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Toshimichi Fukuoka

Professor e-mail: fukuoka@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp

Analysis of Heat Flow Around Bolted Joints and Variations of Axial Bolt Force
A bolted joint is widely used for the structures and machines subjected to thermal load, such as pressure vessels, internal combustion engines, brake disks, etc. In order to accurately evaluate the thermal stresses thus produced, the effect of thermal contact resistance at the interface and the heat ow through small gaps, which exist around the objective bolted joint, must be taken into account. In this paper, a numerical approach is proposed to solve the mechanical and thermal behaviors of bolted joints with high accuracy and computation efciency, where empirical equations for thermal contact coefcient and apparent thermal contact coefcient are incorporated into commercial engineering software. By conducting systematic three-dimensional nite element analyses, it has been quantitatively elucidated how the supplied heat ows through each part of a bolted joint and how the axial bolt stress and bolt bending stress vary with time. It is concluded that bolted joints made of the materials with low thermal conductivity show specic heat ow patterns around the bolted joint and generate a large amount of variations in both axial bolt stress and bolt bending stress. DOI: 10.1115/1.4000198

Masataka Nomura
Associate Professor e-mail: nomura@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp

Keiichi Shino
Graduate Student Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Fukaeminami 5-1-1, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-0022, Japan

Introduction

The magnitude of bolt preload is varied when the bolted joint is subjected to thermal load. It is caused by the difference in thermal expansion between the bolt-nut connection and the fastened plates. Such variations in bolt preload due to thermal load necessarily occur since the assembly of bolted joints is usually conducted under room temperature 18 . From the engineering point of view, therefore, it is particularly important to establish a numerical method with high accuracy and computation efciency, which can analyze the heat ow mechanism around the bolted joint and estimate the variations of bolt preloads, for designing the structures and machines subjected to transient thermal load. The key to accomplish the numerical analysis with high accuracy is to consider the effect of thermal contact resistance at the concerned interface. When analyzing the bolted joint subjected to thermal load, the amounts of heat ow through the interfaces under high pressure, such as the pressure ank of threads and the loaded surfaces of nut and bolt head, have primary importance. Also important is the heat ow through the small gap existing between the bolt body and the plate hole 911 . In the previous studies, as far as the joint interface is concerned, the heat is assumed to ow only through the limited area of the interface under pressure, referring to the pressure cone theory 12,13 . At the real plate interface, however, a fair amount of heat ows through the interface outside the pressure cone, where the mating surfaces are slightly in contact. Thus, it is necessary to consider the heat ow through the aforementioned interface for precisely evaluating the thermal and mechanical behaviors of bolted joints 9 . In this paper, heat ow patterns around the bolted joint and the bolt stress variations are comprehensively analyzed by incorporating the effects of thermal contact resistances existing at contact surfaces and around small gaps into three-dimensional nite element analysis, aiming to provide fundamental data necessary for designing bolted joints subjected to transient thermal load. It is quantitatively evaluated how the supplied heat ows into each part of the bolted joint and how the axial bolt stress and the
Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 2, 2008; nal manuscript received July 27, 2009; published online October 8, 2009. Assoc. Editor: G. E. Otto Widera.

resulting bending stress vary with time. As a result, it has been found that the bolted joints made of the materials with low thermal conductivity exhibit specic heat ow patterns and generate a large amount of variations in both axial bolt stress and bolt bending stress.

