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1. COMPARATORS
Aim: To design and implement Zero crossing detectors (ZCD), Positive Level Detectors (PLD) and Negative Level Detectors (NLD) using Inverting and Non Inverting Amplifiers. IC 741, Trainer board, Resistors, Function Generator, Power Supply, CRO, CRO Probes, Patch Cords, Connecting wires. Inverting Amplifier The basic inverting comparator of Fig.1 can be used as a ZCD provided that Vref is set to zero. Its negative i/p Ei compares with a reference voltage of zero volt. If Ei is more positive than Vref, then Vo = -Vsat. This is because Ed (differential i/p voltage) is negative so Vo = (Ed) x (open-loop gain), is Vsat due to open loop configuration. The polarity of Vo tells if Ei is above or below Vref. The transition of Vo tells when cross Ei ed the reference and in what direction. Thus if sine wave is given at the inverting i/p terminal o/p will be inverted square wave. For positive value of i/p wave o/p will be in negative saturation (-Vsat).Conversely, when i/p is negative o/p will be +Vsat. Thus o/p switches between +Vsat and Vsat whenever i/p crosses zero volts. This ckt. can be used as a sine wave-to-square wave converter. Now if in Fig.1, positive reference voltage Vref is given then i/p will be compare with +Vref and whenever i/p voltage is greater then that o/p will be Vsat other vice +Vsat. Thus op-amp works as a Positive-level detector (PLD) and o/p wave will detect the positive voltage level (+Vref).Similarly if Vref is negative voltage then o/p wave will detect negative voltage level (-Vref) and op-amp works as a Negativelevel detector (NLD).

Apparatus:

Theory:

Non Inverting Amplifier The basic non inverting comparator of Fig.2 can be used as a ZCD provided that Vref is set to zero. When sine wave is given at the non inverting i/p terminal o/p will be square wave. For positive value of i/p wave o/p will be in positive saturation (+Vsat). Conversely, when i/p is negative o/p will be -Vsat. Thus o/p switches between +Vsat and Vsat when ever i/p crosses zero volts. This ckt. can be used as a sine wave-to-square wave converter. For PLD if in Fig2. Vref is positive voltage then i/p will be compare with +Vref and whenever i/p voltage is greater then that o/p will be +Vsat other vice -Vsat. Thus o/p wave will detect the positive voltage level (+Vref).Similarly for NLD if Vref is negative voltage then o/p wave will detect negative voltage level (-Vref).

Procedure:

Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.1. Apply sine wave as an input and observe output waveform with reference voltage zero for inverting ZCD. Apply sine wave as an input and reference voltage = 1 volt and observe output waveform for inverting PLD. Apply sine wave as an input and reference voltage = -1 volt and observe output waveform for inverting NLD. Repeat the above procedure for Non-inverting configurations.

Observation:

Conclusion:

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