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Investigation of Variable Frequency ISPWM Control Method for an Asymmetric Multilevel Inverter

R.Seyezhai

Assistant Professor Department of EEE , SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603 110, Kanchipuram Dt, Tamilnadu, India. seyezhair@ ssn.edu.in

Dr.B.L.Mathur

Professor Department of EEE , SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603 110, Kanchipuram Dt,Tamilnadu, India blmathur@ ssn.edu.in

AbstractMultilevel inverter is an effective and practical solution for increasing power and reducing harmonics of ac waveforms. Several multilevel topologies are reported and the most popular topology is Cascaded Multilevel Inverter (CMLI). This paper focuses on asymmetric cascaded multilevel inverter employing variable frequency inverted sine PWM technique (VFISPWM). This technique combines the advantage of inverted rectified sine wave and variable frequency carriers for a seven level inverter for balancing the switch utilization. A detailed study of the technique was carried out through MATLAB/SIMULINK for switching losses and THD. Furthermore, a PI controller is used to control the MLI using the proposed PWM technique. The results were verified experimentally and FPGA processor is used for PWM. It was noticed that the proposed modulation strategy results in lower switching losses for a chosen THD as compared to the conventional strategies.

I.INTRODUCTION Multilevel inverters are mainly utilized to synthesize a desired voltage wave shape from several levels of dc voltages. Their main advantaged are low harmonic distortion of the generated output voltage, low electromagnetic emissions, high efficiency capability to operate at high voltages and modularity. Three topologies have been reported for multilevel inverters: Diode- clamped, flying capacitor and cascaded H-bridge [1].The topology considered for this work is the cascaded H-bridge inverter which requires several independent dc sources. Normally, each phase of a cascaded multilevel inverter requires n dc sources for 2n+1 level. For many applications, multiple dc sources are required demanding long cables and this could lead to voltage unbalance among the dc sources. With an aim to reduce the number of dc sources required for the cascaded multilevel inverter for a motor drive, this paper focuses on asymmetric cascade MLI that uses two unequal dc sources in

Keywords:

International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS Vol: 9 No: 10 each phase to generate a seven level equal step multilevel output [2]. This structure is favourable for high power applications since it provides higher voltage at higher modulation frequencies (where they are needed) with a low switching (carrier) frequency. It means low switching loss for the same total harmonic distortion (THD) .It also improves the reliability by reducing the number of dc sources. For the cascaded multilevel inverter there are several well known sinusoidal pulse width modulation strategies [3].Compared to the conventional triangular carrier based PWM, the inverted rectified sine carrier PWM has a better spectral quality and a higher fundamental output voltage without any pulse dropping [4]. However, the fixed frequency carrier based PWM affects the switch utilization in multilevel inverters .In order to balance the switching duty among the various levels in inverters, a variable frequency carrier based PWM has been suggested [5]. This paper however, presents a novel variable frequency inverted rectified sine modulation technique (VFISPWM) for a seven level inverter. This novel method combines the advantage of inverted sine and multi frequency carrier signals. The VFISPWM provides an enhanced fundamental voltage, lower total harmonic distortion (THD) and minimizes the switch utilization among the various levels in inverters. In this method the control signals have been generated by comparing sinusoidal reference signal with a high frequency inverted sine carrier. The carrier frequencies are so selected that the number of switching in each band are equal. The proposed modulation technique maximizes the output voltage and gives a low THD of 5.92%. A PID controller is employed to enhance the performance of the asymmetric MLI using the proposed modulation strategy. A comparative evaluation between the VFISPWM and the conventional modulation is also presented in terms of output voltage quality, power circuitry complexity, and total harmonic distortion (THD), weighted total harmonic distortion (WTHD) and implementation cost.

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Both the MLI circuit topology and its new control scheme are described in detail and their performance is verified based on simulation and experimental results. II. ASYMMETRIC CASCADED MULTILEVEL INVERTER The seven - level cascaded multilevel inverter consists of two H-Bridges. The first HBridge H1 consists of a separate DC source Vdc, whereas the second H-Bridge H2 consists of a dc source Vdc/2 as shown in Fig.1. Let the output of H-Bridge-1 be denoted as v1(t) and the output of H-Bridge-2 be denoted as v2(t). Hence the total output voltage is given by v(t)=v1(t)+v2(t).By alternately opening and closing the switches S1,S4 and S2,S3 of H-Bridge1 appropriately, output of H1 v1(t) can be made equal to +Vdc, 0 or -Vdc. Similarly the output voltage of H-Bridge-2 v2(t) can be made equal to Vdc/2, 0 or +Vdc/2 by opening and closing the switches of H2 [14].Hence v(t) takes values 3/2Vdc, -Vdc, -1/2Vdc, 0, +1/2Vdc, +Vdc, +3/2Vdc as shown in the Fig.2.