2 Heat Flow Around Bolted Joint and Thermal Contact Resistance


2.1 Heat Flow Around Bolted Joint. In the previous paper 10 , fundamental characteristics of a bolted joint subjected to thermal load has been elucidated, where the analytical object is a hollow cylinder tightened with a single bolt heated uniformly from the outer surface. However, the actual machinery and structures have more complicated geometries. In the case of pipe ange connections, for instance, the heat supplied by the contained uid ows outward in the radial direction, as shown in Fig. 1 a . In contrast, in the case of brake disks, the heat generated along its outer diameter ows inwards. In this case, it can be assumed that the disk is heated uniformly by the annular heat source, if the number of disk revolution is high. In the present study, a three-dimensional model with simple geometry, shown in Fig. 2, is selected to evaluate the thermal and mechanical behaviors of actual machines and structures. It corresponds to the case of = 0 in Figs. 1 a and 1 b . A brick-shaped fastened plate clamped with a single bolt is heated from one side and the other side is exposed to a convection boundary. Insulation boundaries are assumed on the other four surfaces located along the heat ow direction. Of interest are how much heat ows through the engaged threads, bolt shank, bolt head, and fastened plate, and how the proportion of heat ow through each part varies with time. In Fig. 2, Qtotal is the total amount of supplied heat. Qth, Qshk, Qhd, and Q f are the amounts of heat ow through the corresponding four parts. The sum of the proportions of heat ow through the four parts reduces to unity. Qth + Qshk + Qhd + Q f =1 Qtotal 1

2.2 Thermal Contact Coefcient and Apparent Thermal Contact Coefcient. A bolted joint has four kinds of contact surfaces, such as the pressure ank of threads, the loaded surfaces of DECEMBER 2009, Vol. 131 / 061203-1

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Heat
bolt bolt
bolt bolt

Heat

bolt bolt

bolt

bolt

(a) pipe flange

(b) brake disk

Fig. 1 Heat ow around pipe ange and brake disk

nut and bolt head, and the interface between plates. In order to accurately evaluate the temperature eld, the effects of thermal contact resistance at those surfaces must be taken into account 1417 . Meanwhile, small gaps exist between the bolt body and the plate hole, and around the clearance ank of engaged threads. It was found in the previous papers 9,10 that the heat ow through the small gaps signicantly affected the thermal behavior of the bolted joint. Accordingly, to precisely analyze the thermal and mechanical behaviors of bolted joints under transient thermal load, it is considered effective to introduce thermal contact coefcient hc, which is the reciprocal of the thermal contact resistance, and apparent thermal contact coefcient he, which represents the amount of heat ow through small gap. hc and he can be calculated using the following equations 911 . The latter coefcient represents the heat ow in the radial direction normal to the mating surfaces, and the circumferential heat transfer could be negligible as far as still air is concerned. p Hv
m R at 2/3

c2 = 0.09 m = 0.8 n = 0.7 he =


a g

0.085,0.095 0.8,0.9 0.7,0.8 + h cv + h r 2 3

hc = 105 c1

c2
n R at

R at = R a1 + R a2 c1 = 0.06 0.055,0.065

Qtotal
Heat Flux Qf Qshk Qf Insulated Heat Flux Q th Qshk Qf Qhd Bolt Insulated Nut Insulated Insulated

, p, and Hv are thermal conductivity W / m K , apparent contact pressure MPa , and Vickers hardness of the contacting solids. Ra represents the surface roughness of arithmetic mean m . The subscripts 1 and 2 of Ra are used to identify each contact surface consisting of the interface. Four constants, c1, c2, m, and n are selected over the ranges, as shown. a and g are thermal conductivity of air W / m K and the gap size m . hcv and hr are coefcients of convection and radiation heat transfer W / m2 K , respectively. Although the magnitude of hc is inuenced by various factors, as predicted from Eq. 2 , it can be expressed as a function of contact pressure p when , Hv, and Ra of the target structure are given. In like manner, he is expressed as a function of gap size g. In the previous study 10 , the variations of axial bolt stress and bolt surface temperatures were analyzed using axisymmetric models of bolted joints with the computer code developed by authors. The numerical results thus obtained were found to be in good agreement with experimental ones. In this study, the same axisymmetric problem has been analyzed by incorporating the aforementioned thermal contact coefcient and apparent thermal contact coefcient into commercial engineering software, ABAQUS VER. 6.7, and it has been conrmed that the present numerical results agree with the previous ones within numerical errors.

