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Tm hiu Robot cng nghip

CHNG I

KHI NIM CHUNG V ROBOT CNG NGHIP


I. LCH S PHT TRIN:

Do nhu cu nng cao nng sut v cht lng sn phm ngy cng i hi ng dng rng ri cc phng tin t ng ho sn xut.Xu hng to ra nhng dy chuyn v thit b t ng c tnh linh hot cao ang hnh thnh. Cc thit b ny ang thay th dn cc my t ng cng ch p ng mt vic nht nh trong lc th trng lun lun i hi thay i mt hng v chng loi, v kch c, v v tnh nng v.viu ny dn n nhu cu ng dng robot to ra cc h thng sn xut t ng linh hot. Thut ng Robot xut hin vo nm 1920 trong mt tc phm vn hc ca nh vn Tip Khc c tn l Karel Capek. Thut ng inducstrial Robot (IR) xut hin u tin m do cng ty AMF (Americal Machine and Foundry Company) qung co m phng mt thit b mang dng dp v c mt s chc nng nh tay ngi c iu khin t ng thc hin mt s thao tc sn xut thit b c tn gi Versatran. Qu trnh pht trin ca IR c tm tt nh sau: T nhng nm 1950 M xut hin vin nghin cu u tin. Vo u nhng nm 1960 xut hin sn phm u tin c tn gi l Versatran ca cng ty AMF. Anh ngi ta bt u nghin cu v ch to IR theo bn quyn ca M t nhng nm 1967. T nhng nm1970 vic nghin cu nng cao tnh nng ca robot c ch nhiu hn v cng bt u xut hin cc nc c, , Php, Thy in. Chu c Nht Bn bt u nghin cu ng dng IR t nhng nm 1968.

T nhng nm 80, nht l vo nhng nm 90, do p dng rng ri cc tin b k thut v vi s l v cng ngh thng tin, s lng robot cng nghip gia tng vi nhiu tnh nng vt bc. Chnh v vy m robot cng nghip c v tr quan trng trong cc y chuyn t ng sn xut hin i. n nay, trn th gii c khong trn 200 cng ty sn xut IR trong s c 80 cng ty ca Nht, 90 cng ty ca Ty u, 30 cng ty ca M v mt s cng ty ca Nga, Tip
II. KHI NIM.

Robot cng nghip c th c hiu l nhng thit b t ng linh hot, bt chc c cc chc nng lao ng cng nghip ca con ngi. Ni n thit b t ng linh hot l nhn mnh n kh nng thao tc vi nhiu bc t do, c iu khin v lp trnh thay i c. Cn ni n s bt chc cc chc nng lao ng cng nghip ca con ngi l ni n s khng hn ch t cc chc nng lao ng chn tay n gin n tr khn nhn to, tu vo cng vic lao ng cn n chc nng hay khng. Vi c im c th lp trnh li c, robot cng nghip l thit b t ng ho v ngy cng tr thnh b phn khng th thiu c ca cc t bo hoc h thng sn xut linh hot.
III. PHN LOI.

Ngy nay, robot cng nghip pht trin rt phong ph v a dng, v vy phn loi chng khng n gin. C rt nhiu quan im khc nhau v mi quan im li phc v mt mc ch ring. Di y l hai cch phn loi chnh. 1. Theo chng loi, mc iu khin, v nhn bit thng tin ca tay my-ngi my c sn xut trn th gii c th phn loi cc IR thnh cc th h sau: Th h 1: th h c kiu iu khin theo chu k dng chng trnh cng khng c kh nng nhn bit thng tin. Th h 2: th h c kiu iu khin theo chu k dng chng trnh mm bc u c kh nng nhn bit thng tin.

Th h 3: th h c kiu iu khin dng tinh khn, c kh nng nhn bit thng tin v bc u c mt s chc nng l tr ca con ngi. 2. Phn loi tay my theo cu trc s ng:

Thng thng cu trc chp hnh ca tay my cng nghip c m hnh ho trong dng chui ng vi cc khu v cc khp nh trong nguyn l my vi cc gi thuyt c bn sau: vt. Trc quay hng tnh tin ca cc khp th song song hay vung gc vi nhau. Chui ng ch l chui ng h n gin: Ta v d mt chui ng ca mt tay my cng nghip c 6 bc t do, cc khp A, B, F l cc khp tng qut, c ngha l chng c th l khp quay, cng c th l khp tnh tin, cc khp D, E, K ch l nhng khp quay. Cc khu c nh s bt u t 0-gi c nh, tip n l cc khu 1, 2, ...n - cc khu ng, khu tng qut k hiu l khu i, (i= 1, 2, 3, ...n), khu n cui cng mang bn kp ca tay my. Tng t nh tay ngi bn kp gm c 3 loi chuyn ng, tng ng vi cc chuyn ng ny l 3 dng ca cu trc my nh sau: Cu trc chuyn ng ton b (chn ngi) cu trc ny thc hin chuyn ng em ton b tay my (tay ngi) n v tr lm vic. Cu trc ny ht sc a dng v thng thng nu khng phi l tay my hot ng trong h thng m chuyn ng ny cn c s kim sot. Ngi ta thng coi tay my l ng yn, khu 0 gi l gi c nh ca tay my. Cu trc xc nh bn kp bao gm cc khp A, B v F cc khu 1, 2 v 3, chuyn ng ca cu trc ny em theo bn kp vi v tr lm vic. Do gi thit v loi khp ng dng trong ch to my thng thng ta c nhng phi hp sau y ca cc khp v t to nn nhng cu trc xc nh v tr ca bn kp trong cc khng gian v tr khc nhau ca bn kp. Phi hp TTT ngha l 3 khp u l khp tnh tin v mt khp quay. y l cu trc hot ng trong h to Cc so vi cc to So v 3 im M nm trn khu 3 khp u l khp tnh tin v mt chuyn ng quay. Ch dng cc khp ng loi khp quay, khp tnh tin, khp

Phi hp TRT, RTT, hay TTR ngha l mt khp tnh tin hai khp quay( cc cu trc 2, 3, v 4). y l cu trc hot ng trong h to tr so vi im M trn khu 3 c xc nh bi 2 chuyn ng tnh tin v mt chuyn ng quay. Phi hp RTR, RRT, TTR ngha l hai khp tnh tin v hai khp quay( cc cu trc 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 v 10). y l cu trc hot ng trong h to cu so vi h So, v im M trn khu 3 c xc nh bi mt chuyn ng tnh tin v hai chuyn ng quay. Phi hp RRR tc l 3 khp quay( cc cu trc 11,12) y l cc cu trc hot trong to gc so vi h So, v im M trn khu 3 c xc nh bi ba chuyn ng quay( tc l ba to gc), cu trc ny c gi l cu trc phng sinh hc. Tuy nhin trong thc t, i vi cc tay my chuyn dng ta chuyn mn ho v c bit m bo gi thnh v gi u t vo tay my thp, ngi ta khng nht thit lc no cng phi ch to tay my c s ba khp ng cho cu trc xc nh v tr. i vi tay my cng nghip c hn 250 loi, trong s c hn 40% l loi tay my c iu khin n gin thuc th h th nht. S xut hin ca IR v s gia tng vai tr ca chng trong sn xut v x hi loi ngi lm xut hin mt nghnh khoa hc mi l nghnh Robot hc(Robotic). Trn th gii nhiu ni xt hin nhng vin nghin cu ring v Robot.

CHNG II

NG DNG TRONG ROBOT CNG NGHIP


I. MC TIU NG DNG ROBOT TRONG CNG NGHIP.

Nhm gp phn nng cao nng sut dy truyn cng ngh, gim gi thnh, nng cao cht lng v kh nng cnh tranh ca sn phm, ng thi ci thin lao ng. iu xut pht t nhng u im c bn ca Robot v c c kt qua nhiu nm c ng dng nhiu nc. Nhng u im l: Robot c th thc hin mt quy trnh thao tc hp l, bng hoc hn mt ngi th lnh ngh mt cch n nh trong sut thi gian lm vic. V th Robot c th nng cao cht lng v kh nng cnh tranh ca sn phm. Hn th na Robot cn c th nhanh chng thay i cng vic, thch nghi nhanh vi vic thay i mu m, kch c ca sm phm theo yu cu ca th trng cnh tranh. C kh nng gim gi thnh sn phm do ng dng Robot l bi v gim c ng k chi ph cho ngi lao ng nht l cc nc c mc cao v tin lng ca ngi lao ng, cng cc khon ph cp v bo him x hi. Theo s liu ca Nht Bn th Robot lm vic thay cho mt ngi th th tin mua Robot ch bng tin chi ph cho ngi th trong vng 3-5 nm, tu theo Robot lm vic ngy my ca. Cn M, trung bnh trong mi gi lm vic Robot c th em li tin li l 13 USD. nc ta trong nhng nm gn y c nhiu doanh nghip, khon chi ph v lng bng cng chim t l cao trong gi thnh sn phm.

Hnh2 -1: ng dng robot phc v m cng c. t my Vi ng dn Robot c th lm tng nng sut ca d truyn cng c ng c g dy n ngh. S d nh vy l v nu tng nhp khn t y u p trng ca dy truy sn a n xut, nu khng tha th con ngi bn Robot t th kh th the kp ay ng th ng eo hoc rt chng mt mi. Theo ti liu c Fanuc-N c o a Nht Bn t nng xu c th ut khi tng 3 ln. n dng Ro ng obot c th ci thin c iu kin lao ng. l u n u im ni bt nht m chng t cn quan tm. Tro thc t sn xut c rt m ta n ong nhiu ni ngi lao ng phi lao ng sut bui t i trong mi trng bi bm, i m t, n nc, h ng hoc n o qu mc c php n cho nhiu ln. T Thm tr nhiu ni ngi lao ng cn phi l i lm vic d di mi tr rng c hi, nguy him c y n sc kho con k ngi, d xy ra tai n d b n, nhim ho cht c hi, nhim , sng in t, n phng x...

II. CC BC NG DNG ROBOT.

Hnh 2 - 2: ng dng robot trong cng ngh

Vic u tin u t trc ht nhm ng b ho c h thng thit b, ri t ng ho v Robot ho chng khi cn thit quyt nh u t cho c dy truyn cng ngh hoc ch mt vi cng on. Ngi ta thng xem xt cc mt sau: Nghin cu qu trnh cng ngh c Robot ho v phn tch ton b h thng nu khng th hin r th vic u t robot ho l cha nn. Xc nh cc i tng cn Robot ho:

Khi xc nh cn phi thay th Robot nhng nguyn cng no th phi xem xt kh nng liu Robot c thay th c khng v c hiu qu hn khng. Thng thng ngi ta u tin nhng ch lm vic qu nng nhc, bi bm n o, c hi, cng thng hoc qu n iu. Xu hng thay th hon ton bng Robot thc t khng hiu qu bng vic gi li mt s cng on m i hi s kho lo ca con ngi. Xy dng m hnh qu trnh sn xut c Robot ho:

Sau khi xc nh c m hnh tng th qu trnh cng ngh, cn xc nh r dng chuyn dch nguyn liu v dng thnh phm m bo s nhp nhng ng b ca tng h thng. C th mi pht huy c hiu qu u t vn. Chn la mu robot thch hp hoc ch to robot chuyn dng. y l bc quan trng v robot c rt nhiu loi vi gi tin khc nhau. Nu nh khng chn ng th khng nhng u t qu t m cn khng pht huy c ht kh nng. Vic ny thng xy ra khi mua robot nc ngoi, c nhng chc nng robot c trang b nhng khng cn dng cho cng

vic c th m n m nhim dy truyn sn xut, v th m i gi ln rt cao, ch c li cho ni cung cp thit b. Cu trc robot hp l nht l cu trc theo modun ho, nh th c th h c gi thnh sn xut, ng thi p ng c nhu cu phc v cng vic a dng. Cu trc cng n gin cng d thc hin vi chnh xc cao v gi thnh h. Ngoi ra cn c th t to dng cc robot thch hp vi cng vic trn c s mua lp cc modun chun ho. l hng trin khai hp l i vi i b phn x nghip trong nc hin nay cung nh trong tng lai.

III. CC LNH VC NG DNG ROBOT TRONG CNG NGHIP.

- Mt trong cc lnh vc hay ng dng robot l k ngh c. Thng trong phn xng c cng vic rt a dng, iu kin lm vic nng nc, bi bm, mt hng thay i lun v cht lng vt c ph thuc nhiu vo qu trnh thao tc. Vic t ng ho ton phn hoc tng phn qu trnh c bng cc dy truyn t ng thng thng vi cc my t ng chuyn dng i hi phi c cc thit b phc tp, u t kh ln. Ngy nay nhiu nc trn th gii robot c dng rng ri t ng ho cng ngh c, nhng ch yu l phc v cc my c p lc. Robot c th lm c nhiu vic nh rt kim loi nng chy vo khun, ct mp tha, lm sch vt c hoc lm tng bn vt c bng cch phun ct... Dng robot phc v cc my c p lc c nhiu u im: m bo n nh ch lm vic, chun ho v thi gian thao tc, v nhit v iu kin tho vt c ra khi khun p... bi th cht lng vt c tng ln. - Trong nghnh gia cng p lc iu kin lm vic cng kh nng n, d gy mt mi nht l trong cc phn xng rn dp nn i hi sm p dng robot cng nghip. Trong phn xng rn, robot c th thc hin nhng cng vic: a phi tha vo l nung, ly phi nung ra khi l, mang n n my rn, chuyn li phi sau khi rn v xp li vt rn vo gi hoc thng... S dng cc loi robot n gin nht cng c th a nng xut lao ng tng ln 1,5-2 ln v hon ton gim nh lao ng ca cng nhn. So vi cc phng tin c gii v t ng khc phc v cc my rn dp th dng robot c u im l nhanh hn, chnh xc hn v c ng hn.

C nh n g - Cc qu tr hn v nhit luy thng bao gm nhiu cng vic nng nhc c hi v nhit cao. D vy cng nhanh chn ng c, t Do y ng dng robo cng ngh ot hip. Kh s dng robot tron vic hn c bit l hn h quang v mi hi g ng n, t i hn chy theo n cong kh gian c phi bo sao cho iu chnh ng ng cn m o c phng v kh hong cch ca in cc so v mt phn ca m hn. h i ng i Nhim v cn xem x khi tn hp chu c xt ng uyn ng ca bn k v kp xy dng h thng iu khin c lin h phn h Kinh n n h i. nghim cho thy o rng c th thc hi tt cng vic nu thng s c h n g chuyn ca u in ng u cc v ch hn c iu k khin bng mt ch trnh th g ng hng nht, ng , thi nu c trang b cc b phn cm bin, kim tra v i chnh. N m m iu Ngoi ra robot hn cn pht huy tc dng ln k hn tro nhng mi trn c h khi ong g ng bit.

Hnh 2 - 3: ng d robot trong qu trnh nhi luyn ng it - Ro obot c dng kh rng ri trong gia cng v l rp. Th lp hng thng ng gi ta s dng robot ch yu vo cc vic tho lp phi v sn u v phm cho cc my g cng b rng, m khoan my tin bn t n gia nh my n, ng... Tron nghnh ch to m v d c o chi ph v lp rp th ng h my ng hng chim n 40% gi thnh sn phm. Tro khi mc c kh ho lp rp n ong khng qu 10-15% vi sn phm hn lot v 4 i n ng 40% i vi sn xut hng t

lot ln. Bi vy, vic to ra v s dng robot lp rp c ngha rt quan trng. Phn tch qu trnh lp rp chng ta thy rng con ngi khi g t cc chi tit lp chng vi nhau th c th lm nhanh hn cc thit b t ng. Nhng khi thc hin cc ng tc khc trong qu trnh ghp cht chng th chm hn. Bi vy yu t thi gian v chnh xc nh v l vn quan trong cn quan tm nht khi thit k cc loi robot lp rp. Ngoi yu cu hin nay i vi cc loi robot lp rp v nng cao tnh linh hot p ng nhiu loi cng vic, h gi thnh v d thch hp vi vic sn xut lot nh. Ngy nay xut hin nhiu loi dy chuyn t ng gm cc my vn nng vi robot cng nghip. Cc dy truyn t mc t ng cao, t ng hon ton, khng c con ngi trc tip tham gia, rt linh hot v khng i hi u t ln. y cc nh my v robot trong dy truyn c iu khin bng cng mt h thng chng trnh. Trong mt dy truyn t ng c cc my iu khin theo chng trnh robot c th ng mt ch iu chnh trn ng ray hoc theo di ng. K thut robot c u im quan trng nht l to nn kh nng linh hot ho sn xut. Vic s dng my tnh in t, robot v my iu khin theo chng trnh cho php tm c nhng phng thc mi m to nn cc dy truyn t ng cho sn xut hng lot vi nhiu mu m, sn phm. Dy truyn t ng cng gm nhiu thit b t ng chuyn dng i hi vn u t ln, nhiu thi gian thit k v ch to trong lc quy trnh cng vic lun lun ci tin, nhu cu i vi cht lng v quy cch ca sn phm lun lun thay i. Bi vy nhu cu mm ha hay l linh hot ho dy truyn sn xut ngy cng tng. K thut cng nghip v my tnh ng vai tr quan trng trong vic to ra cc dy truyn t ng linh hot. Xut pht t nhu cu v kh nng linh hot ho sn xut, trong nhng nm gn y khng ch cc nh khoa hc m c cc nh sn xut tp trung s ch vo vic hnh thnh v p dng cc h sn xut t ng linh hot, gi tt l h sn xut linh hot. H sn xut linh hot ngy nay thng bao gm cc thit b gia cng c iu khin bng chng trnh s, cc phng tin vn chuyn v kho cha trong phn xng c t ng ho v nhm robot cng nghip v tr trc tip vi cc thit b gia cng hoc thc hin cc nguyn cng ph. Vic iu khin v kim tra iu khin ton h sn xut linh hot l rt thch hp vi quy m sn xut nh v va, thch

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hp vi yu cu lun lun thay i cht lng sm phm v quy trnh cng ngh. Bi vy, ngy nay, h sn xut linh hot thu ht s ch khng nhng cc nc pht trin m ngay c cc nc ang pht trin. Trong mt s ti liu nc ngoi h FMS (flexible Manufacturing System) nay c din gii nh h sn xut ca tng lai ( future Manufacturing System), s trng hp cc t vit tt ny khng phi ngu nhin. T l phn b cc loi cng vic c dng robot: 1. c p lc 2. Hn im 3. Hn h quang 4. Cp thot phi 5. Lp rp 6. Nghin cu, o to 7. Phun ph b mt 8. Nng chuyn sp xp 9. Cc vic khc 18,3% 14,7% 12,3% 9,6% 9,5% 5,7% 5,7% 3,9% 30,3%

S phn b t l cc loi robot vi cc loi phng php iu khin khc nhau: a. Tay my iu khin bng tay: 4% b. Robot c iu khin theo chu k cng: 59% c. Robot c iu khin theo chu k thay i theo chng trnh: 11% d. Robot c iu khin dng chng trnh dy hc: 18% e. Robot c iu khin theo chng trnh s: 5% f. Robot c iu khin c s l tinh khn: 3%

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IV. CC XU TH NG DNG ROBOT TRONG TNG LAI.