The advantages of the topology are: Reduced number of dc sources. High speed capability Low switching loss High conversion efficiency.

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T H D ( % ) & W e ig h te d S w itc h in g L o ss (% )

8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Switching Frequency (KHz)

A m p lit u d e ( V )

3950Hz

Time (ms)

Fig.2. Output Voltage Waveform of Asymmetric Cascaded Seven Level Inverter.

The proposed control strategy replaces the conventional fixed frequency carrier waveform [6] by variable frequency inverted sine wave. The inverted sine PWM has a better spectral quality and a higher fundamental voltage compared to the triangular based PWM.But the main drawback is the marginal boost in the magnitude of lower order harmonics and unbalanced switch utilization. This is overcome by employing variable frequency inverted sine carrier signals. In order to balance the number of active switching among the levels is to vary the carrier frequency based on the slope of the modulating wave in each band. The frequency ratio for each band should be set properly for balancing the switching action for all levels. The reference carrier frequency was chosen as 3950Hz as switching losses and THD both are low as shown in Fig.3.

Fig.3.Reference Switching Frequency vs. THD (%) & switching Loss (mJ / Cycle) of the Conventional PWM Technique.

With the carrier reference frequency of 3950Hz applied to the band-1,the new frequencies for bands 2 and 3 are assigned proportional to their respective slopes.

C B

A m p lit u d e ( V )

A O

1 2 3

360

Fig.4.Reference modulating wave Three bands for different carrier frequency shown.

International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS Vol: 9 No: 10 In Fig.4. the modulating wave is defined as V (t) = Sin (1)

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The calculation of the slope values for the three bands is shown below:

(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)

Slope of C1 = 1.00 Slope of C2 = 0.8716 Slope of C3 = 0.404 Frequency of C1 = 3950Hz Frequency of C2 = 3443Hz Frequency of C3 =1596Hz

Time (ms)

Fig.5.Carrier and Reference Waveforms for the Proposed Variable Frequency ISPWM.

Table I: Switching Actions for the PWM Techniques Parameter Nsw THD Proposed VFISPWM 48 5. 92 % Conventional PWM 72 7. 98%

A m p lit u d e ( V )

Using the slope values of the carrier band, the new frequencies are calculated and the carrier waveforms are shown in the Fig.5. Also, the new frequency values are verified with the dwell time calculation of the reference waveform [5].The number of switching actions (8) is balanced for all the switches in the proposed PWM technique as shown in table I :

Time (s)

Fig.6.Generation of gating Pulses for VFISPWM using MATLAB.

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The parameters chosen for simulation using the proposed PWM technique is shown below: S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Main DC source voltage (Vdc) Modulation Index (ma) New Carrier Frequency Frequency modulation Ratio (mf ) Filter (Resonant Arm Type) Rated Output Frequency Reference Voltage Values 200V 1.00 3950Hz,3443Hz & 1596Hz. mf3 = 79, mf2 =69, mf1 =32. LC ( L = 2.2mH C = 220uF) 50Hz 200V

conventional method is the output voltage quality, THD, WTHD and switching loss [9]. Fig.8.shows the block diagram for the pulse generation using VFISPWM.Fig.7.and Figs.9. & 10 show the simulated output voltage waveforms and harmonic spectrums of the conventional ISPWM and the proposed MFISPWM for ma = 1.00 and Vdc = 200V. As it can be seen, the proposed ISPWM technique has always lower THD and the phase voltage waveform shows that the top and bottom levels has less number of switching compared to the conventional ISPWM.

a. PI Control

A PI Controller (proportional-integral controller) is a feedback controller which drives the plant to be controlled with a weighted sum of the error (difference between the output and desired setpoint) and the integral of that value. The function of PI is to regulate the multilevel inverter so that it stays close to the nominal operating point in the presence of disturbances and noise. PI controller settings kp and ki are designed in this work using Zeigler- Nichols tuning technique. The designed values of kp and ki are 0.0135 and 18.5 respectively.