Q th Qhd

3 Analyses of Coupled Problems of Thermal and Stress Fields


3.1 Numerical Models and Analytical Procedures. Figure 3 shows an example of nite element models employed here. The total numbers of nodes and elements are 11,081 and 8208, respectively. Thread geometry is axisymmetric. One-half of the bolted joint is modeled considering the geometric symmetry about the heat ow direction. A block of 64mm in length, L f , is tightened by a M16 bolt with coarse thread. Grip length L f is changed as L f / d = 4 , 5 , 6, where d denotes the nominal diameter of bolt. The width of the block W is changed as W / d = 2 , 3 , 4. The gap sizes around the bolt hole and the clearance ank of threads are taken as 1.5 mm and 0.1 mm. The objective bolted joint is supposed to be entirely made of the same material, including bolt and nut, such as structural carbon steel S45C, stainless steel SUS304, and aluminum alloy A2024. These three kinds of materials are equivalent to AISI 1045, ASTM S30400, and ASTM 2024, respectively. AlTransactions of the ASME

Plate

Fig. 2 Proportion of heat ow in each part of a bolted joint subjected to thermal load

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Lf

Fig. 4 Temperature and heat ux distributions for standard analytical condition

surfaces are supposed to be insulated, as explained in Fig. 2. The ambient temperature is 20 C. The displacements perpendicular to the symmetric plane and the heated surface are fully restrained. Also, the displacements in the bolt-axis direction are restrained at the lower side of the heated surface.
Fig. 3 Three-dimensional FE model for standard condition

though bolts made of aluminum alloy are not used so frequently, A2024 is selected here to examine the effect of thermal properties comprehensively because of its high thermal conductivity and large coefcient of thermal expansion. The materials are supposed to be linearly elastic. Thermal and mechanical properties of the joint materials are given in Table 1. , , and c are linear coefcient of thermal expansion 1/K , density kg/ m3 , and specic are Youngs modulus heat J / kg K of the materials. E and GPa and Poissons ratio. It is assumed that the material properties are independent of temperature in order to mitigate the difculty involved in numerical analyses. Initial bolt stress i is taken as 100MPa. Coefcient of friction and surface roughness Ra are set to be 0.15 m and 3.2 m at all contact surfaces. The standard analytical condition is specied as L f / d = 4 and W / d = 2. It is well known that the temperature difference among the parts of the bolted joint necessarily causes a certain amount of differential expansion between them, which leads to the variation in bolt preload. Accordingly, the resulting variation in the contact pressure at each surface changes the amount of hc. Also, the amount of he slightly changes due to the expansion of each part, which causes the variation in gap size g. In the subsequent chapters, timemarching analyses are carried out, where the interaction between temperature and stress elds, and the variations of hc and he with time are taken into consideration. 3.2 Boundary Conditions. The intensity of the heat ux on the heated surface is set to be 11.63 W / m2. It corresponds to the total supplied heat Qtotal of 24 W for the standard analytical condition. At the convection boundary, coefcient of heat transfer hcv is set to be 25 W / m2 K, referring to the measured value. All other

3.3 Calculation Procedure of the Proportions of Heat Flow. As shown in Fig. 3, nite element models employed here are constructed by eight-node brick elements. The proportions of heat ow are evaluated at the plane perpendicular to the heat ow direction, which includes the bolt axis. Around the plane, one of the six surfaces of each eight-node element is placed so as to coincide with the perpendicular plane. Accordingly, the evaluation plane consists of four-node quadrilateral elements, and the proportions of heat ow through the corresponding four parts, Qth, Qshk, Qhd, and Q f are calculated using the amounts of the heat ux at Gauss points of each element.

Numerical Results

4.1 Proportions of Heat Flow Through Each Part of Bolted Joint. Figure 4 illustrates an example of the temperature and heat ux distributions at the heating time of 60000sec. The material is S45C. For the standard analytical condition, it is shown in Figs. 5 a 5 c how the proportion of heat ow through each part of the bolted joint varies with time for three kinds of materials. Immediately after the start of heating, most of the total heat Qtotal ow into the fastened plate, designated as Q f . Then, the proportions of Qth, Qshk, and Qhd increase until the steady state is reached. It is found from those gures that there is no signicant difference at the steady state among the three materials. However, it is worth noting that the material with low thermal conductivity requires more heating time until the constant proportions of heat ow are reached. The effect of joint geometry is discussed next. The sizes of grip length L f and block width W affect the proportions of heat ow. In Figs. 6 a and 6 b , shown are the effects of L f and W on the proportions of heat ow, where the abscissa represents the ratios of L f and W to bolt nominal diameter d. The results are for the heating time of 1000 s. With the increase of L f

