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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

THE BLOOD
I. FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD Blood - a liquid connective tissue and has three general functions: Transportation - blood transport oxygen from the lungs to cells throughout the body and CO2 from the cells to the lungs. It also carries nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract to body cells, heat and waste products away from cells, and hormones from endocrine glands to other body cells. Regulation - blood helps regulate the pH of body fluids. The heatabsorbing and cooling properties of the water in blood plasma and its variable rate of flow through the skin help adjust body temperature. Blood osmotic pressure also influences the water content of cells. Protection - Blood clots in response to an injury which protects against its excessive loss from the cardiovascular system. White blood cells protect against disease be carrying on phagocytosis and producing proteins called antibodies. Blood contains additional proteins, called interferons and complement, that also help protect against disease. II. COMPONENTS OF WHOLE BLOOD 1. 55% Blood Plasma - a straw-colored liquid that contains dissolved substances. -contains 7% plasma proteins (albumins, globulins, fibrinogen, all others); 91.5% water and 1.5% other solutes (electrolytes, nutrients, gases, regulatory substances, waste products) 2. 45% Formed Elements - which are cells and fragments A. Erythrocytes / Red Blood Cells o are biconcave discs without nuclei that contain hemoglobin o are around 4-6 million per mm3 of blood o the function of the hemoglobin in the RBC is to transport oxygen and part of the CO2. o RBC cells live about 120 days. A healthy male has about 5.4 M RBCs/ul of blood and a healthy female has 4.8 M RBCs/uL o After phagocytosis aged RBC by macrophages, hemoglobin is recycled o RBC formation called erythropoiesis occurs in adult red bone marrow. It is stimulated by hypoxia, which stimulates the release of erythropoietin by the kidneys. B. Leukocytes / White Blood Cells o are nucleated cells o functions to combat inflammation and infection. o they more or less 1 % of the total blood volume o they form the protective, movable army that helps defend the body against damage by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and tumor cells they are able to slip into and out of the blood vessels diapedesis they also have the capability of (+) chemotaxis, that is they are able to locate the area of infection by responding to chemicals that diffused from the damaged cells o the total leukocyte count in blood is 4000-11,000 cells/mm3 o classified into major subgroups: (1) Granulocytes -granule-containing WBC ;and (2) Agranulocytes -lacks visible cytoplasmic granules Granular leukocytes a. Neutrophils - have a multilobed nucleus and very fine granules that responds to both acid and basic stains - stains pink - avid phagocytes at sites of acute infection - around 3000-7000 cells/mm3 (40-70% of the WBCs) b. Eosinophils - have blue-red nucleus that resembles an old-fashioned telephone receiver - has large brick-red cytoplasmic granules - increases rapidly during allergies and infectionsby parasitic worms -around 100-400 cells/mm3(1-4% of the WBCs) c. Basophils -contains large histamine-containing granules that stains dark blue - the rarest of the WBCs - around 20-50 cells/mm3 ( 0-1% of WBCs) Agranular Leukocytes a. Lymphocytes 1. T lymphocytes - effective against viruses, fungi, and cancer cells 2. B lymphocytes - effective against bacteria and other toxins 3. Natural killer cells - attacks microbes and tumor cells. b. Monocytes - develop to macrophage which combat inflammation and infection through phagocytosis. C. Thrombocytes / Platelets ---disk shaped cell fragments without nuclei ---formed from megakaryocytes and take part in hemostasis by forming a platelet plug; release chemicals that promote vascular spasms and blood clotting ---normal blood contains 150,000-400,000 platelets/uL III. HEMATOPOIESIS - blood cell formation that occurs in red bone marrow, or myeloid tissue, which is chiefly found in flat bones of the skull and pelvis, the ribs, sternum, and proximal epiphyses of the humerus and femur.

- Each type of blood cells is produced in different numbers in response to changing body needs and different stimuli. After they mature, they are discharged into the blood vessels surrounding the area. All formed elements arise from a common type of stem cells, the hemocytoblast, which resides in the red bone marrow. The hemocytoblast forms two types of descendants (1) the lymphoid stem cell, which produces lymphocytes, and (2) the myeloid stem cells, which can produce all other classes of formed elements.

Lost cells are replaced more or less continuously by the division of hemocytoblasts in the red bone marrow. The developing RBCs divide many times and then begin synthesizing huge amounts of hemoglobin. When enough hemoglobin have been accumulated, the nucleus and most organelles are ejected and the cell collapses inward. The result is the young RBC, called a reticulocytes because it still contains some enough endoplasmic reticulum. The reticulocytes enter the bloodstream to begin their task of transporting oxygen. Within 2 days of release, they have ejected the remaining ER and have become fully functional erythrocytes. The entire developmental process from hemocytoblast to mature RBC takes 3-5 days. -Like erythrocyte production, the formation of leukocytes and platelets is stimulated by hormones. The colony stimulating factors and the interleukins not only prompt red bone marrow to turn out leukocytes, but also enhance the ability of mature leukocytes to protect the body. IV. HEMOSTASIS o Is the stoppage of blood flow o This response is fast and localized, which involves many substances normally present in plasma, as well as some that are released by platelets and injured tissue cells o It involves three phases, which occur in rapid sequence: (1) vascular spasm, (2) platelet plug formation, and (3) coagulation or blood clotting. Blood loss at the site is permanently prevented when fibrous tissue grows into the clot and seals the hole in the blood vessels. Normally, blood clots within 3-6 minutes. 1. Vascular Spasmsthe smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts. 2. Platelet Plug formationThe aggregation of platelets to stop bleeding Platelets are repelled by an intact endothelium, but when it is broken so that the underlying collagen fibers are exposed, the platelets become sticky and clings to the damaged site. Anchored plates release chemicals that attract more platelets to the site , and as more and more platelet pile up, a small mass called a platelet plug is formed 3. Blood clottinginvolves a series of reactions that may be divided into three stages: formation of prothrombinase by either the extrinsic or intrinsic pathway, conversion of prothrombin into thrombin and conversion of soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin. --- Once anchored, the platelets release serotonin, which causes that bloods vessels to go into spasm, and other chemicals that attract more platelets to the injured area. The spasm narrow the bloods vessels at that point, decreasing blood loss until clotting can occur. --- at the same time, the injured tissues are releasing thromboplastin, a factor that plays an important role in clotting --- PF3, a phospholipid that coats the surfaces of the platelets, interacts with thromboplastin, other blood protein clotting factors, and calcium ions to form an activator that triggers the clotting cascade - this prothrombin activator converts prothrombin present in the plasma, to thrombin, an enzyme - thrombin then joins soluble fibrinogen proteins into long hair-like molecules of insoluble fibrin, which forms a meshwork that traps the RBCs and forms the basis of the clot. Within an hour, the clot begins to retract, squeezing serum from the mass and pulling the ruptured edges of the blood vessels closer together.

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