toxins. The results confirmed virtually all fish contain environmental toxins. Several of the substances found are also endocrine disruptors that can affect the reproductive capacity of humans. The concentrations recorded were in several cases far above the defined safe levels for the individual substances.

THE THREATENED OCEANS HOW TO CHOOSE FISH AND SHELLFISH

Global consumption of fish

The depletion of global fish stocks is caused in part by the high demand for fish in industrialised countries. In 2005, the average EU citizen consumed 22 kg of fish, which is 63 percent higher than the global average.14 The consumption also keeps growing. The annual consumption in Sweden was 29 kg per capita the 7th highest in the Union. But Sweden is also one of only four EU member states that produces more fish than it consumes. However, much of the fish that we produce is exported as animal feed, while much of the fish that we consume is imported. The EU member states compensate for the growing demand for fish, and the declining availability of fish in EU waters, by increasing their fishing in waters outside the Union and procuring fishing quotas from countries in the South. The high demand for fish, in combination with decreasing catches in the EU, should provide a favourable market for countries that can supply fish to Europe. Researchers have estimated that fish exports could generate more income to countries in the South than coffee, tea and cocoa. But only a few developing countries benefit from our growing consumption of fish. The EUs unfair fisheries agreements is one of the major reasons for this (see Partnership Agreements above).

14.

EC, Fact and figures on the Common Fisheries Policy, 2010. FAO 2010,

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THE THREATENED OCEANS HOW TO CHOOSE FISH AND SHELLFISH

Eco-labelling of fish

The availability of eco-labelled fish has grown in the past few years, in response to consumer demand for seafood from sustainable fisheries or environmentally responsible aquaculture. Eco-labelling schemes are characterised by: Relevant environmental standards Standards tar are defined independently of individual producers Independent control of compliance Standards that are based on a life-cycle perspective Gradual strengthening of the standards Consumers use the standards that are required by the labelling schemes to channel their demand for fish that is sustainably caught from viable stocks, and send a signal to producers that they are willing to pay a bit more for fish and other seafood from sustainable fisheries and aquaculture. A gradual strengthening of the requirements is built into the labelling schemes. The eco-labelling organisations have scientific expert panels and reference groups with representatives from research, the fishing industry and environmental organisations who participate in the development and revisions of standards and criteria for sustainable fisheries. One should, however, be aware that am eco-label does not imply that the production does not have any environmental impacts at all, only that the labelled products are among the best in the class.

The WWF Fish Guides


Since many years, the WWF produces international and national Fish Guides that can be found in many shops. The guides are product of a major effort, and they also need to be updated at regular intervals to reflect rapid changes in fish stocks or the adaptation of the industry to the information provided by the lists. Operators that have been fishing on over-exploited stocks but have taken measures to control over-fishing will want to see the results of their efforts reflected in the guides. One such example is the Baltic Sea cod fishery, that has moved from over-fished to well managed within only a few years. The WWF guides classify fish in the red, yellow and green categories, but one species of fish may be classified in several different categories depending on where the fish is caught, and by what methods. WWF has recently also introduced a new, colour-less category for fish that are moving towards certification. Pangasius from Vietnamese aquaculture a production system that has important environmental impacts is currently classified in this category. SSNC has publicly criticised the colour-less category, as it undermines the credibility of the guides. Species that are unsustainably caught or farmed can now escape from the red category if people with an economic interest in the fisheries or farms announce that their will improve their practices, but before they have any results to show.

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THE THREATENED OCEANS HOW TO CHOOSE FISH AND SHELLFISH

Aquaculture

The farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs and algae is called aquaculture. Fish, crustaceans and molluscs are farmed in cages and enclosures in the sea, on ropes, and in dams along the coast lines where there is a natural exchange of seawater or on land, where seawater is provided with the use of pumps. Aquaculture is also practiced in freshwater, and in closed systems that do not have any direct contact with the surrounding environment (but still often use resources from that environment). Almost all species that are cultivated have to be fed, with mussels and oysters as important exceptions. The latter farms actually purify the water, as the animals get the food they need by filtering the water. This makes farmed mussels and oysters good environmental and climate choices.

The scale of aquaculture production


Aquaculture the fastest growing food production sector. In 2009, global aquaculture produced 55 million tonnes of fish and other seafood.15 Global aquaculture production of fish and other seafood in 2008 was worth almost 100 billion dollars. Most of the supply almost 90 percent comes from Asia, and China is the largest producer. Rainbow trout and charr are the most important species that are farmed in Sweden.

Thailand was associated with serious environmental problems as well as with poor working conditions.16 In an effort to reduce their dependence on fish for feed, some aquaculture producers try to plants and microbes for fishmeal in the fodder. Such initiatives are steps in the right direction, and there is potential to develop aquaculture production that does not depend on wild-caught fish. Unfortunately, most of the soy that is used as the substitute comes from South America, where it is grown on land that has been cleared from rainforests. In order for soy to be a good alternative to wild-caught fish in the fodder, it has to come from sustainable sources. Aquaculture can also cause serious environmental problems locally. Pharmaceuticals and pesticides that are frequently used in the production leak into surrounding waters and affect both people and the environment. Aquaculture farms can also infect wild relatives of the farmed species with parasites, such as the dreaded salmon louse. The high nutrient load from aquaculture farms in coastal areas can cause eutrophication and dead bottoms. In many countries in the South aquaculture farms occupy large areas, and cause serious difficulties for the people who live in the coastal zones and depend on their natural resources. Shrimp farms is one of the worst examples I this respect.