Table 1 Thermal and mechanical properties of joint materials W/m K 40 16.5 120 kg/ m3 7800 7800 2700 c J / kg K 466 511 880 E GPa 200 221 74.6 0.3 0.3 0.3

Materials S45C SUS304 A2024 12 15 23

1/K 106 106 106

Hv 247 225 125

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Fig. 6 Effects of grip length and block width on the proportion of heat ow

shows a relatively little variation compared with the other materials. 4.2 Variations of Axial Bolt Stress With Time. Figure 7 shows the variations of axial bolt stress with time for three materials. The ordinate represents the axial bolt stress b at each heating time divided by the initial bolt stress i. Unlike the previous study 10 that dealt with axisymmetric models, after a short period of heating, it reaches a peak and then starts to decrease, and gradually becomes constant. This is usually the case, since the direction of heat ow is perpendicular to bolt axis in many machines and structures. This gure shows that the material with lower thermal conductivity yields a higher maximum bolt stress. The effect of grip length L f on b is represented in Figs. 8 a and 8 b for SUS304 and A2024, which are the materials with low and high thermal conductivities. As L f is increased, the maximum bolt stress shows higher values. The grip length has a rather marked effect in the case of A2024, although its ratio of b / i is relatively small compared to the case of SUS304. The effect of the block width W is negligible in any case, although not shown here. 4.3 Bending Stress Caused by the Heat Flow Perpendicular to Bolt Axis. When the heat ows in the direction perpendicular to bolt axis, some amount of bending stress is generated in the bolt body. That is due to the temperature gradient in the heat ow Transactions of the ASME

Fig. 5 Proportions of heat ow through each part of bolted joint

and W, more amount of heat ows through the fastened plate, as a natural consequence. However, this phenomenon is not so remarkable in the case of SUS304 because of its low thermal conductivity, and its proportion of heat ow through the bolt shank Qshk 061203-4 / Vol. 131, DECEMBER 2009

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Fig. 7 Variations of axial bolt stress with time when subjected to thermal load

Fig. 9 Variations of bolt bending stress with time when subjected to thermal load

direction, which causes different amounts of thermal expansion between the bolt-nut connection and the fastened plates in the complicated form. The magnitude of the bending stress thus produced is signicantly important when evaluating the strength of

the bolted joint under transient thermal load. Figure 9 shows the variations of bolt bending stress with time for the standard analytical condition. The results of SUS304 for L f / d = 6 are also given in the gure. The ordinate represents the ratio of bolt bending stress bnd to initial bolt stress i. The magnitudes of bnd are larger than the variations of axial bolt stress b, shown in Fig. 7. Specically, stainless steel SUS304 generates large bending stresses. That is caused by the large temperature gradient in the heat ow direction because of its low thermal conductivity. Consequently, much attention should be paid when the joint material with low thermal conductivity is used for the bolted joint with small grip length, since the magnitude of bending stress tends to be greater than the variation in axial bolt stress. 4.4 Measurement of the Variations of Bolt Temperature and Bolt Stress With Time. Test specimens made of carbon steel S45C, with dimensions of L f / d = 4 and W / d = 2, are used here. The variations of plate surface temperature and bolt stress with time are measured and compared with the numerical results. Figure 10 shows the outline of the experimental setup. To create insulated boundaries, two wooden pieces 12mm thick with rectangular cross section are pressed to both sides of the specimen. They are made of cedar with thermal conductivity of 0.07 W / m K in dry condition. Heat is supplied by a magnetic rubber heater attached to one side of the specimen. Axial bolt stress is measured by strain gauges for high temperature use. The gauge length is 2mm and two gauges located 180 deg apart each other are glued on the bolt cylindrical surface. A thermocouple is attached next to the strain gauges to estimate apparent thermal strains. Temperature variations on the top surface of the block are measured using an infrared thermography at the midpoint between

rubber heater

convection boundary

wooden piece
uniform heat flux
measured point of the temperature

nut bolt symmetric plane

Fig. 8 Effects of grip length on the variations of axial bolt stress with time

Fig. 10 Test setup for measuring temperature and bolt stress variations with time