Robot ngy cng thay th nhiu lao ng y ch cp n robot cng nghip. Trong tng lai, k thut robot s tn dng hn na cc thnh tu khoa hc lin nghnh, pht trin c v phn cng, phn mm v ngy cng chim lnh nhiu lnh vc trong cng nghip. S lng lao ng c thay th ngy cng nhiu v: cng ngy gi thnh robot cng gim, mt khc chi ph tin lng v cc khon ph khc cp cho ngi lao ng ngy cng cao. Robot ngy cng tr nn chuyn dng: Khi robot cng nghip ra i, ngi ta thng c gng lm sao biu th ht kh nng ca n. V th xut hin rt nhiu loi robot vn nng c th lm c nhiu vic trn dy truyn. Tuy nhin thc t sn xut chng t rng, cc robot chuyn mn ho n gin hn, chnh xc hn, hc vic nhanh hn v quan trng l r tin hn robot vn nng. Cc robot chuyn dng hin i u c cu to thnh t cc modul vn nng. Xu th modul ho ngy cng pht trin nhm chuyn mn ho vic ch to cc modul v t cc modul s cu thnh nhiu kiu robot khc nhau thch hp cho tng loi cng vic. Robot ngy cng m nhn nhiu loi cng vic lp rp. Cng on lp rp thng chim t l cao so vi tng thi gian sn xut trn ton b dy truyn. Cng vic khi lp rp l phi i hi rt cn thn, khng c nhm ln, thao tc nh nhng, tinh t v chnh xc nn cn th c tay ngh cao v phi lm vic cng thng sut c ngy. Kh nng thay th ngi lao ng nhng khu lp rp ngy cng hin thc l do p dng c nhiu thnh tu mi v khoa hc trong vic thit k, ch to robot. V d to ra nhng cu hnh n gin v chnh xc trn c s s dng cc vt liu mi va bn, va nh. Trong nn k n cc loi robot nh Adept Oen, SCARA,... ng thi do tha hng s pht trin k thut nhn v bin i tn hiu ( sensor), c bit k thut nhn v s l tn hiu nh (vision) cng nh k thut tin hc vi

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cc ngn ng bc cao, robot cng nghip c mt trn nhiu cng on lp rp phc tp. Robot di ng ngy cng tr nn ph bin. Trong cc nh my hin i, tn gi phng tin dn ng t ng AVG (automatic Guided Vehicles) tr thnh quen thuc. Loi n gin l nhng chic xe vn chuyn ni b trong phn xng c iu khin theo chng trnh vi mt qu o nh sn. Cng ngy cc thit b loi ny cng c hin i ho nh p dng k thut thng tin v tuyn hoc dng tia hng ngoi... V vy AGV c th hot ng linh hot trong phn xng. chnh l robot linh ng v cn gi l robocar. Mt hng pht trin linh hot v quan trng ca robocar l khng di chuyn bng cc bnh xe m bng chn, thch hp vi mi a hnh. Robot i c bng chn c th t leo thang, l mt i tng ang rt c ch trong nghin cu khng nhng nh hng trong cng nghip ht nhn hoc trong k thut quc phng m ngay c trong cng nghip dn dng thng thng. y vic to ra cc c cu chp hnh c kh bn vng, nh nhng, chnh xc v linh hot nh chn ngi li l i tng nghin cu ch yu. Robot ngy cng tr nn tinh khn hn. Tr khn nhn to l mt vn rt quan tm nghin cu vi cc mc ch khc nhau. K thut robot cng tng bc p dng cc kt qu nghin cu v tr khn nhn to v a vo ng dng cng nghip. Trc ht l s dng cc h chuyn gia, cc h th gic nhn to, mng nron v cc phng php nhn dng ting ni... Cng vi cc thnh tu mi trong nghin cu v tr khn nhn to, robot ngy cng c kh nng m nhn c nhiu nguyn cng dy truyn sn xut i hi s tinh khn nht nh. Vn thit b cm bin c nhiu ngnh k thut quan tm v cng t c nhiu thnh tu mi trong thi k pht trin si ng ca lnh vc vi s l. cng l iu kin thun li trong vic p dng chng trong k thut robot nhm tng cng kh nng thng minh ca thit b. Nhng loi hnh c quan tm nhiu trong cng nghip l cc robot thng minh c cc modul cm bin nhn bit c khong cch trnh vt cn khi thao tc, cm bin nhn bit c mu sc khi phn loi, cm bin c lc khi lp rp... Khi c lp thm cc modul cm bin ny robot 13

c gi vi nhiu tn mi. Vd: robot nhn c ( vision robot), robot lp rp ( assembli), robot cnh bo ( alarm robot),... thng minh ho robot bn cnh vic ci t b xung cc modul cm bin ni tn hiu v cc modul cm bin ngoi tn hiu th ng thi c th thng minh ho robot bng cc chng trnh phn mm c kh nng t thch nghi v t x l cc tnh hung... Nh vy bng cch b xung cc modul cm bin v cc phn mn ph hp c th nng cp ci tin nhiu loi robot. Tuy nhin bn thn cc robot ny phi c cc c cu chp hnh linh hot chnh xc . Ngy nay c nhiu loi robot thng minh khng nhng c th lm vic trong cc phn xng cng nghip m cn thao tc c bn ngoi, trn cc a hnh phc tp nh cc loi robot v tr ( space robot), robot t hnh ( walking robot), robot cn cu( robot crale), to dng t cc modul robot song song...

CHNG III

KT CU TRONG ROBOT CNG NGHIP

I. KT CU CHUNG.

Robot cng nghip rt a dng v kt cu v tnh nng, c nh gi bng cc thng s k thut rt khc nhau. Tuy nhin, c nhng thng s k thut chung cho hu ht robot. Da vo cc thng s k thut chung ngi ta thng nht ho v tiu chun ho kt cu ca robot. Di y l h thng kt cu chung cho robot cng nghip:

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Ngi vn hnh

Thit b lin h vi ngi vn hnh

H thng iu khin
H thng truyn ng H thng chu lc H thng bin tn hiu

Mi trng bn ngoi

Hnh 3 - 1: S cu trc v chc nng ca Robot. Trong s trn, cc ng (ng m) ch mi quan h thng tin thun, thng tin ch huy nhim v Robot. Cc ng (ng nht) ch mi lin h thng tin ngc, thng tin phn hi v qu trnh lm vic ca Robot. Chc nng ca b phn giao tip l lin lc vi ngi vn hnh v thc hin qu trnh dy hc cho Robot, nh Robot bit c nhim v phi thc hin. Chc nng ca h thng iu khin l thc hin vic ti hin li cc hnh ng nhim v c hc. B phn chp hnh gip cho Robot c sc chu c ti trng m Robot phi chu trong qu trnh lm vic, b phn ny bao gm: Phn 1: b phn chu chuyn ng, phn to cc kh nng chuyn ng cho Robot. Phn 2: b phn chu lc, phn chu lc ca Robot.

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B cm bin tn hiu: lm nhim v nhn bit, o lng v bin i thng tin cc loi tn hiu nh: cc ni tn trong bn thn Robot, l cc tn hiu v v tr, vn tc, gia tc, trong tng thnh phn ca b phn chp hnh cc ngoi tn hiu, l cc tn hiu t mi trng bn ngoi c nh hng ti hot ng ca Robot. Vi cu trc v chc nng nh trn, Robot phn no mang tnh ngi cn phn my chnh l trng thi vt l ca cu trc. Vi IR tnh cht ngi v mycng c th hin y nh trn, duy tr hnh thc mang dng dp ca tay ngi. Tay my cng nghip thng c nhng b phn sau: H thng iu khin: thng l loi n gin lm vic c chu k vn hnh theo nguyn l ca h thng iu khin h hoc kn. H thng chp hnh: bo gm cc ngun ng lc, h thng truyn ng, h thng chu lc nh : cc ng c thu, kh nn, c cu servo in t, ng c bc. Mi chuyn ng ca IR thng c mt ng c ring v cc thanh chu lc. Bn kp: l b phn cng tc cui cng ca tay my, ni cm nm cc thit b cng ngh hay vt cn di chuyn.

II. CU TRC TAY MY.

Tay my l phn c s, qut nh kh nng lm vic ca robot. chnh l thit b c kh m bo cho robot kh nng chuyn ng trong khng gian v kh nng lm vic, nh nng, h, lp rp... tng ban u ca vic thit k v ch to tay my l phng cc chc nng lm vic ca tay ngi. V sau, y khng phi l iu bt buc na. Tay my hin nay rt a dng v phong ph v nhiu loi c dng v khc xa so vi con ngi. Tuy nhin trong k thut robot ta vn dng cc thut ng quen thuc nh vai ( shoulder), cnh tay ( arm), c tay ( Wrist), bn tay ( Hand), v cc khp ( Articulation)..., ch tay my v cc b phn ca n.

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Trong thit k v s dng tay my, ngi ta quan tm n cc thng s c nh hng n kh nng lm vic ca chng nh: Sc nng, cng vng, lc kp ca tay ... Tm vi hay vng lm vic: kch thc, hnh dng vng m phn cng tc c th vi ti. S kho lo, ngha l kh nng nh v v nh hng phn cng tc trong vng lm vic. Thng s ny lin quan n s bc t do ca phn cng tc. nh v v nh hng phn cng tc mt cch ty trong khng gian 3 chiu n cn 6 bc t do, trong c 3 bc t do nh v, 3 bc t do nh hng. Mt s cng vic nh nng, h, xp ... yu cu s bc t do t hn 6. Trong mt s trng hp cn s kho lo linh hot, cn s ti u qu o th cn s bc t do ln hn 6. Cc tay my c c im chung v kt cu l gm cc khu, c ni vi nhau bng cc khp hnh thnh mt chui ng hc h, tnh t thn n cng tc. Cc khp c dng ph bin l khp trt v khp quay. Tu theo s lng v cch b tr cc khp m ta c th to ra tay my kiu to cc hay to tr, hay to cu, SCARA v kiu tay ngi. Tay my kiu to cc: Hay cn gi l kiu hnh ch nht, dng 3 khp trt, cho php phn cng tc thc hin mt cch c lp cc chuyn ng thng, song song vi 3 trc to . Vng lm vic ca tay my c dng hnh hp ch nht. Do s n gin v kt cu, tay my kiu ny c to cng vng cao, chnh xc c m bo ng u trong ton b vng lm vic, nhng t kho lo. V vy, tay my kiu to cc c dng cho vn chuyn v lp rp. Tay my kiu to tr: Khc tay my kiu to cc khp u tin: dng khp quay thay cho khp trt. Vng lm vic ca n c dng hnh tr rng. Khp trt nm ngang cho php tay my th vo khong rng nm ngang. cng vng ca tay my tr rt tt, thch hp vi ti trng nng, chnh xc nh v gc trong mt phng ngang gim khi tm vi tng. Tay my kiu to cu: Khc kiu tr do khp th hai l khp trt c thay bng khp quay. Nu qu o chuyn ng ca phn cng tc c m t trong to cu th mi bc t do tng ng mt kh nng chuyn ng v vng lm vic ca n l khi cu rng. cng vng ca 17

loi tay my ny thp hn hai loi trn v chnh xc nh v ph thuc vo tm vi. Tuy nhin loi ny c th nht c c vt di nn. SCARA c xut ln u tin vo nm 1979 tai trng i hc Yahanashi ( Nht), dng cho cng vic lp rp. l mt tay my c cu to c bit gm hai khp quay v mt khp trt, nhng c 3 khp u c trc song song vi nhau. Kt cu ny lm tay my cng vng hn theo phng thng ng nhng km cng vng theo phng c chn l phng ngang. Loi ny chuyn dng cho lp rp, vi ti trng nh, theo phng thng ng. T SCARA l vit tt ca: Selective Compliance Asembly Robot Arm m t cc hot ng trn. Vng lm vic ca SCARA l mt hnh trc rng. Tay my kiu tay ngi: C c 3 khp u l khp quay, trong trc th nht vung gc vi hai trc kia. Do s tng t vi tay ngi, khp th hai c gi l khp vai, khp th 3 l khp khuu tay ni cng tay vi khuu tay. Vi kiu kt cu ny khng c s tng ng gia kh nng chuyn ng gia cc khu v s bc t do. Tay my lm vic rt kho lo nhng chnh xc nh v ph thuc vo phn cng tc trong vng lm vic. Vng lm vic ca tay my kiu ny gn ging mt phn khi cu. Ton b kt cu trn ch lin quan n kh nng nh v ca phn cng tc. Mun nh hng n cn b xung phn c tay. Mun nh hng mt cch tu phn c tay phi c t nht 3 chuyn ng quanh 3 trc vung gc vi nhau. Trong trng hp trc quay 3 khp gp nhau ti mt im th ta gi l khp cu. u im ln nht ca khp cu l tch c thao tc nh v v nh hng ca phn cng tc, lm n gin cho vic tnh ton. Cc kiu khp khc c th n gin hn v kt cu c kh, nhng tnh ton to kh hn, do khng tch c hai loi thao tc ni trn.

III. H THNG CHP HNH.

1.

Truyn dn c kh .

Truyn dn c kh c rt nhiu loi hnh, chng c dng rng ri trong k thut my ni chung v trong k thut robot n ring. Ngoi nhng loi truyn dn ng c kh ph thng, trong k thut robot s dng nhng k thut mi v tng i mi m.

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1.1.

B tr ruyn bnh rng sng h g.

yn g c oi n Truy ng bnh rng sng kh bit so vi cc lo truyn ng bnh rng kh ch n c mt b rng m truyn sng bin dng h c nh mm n n v nh vy m truyn chuyn ng qua n c n ay.

Hn 3 - 2: B truyn b nh bnh rng sng. B truyn bn rng sng gm ba b phn c bn : b rng m 1, nh a c nh mm bn rng cn 2, cn t sng b. nh ng o B truyn bn rng sng c d nh dng ch y cc b truyn c t yu b cn s truyn cao, cc b tr t , ruyn i h chn xc cao v yu cu tc hi nh o n nhanh tr ng rong h th hng iu k khin t ng, cc k khp ng trong tay my. 1.2 B truy ng b yn bnh rng c ln c con cycloid hn tinh. nh

Tron nhng n gn truyn ng bnh rng cycloid hnh ti li ng nm y h inh quan tm nghin c ci ti v ng d c m cu n dng tn i rng ri ng g cc b truyn dn trong robot. Tru uyn ng n c nhi u im : t ny iu m t s truyn cao, gn nh bn v chn xc u cao hn so vi h, nh u 19

u uyn ng khc. Tuy nhin li yu cu c v chnh y cao nhi loi tru xc ch to v lp rp.

Hnh 3 - 3: S t hnh khp b rng C to n nh Cycloid

1.3

Truyn ng vt c bi. n ai

Truy ng v ai c b c dn u tin trong c cu tay m ca yn vt bi ng n y t hng Ge eneral mot tors. Ngy nay, rt nhiu h y hng sn xu b ut truy vt ai c bi, nhiu ci tin mi v dng r rng ri trong yn n ng t i nhi lnh vc trong c k thu Robot. C u c t Cng dng ch yu c b g ca truy vt ai c bi l b yn bin chuyn ng qu sang ch n uay huyn n tnh ng tin n.

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Hn 3 - 4: S kt c b truy vt ai c bi. nh u yn i i y nhiu loi hnh khc nhau. Kt cu b truyn vt ai c bi ngy nay c rt n a ng, kch th hc rnh bi ln c lin quan nhiu Nhng vic chn l hnh d o nng t c ch xc gia cng. u im nh a u n cng vic ch t v kh n chnh xc nh v cao bn cao, nhng gi thnh tng o, : hiu sut cao, c i cao.

ng c in v iu khin ng c c . 2. ng dng truy ng g yn in Truy ng yn in c s dng k nhiu t kh trong k th hut robot. v c . nhng u im nh l iu kh hin n gi khng phi dng cc b bi i in g n ph thm, khng g bn cho mi trn cc lo ng c hin i c th , y o ng, i c lp trc tip trn cc khp qua c ay... Tuy nhin so vi truyn ng thu kh th truyn n in c t l y n u ng thp gia cng sut truyn tr mt mt n v kh lng v thng th n t hi v hng i hi k theo h gim t cng k v tron tay my tc qu rt m p c nh ng y uay chm...