IV.SIMULATION RESULTS

The cascaded seven-level inverter is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and switching signals are generated using S-function block by employing the proposed modulation strategy. The simulation is carried out for different modulation index and carrier frequency values [8]. The performance parameters considered for comparing the proposed PWM with the

International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS Vol: 9 No: 10 Fig.10. presents THD vs. ma graph. These results show that the VFISPWM method gives harmonic reduction for individual harmonic. The main advantage of the proposed technique is that the number of switching per cycle is same for all the levels. For balancing the switching actions, the choice of the carrier frequency is very important. Hence, the VFISPWM scheme is more favourable than the conventional ISPWM technique for use in asymmetric multilevel inverter[9].

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60

THD vs ma

11 10 9 T H D (% ) 8 7 6 5 4 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1 Modulation Index(ma) FFISPWM HFISPWM

M a g n itu d e (% ) o f F u n d a m e n ta l C o m p o n e n t

4.5 4

3.5 3

2.5 2

Fig.11. Variation of THD with modulation index for Fixed frequency (FF) and Variable frequency (VF) ISPWM.

1.5 1

0.5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Harmonic order

5

Fig.12. & 13. shows the simulated closed loop dynamic responses of load voltage and load current of PI controlled multilevel inverter when the load changes from full load (10ohms) to no load (10k) at t = 0.06secs. Fig.14. shows the dynamic response of load current when the load changes from no load (10k) to full load (10 ohms) suddenly at t = 0.04seconds with P controller[10]. The filter type employed for MLI is resonant arm type filter and the filtered output voltage and current waveform is shown below:

200 150

M a g n itu d e (% ) o f Fu n d a m e n ta l C o m p o n e n t

100

A m p litu d e ( V )

50

-50

-100

-150

-200

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

Harmonic Order

Time (sec)

0.04 0.03 0.02

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data1

A m p litu d e ( V )

0.01 0

The performance parameters considered for evaluating the proposed modulation strategy are: spectral quality of the output voltage, THD, WTHD and switching loss [11, 13 -16] which is shown in Table II. S Parameters . N o 1 Spectral quality of the output voltage 2 THD (%) 7.98 3 4 WTHD (%) Switching Loss(mJ /Cycle) 0.104 6.38mJ (3950Hz) 0.076 2.06mJ (Calculated New Frequencies 1596Hz,344 3Hz and 3950Hz) 1.62 5.42 Convention al ISPWM Lower Order harmonics (3,5, 7 ) are higher Proposed MFISPWM Lower Order harmonics (3,5,7 ) are reduced.

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

Time (sec)

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.

15 data1

10

A m p litu d e (V )

-5

-10 0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

Time(Sec)

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

THD(%)

(PI CONTROL)

3.29

A m p lit u d e (V )

THD(%)

(PI CONTROL)

3.69

1.70

Transient state R = 10 to 10K It is obvious that VFISPWM technique shows a better performance for the seven-level inverter. The THD of the VFISPWM is shown with PI control which minimizes the amount of harmonics.

Time (ms)

International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS Vol: 9 No: 10 V.EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS A seven-level cascaded inverter has been built using smart power module (SPM - 600V, 23A) IGBTs. One dc source (100V) was used for the single phase hybrid cascaded MLI and the other source (50V) to generate seven levels. The inverter was first controlled using fixed frequency ISPWM with the following parameters: ma = 1.00 and mf = 79. FPGA SPARTAN processor is used to implement the gating pattern and PI control. The inverters output line- neutral voltage waveforms for all the three phases are shown in Fig.16.

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50.0V / div

Fig. 18. Line Line voltage for Hybrid MLI with VFISPWM. (mf3 = 32, mf2 = 69, mf1 =79).

The type of filter employed for the seven level inverter is the resonant arm filter and the ouput of the controlled phase voltage of the multilevel inverter is shown below:

The prototype inverter (refer Fig.1.) was tested using the proposed VFISPWM with different carrier frequencies as discussed in section-IV of this paper. Specifically, the top and bottom bands had a frequency ratio of 36 while the centre and intermediate bands had a frequency index of 79 and 69. Fig.17. and Fig.18. shows the inverters output line- neutral and line-line voltage waveforms using the proposed control method. This control method balances the switching actions and gives a lower value of THD compared to the conventional one.

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VI.CONCLUSION Asymmetric cascaded multilevel inverter using two unequal dc sources for each phase requires minimum number of switching devices. An inverted sine wave carrier frequency modulation strategy gives maximum fundamental voltage for a given THD. A variable frequency carrier modulation strategy results in reduced switching losses. Advantages of all the above three methods have been exploited in the proposed technique. The PI controller is tested for regulating output voltage and minimizing harmonics of the chosen seven level inverter. The proposed system has lower THD and lower switching loss as compared to that of conventional multilevel inverter.

