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# Affine Transformation

Affine Transformation an affine transformation (from the Latin, affinis, "connected with") or dilation is a transformation that takes parallel lines to parallel lines. Among the affine transformations or dilations are translations, which are characterized by the property of having no fixed point. A dilation which is not a translation has a fixed point. For every pair of line segments and in the affine plane, there is a dilation mapping the first to the second. An affine transformation preserves ratios of distances between points lying on a straight line (e.g., the midpoint of a line segment remains the midpoint after transformation). It does not necessarily preserve angles or lengths. An affine transformation is equivalent to a linear transformation followed by a translation. In the theory of affine spaces affine transformations are specified by a Marcel Berger's definition.

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Properties :- The invertible affine transformations (of an affine space onto itself) form the affine group, which has the general linear group of degree n as subgroup and is itself a subgroup of the general linear group of degree n + 1. The similarity transformations form the subgroup where A is a scalar times an orthogonal matrix. For example, if the affine transformation acts on the plane and if the determinant of A is 1 or 1 then the transformation is an equi-areal mapping. Such transformations form a subgroup called the equi-affine group A transformation that is both equi-affine and a similarity is an isometry of the plane taken with Euclidean distance. Each of these groups has a subgroup of transformations which preserve orientation: those where the determinant of A is positive. In the last case this is in 3D the group of rigid body motions (proper rotations and pure translations). If there is a fixed point, we can take that as the origin, and the affine transformation reduces to a linear transformation. This may make it easier to classify and understand the transformation. For example, describing a transformation as a rotation by a certain angle with respect to a certain axis is easier to get an idea of the overall behavior of the transformation than describing it as a combination of a translation and a rotation. However, this depends on application and context. Describing such a transformation for an object tends to make more sense in terms of rotation about an axis through the center of that object, combined with a translation, rather than by just a rotation with respect to some distant point.

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It should be known that an affine transform is sometimes known as the affine map or may also be called as affinity. It is derived from the Latin word affinis which means connected with. Now let us take some of the examples of this kind of transformation. The transation, contraction which is geometric, expansion, dilation, shear, reflection, rotation, spiral kind of the similarities and similarity type Transformations can be considered as affine maps. Their combinations are also known as affine maps. The affine type transformation can be considered equivalent to the linear type transformation which is followed by translation. The affine type transformations which are invertible form the group of the affine which possesses the common linear group of 'n' degree as the subgroup and it is itself a subgroup of the common linear group of the n + 1 degree. However the similar types of the transformations make the subgroup in which 'A' is some Scalar times of a matrix which is orthogonal. That transformation is known as an equilateral type of mapping only if we have the determinant of the matrix 'A' equal to 1 or -1. These transformations make a subgroup known as equi affine type of group. This is all about affine transform.

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