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ng t c dng ng c in c loi c Tron k thu robot v nguyn t c th d khc nhau nhng tr u, rong thc t ch c h loi c dng nhiu hn c t hai c. l ng c in mt chiu v ng c b c. Ng nay do n y nhng thn cng m trong ng nh mi ghin cu iu khin ng n c xoay chiu, nn cng c xu hng ch c u huyn sang chuyn s dng c g s ng xoay chi trnh phi tran b thm b ngun in mt chiu. Ng u h ng n goi ra loi ng c mt ch hiu khng chi gp ( DC brus g shless moto cng bt u or) c ng dng nhi u. n c in mt chiu ng u:

Hnh 3 - 5: S ng c i mt ch in hiu

g c t i cng v ng c in m chiu n c in mt chiu gm c ha phn (h 3-5) ng ai nh a. Stato c n vi cc cun dy c dng in cm hoc dng nam S nh c y g chm vnh cu. Ph ny gi l phn c Phn c h n m. cm to nn t thng trong n g khe h kh hng kh.

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b. Roto vi cc thanh dn. Khi c dng in mt chiu chy qua v vi dng t thng xc nh, roto s quay. Phn ny cn gi l phn ng. Do cch khc nhau khi b tr dy cun phn cm so vi phn ng ta c nhng loi ng c in mt chiu khc nhau: - ng c kch t song song. - ng c kch t ni tip. - ng c kch t hn hp. Cc i lng ch yu xc nh s lm vic ca ng c mt chiu l: U - in p cung cp ca phn ng. I - Cng dng in trong phn ng. r - in tr trong phn ng.
- T thng trong khe h.

E - Sc cn in ng phn ng. Cc quan h c bn khi lm vic l: E = U rI = kn (1)

k ph thuc vo c tnh ca dy cun v s thanh dn tc dng ca phn ng. T (1) ta c cc nhn xt sau: 1) Khi ng E bng 0 khi m my, ch c in tr phn ng r rt nh hn ch dng in. V th cn phi c bin tr m my duy tr I gi tr thch hp. 2) S vng quay:
n= U Ir k

Vy iu chnh tc c th

tin hnh bng cch tc ng vo in p U hoc tc ng vo t thng . 3) Momen ng C xc nh t phng trnh cn bng cng sut: EI =2 nC iu chnh tc ng c in mt chiu:

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V phng din iu chnh tc th ng c in mt chiu c nhiu u vit hn hn cc ng c khc. Kh nng iu chnh tc d dng trong di rng v c cu trc mch lc v mch iu khin n gin. Nh ni trn, c hai phng php c bn iu chnh tc ng c in mt chiu: - Tc ng ln t thng thng qua vic iu chnh in p dng kch t. - iu chnh in p phn ng. Khi iu chnh tc 0 n tc nh mc bng cch gi t thng khng i v tc ng vo in p phn ng U th momen s khng i, cn cng sut tng theo tc . Khi iu chnh tc t 0 n tc nh mc bng cch tc ng ln t thng v gi in p phn ng khng i th cng sut khng i, cn momen gim theo tc . Khi t thng tin v 0 th tc tin ti v cng. V vy khi khng ti, ng c kch t ni tip c tc qu ln, cc loi ng c kch t song song hoc hn hp qu tc nu ct mch kch t ca n. o chiu quay: Chiu quay ca phn ng ph thuc vo chiu dng in trong dy cun phn ng v chiu ca t trng. i chiu quay ca ng c in mt chiu cn i chiu ca t thng hoc dng in phn ng. 3. ng c bc. Nguyn tc hot ng. Trn hnh (3-6) l s ng c bc, loi n gin nht dng nam chp vnh cu gm Stato c 4 cc v roto c hai cc. Nu cp in cho cun dy ' th roto s dng v tr m dng t thng qua cun dy l ln nht. Nu cp in cho cun dy ' th roto s quay i 900. Khi ng thi cp in cho c hai cun dy v th roto s dng v tr gia 00 n 900 v nu dng in vo 2 cun dy hon ton nh nhau th roto s dng v tr 450. 24

Hnh 3 - 6: S nguyn l hot ng ca ng c bc Nh vy, v tr ca roto ph thuc vo s cc c cp trn stato v vo chiu ca dng in cp vo. Trn y l s nguyn l hot ng ca ng c bc loi c t cc v dng nam chm vnh cu. Trn c s c th tm hiu cc loi ng c c nhiu cc v dng nam chm in c t tnh thay i. Vy l ty theo cch cp in cho cc cun dy trn stato c th iu khin cc v tr dng ca roto. Vic cp in vo cc cun dy trn stato c th s ho, cho nn c th hiu ng c bc l mt loi ng c in, chuyn cc tn hiu s u vo thnh cc chuyn ng c hc tng nc u ra. u nhc im: Vic s dng chng trong h thng iu khin c nhiu thun li: - Khng cn mch phn hi cho c iu khin v tr v vn tc. - Thch hp vi cc thit b iu khin s. u im ln nht ca ng c bc trong iu khin v tr l khng cn phn hi ( khi iu khin chnh xc s bc quay ca ng c, m s bc c th xc nh v tr chnh xc m khng cn n phn hi v tr) v iu khin s trc tip ( ghp ni trc tip vi my tnh). Vi kh nng iu khin s trc tip, ng c bc tr thnh rt thng dng trong cc thit b hin i nh robot cng nghip, my cng c iu khin s, cc thit b ngoi vi ca my tnh nh trong my in, b iu khin b a my vi tnh, my v... Tuy vy, phm vi ng dng ng c bc vng cng sut nh v trung bnh. Vic nghin cu nng cao cng sut ca ng c bc ang l vn rt c quan tm hin nay. Ngoi ra ni chung hiu sut ca n thp hn so vi nhiu loi ng c khc. 25

Cc thng s ca ng c bc: Gc quay: ng c bc quay mt gc xc nh i vi mi xung kch. Gc bc cng nh th phn gii cng cao. S bc s l mt thng s quan trng.

Tc quay v tn s xung:

s=

360 0

(1)

Tc quay ca ng c bc ph thuc vo s bc trong mt giy. i vi hu ht cc ng c bc, s xung cp cho ng c bng s bc nn tc c th tnh theo tn s xung f. Tc quay ca ng c bc c bc tnh theo cng thc sau:
n= 60 f S

(2)

Trong : n l tc quay ( vng / giy), f l tn s bc ( Hz), s l s bc. Ngoi ra cn cc thng s quan trng khc nh chnh xc v tr, t s momen v qun tnh roto. chnh xc v tr ca ng c bc ph thuc vo c tnh ca ng c, vo chnh xc ch to... T s momen v qun tnh roto c nh hng quyt nh n kh nng dng ngay khi chui xung iu khin ngt. Cc loi ng c bc Tu theo kiu ca roto, ng c bc c chia ra thnh cc loi sau: - ng c bc loi t tr bin i ( VR). - ng c bc nam chm vnh cu ( PM). - ng c bc kiu lai ( hybrid). Tu theo s cun dy c lp trn stato ng c bc c chia thnh cc loi: 2 pha, 3 pha hoc 4 pha. 26

ng c bc c th phn theo cch ni dy, khng lin quan n s pha. a/ Hai pha: bn u dy. b/ Hai pha: 8 u dy. c/ Bn pha: 8 u dy. d/ Hai pha: 6 u dy. e/ Ba pha : 4 u dy. f/ Bn pha: 8 u dy( ni tip). Roto c nhiu cc, cn gi l rng. S cc ca roto phi hp vi s cc ca stato xc nh gi tr gc bc . Nh biu thc (1) c gc bc bng 3600 chia cho s bc s. Gc bc ln nht l 900 ng vi ng c c 4 bc. Phn ln nhng ng c bc hin nay c s bc s = 200, nn = 1,80.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

Hnh 3 - 7: Pha ca ng c v cc cch ni dy

S bc cng ln, phn gii cng cao v nh v cng chnh xc. Trong thc t cng khng th tng s bc ln qu cao. Tuy nhin, c th dng cng ngh to bc nh chia bc thnh hai na bc hoc t 10 n 125 bc nh. C th lm cho roto dng li na ng nu cung cp dng in nh nhau cho c hai cun v . Cng ngh to bc nh, i 27

khi cn gi l to vi bc, ch n gin l m rng phng php ni trn cho nhiu v tr trung gian bng cch cung cp nhng gi tr dng khc nhau cho mi cun dy. Kch thc bc nh thng hay dng nht l 1/10, 1/16, 1/32, 1/125 ca bc y. V d, nu c 125 bc nh trong mt bc vi 200 bc trong mt vng quay th phn gii l 200x125 = 25000 bc nh trong mt vng quay. ng c bc loi t tr bin i ( VR). Roto ca ng c bc VR lm bng st non c nhiu rng. Stato cng

Hnh 3 - 8 : S ng c bc VR c cc rng cng cun cm. Khi dng in chy qua mt cun cm trn stato sinh ra mt t trng lm cho rng trn roto b ht ng thng hng vi rng tng ng trn stato. Khi dng in c cp sang mt cun cm khc, roto chuyn dch mt gc bc. Gc bc ca ng c VR thng l 7,50 hoc 150. c im ca ng c bc VR l do roto st non c qun tnh nh hn cc loi khc, nn cho php p ng nhanh hn. Tuy nhin do roto khng c t trng nn khng c momen d do khi ngng kch thch ng c s cn quay t do. ng c bc nam chm vnh cu ( PM) ng c bc PM c t trng trong roto nn c momen gi khi ng c khng c kch hot. Mi rng ca t trng u hng trc cc tnh l

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ph2

Hnh 3 - 9: S ng c bc PM 4 pha nam hoc bc. Trong k thut hin i roto c lm dng a mng bng vt liu t tnh c bit. a c nhim t ti 50 cp cc nam bc xen k nhau. Mt s ng c bc c t trng c a vo stato tng t trng v to ra momen ln hn. ng c bc PM i hi t nng lng kch hot hn cc loi ng c bc khc. Chng cn c c tnh tt dao ng tt hn. Gc bc ca chng bao gm tt c cc gc bc chun 1,80, 7,50, 150, 300, 450, 900. Trn hnh(3-7) l s ng c bc PM 4 pha. ng c bc kiu lai ( hybrid) ng c bc kiu lai kt hp cc c tnh ca ng c bc VR v ng c c bc PM. ng c bc kiu lai c nhiu rng roto hn v

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Hnh 3 - 10 : S ng c bc kiu lai momen ln hn. Cc gc bc thng dng ca ng c bc kiu lai l 0,90 v 1,80.
IV. CM BIN.

Trong tt c cc h thng t ng, thit b tip nhn thng tin v din bin ca mi trng v v din bin ca cc i lng vt l bn trong h thng c gi l cm bin. Khi nim cm bin trong ting Vit cha tht chnh xc vi ting Anh (sensor), hay ting Php ( capteur), v ngha cm bin trong ting Vit c phn hp hn. Cm bin i khi ch l cc trang b n gin dng nh cng tc mini, cc cng tc hnh trnh, cc thanh lng kin (bimetal)... i vi ngi s dng, vic nm c nguyn l cu to v cc c tnh c bn ca cm bin l iu kin tin quyt m bo s vn hnh tt ca h thng t ng. Trong cc h thng vt l, cc i lng iu khin rt a dng, do vy cc loi cm bin cng rt phong ph. Trong robot cng nghip, cc thit b cm bin trang b cho robot thc hin vic nhn bit v bin i thng tin v hot ng ca bn thn robot v ca mi trng, i tng m robot phc v. Theo phm vi ng dng cc loi cm bin dng trong k thut robot c th phn ra hai loi: - Cm bin ni tn hiu (internal sensor) m bo thng tin v v tr, v vn tc, v lc tc ng trong cc b phn quan trng ca robot. Cc thng

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tin ny l nhng tn hiu phn hi phc v cho vic iu chnh t ng cc hot ng robot. - Cm bin ngoi tn hiu ( external sensor) cung cp thng tin v i tc v mi trng lm vic phc v cho vic nhn dng cc vt xung quanh, thc hin di chuyn hoc thao tc trong khng gian lm vic. lm c vic , cn c cc loi cm bin tn hiu xa, cm bin tn hiu gn, cm bin Xc gic v cm bin th gic ... thc hin nhim v cc loi cm bin ni tn hiu v ngoi tn hiu ni trn, c th dng nhiu kiu cm bin thng dng hoc chuyn dng. Cc kiu cm bin thng dng khng ch dng cho k thut robot m cn dng nhiu trong cc thit b k thut khc. C nhiu ti liu k thut v cc kiu cm bin ny. Tu theo cc dng tn hiu cn nhn bit m phn thnh cc kiu cm bin khc nhau: Cm bin lc, vn tc, gia tc, v tr, p sut, lu lng, nhit ... Tu theo cch thc nhn tn hiu li phn ra cc kiu khc nhau. V d: cng l cm bin v tr nhng c kiu cm ng, kiu in dung, kiu in tr, kiu in quang...

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CHNG IV H THNG IU KHIN ROBOT

I. KHI NIM CHUNG V H IU KHIN T NG. 1. Khi nim: H thng iu khin t ng l h thng c xy dng t 3 b phn ch yu sau: 1. Thit b iu khin C ( Controller) 2. i tng iu khin O (Object) 3. Thit b o lng M ( Measuring device) l h thng c phn hi ( feedback) hay c lin h ngc. S n gin nht v h thng iu khin t ng : U E C X O Y

M U Tn hiu vo (input). Y Tn hiu ra ( output). X Tn hiu iu khin tc ng ln i tng O. E Sai lch iu khin. Z Tn hiu phn hi ( phn hi m k hiu bng du (-) khi Z ngc du vi tn hiu V ).

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2.Nguyn tc iu khin : a) Thng thng c 3 nguyn tc iu khin c bn 1.Nguyn tc iu khin theo sai lch 2.Nguyn tc iu khin theo phng php b nhiu 3.Nguyn tc iu khin hn hp theo sai lch v b nhiu S v h thng iu khin theo nguyn tc hn hp K

Nhiu f(t) tc ng ln i tng iu khin. V d theo chiu hng lm tng tn hiu ra Y(t). Trong h c cha mt thit b b K c tc dng ngc du vi f, ngha l V tc dng b v pha trc thit b iu khin C lm tn hiu ra gim bt.... b) Ngoi cc nguyn tc iu khin c bn ngi ta cn ng dng cc nguyn tc iu khin khc nh: - Nguyn tc iu khin theo chng trnh. - Nguyn tc iu khin thich nghi.

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II. PHN LOI H THNG IU KHIN: 1.Phn loi thng thng: a. H thng tuyn tnh b. H thng phi tuyn c. H thng lin tc: khi cc tn hiu trong h l hm lin tc theo thi gian d. H thng ri rc: Trong ch cn c mt tn hiu l hm ri rc theo thi gian e. H thng tin nh l h thng trong tt c cc tn hiu truyn l hm theo thi gian xc nh ( khng c tn hiu ngu nhin) f. H thng ngu nhin l h thng trong ch cn c 1 tn hiu l hm ngu nhin g. H thng ti u l h thng iu khin trong thit b iu khin c chc nng tng hp c mt tn hiu iu khin U(t) tc ng ln i tng iu khin t mt trng thi ti u theo mt ch tiu no h. H thng thch nghi hay cn gi l h thng t chnh l h thng c kh nng mt cch t ng thch ng vi nhng bin i ca iu kin mi trng v c tnh ca i tng iu khin bng cch thay i tham s v cu trc cu s ca thit b iu khin 2. Trong k thut ngi my: a) iu khin chng trnh : Vic iu khin c thc hin theo mt chng trnh nh sn. b) iu khin thch nghi : vic iu khin tu thuc vo thng tin nhn bit c trong qu trnh lm vic v hin trng ca mi trng thao tc v ca bn thn ngi my 3. Theo kh nng chuyn ng ca cc ngi my: a) iu khin theo chu tuyn: chuyn ng thc hin theo mt ng lin tc b) iu khin theo v tr: chuyn ng c bo m theo mt s v tr nht nh c) iu khin theo chu k: chuyn ng c xc nh bng cc v tr u v cui hnh trnh ca mi bc t do

34

III. H THNG CHP HNH. Chuyn ng ca cc khp tay my c thc hin bi ht hng chp hnh. N gm cc b phn sau: Ngun in Khuych i cng sut ng c Truyn ng c kh Hnh 4.1 l s ni ghp h thng chp hnh, trong c th hin s chuyn i nng lng Ngun in

Pu

Pc

Khuych i cng sut

Pa

ng c

Pm

Truyn dn C kh

Pdt

Pda

Pds

Hnh 4 - 1 : S h thng chp hnh thc hin quan h chung, k hiu Pc l tn hiu iu khin (thng l tn hiu in); Pu l cng sut c hc cn thit lm chuyn ng khp. Cc i lng trung gian, gm cng sut in cung cp cho ng c (in, thu lc hoc kh nn) Pa : cng sut ngun Pp (thng c cng bn cht vt l vi Pa); cng sut c hc do ng c pht ra Pm ngoi ra cn c cc loi cng sut tn hao trn cc khu trung gian: khuych i cng sut, ng c v truyn dn Pda, Pds, Pdt . Xut pht im chn cc khu trong h thng chp hnh l cng sut c kh P m bo lc v vn tc chuyn ng ca khp. Phn sau y trnh by khi qut chc nng ca cc cm chnh: 1. Truyn dn c kh