REFERENCES

1. Peng F.Z., Lai J.S., Multilevel Converters - A New Breed of Power Converters, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 32, No. 3, May-June 1996, pp.509- 517. D.Zhong,L.M.Tolbert,J.N.Chiasson, B.Ozpineci, and Li Hui Hybrid cascaded H-bridges multilevel motor drive control for electric vehicles, in Proc. 37th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, PESC06, June 2006,pp.1- 6. M.Calais, L. J. Borle and V.G. Agelidis, Analysis of Multicarrier PWM Methods for a Single-phase Five Level Inverter, in the Proc. IEEE Power Electronics 32nd specialistsConference,PESC01,July 2001,pp. 1351-1356. S.Jeevananthan, R.Nandhakumar, P.Dananjayan.Inverted Sine Carrier for Fundamental Fortification in PWM Inverters and FPGA Based Implementations.Serbian Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 2, November 2007, 171-187. Leon.M.Tolbert , Thomas.G.Habetler, Novel multilevel inverter Carrier based PWM Methods, in Proc. IEEE IAS 1998 Annual Meeting,St.Louis, Missouri,October 10-15,1998, pp 1424-1431. M.G.H.Aghdam,S.H.Fathi, B.Gharehpetian, Analysis of multicarrier PWM methods for asymmetric multilevel inverter in Proc. 3rd IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, ICIEA08, June 2008, pp.2057 2062. 7. M.G.Hosseni Aghdam,S.H.Fathi and G.B.Gharehpetian, A Novel Carrier based PWM Method for THD reduction in Asymmetric Multilevel Inverter, in the Proc. of the International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality, .March 2008. Radan, A.; Shahirinia, A.H.; Falahi, M., Evaluation of Carrier-Based PWM Methods for Multi-level Inverters, in Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE 2007, Volume , Issue , 4-7 June 2007, Page(s):389 394. B.P. McGrath and D.G. Holmes, A Comparison of Multicarrier PWM strategies for Cascaded and Neutral point Clamped Multilevel Inverters, in Proc. IEEE PESC, 2000, pp. 674-679.

8.

9.

10. H. Liu, L. M. Tolbert, B. Ozpineci, Z. Du, Comparison of Fundamental Frequency and PWM Methods Applied on a Hybrid Cascaded Multilevel Inverter, IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Orlando, Florida, November 10-13, 2008, pp. 3233-3237. 11. S.N.F.Mohamed,N.A.Azil,Z.Salam,S.M.Ayob, Sugeno type Fuzzy Logic Controller (SFLC) for a modular structured Multilevel Inverter ,in the Proc. of the 2nd International Conference on Power and Energy ,PECON 2008, December 1-3, 2008,Malaysia, pp.599 -603. 12. Azli, N.A and Choong, Y.C (2006) Analysis on the performance of a Three- phase Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel inverter in the Proc.of the First International Conference on Power and Energy PECON 2006, Putrajaya, Malaysia,pp. 405-410. 13. Pradyumn.K.Chaturvedi, Shailendra Jain, Pramod Agarwal , Rajesh.K. Nema and Kaushal .K. Sao, Switching losses and harmonic investigations in Multilevel Inverters , IETE Journal of Research ,Vol.54, Issue54, Jul-Aug2008, pp. 295 - 305. 14. Alain Laprade & Ron .H.Randall, Numerical Method for evaluating IGBT Losses, Application Notes, Fairchild Semiconductors, Jan.2000, AN 7520. 15. Massoud ,Finney & Williams.B.W., Control Techniques for multilevel voltage source inverter, 34th Power Electronics Specialist Conference, June 15 -19, 2003 , vol.1, pp.171176. 16. Richard Lund , Jonas.B., Sigurd & Roy Nilsen, Analytical Power loss expressions for diode clamped converters, EPE PEMC, Dubrovnik & Cavtat, 2002.

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BIOGRAPHY

Mrs. R.Seyezhai obtained her her M.E in Power Electronics & Drives from Shanmugha College of Engineering, Thanjavur in 1998. She has been working in the teaching field for about 12 Years. She has published 50 papers in the area of Power Electronics & Drives. Dr.B.L.Mathur obtained his M.Tech in Power Systems from IIT, Bombay in 1964.He completed his Ph.D. in 1979 from IISc, Bangalore. His Ph.D. thesis was adjudged as the best for application to industries in the year 1979 and won gold medal. He has been working in the teaching field for about 44 Years. He has published 30 papers in National and International journals and 75 in National and International conferences.

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