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CHAPTER FIVE

Influence Lines for Indeterminate Structures


Influence lines for statically indeterminate structures provide the same information as influence lines for statically determinate structures, i.e. it represents the magnitude of a response function at a particular location on the structure as a unit load moves across the structure. Goals in this chapter are: 1. To become familiar with the shape of influence lines for the support reactions and internal forces in continuous beams and frames. 2. To develop an ability to sketch the appropriate shape of influence functions for indeterminate beams and frames. Qualitative Influence Lines for Statically Indeterminate Structures Muller-Breslaus Principle In many practical applications, it is usually sufficient to draw only the qualitative influence lines to decide where to place the live loads to maximize the response functions of interest. The Muller Breslau Principle pro Muller-provides a convenient mechanism to construct the qualitative influence lines, which is stated The influence line for a force (or moment) response function is given by the deflected shape of the released structure by removing the displacement constraint corresponding to the response function of interest from the original structure and giving a unit displacement (or rotation) at the location and in the direction of the response function. Procedure for constructing qualitative influence lines for indeterminate structures is: (1) remove from the structure the restraint corresponding to the response function of interest, (2) apply a unit displacement or rotation to the released structure at the release in the desired response function direction, and (3) Draw the qualitative deflected shape of the released structure consistent with all remaining support and continuity conditions. Notice that this procedure is identical to the one discussed for statically determinate structures. However, unlike statically determinate structures, the influence lines for statically indeterminate structures are typically curved. Placement of the live loads to maximize the desired response function is obtained from the qualitative ILD. Uniformly distributed live loads are placed over the positive areas of the ILD to maximize the drawn response function values. Because the influence line ordinates tend to diminish rapidly with distance from the response function location, live loads placed more than three span lengths away can be ignored. Once the live load pattern is known, an indeterminate analysis of the structure can be performed to determine the maximum value of the response function.

Example 1 Draw the influence line for - The vertical reaction at A and B - shear at C - bending moment at A and C. EI is constant. Plot numerical values every 2 m.

Solution
Influence line of RB

Find fxB by conjugate beam

Influence line of RA

Find fxA by conjugate beam

Alternate Method: Use equilibrium conditions for the influence line of RA

Using equilibrium conditions for the influence line of VC

Using equilibrium conditions for the influence line of MA

Using equilibrium conditions for the influence line of MC

Example 2 Draw the influence line and plot numerical values every 2 m for - The vertical reaction at supports A, B and C - Shear at G and E - Bending moment at G and E and EI is constant.

Solution Influence line of RA

Find fxA by conjugate beam

Using equilibrium conditions for the influence line of RB

Using equilibrium conditions for the influence line of RC

Check Fy = 0

Using equilibrium conditions for the influence line of VG

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Using equilibrium conditions for the influence line of VE

Using equilibrium conditions for the influence line of MG

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Using equilibrium conditions for the influence line of ME

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Qualitative Influence Lines and Loading Patterns for a Multi-span Indeterminate Beam
The Muller Breslau Principle, used previously to draw the influence lines for statically determinate structures, can also be extended to define the influence lines for indeterminate structures. This principle simply states that the influence line for a function is proportionally equivalent to the deflected shape of the structure when it undergoes a displacement as a result of the application of the function. For indeterminate structures, an understanding of how complex structures deflect and react when acted upon by a force is required in order to draw accurate diagrams.

Influence lines for reactions


To determine the influence line for the support reaction at A, the Muller Breslau Principle requires the removal of the support restraint and the application of a positive unit deformation at this point that corresponds to the direction of the force. In this case, apply a unit vertical displacement in the direction of YA.

The resulting deflected shape, due to the application of the unit deformation, is then proportionally equivalent to the influence line for the support reaction at A. Notice that in statically indeterminate structures, the deflected shape is not a straight line, but rather a curve. The ordinates of the deflected shape decrease as the distance increases from the point of application of the unit deformation. Similarly, for the other support reactions, remove the support restraint and apply a unit deformation in the direction of the removed restraint. For example, the influence line for the support reaction at C is obtained by removing the reaction at C and applying a unit displacement in the vertical direction at C. The resulting deflected shape is a qualitative representation of the influence line at RC (see Figure 2).

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Influence lines for shears


For shear at a section, using the Muller Breslau Principle, the shear resistance at the point of interest is removed by introducing the type of support shown in Figure 3, below. Shear forces are applied on each side of the section in order to produce a relative displacement between the two sides which is equal to unity. The deflected shape of the beam under these conditions will qualitatively represent the influence line for the shear at the section. Notice that unlike the statically determinate structure, the magnitude of the shear force on the right and left cannot easily be determined.

Influence lines for moments


For the moment at a section, using the Muller Breslau Principle, the moment resistance at the point of interest is removed by introducing a hinge at the section as shown in Figure 4, below. Then a positive moment that introduces a relative unit rotation is applied at the section. The deflected shape of the beam under these conditions will qualitatively represent the influence line for the moment at the section.

For the moment at a support, the moment resistance is again removed by inserting a hinge at the support. This hinge only prevents the transfer of moments, so the vertical translation remains fixed due to the support. By applying negative moments that induce a relative rotation of unity at this section, a deflected shape is generated. Again, this deflected shape qualitatively represents the influence line for the moment at a support.

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Loading cases for moment and shear envelopes


Using the influence lines found above, illustrate the loading cases needed to calculate the maximum positive and negative RA, RC, MB, VS1, and MS1. The load cases are generated for the maximum positive and negative values by placing a distributed load on the spans where the algebraic signs of the influence line are the same. i.e., to get a maximum positive value for a function, place a distributed load where the influence line for the function is positive.

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