35

Chuyn ng ti cc khp ca tay my thng c vn tc thp v momen ln, trong khi cc ng c thng lm vic vi vn tc ln v momen nh. V vy, gia ng c v khp thng c b phn bin tc s dng vng lm vic c li nht ca ng c, thng qua b phn truyn dn ny, cng sut Pm tr thnh Pu v b tn hao mt lng Pdt do ma st. khi chn b phn truyn dn cn cn c vo cng sut cn thit, loi chuyn ng ca khp v v tr t ng c so vi khp, v b phn truyn dn khng ch bin i gi tr cng sut m c dng chuyn ng, v d bin chuyn ng quay ca trc ng c thnh chuyn ng tnh tin trong khp. Nu kho b tr ng c v b phn truyn dn c th gim tiu hao nng lng. V d, nu t ng c v b phn truyn dn gn thn my th c th tng t s cng sut tiu hao/ trng lng c cu. Trong robot thng s dng cc loi truyn dn sau: - C cu trc vt bnh vt c t s truyn ln, cho php i phng trc v thay i im tc dng ca lc. - C cu vt me- ai c cho php bin chuyn ng quay ca trc ng c thnh chuyn ng thng ti khp trt. Vt me- ai c bi thng c dng gim ma st. Thng c cu ny uc lp c b i gim khe v tng cng vng. - Truyn ng ai rng v truyn ng xch cho php t ng c xa trc khp. Lc cng ai gy ti trng ph nn ai thng c dng khi vn tc chuyn ng ln v lc nh. Ngc li, xch hay b dao ng nn thng dng khi vn tc nh. Vi gi thuyt chuyn ng khng c khe h v khng c trt, t s truyn ca cc b truyn ng c kh l khng i. Ngy nay, ngi ta gn trc tip rotor ca ng c ln trc quay ca khp m khng dng truyn dn c kh trung gian. iu loi tr c nh hng ca bin dng c kh v khe h, gim tn hao nng lng. Tuy nhin n i hi cc gii php k thut iu khin duy tr quan h tuyn tnh truyn ng trong di rng. Truyn ng trc tip cn cha ph bin trong k thut robot v l do kt cu 2. ng c ng c l ngun to ng lc chuyn ng cho cc khp. Tu thuc dng nng lng s dng, ngi ta dng cc loi ng c kh nn, ng c thu lc v ng c in. Cng sut v ng c P l do tn hao c kh, 36

thu lc hoc kh nn. Trong k thut robot ngi ta thng dng cc ng c cng sut t vi chc wats n hng chc kilowat. Do c im s dng trong robot, chng hn yu cu bm st qu o thit k, nh v chnh xc ... cc ng c phi c cc tnh cht sau: Qun tnh nh v t s nng lung tiu hao/trng lng cao C kh nng chu qu ti v lc xung C kh nng gia tc tt Di tc lm vic rng ( 1 10.000v/ph) chnh xc nh v cao (t nht 1/1000 vng trn) C th lm vic trn tru vn tc thp

ng c kh nn kh p ng cc yu cu trn, v khng th khc phc tnh nn c ca mi trung th kh. Chng thng ch c dng cho cc chuyn ng ng m, v d dng cho tay khp hoc chuyn ng im ng c in gm cc loi ng c mt chiu, xoay chiu thng dng v ng c servo, trong ng c servo c dng ph bin hn c. ng c servo khc cc loi ng c bnh thng khc ch n c iu khin t ng bng 1 h thng iu khin in t c phn hi. Tn hiu phn hi c ly t sensor vn tc hoc sensor v tr, gim st lin tc chuyn ng tng i gia rotor v stator, t sinh ra tn hiu iu khin tc v chiu quay ca rotor. ng c servo c c tnh ng lc hc tt, ng thi kt cu n gin, lm vic tin cy nn ngy cng c u dng. ng c in mt chiu c in khng c a chung v c b gp in gy nhiu phin phc khi s dng c thay bng ng c in mt chiu khng c gp (Brushless DC Servomotor). ng c bc, do cng sut nh, chnh xc thp ( do khng c mch phn hi v tr, do c tnh ng lc hc ph thuc ti trng, thm ch c hin tng b bc khi ti trng ln), nhng li r tin nn c dng cho nhng ni khng i hi chnh xc iu khin cao. ng c thu lc c cc c tnh ng lc hc tng ng vi ng c in, c th trc tip sinh ra chuyn ng thng v chuyn ng quay. Mc d, v i th, bn thn ng c in v ng c thu lc c c tnh ng lc hc tng ng nhau, nhng chng khc nhau v c im s dng.

37

V phng din , ng c in c u im sau: - D cung cp nng lng, v h thng cp in c khp ni. - Gi r, chng loi phong ph v di cng sut rng. - Hiu sut bin i nng lng cao. - D s dng v d chm sc. - Khng gy nhim mi trng. Bn cnh chng c cc nhc im sau: - Pht nng trng thi tnh hoc kh tc thp, v vy thng phi dng phanh. - Cn bo v c bit nu lm trong mi trng d chy. Ngc li ng c thu lc c cc u im sau: - Lm vic tt trng thi tnh v tc thp m khng pht nng. - T bi trn v tn nhit tt nh lu thng ca cht lng trong khi lm vic. - An ton trong mi mi trng. - C cng sut ring theo trng lng cao. Bn cnh , chng c cc nhc im sau: - Cn trm cung cp thu lc ring. - t tin, t chng loi, kh lp t, kh chm sc v bo tr. - Hiu sut bin i nng lng thp. -D gy nhim mi trng do du trong h thng b r khi vn hnh hoc c du thi khi bo dng, sa cha.

38

Xt v kha cnh iu khin v vn hnh, ng c in d iu khin v c th thay i ch lm vic mt cch linh hot. c tnh ng lc hoc ca ng c thu lc cn ph thuc vo nhit du. ng c in lm vic tt tc cao v ti trng nh nn thng truyn ng trc tip. 3. Khuych i cng sut. B khuych i cng sut c nhim v bin i trng thi nng lng (goi chung l lu v p) ca ngun cung cp sao cho ph hp vi yu cu ca ng c. Cng sut cung cp t l vi tn hiu iu khin Pc v thng ln hn cng sut iu khin nn b bin i ny c tn l b khuych i cng sut. Mt b phn cng sut vo, gm Pc v Pp , sau khi bin i c cung cp cho ng c (Pa). Phn khc (Pda) b tn tht trn bn thn b bin i. i vi ng c, b bin i thng phi tin hnh bin in nng di dng xoay chiu thng dng, v d 230/380V - 50Hz thnh in mt chiu (cho ng c mt chiu) hoc thnh in xoay chiu vi in p v tn s thch hp ( cho ng c xoay chiu). Cc b bin i dng cho ng c in mt chiu c gi l AC v DC converter, hay l chopper. Loi dng cho ng c mt chiu khng chi than c gi l DC to AC converter hay inverter. iu khin ng c xoay chiu khng ng b, c th dng b bin i b rng (pulse width modulat) hoc b bin i tn s (frequency modulator hay frequencys inverter). Cc thng s quan trng nht ca b bin i l hiu sut bin i Pa/(Pc + Pp) v t s truyn Pa/Pc . Gi tr ca chng thng vo khong 0,9 v 106 . ng c thu lc c iu khin bng cch thay i lu lng cht lng cung cp cho n. C cu iu khin thng l cc van tit lu, cho php thay i lu lng cung cp theo tn hiu in. 4. Ngun cung cp chnh. Nhim v ca ngun cung cp chnh l ngun nng lng ti u vo ca b bin i. Nu l in nng th ngun cung cp thng l bin p. Nu dng dng in mt chiu th phi c chnh lu. Ngun cung cp cho cc ng c thu lc l trm bm cc loi, nh bm bnh rng, cnh gt, piston,... Truyn ng cho chng l cc ng c s cp, 39

thng l ng c in xoay chiu khng ng b. Ngoi ra, trong h thng cung cp cn c b cha ( trnh hin tng mch p), b lc, van an ton, an trn... gip cho h thng lm vic n nh, an ton, vai tr ca chng ging nh t inl phng v cc kiu b lc khc trong h thng ngun in. IV. H THNG IU KHIN. cc phn trn trnh by v h thng c kh (xng ct) v h thn kinh ngoi vi. Mun iu khin c robot cn mt h thng thn kinh trung ng, tc l b no. l h thng iu khin. 1. Kin trc chc nng. H thng iu khin robot cn c cc kh nng sau: - iu khin chuyn ng ca cc c cu c kh (manipulation ability) - Thu nhn thng tin v trng thi ca h thng v v mi trn cng tc (sensory ability) - Phn tch thng tin v phn ng trc iu kin thc t trong phm vi xc nh (inteligent behavior ability) - Lu tr, x l v cung cp thng tin v h thng (data processing ability) Mun vy, b iu khin cn c cc khi (modul) c bn: - Modul cm bin thu nhn, bin i, hiu chnh, tng hp thng tin v trng thi ca h thng v v mi trng. - Modul tng hp, thit lp m hnh tng hp v h thng v mi trng trn c s thng tin do modul cm bin cung cp. - Modul ra quyt nh, a ra phng thch hnh ng. T chin lc hnh ng, lp k hoch, iu khin hot ng ca c cu thc hin nhim v theo tnh hung c th. Cc modul trn t ng lin kt vi nhau theo nhim v, c quy inh trong chng trnh v c tnh dn kh nng thch ng ca h thng trong tnh hung c th. Tuy vy vn cn c giao din vi ngi vn hnh khi cn con ngi c th kim tra, gim st, can thip vo h thng.

40

Tnh n cng trao i thng tin gia cc modul vi nhau v gia h thng vi ngi vn hnh cn c b nh chung d l tr cc thng tin ban u v thng tin cp nht ca h thng v mi trng. Cu trc chc nng trn c phn cp theo th bc. Cu trc bc thp lin quan n cc dch chuyn vt l . Cu trc bc cao gn vi chc nng phn tch logic. Cc bc lin h vi nhau thng qua dng d liu. S trn hnh 4-2 cho php nhn nhn tng quan v cu trc, chc nng v cu trc th bc ca h iu khin robot. Tu theo yu cu i vi hot ng ca robot, cc chc nng c phn cp vi mc d khc nhau. Ni chung, c th phn thnh 4 cp chnh: - Cp nhim v (task level) gii quyt cc vn chung v nhimj v. So snh yu cu t ra vi kh nng chp nhn ca h thng, tnh trng hin ti ca h thng v mi trng... - Cp chin lc (action level) gii quyt phng thc hnh ng chung, v d h to , v tr ca phn cng tc, cc im phi i qua m ni suy s s dng. - Cp k hoch (primitive level) thit lp qu o, tnh ton vn ng hc v vn ng hc ngc, phn tch tnh trng h chp hnh... - Cp tha hnh (servo level), lin quan n cc hot ng c th nh gii m lnh, ni suy, x l li, giao din vi c cu chp hnh.
X L TN HIU T T SENSOR M HNH TRI THC CHIN LC RA QUYT NH

S
B NH TON CC

M M M

D D D

CP NHIM V B NH TON CC CP TC NG

S S

CP I TNG CP SERVO

S
SENSORS

D
ACTUATOS

Hnh 4 - 2: Cu chc chc nng v th bc ca h iu khin robot

41

S trong hnh 4-2 cho php hnh dung chi tit v s phn cp ii khin. Trn thc t, khng phi h iu khin robot no cng c y nhim v. Ngc li, mt s loi robot, nh robot dng trong v tr, trong qun s, trong y hc... c nhiu cp iu khin hn.

TC NG

TRNG THI INQUIRY KHIN S NG HC


NG HC NGC NG LC HC

H TO KHNG GIAN KHP VNG CNG TC QU O CC HM NI SUY CC HM IU

I TNG HNH HC

PRIMITIVE

TRNG THI TNG TC

GII M LNH D TO QU O NG HC NGC PHN TCH TRNG THI X L S C

D LIU KHP TC

KHNG GIAN VNG CNG

42

INQUIRY SUY
X L TN HIU S TRNG THI CA TAY MY TRNG THI TNG TC VI MI TRNG NG HC JACIBIAN NG LC HC NGC

CC HM NI

GII M LNH D MICROINTERPOLATION X L LI LUT IU KHIN GIAO DIN SERVOMOTOR

SERVO

D LIU SENSOR CU LC CAMERA TRANSDUCER TRANSDUCER VN TC V TR LNH RA C CHP HNH

4 - 3: Phn cp iu khin robot

2.B iu khin. a.B x l trung tm Trung tm ca b iu khin l CPU chu trch nhim qun l thng tin v b nh , qun l xut nhp , x l thng tin tnh ton, iu khin v a ra cc tn hiu iu khin. Robot tr nn ph bin t khi cc my tnh - bit nh loi Apple 2E tr nn thng dng. Nhc im c bn ca b iu khin ny l tc x l chm, dung lng b nh thp iu ny lm hn ch kh nng lp trnh cng nh hn ch s v tr trong vng khng gian lm vic ca robot Robot hin nay oc trang b b x l 16-bit c km theo b ng x l phc v cho vic tnh ton c s dng nhiu nht l cc b x l h Intel 8086 v 8088. iu ny khc phc cc hn ch ca my tnh 8- bit Cc b vi x l 42 -bit l b no cho cc b iu khin ca th h robot hin i nh kh nng tng tc x l v dung lng ca b nh. My tnh 42 bit cho php ghi nh c mt s lng ln cc v tr, iu ny cn thit cho cc robot iu khin theo ng dn lin tc

43

b.B nh B nh dng lu gi chng trnh v nhng fhng tin phn hi t mi trng thao tc Cac b nh Rom oc cung cp cho cc robot chim gi 1 phn b nh, cc chng trnh xut / nhp c bn nm trong b nh Rom. Cc chng trnh ny cho php my tnh nhn v chuyn thng tin vi cc mch giao tip cm bin, mch giao tip ca cc c cu tc ng, mch truyn thng ni tip. Rom cng cha cc chng trnh iu khin servo, s dng tn hiu phn hi t cc cm bin tnh ton v xc nh sai lch gia v tr (vn tc, gia tc, momen) hin ti vi v tr yu cu. Hu ht cc b iu khin robot c km theo cc chng trnh trong b nh Rom cho php qun l c ton b chuyn ng ca robot Rom phi cha cc chng trnh khi ng h thng. H thng khi ng cho php ngi s dng a ra cc lnh nh run, learn, edit... Cui cng Rom cn km theo chng trnh ng dng p ng vic hng dn cho ngi vit chng trnh. B nh Rom c cng dng lu chng trnh ca ngi s dng. S dng trong ch hun luyn, lu tr gi tr cc bin hin hnh cc thng s ci t v cc d liu lm vic c yu cu bi chng trnh b nh Rom. c.B xut / nhp B xut nhp dng a chng trnh vo b x l v kim tra theo di hot ng trong qu trnh thao tc. Cu hnh ca b xut / nhp bao gm bn phm, mn knh, cc bo mch c b tr cc cng giao tip xut / nhp dng ni tip v song song

Truyn thng mng Truyn thng vi PLC v robot khc Lp trnh offline

Cng my in/ cng song song

B nh EPROM a mm

44

H thng thu nhn hnh nh Mn hnh

B chuyn i A/D v D/A

Cm bin Analog C cu tc ng Analog Cm bin C cu tc ng

B giao tip xut/nhp song song

Panen iu khin Bo iu khin trc Bo iu khin trc

Chuyn ng xoay quanh eo Chuyn ng xoay quanh vai Chuyn ng lc ca khu Chuyn ng gp c tay Chuyn ng lc c tay Chuyn ng xoay bn tay

CPU
Bo iu khin trc Bo iu khin trc

B nh

Bo iu khin trc Bo iu khin trc

Hnh 4-4: S minh ho kh nng xut / nhp ca b iu khin robot

d.Cc loi b iu khin *) B iu khin trong h thng h Robot hot ng trong h thng h khng nhn bit c v tr khi n dch chuyn t im ny sang im khc. Trn mi trc chuyn ng thng c im dng mt vi v tr xc nh kim tra chnh xc ca dch chuyn. Cu to : gm c cu kh bn trong robot, dng thit lp v tr chnh xc v cc thit b bn ngoi x l v truyn dn tn hiu. Cc c cu nh v bn trong gm: +) cc c chn hn ch hnh trnh c nh gii hn s dch chuyn ca c cu tc ng thu lc hay kh nn cui hnh trnh hay mt khong cch xc nh no . +) Cc c chn hn ch hnh trnh c th iu chnh v tr 45

+) Cc cng tc hn ch hnh trnh +) ng c bc c gc quay tu vo s xung cung cp. ng c bc t dng trong cng nghip nhng thng dng trong phn cng ph nh bn nh v, xoay cho robot.... +) Thit b m bo s tun t ca robot +) B lp trnh trng : ngi ta iu khin tun t bng cch xp t cc cam ln b mt tang trng. Cc cam ny tc ng ln cng tc in hay cc van thu lc ( kh nn) chnh cc cam ny kim sot s dich chuyn ca mi trc robot. Kim sot bng s lng cam v tc ca tang trng. +) Logic kh nn v cc phn t logic kh nn: thi gian tun t dich chuyn ca robot c xc nh bng cch lin kt hp l cc phn t kh nn.

iu khin Workcell Khi to chu k Th kim tra thit b ngoi vi Robot kh nn: - C cu tc ng - Hm kp Hin th tnh trng hot ng ca h thng: - C cu tc ng - n bo - Mn hnh -Bo ng ci H thng cm bin: - Cng tc hnh trnh - Cm bin tim cn - Cm bin quay - Cm bin qu trnh ( Lc, p sut, nhit , lu lng) - Cm bin khc