Negative effects of aquaculture production


The most prevalent aquaculture species are predatory fish, like salmon, which are fed with fishmeal and fish oil. Fishmeal is also frequently fed to fish that are not predators, in order for them to grow faster and increase profitability. It takes between 1,5 and 4 kilos of wild-caught fish to produce one kilo of farmed fish or shrimp. The problem of overfishing is thus linked both to farmed and wild-caught fish. In 2011, SSNC and Swedwatch produced a study of the fish feed issue, and found that fishing for fish feed in Peru And
15. 16. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010 Swedwatch and Naturskyddsforeningen 2012, Vet du vad din middag

Tropical shrimp farmed


Mangrove Most tropical shrimp farms have been constructed in mangrove forests and on salt flats, which are both parts of the mangrove ecosystem one of the most productive ecosystems on Earth with and impressive biological diversity. The mangroves fill an important function as hatcheries for a multitude of fish species. The ecosystem is intimately connected to other marine ecosystems, such as adjacent coral reefs and seagrass meadows.
t till frukost? En rapport om fiskmjol

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THE THREATENED OCEANS HOW TO CHOOSE FISH AND SHELLFISH

Millions of people depend on mangroves for their livelihoods. Mangroves provide local communities with fish, crabs, clams, building materials, firewood, plants and medicines. People in mangrove areas rarely have access to any other sources of income, and are seriously affected when mangroves are used unsustainably, damaged or cleared. Researchers and fish workers in all countries with shrimp aquaculture report that catches have been reduced to a fraction of what they were before the shrimp farms were introduced. Intact mangroves provide protection against storms and tsunamis. The devastation caused by the enormous tsunami in 2004 was much more prominent in areas where mangroves had been cleared. Mangroves forests and their sediments are among the most long-lasting carbon sinks on the planet, but their almost invaluable role for climate regulation has only been recognised quite recently.17 The value of the ecosystem services the products, services and other goods that the mangroves provide to humans is much higher that the values produced by shrimp farms.18 Still, mangroves are destroyed to make way for thousands of tropical shrimp ponds in countries like Bangladesh, Indonesia, India, China, Malaysia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Honduras and Brazil. It is estimated that between 38 and 50 percent of the Earths mangrove forests have already been cleared to make way for shrimp farms. 70 percent of the mangrove forests in Ecuador have been cut in order to produce shrimp for export to the United states and Europe. In the autumn of 2011, SSNC investigated the shrimp industry in Bangladesh and Ecuador and found that even shrimp farms that were certified as organic did not meet sustainability criteria.19

Tropical shrimp wild caught


Wild shrimp are fished with trawls the size of soccer fields, which are dragged along the bottom. For every kilo of shrimp caught, as much as 20 kilos of fish and other bycatches are thrown overboard. Although shrimp fishing only constitutes 2 percent of global fisheries, it is responsible for more than one third of the total bycatches. Shrimp are fished in countries where the industry is poorly controlled, if at all, and where the fish that is thrown overboard should be used to feed the poor coastal communities.
15 BRIEF ARGUMENTS FOR NOT EATING TROPICAL SHRIMP 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Shimp farming is inefficient land use, the value of intact mangrove ecosystems exceeds the value produced by the farms Shrimp farming destroys mangrove forests and mangrove ecosystems Mangrove destruction reduces protection against storms and tsunamis Shrimp farms reduces or destroy local fisheries Intensive shrimp farms consume much energy* Large climate impacts because mangrove sediments are important carbon sinks Chemicals and salt intrusion destroy large areas The use of antibiotics may contribute to antiobiotic resistance The white spot disease virus could infect Swedish crustaceans* social injustices, forced evictions, violence, rape and other abuses aganst local communities Child labour in shrimp farms and processing plants Legislation and certification is undermined by widespread corruption20 The production of fishmeal and fish oil for shrimp feed is unsustainable* Harvesting of mother shrimp for obtaining eggs is unsustainable, as it is based on non-selective trawling for females. Large quantities of antibiotics are used in the production of larvae, and one of the females eyes is removed in order to increase their production of eggs.* To support shrimp farming is to work against poverty alleviation, as people in shrimp farming areas tend to become impoverished

15.

17. 18.

UNEP och GRID-Arendal. 2010. Blue Carbon Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2003, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: A Framework for Assessment. Chapter 2: Ecosystems and Their Services. - Hanley N, Barbier EB, 2009, Pricing Nature: CostBenefit Analysis and Environmental Policy. Edward Elgar, London. - Balmford et al. 2002, Economic reasons for conserving wild nature, Science 297:950-953.

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20.

Naturskyddsforeningen, 2011, Murky waters. The environmental and social impacts of shrimp farming in Bangladesh and Ecuador. http:// www.naturskyddsforeningen.se/upload/Foreningsdokument/engelska/ murky%20waters.pdf http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/ cpi/2010/results 13

Naturskyddsfreningen. Box 4625, 11691 Stockholm. Phone + 46 8 702 65 00. info@naturskyddsforeningen.se The Swedish Society for Nature Conservation is an environmental organisation with power to bring about change. We spread knowledge, map environmental threats, create solutions, and influence politicians and public authorities, at both national and international levels. Moreover, we are behind one of the worlds most challenging ecolabellings, Bra Miljval(Good Environmental Choice). Climate, the oceans, forests, environmental toxins, and agriculture are our main areas of involvement. www.naturskyddsforeningen.se