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16

12

difference in affects the bolt stress variation. It can be concluded, therefore, that the numerical method proposed in this study is effective for evaluating thermal and mechanical behaviors of bolted joints subjected to transient thermal load.

Conclusions

A numerical procedure for analyzing the thermal and mechanical behaviors of bolted joints with high accuracy and computation efciency is proposed, by incorporating the effects of thermal contact coefcient and apparent thermal contact coefcient into commercial engineering software. Proportions of the heat ow through each part of the bolted joint and the variations of axial bolt stress and bolt bending stress with time have been quantitatively evaluated for various joint materials and geometry. The axial bolt stress reaches a peak after a short period of heating, and then it decreases and gradually becomes constant. The amount of maximum axial bolt stress substantially increases with smaller thermal conductivity and also increases with larger grip length. The effect of grip length is rather remarkable for the joint materials with high thermal conductivity. A large amount of bending stress is generated in the bolt joint with low thermal conductivity. Its value could be greater than the variation in axial bolt stress, especially in the bolted joint with small grip length. The effectiveness of the proposed numerical method has been demonstrated by conducting the experiments that measure the variations of plate surface temperature and axial bolt stress with time under the same conditions of the numerical analyses.

Acknowledgment
The authors would like to acknowledge Mr. Yoshihiko Hata Shin Caterpillar Mitsubishi Ltd. for his contributions to the experimental works in this study.

Nomenclature
C c1, c2, m, n d E hc h cv he hr Lf Hv P Qtotal Qth Qshk Qhd Qf q Ra W
g a

Fig. 11 Experimental results of block surface temperatures and bolt stresses compared with numerical ones

the heated surface and the bolt axis. Numerical analyses are conducted in the same condition as the experiments. The intensity of heat ux is taken as 8.05 kW/ m2. It is assumed that the side surface of the block, which is in contact with the wood piece, and the symmetric plane are insulated, and the other block surfaces and the outer surface of bolt-nut connection have convection boundaries, where the coefcient of heat transfer is set to be 25 W / m2 K, referring to the measured value. It has been found in the previous paper 10 that a slight difference in the coefcients of linear expansion between the bolt-nut connection and block materials has a substantial effect on the variation in bolt stress with time. Meanwhile, thermal properties of the actual bolted joints could be slightly different between the bolt-nut and the plate materials, even if both are made of the same material specied in the standard. Taking the above consideration into account, the amounts of are assumed to be 12.5 106 for the bolt-nut material and 11 106 for the block material. In Figs. 11 a and 11 b , measured values of the block surface temperatures and the bolt stresses are compared with numerical ones. It is found that the numerical results agree fairly with the experimental ones. In Fig. 11 b , bolt stresses for the case of being uniform throughout the target joint are also drawn to show how small 061203-6 / Vol. 131, DECEMBER 2009

b bnd i

specic heat J / kg K constants for calculating hc nominal diameter of bolt mm Youngs modulus GPa thermal contact coefcient W / m2 K convection heat transfer coefcient W / m2 K apparent thermal contact coefcient W / m2 K radiation heat transfer coefcient W / m2 K grip length mm Vickers hardness apparent contact pressure MPa total amount of supplied heat to bolted joint W heat amount through engaged threads W heat amount through bolt shank W heat amount through bolt head W heat amount through fastened plate W heat ux W / m2 surface roughness of arithmetic mean m block width mm linear coefcient of thermal expansion 1/K gap size between mating surfaces m thermal conductivity W / m K thermal conductivity of air W / m K Poissons ratio density kg/ m3 bolt stress MPa bolt bending stress MPa initial bolt stress MPa Transactions of the ASME

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