Van kh

M un xut M un nhp B iu khin lp trnh

Thit b lp trnh

46

Hnh4 - 5: S khi iu khin kiu vng h kt hp vi cc cng tc hnh trnh *) iu khin robot trong h thng kn S sau l s khi ca mt h thng iu khin kn (h thng servo) s dng trn iu kin v tr. y mch iu khin c trang b hai loi cm bin l cm bin v tr v cm bin vn tc kim sot lin tc s thay i v tr v vn tc trn mt trong su trc ca robot.
B so snh v tr V tr yu cu B so snh tc van servo hay SCR ng c Trc

B khuch i

B khuch i Phn hi tc

Phn hi v tr

My pht tc

B m ho v tr

Hnh 4-6: S khi ca mt h thng kn u im ca h thng servo; - Kh nng nh v tt ca robot nh h thng iu khin servo s gim i phc tp ca tay gt. - Robot c kh nng thc hin nhiu chuyn ng c yu cu phc tp ng thi c kh nng thc thi nhiu chng trnh p ng theo cc yu cu sn xut c trnh t thay i khc nhau, gip cho h thng sn xut c tnh linh hot cao. 3. Hm truyn chuyn ng mi khp ng. Trong c cu tay my mi bc t do thng c iu khin bng mt h thng truyn ng ring. Truyn ng c th l thu lc, kh nn nhng nhiu hn c l bng ng c in mt chiu

47

S sau l s ng c in mt chiu vi tn hiu vo l in p Va t vo phn ng, tn hiu ra l gc quay m ca trc ng c c kch t cho ng c v kch t t c lp Trc ng c thng ni lin vi hp gim tc ri ti trc ph ti. Gi n l t s truyn, L l gc quay ca trc ph ti, ta c:
L (t ) = n m (t )
& & &L (t ) = n&m (t )

&L (t ) = n&m (t )

(1)

Momen trn trc ng c bng tng momen cn ng c quay cng vi momen ph ti quy v trc ng c M(t) = Mm(t) + ML* (t) (2)

K hiu Jm - momen qun tnh ca ng c JL - momen qun tnh ca ph ti


& Ta c : Mm (t) = Jm &m (t) + fm &m (t)

(3) (4)

& ML (t) = JL &L (t) + fL &L (t)

Trong Fm v F2 l h s cn ca ng c v ca ph ti Theo nh lut bo ton nng lng, cng do ph ti sinh ra tnh trn trc ph ti l M22 phi bng cng quy v trc ng c M2m. T ta c:
* M L (t ) =

M L (t ) L (t ) = nM L (t ) m (t )

(5)

tnh ti (1) v (4) ta c:


* & & M L (t ) = n 2 J L&m (t ) + f L m (t )

(6)

thay (3) v (6) vo (2) ta c:


& M(t) = (Jm + n2JL ) & m (t) + (fm + n2fL) & m (t) (7)

48

& M(t) = J & m (t) + f & m (t)

(8)

Vi J = Jm + n2JL f = fm + n2fL Trong : J - momen qun tnh tng hiu dng F - h s tng hiu dng Bi v momen trn trc ng c ph thuc tuyn tnh vi cng dng in phn ng v khng ph thuc vo gc qua v vn tc gc. M(t) = Kaia (t) Vi ia cng dng in Ka h s t l momen i vi mch in phn ng
U a (t ) = Ra ia (t ) + La dia (t ) + eb (t ) dt

(9)

(10)

Vi Ra, La - in tr v in cm phn ng eb - sc phn in ng ca ng c eb(t) = Kb & m (t) Ke h s t l vi sc phn i n ng Dng php bin i laplace, t (10) ta c : Ia (s) = Ta c :
& M(s) = s2J & m (s) + sf & m (s)

(11)

U a ( s) sK b m ( s) Ra + sLa

(12)

(13)

49

T (9) ta c : M(s) = KaIa(s) = Ka U a ( s) sK b m ( s)


Ra + sLa

(14)

T (13) v (14) ta c:
m ( s)
U a ( s) = Ka s s JLa + ( La f + Ra J ) s + Ra f + K a K b

(15)

y l hm truyn cn xc nh, n l t s gia tn hiu ra (gc quay m) v tn hiu vo ca h thng (in p Va) Bin i (15) di dng sau:
m ( s)
U a ( s) = Ka s[( sLa + Ra )( sJ + f ) + K a K b ]

(16)

Bi v h hrng gm c c ng c v ph ti nn tn hiu ra l gc quay ca trc ph ti L nh trong cng thc (1). Cui cng hm truyn chuyn ng mt bc t do ca tay my l :
L (s)
U a ( s) = nK a s[( sLa + Ra )( sJ + f ) + K a K b ]

(17)

v s khi tng ng:

ua(s)+ L(s)

1 sLa + Ra

Ka

1 sJ + f

1 s

Kb

Hm truyn chuyn ng ca mt bc t do

50

n gin ho c th khng xt n nh hng ca in cm phn ng l La v n thng qu nh so vi cc nhn t nh hng c kh khc. Phng trnh (17) cn li:
L ( s)
U a (s) = nK a s[( sRa J + Ra f + K a K b ]

(18)

4. iu khin chuyn ng mi khp ng. Nhim v iu khin lc ny l lm sao cho ng c dch chuyn i mt gc bng gc quay tnh ton m bo theo qu o chn, iu khin theo qu o phi t in p v ng c t l thun vi sai lch gc quay ca khp ng
~ K P e(t ) K P L (t ) L (t ) U a (t ) = = n n

(19)

Vi Kp _- h s truyn tn hiu phn hi v v tr e(t) - sai lch gc quay : e(t)= L (t) - L (t) Gi tr gc quay tc thi L (t) c o bo bng cm bin quang hc hoc chit p Bit i laplace (19):
U a (t ) = ~ K P L ( s) L ( s) K P E ( s) = n n
~ ~

(20)

Thay (20) vo (18)


L ( s)
E (s) = Ka Kb = G(s) s[sRa J + Ra f + K a K b ]

(21)

Sau khi bin i i s n gin ta c hm truyn


Ka KP K a K P Ra J L (s) G(s) = = 2 = ~ L ( s ) 1 + G ( s ) s Ra J + s ( Ra f + K a K b ) + K a K P s 2 + [ Ra f + K a K b ] s + K a K P Ra J Ra J

(22)

51

T pt (22) h iu chnh t l dch chuyn mi khp ng l h bc 2. Nu cc h s phng trnh bc 2 ny l dng th h s n nh. nng sao c tnh ng lc hc ca h v gim sai s tnh c th tng h s Kp v xt ti o hm ca sai lch dch chuyn qua h s k. Mun th th in p iu khin ng c s t l thun vi sai lch dch chuyn v o hm ca n:
Ua = ~ ~ & & & K P [ L (t ) L (t )] + K V [ L (t ) L (t )] K P e(t ) + K V e(t ) = n n

(23)

Nh vy khi c lin h phn hi h thng tr thnh khp kn Sau khi bin i laplace biu thc (23) v thay Uavo (21) ta c hm truyn:
L ( s)
E ( s) = Ka Kb Ka Kv s + Ka K P = = Gv ( s) (24) s[sRa J + Ra f + K a K b ] s( sRa J + Ra f + K a K b )

T c:
Gv ( s ) Ka Kvs + Ka K P L ( s) = = 2 ~ L ( s ) 1 + Gv ( s ) s Ra J + s ( Ra f + K a K b + K a K v ) + K a K P

(25)

L (s)

K P + sK v

1 n

Ua(s)

1 sLa + Ra

Ka

1 sJ + f

1 s

L(s)

Kb

S iu khin chuyn dch 1 khp ng c lin h phn hi

5. nh gi c tnh ng lc ca h iu khin. 52

Trc ht cn nghin cu phm vi thay i h s truyn phn hi v vih tr v vn tc (h s Kp v h s Kv) Nh bit, phng trnh c trung ca h bc 2 c dng chun nh sau: S2 + 2wns + wn2 = 0 (26)

Vi v wn - h s gim chn v tn s ring ca h dao ng i chiu gia 2 phng trnh (25) v (26) ta c:
2 wn =

K aK P JR a
JRa

(27) (28)

2n = Ra f + K a K b + K a K v

m bo ch lm vic c gim chn cn thit th 1. Do vy : = Ra f + K a K b + K a K v 1


2 K a K P JRa

(29)

T iu kin (29):
Kv 2 K a K P JRa Ra f K a K b Ka

(30)

trnh dng in cng hng cn chn n 0,5r (31)

Tn s cng hng ca h kt cu ch yu ph thuc vo vt liu ch to my. Nu gi cng vng ca h khp ng l Ker th momen gy nn Kevm(t) , cn bng vi momen qun tnh ca ng c
& J & m (t) + Kevm (t) = 0

(32) 53

Pt c trng ca biu thc (32) sau khi bin i laplace l : Js2 + Kev = 0 Gii phng trnh trn rm tn s cng hng
K r = cv J
1/ 2

(33)

(34)

Nu w0 l tn s cng hng o c ng vi momen qun tnh s0 bit th i vi momen qun tnh S1 tn s cng hng tng ng l :
r = 0
J0 J
1/ 2

(35)

Theo iu kin (31), (27) c:


0 < KP

r2 JRa
4K a

(36)

Tnh thm biu thc (34) ta c:


0 < KP

02 J 0 Ra
4K a

(37)

Bit Kp thay vo (30) nhn c:


Kv R0 0 J 0 J Ra f K a K b Ka

(38)

6. iu khin chuyn ng robot nhiu bc t do Nhim v quan trng u tin ca iu khin robot l m bo sao cho im tc ng cui E ( End- effector) ca c cu tay my phi dich chuyn bm theo mt qu o t trc. Khng nhng th, h to xe, ye , ze gn lin ti im E phi duy tr theo mt nh hng no . Tuy nhin y ta phi tnh ti cc iu kin thc t khi lm vic, nh l c s tc ng ca momen lc, ca mi trng lm vic...

54

Cc yu t ny s ln lt c tnh ti v phng php iu khin cng tr nn a dng v phong ph hn, tu theo yu cu nng cao cht lng iu khin. Nh bit cc khp ng ca robot u c ngun ng lc ring, nn iu khin robot l iu khin cc ngun ng lc c lp . S khi tng qut ca h thng iu khin robot c m t trn hnh sau: FM qd
B iu khin Robot

q
& q

S h thng iu khin qd : vect v tr t ca bin khp


& q : l vect tc thay i bin khp tng ng

FM : vect lc ng to nn khp ng. l lc hoc momen to nn bi ngun ng lc khp ng. Phng trnh ng lc hc ca Robot c vit di dng ma trn: && & FM = D(q)q + h(q, q) + c(q) (39) Cu trc b iu khin vso th la chn l lut iu khin t l o hm (PD prportional Derivative):
& FM = K P + K D

(40)

Trong : - sai s v tr ca khp ng : = qd q


& & & & - sai s tc : = q d q

55

Kp - ma trn ng cho cc h s khuych i ca n lp ng : Kp = diag (Kp1, Kp2, ... , Kpn) KD- ma trn ng cho ca h s o hm ca n khp ng : KD = diag (KD1, KD2, ... , KDn) S h thng iu khin phn hi vi cu trc iu khin PD c dng n gin :

qD

KP Robot

KD

S cu trc h thng vi b iu khin PD c tt dn Trn s trn tn hiu t v tr qd c so snh vi v tr tc thi q v sai lch tc ng vo khu khuych i vi h s Kp. Tn hiu ra ca khu t l c cng i s vi tn hiu tt dn t l vi tc ca khp ng

& Fm = Kp (qd - q ) + KD q

(41)

H thng vi cu trc lut iu kin PD c tt dn s khng thch hp vi mt s kiu robot. Mt dng h thng iu khin khc gii thiu trn hnh trn c b sung thm tn hiu t tc qd v sai lch tc tc ng vo khu khuych i KD

qD
KP

q FM
Robot

56

& qd

&
KD

& q

chnh xc tnh ca h thng iu khin c th nng cao bng cch tng h s khuych i Kp. Tuy nhin h s Kp ln s lm gim n nh ca h thng cng nh lm tng nhiu. B iu khin c cu trc PID s khc phc c nhc im ca b iu khin PD. Khi phng trnh lc ng FM tc ng ln khp ng s c dng :
& FM = K P + K D + K i ( )d
0

(42)

Trong : Ki ma trn ng cho cc h s tch phn ca n khp ng Ki = diag ( Ki1, Ki2, ... , Kin) Nh vy tu thuc cu trc la chn b iu khin, ta em i chiu phng trnh (41) , (42) vi phng trnh Lagrange, t nhn c cc phng trnh ca h iu khin tng ng. T cc phng trnh ca h iu khin ny c th la chn Kp, KD v Ki sao cho sai lch v tr s tin ti 0. 7. iu khin ng c thu lc Cc ng c thu lc c iu khin bng cch thay i lu lng du qua bm. Bt k s khc nhau v cu trc vt l, cc mi quan h c bn gia lu lng v p sut, chuyn ng ca cht lng v chuyn ng ca cc chi tit, s cn bng c hc ca cc chi tit u xut pht t o hm quan h vo/ra. Gi s Q l lu lng cung cp, Qm l lu lng vo ca ng c, Qt l lu lng tn hao do lt du trn bm, Qc l lu lng tn hao do tnh nn c ca du, ta nhn c phng trnh cn bng lu lng nh sau: Q = Qm + Ql + Qc (43)

57

Cc i lng tn hao Ql v Qc c tnh n khi h thng lm vic di p sut cao, c hng trm atmosphe. Gi P l chnh lch p sut gia u ra v u vo ca bm do ti, ta c quan h: Ql = k l P (44)

Tn hao nng lng do tnh nn c ca cht lng t l vi th tch tc thi ca cht lng V v p sut P h s nn v bin thc s : Qc = ,VsP (45)

T (6.12) thy rng h s t l kc = .V gia o hm theo thi gian ca p sut P v lu lng Qc ph thuc vo th tch V ca cht lng.V vy i vi ng c quay th kc l hng s, cn i vi ng c tnh tin th V thay i nn phn ng ca h thng tu thuc im cng tc. Lu lng cht lng vo ng c t l vi lng bin thin trong mt n v thi gian ca t tch cht lng trong b cha. Mt khc lng bin thin ny t l vi vn tc gc ca ng c. Cui cng nhn c: Q m = kq (46)

iu kin cn bng c hc ca cc chi tit chuyn ng c m t bng phng trnh tng t nh (3.3) Cm = (sIm + Fm) +Cr (47)

Cui cng th momen ca ng c t l vi chnh lch p sut ca bm: Cm = ktP (48)

i vi van iu khin, hm truyn gia v tr X ca van v in p iu khin Vc c xc nh nh sau:


Gs x = Vc 1 + sTs

(49)

58

V hng s thi gian Ts rt nh (c mili giy) so vi cc hng s thi gian khc ca h thng, nn Gs c coi l h s truyn tng ng ca van v quan h gia Vc v X l tuyn tnh.
1 ks

Qm

Gs 1 + sTs

X
+

ks kv

Q
+ -

Qc

1 sk c

Kq

Cm
+ -

1 sI m

1 s

kt

Fm

kq

Hnh 4 7: S khi h iu khin ng c thu lc Trn c s cc phng trnh nu, c th xy dng s khi ca h thng iu khin ca ng c thu lc, gm van, b phn phi, ng c nh trong hnh 4-7. So snh hnh 4-2 vi hnh 4-7 c th nhn ra s tng t v hnh thc gia c tnh ng lc hc ca ng c thu lc v ng c in. Tuy nhin iu khng c ngha l c th dng ng c thu lc iu khin vn tc v iu khin mmen thay cho ng c in. V hnh thc th mch phn hi p sut ca ng c in, nhng khng th thay i kt cu ca panel thu lc mt cch d dng nh i vi mt bng mch in.

CHNG V

NGN NG LP TRNH CA ROBOT

59

I. GII THIU CHUNG V LP TRNH CHO ROBOT.

Khi xem xt vn lp trnh cho robot, khng nhng cn quan tm n chuyn ng ca bn thn robot m cn phi lu n s hot ng ca c h thng sn xut, m robot l mt thnh vin. H thng sn xut gm nhiu n nguyn hoc mun thit b sn xut (Workceell). l mt cm thit b, bao gm mt hoc mt vi robot, my cng tc hoc thanh bng chuyn, cc c cu cp thot phi hoc g ph tr khc v.v Thng thng lp trnh iu khin robot trc ht phi m phng s hot ng ca n workcell c th. C th phn tch thnh 2 phng php lp trnh: lp trnh trc tuyn (on line programming) v lp trnh ngoi tuyn (off-line programming). Khi lp trnh trc tuyn, ngi vn hnh robot trc tip tin hnh lp trnh trn bn thn rbot hoc thit b ph tr km theo. C phng php lp trnh th cng (manual input), phng php lp trnh theo kiu dy hc bng dn dt(teach by lead through) v phng php lp trnh theo kiu d hc bng thit bdy hc gi l teach pendant Lp trnh th cng l phng php n gin nht l thch hp nht vi cc loi robot khng c trang b thit b ph tr ng (non servo controlled robots), khng c tn hiu phn hi. lp trnh c th dng cc c t, c cu cam, bng cm in, cc cng tc hnh trnh v.v cc loi ny tuy n gin nhng li c nhiu ng dng. Thc tin sn xut chng t rng c th ch to ra nhng chng trnh thao tc khng n gin bng cch thc n gin . Phng php dn dt dy hc cho robot c th thc hin c nhng cng vic tinh t hn. Ngi vn hnh dn dt robot l cc thao tc theo yu cu v nhng v tr cn thit, cc tn hiu c nhn bit t cc cm bin (servo) lp trn robot s c ghi li. Khi lm vic cc thng tin tn hiu ghi nh ny s tc ng vo c cu chp hnh lm cho robot hon ton lp li mt cch t ng cc thao tc hc c. C th dy hc cho robot theo phng php dng hp iu khin teach pendant. l mt hp nh cm tay c cc nt bm iu khin. Khi bm cc nt iu khin ny, cc khp ng ca robot chuyn dch mt i lng no theo ngi iu khin v cc gi tr ghi li lp trnh khi chuyn sang ch t ng. 60

Biu th cc phng php lp trnh k trn nh cc bc pht trin hin i dn. Lp trnh ngoi tuyn v mt bc pht trin cao hn v cht. Lp trnh ngoai tuyn (off line programming) khng tin hnh trc tip trn thit b robot, m tin hnh gin tip trn my tnh. thc hin c vic trao i thng tin gia ngi v robot phi dng n ngn ng m c hai u hiu c. Cc ngn ng chng trnh l ngn ng tng minh (expelicit languages) cho php ngi lp tuyn tn hiu cho my cng tc thc hin cc thao tc cn thit. My tnh l mt thit b vn nng, t hp cc lnh my hon thnh cc cng vic rt a dng. Ngn ng my cho php dng cc ngn ng bc cao, gi l ngn ng pht trin. Trong tin hc c nhiu li ngn ng. tuy nhin trong iu khin ni chung v iu khin robot ni ring cn quan tm ti s tin li v nhanh chng m bo thi gian thc. V th xut hin nhiu loi hnh ngn ng chuyn dng, nh hng cho mt loi vn no . Nh vy, khi lp trnh ngoi tuyn cn dng ngn ng lp trnh. Mc thng thng dng cc ngn ng tng minh (explicit language). Mc cao hn l dng ngn ng khng tng minh (implicit language). Nhng ngn ng ny cho php ngi s dng ra lnh robot thc hin cc cng vic mong mun mt cch trc tip m khng cn ch ra chi tit cc hot ng ca robot nh ngng ng lp trnh thng thng. V d, ngn ng AML ca hng IBM, Karel ca hng General Motor, Fanuc, Rai, ca tp on Automatix, Jas ca NASAv RPL ca SRI Inte rnational . Cc ngn ng ny cn ang giai on pht trin . Vy phm vi ng dng ngn ng tng minh cng c 2 mc - Ngn ng robot chuyn dng. Nhng ngn ng lp trnh ny c xy dng nh mt nhn ng mi c php (syntax) v ng ngha (sematics) ca ccngn ng ny cn phi n gin v ngi lp trnh cho cc ng dng cng nghip khng phi l cc chuyn gia lp trnh. V d, ngn ng VAL 2 ca Unimation, Al ca i hc Stanfod. - Ngn ng pht trin.

61

Ngn ng ny to ra cc th vin robot cho ngn ng lp trnh bc cao c sn. Nhng ngn ng ny c xy dng bng cch da trn cc ngn ng lp trnh bc cao thng dng (v d nh Pascal) v thm vo mt th vin cc th tc v hm c bit dng cho robot. Khi vit chng trnh Pascal iu khin robot, ngi s dng gi cc hm hoc cc th tc nh ngha trc trong th vin x l cc ni dung c lin quan n vic tnh ton hoc iu khin robot. V d, PASRO (Pascal for robot) l mt th vic dng cho lp trnh robot, cung cp nhiu th tc v hm c bit tnh ton v iu khin eb dng trong mi trng ngn ng Turbo Pascal, hoc Pasro/ C l pht trin ca Pasro, nhng c bit trn c s ngn ng Turbo C
II. M T CC VT TH V NHIM V.

1. M t cc vt th. Cc vt th gi l cc i tc ca robot trong cng vic v cc thit b v dng trong mi trng lm vic, chng rt a dng v phong ph. Tuy nhin c th da vo cc khi c bn sau y m t chng : - Khi hnh vt th trn xoay (rotative)

Hnh 5 1 :M t chi tit hnh tr

- Khi hnh vt th lng tr (prismatic)

62

Hnh 5 -2 : M t vt th hnh a din Cc vt th c cu trc hn hp (combination) c th m t bng cch ghp ni cc khi c bn. Khi hnh vt th xoay trn c c trng bng to tm v bn knh ca hnh trn cc tit din. V d, trn hnh 5-1 m t mt chi tit my hnh tr bn knh r = 0,5; chiu di l = 6; nm dc theo trc z. Khi hnh vt th a din c c trng bng to cc im gc cnh ca n. Khi m t cc vt th trong mi trng lm vic, cng nh khi m t qu trnh thao tc ca robot v dch chuyn cc i tc, c th dng cc php bin i thun nht. Xt v d sau y: Cho mt vt th a din trong h to c s xyz nh hnh 5-2. C th lp ma trn m mi ct l mt vct m rng biu th mt im gc ca tam tr. C th i vi hnh 5-2 c 6 im gc, ta c :
1 1 1 0 0 0 V = 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 1 4 4 0 0 1 1

(5.1)

63

Thc hin php bin i : H = Tp(4,0,0).R(y,900) s ln lt c cc kt qu sau : - Tnh tin vt th dc theo trc x mt on ngn bng 4 n v tng ng vi php bin i H1 = Tp(4,0,0), hnh 5-4 - Ri cho vt th quay quanh trc y gc 900 v kt qu ca hai php bin i trn H2 = Tp(4,0,0). R(y, 900) hnh 5-5 Tip tc quay vt th quanh trc z 900 v kt qu ca php bin i H theo (5.2), hnh 5-3 (5.2)

Hnh 5 -4 : Vt th sau php bin i H1 = Tp(4,0,0)

64

Hnh 5-5 :. Vt th sau php bin i H2 = Tp(4,0,0).R(y,900)

Hnh 5 - 6 :. Vt th sau cc php bin i H = Tp(4,0,0).R(y,900).R(x,900) Ma trn H theo biu thc (5.2) c th xc nh bng tch ma trn quen bit i vi cc php bin i c bn ni trn, ta c :
0 1 H = 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 0 0

(5.3)

Nh vy d dng xc nh ma trn V biu th vt th sau cc php bin i (5.2) 65

4 4 6 1 1 1 V ' = H .V = 0 0 0 1 1 1

6 1 0 1

4 1 4 1

4 1 4 1

(5.4)

2. M t nhim v Nhim v giao cho robot thc hin thng c m t bng cc thao tc chuyn dch. C th tm hiu ni dung ny thng qua mt v d c th nh trnh by trn hnh v 5-4 y robot ly trn bng chuyn cc chic cht hnh tr c m t trn hnh 5-2, lp vo cc l trn thn my hnh hp.

Hnh 5 7 : M t nhim v Nhim v ni trn c th m t bng mt dy lin tc cc v tr thao tc sau y.

66

P1 : Hng ti cht P2 : Kp vo cht Kp cht cht P3 : Nng cao cht P4: Hng ti l vi cc gc nghing no P5: Dng li khi chm l P6: iu chnh li hng gc nghing P7: Lp cht vo l Nh cht ra P8: Ri i. Dng phng php ton chuyn i m t nhim v ti cc v tr thao tc, nh trnh by trn hnh 5- 8.

67

Hnh 5 - 8. Ton chuyn i m t nhim v ti cc v tr. Tng ng: P1: ZT6E = P PA P2: ZT6E = P PG P3: ZT6E = P PD PG P4: ZT6E = H HRi PHA PG P5: ZT6E = H HRi PCH PG P6: ZT6E = H HRi PAL PG P7: ZT6E = H HRi PN PG P8: ZT6E = H HRi PN PG (5.5) (5.6) (5.7) (5.8) (5.9) (5.10) (5.11) (5.12)

68

vi :

Trong mi v tr thao tc c m t bng ZT6E (xem hnh 5-11) Z - M t v tr trng thi ca robot trong h to gc no

T6 - M t v tr trng thi ca im cui ca cnh tay robot trong h to c nh gn vi gi ca robot E - M t v tr trng thi im cui ca cng c km theo. Ni n v tr trng thi l ni n v tr v hng ca h to gn vi v tr ang kho st. Vi cch m t , khi m t v tr robot th ch cn thay i Z v khi thay i cng c thao tc th ch cn thay i E. m t cu trc v nhim v, y cng dng php bin i tng ng sau y: P- M t v tr trng thi ca chiu cht trong h to gc PA- M t v tr trng thi ca bn kp ang hng ti cht PG- M t v tr trng thi ca bn kp ang kp cht so vi cht PD- M t v tr trng thi ca bn kp bt u mang cht i H- M t v tr trng thi ca hp thn my c hai l HRi- M t v tr trng thi ca l th i trong hp thn my so vi h to H. PHA- M t v tr trng thi ca cht ang hng ti l th i PCH- M t v tr trng thi ca cht khi chm vo l PAL- M t v tr trng thi lc bt u c lp vo l PN- M t v tr trng thi ca cht khi lp vo l Vic thc hin cc nhim v trn c th tr nn phc tp hn nu trong ngoi nhng bc i xc nh, v d nh HRi hon ton c th xc nh bn v k thut, cn c cc bc i khc cn thng tin iu chnh.

69

Trong trng hp ny thng s dng kt hp vi cc bin php khc, v d, phng php dy hc cho robot. Trn hnh 5-9 trnh by 3 h to Z, P v H gn lin tng ng vi robot, chic cht v thn hp c hai l.

Hnh 5 - 9: Cc h to Z, P v H Thit lp quan h ca cc h to Z, P v H vi nhau v vi cc h to gc. V d, trong h to gc nu chn gc ca h Z to x = 30, y = 0, z = 50 nh trn hnh 5 - 9, ta c:
1 0 Z = 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 30 0 0 1 50 0 0

(5.13)

70

Trn hnh 5-10 c 2 h to : T6 gn vi im cui ca cnh tay robot v E vi tm ca bn kp. im gc ca h E nm v tr (0,0,10) trong h to T6. Do vy, ta c:
1 0 E= 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 10 0 1

( 5.14)

Hnh5 10: Cc h to T6 v E. Trn hnh 5 - 11 trnh by cch b tr cc h to : H gn vi hp thn my> HR1 gn vi cc l, theo ta c:
1 0 0 0 HR1 = 0 1 0 0 0 10 1 0 0 0 1 0 ; HR1 = 0 1 0 15 0 1 0 0 0 10 1 0 0 5 0 0

(5.15)

71

Hnh 5 11: Hp thn my v cc h to Hnh 5-12 m t v tr trng thi khi cht lp vo l. Khi trc Z ca cht phi trng vi ng trc ca l. V cht c hnh tr trn i xng nn phng ca trc x v y c th tu . Chn phng trc xz thng ng tc l gi nguyn nh phng thng ng lc cht t v tr nm bng ti va c nng ln. Vy v tr trng thi ca cht khi lp vo l c su l 4 c m t bi ma trn chuyn i sau so vi HR:
1 0 HR = 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 1

(5.16)

Hnh 4.13 m t v tr bn kp trn chic cht, cn ma trn chuyn i sau y m t v tr trng thi ca bn kp cht so vi cht.

72

Hnh 5 12: Cht lp vo l


7 0 PG = 7 0 0 7 0 1 0 0 0 7 5 0 0 1

(5.17)

Hnh 5 13: Cht lp vo l Tip theo xc nh cc ma trn chuyn i khc cc t quan h cu trc cc v tr thao tc khc nhau ca robot nh c m t trn. ng vi v tr p1 (5.5) tc l lc bn kp hng ti cht: ZT6E = P PA

73

T : PA = P-1 ZT6E (5.18)

ng vi v tr p2(5.6) tc l lc bn kp cht cht : ZT6E = P PG T : PD = P-1 ZT6E PG-1 (5.19)

ng vi v tr p3 (5.4) tc l lc nng cao cht : ZT6E = P PD PG T : PD = P-1 ZT6E PG-1 (5.20)

ng vi v tr p4 (5.6) tc l lc hng ti l : ZT6E = H HR1 PHA PG T : PHA = (H HR1) ZT6E PG-1 (5.21)

ng vi v tr p5 (5.9) tc l lc dng li khi chm vo l : ZT6E = H HR1 PAL PG T : PCH = (H HR1)-1 ZT6E PG-1 (5.22)

ng vi v tr p6 (5.10) tc l lc iu chnh hng gc nghing: ZT6E = H HR1 PN PG T : H = ZT6E( HR1 PN PG)-1

74

Hnh 5 14: Cc v tr thao tc p4, p5 vp6 3.H thng robot lm vic vi camera. 3.1 Bin i chiu hnh Bin i chiu hnh l php bin i quang hc chiu cc im trong khng gian 3 chiu ln mt mt phng. Php bin i ny rt cn thit khi trao i thng tin gia cc vt th 3 chiu v hnh ca n trn cc mt phng. Trn hnh 5-15 m t s php chiu quang hc

Hnh 5 15: S h thng chiu hnh 75

H to x, y, z gn lin vi camera v mt phng xy l mt phng chiu, trc z trng vi trc chnh qua tm thu knh. Nh vy gc ca h to xyz qua tm ca mt phng chiu, cn tm thu knh c to l (0,0, ) Vi l khong cch tiu c, y, h to x, y, z trng vi h to c bn X, Y, Z. Gi s X, Y, Z l to ca mt im bt k trong khng gian 3 chiu. Nu Z > tc l trng hp vt th ang quan st nm trc thu knh t cc quan h gia cc hnh tam gic trn hnh 5 - 15 ta c:
x

X X = Z Z Y Y = Z Z

(5.25) (5.26)

T :
x=

X Z Y Z

(5.24) (5.28)

y=

Lu rng cc phng trnh trn l phi tuyn tnh v cn tn ti php chia cho Z. y cng c th dng ma trn thun nht 4x4 m t s bin i chiu hnh. Tuy nhin s khc bit c bn so vi khi dng cc php bin i khc trc y (xem chng III) l s khng tuyn tnh ni trn. Mt im M bt k c th xc nh bng vect r trong h to X, Y, Z. R = (X, Y, Z)T (5.29)

Cn trong khng gian to thun nht (homogeneous coordinate) im M c th xc nh bng mt vct m rng r:
~ = (kX , kY , kZ ) T r

(5.30)

76

Nh trnh by trong chng III, k l h s t l c gi tr khc s khng v khi k = 1 th cc to biu din bng to c thc. Nh vy, xc nh to thc ca im M chia 3 thnh phn u ca vect m rng (5.30) cho thnh phn th 4: Ma trn bin i chiu hnh c th xc nh nh sau:
1 0 Ac = 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1

(5.31)

Vy tch ca Ac ~ l mt vect ~c r r

1 0 ~ =A~= rc cr 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 1

0 kX kX 0 kY kY 0 kZ = kZ kZ 1 k

+ k

(5.32)

Cc thnh phn ca vect m rng ~c l to ca camera trong r khng gian gn to thun nht. xc nh cc thnh phn thc trong h to gn lin vi camera tc l cc thnh phn ca vect rc (x,y,z) chia 3 r thnh phn u ca vect m rng ~c cho thnh phn th 4, ta c:
X x Z Y rc = y = Z z Z Z

(5.33)

i chiu vi (5.24) v (5.28) nhn thy hai thnh phn u ca vect rc chnh l hnh chiu ca im M (X,Y,Z) ln mt phng ca camera. Thnh phn th 3 khng tn ti trn mt phng chiu v l bin s t do khi bin i ngc.

77

Bin i ngc khi chiu hnh l php bin i cc im t hnh chiu trn mt phng chiu thnh cc im tng ng trong khng gian 3 chiu, t phng trnh (5.32) ta c:
~ = A 1 ~ r c r

(5.34)

Vi:
1 0 1 Ac = 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1

(5.35)

Gi s rng (x0, y0, 0) l to ca im ang xt trn hnh chiu. Gi tr 0 theo to Z chng t rng mt phng chiu nm to Z = 0. c th biu din im ny trong khng gian to thun nht
~ = ( kx , ky ,0, k ) T rc 0 0

(5.36)

Thay vo (5.34) ta c:
~ = ( kx , ky , o, k ) T rc 0 0

(5.37)

V trong h ta X, Y, Z ta c:
0 X x r = Y = y0 Z z0

(5.38)

y l trng hp khng ch l hnh chiu ca mt im m l ca tt c cc im trong khng gian X, Y, Z nm trn cng mt ng thngng thng i qua cc im (x0, y0, 0) v (0,0,). Nh vy t (5.24) v (5.25) ta c phng trnh ca ng thng ny trong h to X, Y, Z nh sau :
X = x0

( Z )

(5.39)

78

Y=

Y0

( Z )

(5.40)

R rng l nu ch bit to hnh chiu ca mt im (x0, y0) trn mt phng chiu th cha xc nh v tr ca im trong khng gian 3 chiu, m cn phi b sung thm thng tin khc, v d, to Z. Bi th thnh phn th 3 ca vect rc phi l bin s t do thay v s 0 tc l :
kx0 ~ = ky0 rc kz k

(5.41)

Vy thay vo (5.35) ta c :
kx0 ky ~ = 0 rc kz kz k

(5.42)

Sau khi chia thnh 3 thnh phn u ca vect m rng r cho thnh phn th 4 bin i v to X, Y, Z ta c :
X =

x 0 +z y 0 +z z 0 +z

(5.43) (5.44) (5.45)

Y=

Z=

T (5.45) rt ra Z vthay vo (5.43) v (5.44) ta c: X= Y=

x0 ( Z ) Y0 ( Z )

(5.46) (5.47)

79

3.2. Cc phng trnh c bn ca h thng camera. Cc phng trnh (5.32) v (5.33) l cc phng trnh c bn ca h

Hnh 5 -16 : S b tr h thng camera.

80

H thng camera. Tuy nhin khi thnh lp cc phng trnh trn ta xem trng hp c bit l h to camera x, y, z trng vi h to c bn X, Y, Z di y xem xt trng hp chung khi x, y, z khng trng X, Y,Z. Trn hnh 5-16 k hiu M l mt im khng gian c xc nh trong h to c bn X, Y, X v im gc h toa x, y, z t tam mt phng chiu, cch tm khp quay mt khong cc biu th bng rp (r1, r2,r3). Vy im gc ca h ta x,y,z xc nh trong h ta X,Y,Z bng vc t r0 r0 = rk + rp (5.48)

Khp quay im t camera m bo gc quay gia cc trc x v X, gc nghing gia cc trc z v Z. T ma trn bin i h ta gia x,y,z v X,Y,Z nh trnh by chng III, c th xc nh nh sau:

Trong :

R(x,a) . R(z,)

- ( Xk + r1 ) - ( Yk + r2 )

A0 =
0 0 0

(5.49)

- ( Zk + r3 ) 1

R(x,a) =

1 0 0 0

0 0 Cosa sina - sina cosa 0 0

0 0 0 1

(5.50)

81

R(z,) =

cos - sin 0 0

sin cos 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

(5.51)

Sau php bin i (4.49) c th p dng trng hp (4.31), (4.32) ta c:


r c =Ac.A0. r
~

(5.52)

3.3. Php chiu hnh lp th (stereo). Nh phn trn y cp ti, mt im trn mt phng chiu c th l hnh chiu ca nhiu im trong khng gian, v th cha th xc nh c v tr thc ca n trong khng gian ba chiu. hnh dung c chiu su ca hnh nh cn n php chiu lp th (stereo). Php chiu lp th cn n 2 chiu x1, y1 v x2, y2 ca cng mt im M trong khng gian (hnh 4.17). Khong cch gia hai tiu c ca 2 thu knh gi l khong chun B.

Hnh 5 - 17. S php chiu lp th

82

Nhim v t ra l phi xc nh c ta X,Y,Z ca im M thng qua cc ta hnh chiu x1, y1 v x2, y2 ca n. Gi s rng cc camera nh nhau v c hai h ta gn lin vi camera hon ton trng khp nhau, ch khc v tr gc ban u. Cng nh phn trn, khi cho cc h ta gn lin vi cc camera trng vi h ta c bn th mt phng chiu xy trng vi mt phng ZY. Khi lm nh vy ta Z ca im M c gi nh nhau i vi c hai h ta camera. Khi cho h ta camera th nht trng vi h ta c bn X, Y, Z nh hnh 5-18 ta c: X1 =
X1

( -Z1)

(5.53)

Tng t lm nh vy i vi camera th hai ta c: X2 (5.54) =


X2

-Z2)

Hnh 5-18: hnh5-17 nhn t trn xung khi cho trng h ta camera

83

Nh c cc iu kin, nh nu trn (5.55) X2 Z2 =Z1 = Z T (5.53) - (5.54) ta c: X2 (5.56) = X1 + B =


X1

=X1

Z1)

T (5.55) - (5.56) ta c: Z= B
x 2 x1

(5.57)

Nh vy cc ta X, Y, Z ca im M trong khng gian 3 chiu hon ton c xc nh bng (5.39), (5.40), (5.57) 3.4. M t quan h robot v camera. Phng trnh (5.34) cho bit ta im ca vt th trong khng gian 3 chiu X, Y, Z (vct r ) thng qua thng tin v hnh chiu ca im (vct r c ) trn mt phng chiu ca camera. Ma trn (5.35) m t s chuyn i t h ta gn lin vi camera sang h ta c bn v c th biu th tng qut hn cho c vt th l ma trn CAM. Theo cc k hiu trnh by phn v d trong phn 5.22 th P m t v tr trng thi (v tr v nh hng) ca chiu cht vt th trong h ta gc (h ta c bn X, Y, Z). Vy y c th biu th: P = CAM PC (5.58)
~

84

vi PC m t vt th ang trong v tr trng thi ca vt th c xc nh theo mi quan h b tr khng gian ca robot, v d (4.19) th t (4.60) c th xc nh ma trn chuyn i t h ta gn lin vi camera sang h ta c bn: CAM (5.59) = PPC1

4. Th hin chng trnh thao tc ca robot. Chng trnh thao tc ca robot thc hin cc nhim v c giao. Nhim v c m t bng mt dy lin tip cc v tr thao tc. Trong v d l thao tc t p1 n p8 (hnh 5.8). Cc thao tc ny c th hin bn mt chng trnh, trong t cc phng trnh t (5.5) n (5.12) tng ng vi cc thao tc t p1 n p8, cn xc nh ra T, ng vi mi v tr trng thi ca im cui ca tay robot trong h ta c bn (h ta c nh). V d, ng vi thao tc p1, t (5.5) ta vit: ZT6E= PPA Tac: T6E = Z-1PPA V c th tip n p2 cho n p8 Nhng trc khi th hin chng trnh cc thao tc , cn s dng thm 2 bin: (5.60) (5.61)

COORD M t h ta ng vi v tr ang xt TOOL M t dng c ang c s dng.

Nh vy tt c cc phng trnh (tng t 5.61) ng vi cc v tr thao tc u c th vit di dng sau: T6TOOL (5.62) = COORD POS

85

V d, ng vi thao tc p1 ta c : COORD : = - Z + p TOOL : = E V thao tc l: MOVE PA: Trong cch vit trn, dng du (+) ch php nhn ma trn v du (-) ch php nhn ma trn nghch o. Theo , chng trnh th hin cc thao tc ca robot t p1 n p8 c th vit nh sau: TOOL : = E FOR I : = 1,2 BEGIN READ (CAMERA, PC): P : = CAM + PC COORD : = - Z + P MOVE PA: MOVE PG : GRASP : TOOL : = E PG cht. MOVE PD : i) HT : = HR [I] COORD : = - Z + H + HT Thng tin t camera V tr ca cht Ta ca cht Hng ti cht Sp kp cht Kp Dng c bay gi bao gn bn kp kp V tr xut pht (bt u mang cht V tr lp vao l Ta cua l DO Gn dng c

86

MOVE PHA : MOVE PCH : MOVE PAL : lp ) MOVE PN : RELEASE : COORD : = - Z + H + HT + PN TOOL : + E MOVE PA END

Hng ti l Chm vo l t ng tm vi l (lc chun b Lp vo l Di i Ta ca l lp

5. Chuyn ng gia cc im ta 5.1. t vn . Khi lp trnh qu o chuyn ng robot thc hin nhim v t ra, thng thng cn bit v tr v nh hng cc khu tc ng cui ca robot nhng im khc nhau trong khng gian thao tc. Gi chng l cc im ta. Cc im ta ny bao gm cc v tr bt buc phi i qua thc hin nhim v v c nhng v tr cng phi i qua trnh chng ngi vt trn ng i. Ty theo cng vic v mi trng lm vic ca robot m quyt nh s lng cc im ta. Khi bit v tr v nh hng ca khu tc ng cui theo cc phng php gii bi ton ng hc ngc, xc nh c cc gi tr bin khp (ta suy rng) iu khin chuyn ng ca tng khp ng v tng hp li thnh chuyn ng chung ca robot theo mt qu o nht nh. Hay ni chnh xc hn l theo cc im ta ca qu o. phn ny, kho st s chuyn ng gia cc im ta l chn ra nhng quy lut chuyn ng hp l. Cc rng buc y c th l gia tc v vn tc chuyn dch, cn hn ch do chng ngi vt trn ng i c nh hng bng v

87

tr cc im ta b sung. phn cui s xem xt n cc hn ch v ng lc hc khi chn la quy lut chuyn ng ca robot. C 2 cch tip cn vn v chn la quy lut chuyn ng hp l gia cc im ta: Cch th nht thng tin hnh trong h ta suy rng, tc l trong khng gian cc bin khp qi (t). Khi , nu cho trc cc iu kin nh m bo lin tc v iu ha nhng im chuyn tip, c th xc nh h s c hm a thc biu th gn ng ng cong qu o. Cch th hai thng dng trong h ta cc. Lc cho trc dng hm gii tch, v d, hm bc nht biu th qu o gm nhiu on thng ni tip nhau. Sau , thay th gn ng qu o ny bng quan h hm tng ng ca bin khp. Nh vy lp trnh qu o qua cc im ta c th tin hnh trong h ta cc bin khp hoc trong h ta cc. Khi lp trnh trong h ta cc bin khp, cn bit quan h qi (t) v cc o hm bc nht v bc hai ca chng.

Lp trnh qu o trong h ta cc bin khp c cc u im sau: 1) Cho bit thng tin v bin khp l nhng thng s iu khin trc tip cc khp ng. 2) V vy c nhiu kh nng m bo thi gian thc trong iu khin. 3) Vic lp trnh d dng hn.

Nhc im chnh l thng qua gi tr ca cc bin khp cha th hnh dung ra ngay v tr ca c cu tay my trong khng gian, m v vy phi tnh ton nhiu ln, v d, kim nghim xem c b chm vo cc vt th xung quanh khng. Thng dng hn l cch thc sau: t ta cc im ta gii bi ton ng hc ngc tm gi tr cc bin khp, ri dng php ni suy xp x

88

bng hm a thc bc thp nht xy dng quy lut thay i thch hp cc gi tr bin khp, tng ng vi qu o cc im ta bt buc. C nhiu gii php gii quyt vn ny, v d, m t qu o gm nhiu on thng ni tip hoc dng Spline bc 3 . . .

5.2. M t qu o bng Spline bc 3. Spline bc 3 l php ni suy hm a thc bc 3 m bo s lin tc ca o hm bc nht v bc 2 ti cc im ta. Phng php ny cho php xy dng quy lut xp x vi bin i iu ha v chnh xc cn thit. Xt di y trng hp qu o bt u t im xut pht v i qua 5 im ta. Khi dng Spline bc 3, mi qu o c m t bng mt a thc bc 3: (5.63) hj (t) = aj3t3 + aj2t2 + aj1t + aj0

Vi t - thi gian quy i: t=


t t j =1 t j t j =1

; t [t j = 1, tj] ,

t [0,1]

t - thi gian thc, tnh bng giy; tj - thi gian (thc) ng vi im cui ca on qu o th j tj-1 - thi gian (thc) ng vi im u ca on qu o th j; Aj - h s th i ca a thc ng vi on qu o th j, j = 1, 2, 3, 4,. . .n (n l don cui) Trn hnh 5-19 trnh by cc on qu o m t bng Spline bc 3. iu kin bin ca cc on qu o cng ghi trn hnh v, bao gm gi tr qj cc im ta, vn tc vj v gia tc aj o hm bc nht v bc 2 ca hm a thc hj (t) theo thi gian thc c tnh nh sau:

89

v (t) =

dh j (t ) dt

dh j (t ) dt dh (t ) 1 1 dh (t ) 1 . = . j = . j = .hj (t) , i = 1. . n t t j 1 tj tj dt dt dt dt

a (t) =

d 2 h j (t ) (t t j 1 ) 2

d 2 h j (t ) dt 2

2 1 d h j (t ) 1 = 2. = 2 .hj (t) , 2 tj tj dt

i = 1,2 . . . n

Hnh 5-19: M t qu o bng Spline bc 3

Cc h s aij c xc nh t cc iu kin bin ny on qu o th nht m t bng a thc sau: hj (t) = a13t3 + a12t2 + a11t + a10 v tr xut pht t = 0 v q0 bit trc, ta c: h1 (0) = a10 = q0

90

v0 =

h1 (0) a = 11 t1 t1

T , ta c: a11 = v0 t1 a12 =
a 0 t12 2

V do ta c: a0 =
h1 (0) 2a = 221 2 t1 t1

(5.64)

v tr t = 1 ta c:
a 0 t12 h1 = a13 + + v0t1 + q0 = q1 2

(5.65)

T , ta c: a13 = d1 - v0t1 a 0 t12 2

(5.66)

y cng nh v sau dng k hiu 1 = q1 q1 +1 Nh vy, on qu o u tin c biu th bng phng trnh sau: h1(t) = (d1 - v0t1 2 a0 t0 a t2 )t3 + ( 0 0 )t2 + (v0t1)t + q0 2 2

(5.67)

T , xc nh vn tc v gia tc ti im cui ca on qu o th nht: h1(t) = v1 = 3d1 (5.68)


2 ( a 0 t 0 ) / 2 2v 0 t1 t3

3d 1 t1

- 2v0 -

v 0 t1 2

91

h1(t) (5.69)

a1

2 ( a 0 t 0 ) / 2 2v 0 t1 t3

6d 1 t12

6v 0 t1

2a0

y cng l vn tc v gia tc ti im u ca on qu o th hai on qu o cui c m t bng a thc sau: hn (t) = an3t3 + an2t2 + an1t + an0 (5.70)

Theo cc iu kin im u (t = 0) v im cui (t = 1) ca on qu o, xc nh: hn (0) = ano = qn cho bit trc (5.72) h1 (t) = an3 + an2 + an1 + an0 (5.71) = q1

hn (1) = vf = tn hn (1) 2 tn

3a n 3 + 2a n 2 + a n1 tn

(5.72) =
6a n 3 + 2 a n 2 2 tn

af

(5.74)

Gii cc phng trnh ny tm cc h s an3, an2, an1 cui cng ta c: h1(t) = (dn - vftn +
2 a f t2

)t + (-3dn + 3vftn - af t )t + (3dn + 3vftn +


2 2

2 a f t2

)+ qn

(5.75) Vi n = qf qn on qu o th hai c m t bng a thc sau: h2 (t) = a23t3 + a22t2 + a21t + a20 (5.76)

92

Theo cc iu kin bin im u ca qu o ny (t = 0) ta c: h2 (0) = a20 = q1 a1 =


h 2 ( 0) a h (1) = 21 = 1 t2 t2 t1

(5.77) (5.78)

Do vy a21 = v1t2 a1 = T : a22 =


2 a1 t 2 2

h 2 ( 0) h (1) 2a = 222 = 1 2 2 t2 t2 t1

(5.79)

Vi cc h s ny a thc h2 (t) c dng sau: h2 (5.80) Vi v1 = a1 =


a t 3d 1 - 2v0 - 0 1 t1 2 6v 0 6d 1 - 2a 2 t1 t1

(t)

a23t

2 a1 t 2 2 ( )t 2

(v1t2)t

q1

(5.81) (5.82)

Thay vo (5.80) cc iu kin t = 1 ng vi im cui ca qu o th hai, cng tc l im u ca on qu o tip theo: h2 (1) = q2 = a23
2 a1 t 2 + + v1t2 + q1 2

(5.83)

93

h2 (1) = v2 = t2

2 3a 3a n 3 + a1t 2 + v1t 2 = v1 +a1t2 + 23 t2 t2

(5.84)

h2 (1) 2 t2

a2

2 6a n 3 + a1 t 2 2 tn

a1

6a 23 2 tn

(5.85) Cc v tr q2 v2 v a2 u ph thuc vo a23 on qu o th ba c m t bng a thc sau: h3 (t) = a33t3 + a32t2 + a31t + a30 im u t = 0, ta c: h0 (0) = a30 = q2 = a23 +
2 a1 t 2 + v1t2 + q1 2

(5.86)

(5.87)

vf =

a h3 (0) h (1) = 31 = 2 t2 t3 t2

(5.88)

T , a31 = v2t3 Tip theo a2 =


h3 (0) 2a h (1) = 231 = 2 2 2 t3 t3 t3

(5.89)

T ta c: a32 =
2 a2 t3 2

Thay cc h s va xc nh c vo (5.87) ta c h3 (t) = a32t3 + (


2 a2 t3 2 )t + (v2t3)t + q2 2

(5.90)

94

Theo iu kin bin khi t = 1 ng vi im cui ca on qu o th ba, cng tc l im u ca on qu o tip theo, ta c:


2 a2 t3 h3 (1) = q3 = q2 = a33 + + v2t3 2

(5.90)

h3 (1) = v3 = t3

2 3a 3a 33 + a 2 t 3 + v 2 t 3 = v2 +a2t3 + 33 t3 t2

(5.91)

h3 (1) = a3 = 2 t3

2 6a 6a 33 + a 3 t 3 = a2 + 233 2 t3 t3

(5.92)

Cc v tr q3 v3 v a3 u ph thuc vo a23 on qu o th ba c m t bng a thc sau: h4 (t) =a43t3 + a42t2 + a41t + a40 (5.93)

v4 =

h (1) h 4 ( 0) a = 41 = 3 t4 t4 t3

(5.94) (5.95)

2 a2 t3 + v2t3 h4 (0) = a40 = q3 = q2 = a33 + 2

ng vi cc iu kin bin ti im u, t = 0 ta c: a41 = v3t4 Tip theo

95

a3 = T ta c: a42 =

h (1) h 4 ( 0) 2a = 242 = 3 2 2 t4 t4 t2

(5.96)

2 a3t4 2

Thay cc h s va xc nh c vo (5.95) ta c
2 a3t4 2 h4 (t) = a42t + ( )t + (v3t4)t + q3 2

(5.97)

Theo iu kin bin ti im cui t = 1, ta c h4 (t) = a43 +


2 a3t4 + v3t4 + q3 = q4 2

(5.98) (5.99) (5.100)

a t 3a 43 3 n h4 (1) = + a3t4 + vf = v4 = + vf - f n t4 tn t4 2 6v 6d n ba h4 (1) = 242 + a3 = a4 = + f - 2af 2 2 tn t4 tn t4

T phng trnh ny c th xc nh cc h s a23, a33, a43 phn trn cn l n s Cui cng c phng trnh cc on qu o nh sau: h1 (t) = (1 - v0t1 v1 =
a 0 t12 3 a t2 )t + ( 0 1 )t2 + (v0t1)t + q0 2 2

(5.101) (5.102) (5.103)

a t 6v 3d 1 6d - 2v0 - 0 1 ; a1 = 2 1 - 0 - 2a0 t1 2 t1 t1
2 a1 t 2 2 )t + (v1t2)t + q1 2

h2 (t) = a23t3 + (

96

2 a1 t 2 q2 = a23 + + v1t2 + q1 2

(5.104) (5.105)
2 a2 t3 2 ( )t 2

v2 = v1 + a1t1 + h3 (5.106) (t) =

3a 23 6a ; a2 = a1 + 223 t2 t2

a33t

(v2t3)t

q2

2 a2 t3 q3 = a33 + + v2t3 + q2 2

(5.107) (5.108)
2 a3t4 2 ( )t 2

v3 = v1 + a2t3 + h4 (5.109) (t) =

3a 33 6a ; a3 = a2 + 233 t3 t3

a43t

(v3t4)t

q3

hn (t) = (n vftn a t 2
2 f n

2 a f tn

)t3 + (- 3n + vftn - a f t n2 )t2 + (3n 2vftn + (5.110)

)t+ q4 v4 =
a t 6v 3d n 6d - 2vf + f n ; a4 = 2 n - f - 2a0f tn 2 tn tn

(5.111) (5.112)

a23 = t 22 Trong :

X X1 X ; a33 = t 32 2 ; a43 = t 42 3 D D D

x1 = k1(u t2) + k2( t 42 - d) k3[(u t4)d + t 42 (t4 t2)] x2 = - k1(u t3) + k2(c - t 42 ) + k3[(u t4)c + t 42 (t4 t2)] x1 = k1(u t4) + k2(d - c) + k3[(t4 t4)c - d(u t2)] D = u(u t2)(u t4)

(5.113) (5.114) (5.115) (5.116)

97

u = t4 + t3 + t2 k1 = q4 q1 v1u a1 k2 = k3 =
u2 2

(5.117) (5.118) (5.119) (5.120) (5.121) (5.122)

v 4 v1 a 1 u ( a 4 a 1 )u / 2 3 a 4 a1 6

c = 3u2 3ut2 + t 22 d = 3 t 42 + 3t3t4 + t 34 5.3. Lp trnh qu o trong h ta cc.

Trong phn trc xy dng qu o trong khng gian cc bin khp (ta suy rng) v ni suy bng a thc bc thp. Mc d theo gi tr cc bin khp c th hon ton xc nh v tr v nh hng ca bn kp trong khng gian ta cc. Tuy nhin, d hnh dung trc quan hn, ngi lp trnh cn trc tip tn hnh lp trnh qu o trong h ta cc. Nhim v lp trnh l xy dng qu o chuyn ng ca bn kp, (mc du ni l bn kp nhng y hiu chnh xc hn l ca im tc ng cui, khi dng c gn vo tay my hoc bn kp) m bo v tr trng thi (v tr nh hng) ca n ti cc im ta v ni lin cc im ta ny vi nhau. Nh bit ti tng im ta c th dng ma trn thun nht 4x4 m t quan gia ta gn lin vi bn kp v h ta c bn. Gi tr cc bin khp ti cc im ta ny c xc nh theo cc phng php gii bao ton ng hc ngc. Nh vy ma trn 4x4 ni trn cng hon ton xc nh. T im ta ny sang im ta kia c th thc hin bng cch di chuyn theo ng thng ni hai im v theo cc chuyn ng quay m bo nh hng ti ca bn kp.

Trong trng hp ny chng ta vit:

98

T6 = Cj(t)Pij

(5.123)

Vi T6 ma trn thun nht 4x4, m t nh v v nh hng ca bn kp trong h ta c bn. Pij - ma trn thun nht 4x4, m t nh v v nh hng ca vt th i tc b kp ang v tr th i trong h ta tham chiu th j ca vt th i tc. Cj (t) - ma trn thun nht 4x4, m t quan h gia h ta tham chiu ca vt th i tc so vi h ta c bn. Quan h ny c th thay i theo thi gian t, hoc khng i, thm ch bng ma trn n v, nu h ta tham chiu ny trng vi h ta c bn. Nu chn gc h ta tham chiu ca vt th i tc trng vi im th (i + 1) khi xt chuyn ng ca im th i th ta c: T6 = Ci, i +1(t)Pi, i +1 (5.124)

Vic m t di chuyn t im th i ti im th (i + 1) c th m t bng ma trn D(), b sung vo (5.124), ta c:

T6() = Cj()Pi, i +1D() Vi

(5.125)

1 , [0, 1] T

t - thi gian thc tnh t m u ca on qu o ang xt; T - tng thi gian di chuyn trn on qu o ny; Vy l thi gian quy i khng th nguyn. im u ca on qu o, im i: t = 0; = 0; D(0) bng ma trn n v v im cui don qu o im i + 1, th t = T; = 1 v

99

Pi (5.126) T ta c: D(1) (5.127)

+1,i

Pi,i

1D(l)

(Pi,i

1)

Pi

+1,i

Nh bit, c th m t nh v v nh hng ca bn kp (khi kp vt th i tc) ti v tr im ta i v (i + 1) bng cc ma trn A v B sau y:

n xA

s xA
A sy

a xA
A ay

p xA
A py

Pi,i+1 = A =

A ny

A z

A z

A z

A z

nA 0

sA 0

aA 0

pA 1

(5.128)

B nx

B sx

B ax

B px

Pi+1,i+1 = A

B ny

B sy

B ay

B py

n zB

s zB

a zB

p zB

nB 0

sB 0

aB 0

pB 1

(5.129)

Trn c s (5.127), (5.128) v (5.129) ta c:

nA.nB nA.sB

nA.aB

nA.(pB pA)

100

D(1) =

sA.nB aA.nB 0

sA.sB aA.sB 0

sA.aB nA.a 0

sA.(pB pA) aA.(pB pA) 1

(5.130)

Du (.) gia hai tha s (v d, nA.nB) l k hiu php nhn v hng vc t. Ma trn D() c th biu th bng mt quan h hm sau: D() = L() RA() RB() (5.131)

Vi L() =

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 1 1 0

x y z 1

(5.132)

RA()

S 2 () S C V() S C V() C S () 2 S S() 0 S C V() C V() = C() C S () S S() C() 0 0 0 0 1

(5.133)

C ( ) S ( ) S ( ) C ( ) RB = 0 0 0 0
Trong :

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

(5.134)

101

V() = 1 cos () C() = cos(), S() = sin() C() = cos(), S() = sin() v [0,1] Ma trn RA m t s quay v tr ti im i, gc quay vect hng ti aA. Ma trn RB () m t s quay v tr ti dim (i +), gc quay quanh vec t hng ti aB. Thay (5.132), (5.133) v (5.134), ta c:

dn dn da dp D() = 0 0 0 0
Vi

(5.135)

2 S ()[S V() + C() S C V()] 2 s = S()[S C V() + C()[C V() + C()] S() C S () + C()[S S()

C S() a = S S() ; C()

x dp = x ; n = s x a x

So snh cc phn t tng ng ca 2 ma trn (4.138) v (4.143) khi = 1, ta c:


x = n A .( p B p A ) y = s A ( pB p A ) z = a A .( p B p A )

(5.136)

ng vi cc phn th 3 ta c:
= arctg
s A .a B n A .a B

(5.137)

102

[(n .n = arctg
A

) + (s A .a B )2 ]
a A .a B

1/ 2

(0

(5.138)

Cui cng tm biu thc tnh :


2 S = S C V ( )(n A .n B ) + C V ( ) + C ( ) ( s A .n B ) S S ( )(n A .n B )

(4.147)
2 C = S .C V ( )(n A .n B ) + C V ( ) + C ( ) ( s A .n B ) S S ( )(n A n B )

(4.148)
= arctg
S C

(5.139)

D() c gi l hm dn. Tu theo cc yu cu nh hng bn kp m xc nh D(), cn nhiu v tr tm bn kp c di chuyn trn ng thng ni 2 im ta. Nhiu khi li cn phi dng on cong chuyn tip gia 2 on qu o ng thng trnh s thay i t ngt v tc di chuyn. Trn y trnh by trng hp xy dung qu o gia 2 im ta i v i + 1. Theo , v tr tm bn kp c di chuyn dc theo ng ni 2 tm im ta. Trong khi bn thn kp thc hin cc chuyn ng quay (ti v tr quay phc hp vi gc v , cn ti v tr (i + 1) gc quay . on cong chuyn tip ti im giao nhau ca 2 qu o thng, c xy dung nh php ni suy bc 2. Trong thc t cn c th thc hin qu o qua cc im ta bng nhiu phng php khc nhau v phi xt ti cc c im cng ngh. Tu theo loi hnh cng ngh c robot phc v m xc nh cc c tnh ng hc, ng lc hc ti mt s im ta quan trng a thm cc iu kin rng buc khi xy dung qu o i qua cc im ta ny. Trn hnh 4.20 l s thao tc ca mt robot c nhim v ly cc chic inh c trong cha lp vo cc l v i qua cc im ta theo qu o l cc on thng.

103

Hnh 5 20: S thao tc ca robot qua cc im ta Theo nhim v t ra ta thit lp cc phng trnh ma trn ti cc v tr im ta khc nhau: im p0: [BASE] [T6] [E] = [p0] im p1: [BASE] [T6] [E] = [B0][p1] im p2: [BASE] [T6] [E] = [B0] [p2] im p3: [BASE] [T6] [E] = [B0] [p3] im p4: [BASE] [T6] [E] = [BR] [p4] im p5: [BASE] [T6] [E] = [BR] [p5] (5.140) (5.141) (5.142) (5.143) (5.144) (5.145)

Trong cc phng trnh trn dng cc k hiu sau biu th cc ma trn thun nht 4 x 4 : [BASE]- ma trn quan h gia h to c bn x,y,z gn lin vi robot v h to c nh x0, y0, z0. [B0]- ma trn quan h gia h to gn lin vi v tr ca cha inh c, so vi h x0, y0, z0.

104

[BR]- ma trn quan h gia cc to gn lin vi cc vt th c cc l inh c, so vi h x0, y0, z0. [P0]- ma trn quan h gia cc to gn lin vi v tr xut pht, so vi h x0, y0, z0. [P1, P2, P3]- cc ma trn quan h gia cc to gn lin vi cc im ta P1, P2, P3, so vi h to lin quan vi [B0]. [T6]- ma trn quan h gia to gn lin vi im cui ca tay my v h to c bn x, y, z [E]- ma trn quan h gia to gn lin vi bn kp so vi h to [T6] biu th s dch chuyn t im Pi n Pi+1 (i = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) dng ma trn Pi, i+1. V d, khi m t s dch chuyn t P0 n P1 ta vit li (5.140) trong h to P0 : [T6] = [BASE]-1[P00][E]-1 V trong h to P1, ta c: [T6] = [BASE]-1[B0][P01][E]-1 T (4.146) v (5.147) ta c : [P01] = [B0]-1[P00] (5.148) (5.147) (5.146)

Nh vy, vic chuyn t v tr im ta P0 n v tr im ta P1 dc theo on thng ni chng vi nhau, cu hnh ca tay my thay i t [T6] = [BASE]-1[B0][P01][E]-1 Sang cu hnh sau : [T6] = [BASE]-1[B0][P11][E]-1 (5.150) (5.149)

5.4 M t qu o qua cc im ta bng a thc bc 3 c xt n cc hn ch v ng lc hc

105

K hiu Qij(t) l a thc bc 3 biu din s bin thin ca bin khp (to suy rng) th j gia 2 im ta Bi v Bi+1 trong khong thi gian [ti, ti+1]. Vn l ni ghp cc a thc Qij ny li (i = 1, 2, n 1) sao cho qu o phi i qua cc im ta v m bo tnh lin tc v hnh trnh, vn tc, gia tc trong sut khong thi gian [t1, tn] V Qij(t) l a thc bc 3 nn qu o hm bc 2 ca chng l hm bc nht theo thi gian t :
Qij (t ) = t i +1 t i (t t1 ) Qij (t i ) + Qij (t i +1 ) ui ui

(5.151)

Vi i = 1, 2, n 1; J = 1, 2, N Ui Thi gian di chuyn trn on ng th i, ui = ti+1 - ti Ly tch phn 2 ln vi cc iu kin bin: Qij (ti) = qij; Qij (ti+1) = qj,i+1; Ta c
Qij (t ) = Qij (t ) 6u i (t i +1 t ) 3 + Qij (t i +1 ) 6u i q j ,i +1 u i Qij (t i ) q j ,i u i Q ji (t i ) (t t i ) 3 + (t t i ) + (t i +1 t ) 6 6 ui ui

(5.152) I = 1, 2, n 1; j = 1, 2, N Nh vy i vi cc im i = 1, 2, n-1 th Qij(t) l xc nh nu bit cc o hm bc 2 ca chng ti cc thi im ti v ti+1. Trn c s ta c (n 2) phng trnh tuyn tnh vi n s Q3(ti), i = 2n 1: AQ = b

106

Q j 2 (t 2 ) Q (t ) j3 3 Q= ... Q j ,n1 (t n1 ) u2 3u1 + 2u 2 + 1 u2 2 u1 u2 u 2 0 A= . . 0 u2 2(u 2 + u3 ) u3 . . 0 0 u3 0 .

(5.153)

0 . . . . 0

0 . . u n 3 . 0

2(u3 + u 4 ) . u4 2(u 4 + u n3 ) 0 0 . 0

. . . . . . 2 u u n2 n2 2(u n3 + u n2 ) u n2 2 u u n2 3u n 1 + 2u n2 + n1 u n2 0 0

107

q j 3 q ji 1 u2 1 6 6 + q ji + u1 v ji + 1 a ji u1 a ji + 3 u1 u1 u 2 u2 2 6q j 4 1 u1 6 1 q ji + u1 v ji + a ji + 6 + q j 3 3 u3 u2 u2 u3 q j5 q j 4 q4 q j3 6 u3 u4 q j5 q j 4 q4 q j3 6 u3 u4 . b= . . 2 u 6 q jn v jn u n 1 + n 1 a jn u n2 3 1 1 6 q j , n 3 6 + q j ,n2 + u n 3 u n 2 u n 3 2 1 u n 1 1 a jn + 6 + q jn v jn u n 1 + u n 1 u n 2 3 6q jn q n2 + +6 u n 1 a jn u n 1 u n 1u n 2

Nu ui lun lun dng, t phng trnh (5.154) ta c: Q = A-1b (5.155)

V sau khi thay vo (5.152) s c biu thc xc nh Qji(t). Nh vy Qji(t) ph thuc vo khong thi gian ui, vo cc gi tr ca bin khp, ca vn tc v gia tc cc im ta. tng nng sut thao tc tay, my phi thc hin qu o chuyn dch vi thi gian ngn nht. C th t bi ton ti u chn khong thi gian ui sao cho tng thi gian T l min trong phm vi gii hn v vn tc, gia tc v lc suy rng Hm mc tiu: T = ui min

108

Gii hn v vn tc

Q ji (t ) V j

j = 1, 2,N I = 1, 2,,n 1

Gii hn v vn tc

Q ji (t ) V j

j = 1, 2,N I = 1, 2,,n 1

Gii hn v lc : [FMj] Fj j = 1, 2,, N

Trong Vj; Aj v Fj l cc gi tr gii hn v vn tc, gia tc v lc suy rng i vi khp ng th j. Cc iu kin v gii hn ni trn c th vit chi tit hn nh sau: Gii hn v vn tc Ly vi phn biu thc (5.152) v t: Qji(ti) = ji Q(ti+1) = ji+1 Ta c Qji(ti) =
q j ,i +1 ui w j ,i +1 q ji ui w ji (ti +1 t ) 2 + 2ui 6 ui 6 ui w ji
w j ,i +1 ui (t t i ) w ji ui (t t i +1 )

(5.156) (5.157)

(5.158)

Q ji (t ) =

(5.159)

Trong ji gia tc gc tnh bng (5.156) ti im ta Bi thi gian Ti. Khong thigian [ti, ti+1) vn tc c th t cc i thi im ti no . Ti thi im t * ny ta c i

109

Qji ( t * ) = 0 i Nh vy
tt [ i , ti +1]

(5.160)

max |Qji| = max Q ji (t i )

ji

( t +1 i )

ji

( t * ) < Vi i

(5.161) i = 1,2, ... , n = 1; j = 1,2,... N Trong ;

Q ji (t i ) =

ji 2

ui +

q j,i+1 q ji ui

( ji j,i +1 )u i 6 + ( ji j,i +1 )u i 6
+ q ji +1 q j,i ui

Q ji (t i ) =
Q ji (t * ) = ii

ji +1 2

ui +

q j,i+1 q ji ui
+ 6

ji j,i u i 2

( j,i ji )

Gii hn vgia tc: vi qu o hnh tnh biu th bng cc a thc b 3 th quan h gia tc theo thi gian l hm bc nht, cho nn trong khong thi gian [ti, ti+1] gia tc ln nht t hoc thi im ti hoc ti+1 v bng gi tr ln nht trong 2 gi tr |ji| v |ji+1| Vy iu kin gii hn v gia tc c dng sau:
Max j1 , j 2 , j3 ,... m } A j

(5.162)

J = 1,2,3... n

110

111