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(Photographed from within the colonnade, Athens)


First Published in 1^23 PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN .

. and the one balances the other. The inmost secrets of art sleep with the twain." sists in The soul has that measureless pride which connever acknowledging any lessons but its own." Walt Whitman. and neither can stretch too far while it stretches in company with the other. But it has sympathy as measureless as its pride.


R. Marvin two chapters on Science and the concluding chapter . F. and Miss Elizabeth Levett for suggestive Warm comment and criticism. and the translations in the book. C. F. the chronological table. L. unless otherwise stated. vn . von Hiigel. S. however. F. Each. on Recent Developments F. S. thanks are due to G.PREFACE authors of this little treatise are in general is THE for the agreement with one another. only responsible for certain parts. to wit. Melian Stawell for the rest. S. M. Baron Fr. as well as for the choice of illustrations. Lowes Dickinson. Fletcher. M.


..TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAP.28 33 Rome —Republican.N'T II Heixenism III Hebraism rv The Hellenistic World .... 89 .....— AXCIE.. . and the Young Nations England and the Fromise of Seif-Gov ERNMENT The Xew Architecture Romanesque and Gothic ... the Church.— MEDIEVAL : VII VTII Europe and the Barbarians Ages and Monastic ism . . : 48 53 IX The Work of Charlemagne The Beginnings of Xew Fez try X XI XII XIII 56 69 S4 The Feudal Empire. The Dark 41 Mohammedanism ..... Imperial. . ..... PAGE ...... . . 5 19 24 V The VI Coming of Christiakity ...... i PART I. and Decadent PART II. I Introductory ... ix ..

.. The Renaissance The New Learning Bacon Marvin) in England bethan Literature in XXIX The Awakening XXX The Struggles for Liberty in Germany and England English Thought in Religion : AND Politics . Montaigne. Genius . : Results 131 Italian Cities and Italy's Leadership in Art 133 PART XXII XXIII Italian III.. and the Huguenots .. Italy : P*''^ Giotto and 95 XV The XVI XVII XVIII Philosophical Outlook of the Middle 99 io8 ..... Ages Dante Chaucer and His Foreign Teachers . : Eliza182 Francis 191 F.... the Troubadours....117 . its ..172 : .. Life in Francis .THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND CHAP..... XIV The New St..... .. S. 126 XX XXI The Hundred Years' War and for France . .. ..... and the Beginning of Prose . . . ..167 XXVI The XXVII XXVIII Renaissance in France Rabelais. 113 France. .... in Science (by 194 208 . XIX The Protest of the Peasants..— RENAISSANCE Art and the Transition Loss of Freedom The Reformation and the Germany of Spain XXIV The Dominance . Italy's 141 of 151 162 XXV The Rise of the Dutch Republic and the Decline of Spain . . .... England : ... ...

... . Eighteenth-Century England and Expansion Overseas . . . .... Leibnitz Des. 217 PART IV..258 XXXVII Germany and Music XXXVIII Germany and Philosophy and Modern Thought ..237 : XXXIV The Strengthening of Criticism in France Voltaire .TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAP. : ... 248 253 XXXV XXXVI The New Creed of Reform . S.. -337 348 . 284 The Industrial Revolution and the Emergence of Modern Problems.. 300 The Nineteenth Century and Recent Developments (by F.. .... . : Rousseau ... . . Hegel..— MODERN XXXII The Triumphs Marvin) . Spinoza. 227 XXXIII The Rise of Modern Philosophy cartes. The Romantic Revival and the New 291 .. .. . . .. : 263 Kant. xi PAGE XXXI Despotism in France Literature and THE Forces of Criticism : ..... S. of Mathematics (by F. -315 Chronological Table Index . .. Marvin) . . 269 XXXIX Goethe XL The French XLI XLII XLIII Realism 277 Revolution and Napoleon .


.) A Miracle of the Holy Cross .... Alinari.. A Dwarf . at Padua..) Mother and Child (From the drawing by Michael Angelo... Rome.) . Photo Pallas Athena taming a Centaur (From the painting by Botticelli. Venice. . . 38 90 92 . PACE 8 Museum.....) 144 166 (From the painting by Velazquez. . .) XIU . 94 The Kiss of Judas (From a fresco .. British Museum... Florence..) Frontispiece FACING Riders in the Parthenon Frieze (British .. ... . ... Florence. : : Alinari. . Photo : Anderson. Florence. Florence.. The West Front of the Parthenon (Photographed from within the colonnade. Madrid. Photo : 96 by Giotto.. Florenee... Interior of Santa Sophia (Constantinople) Interior of Durham Cathedral South Transept of Chartres Cathedral Head of the Virgin lying dead (From a porch of Chartres Cathedral. . ... . ..138 140 (From the painting by Gentile Bellini. . ..170 (From an etching by Rembrandt...) Photo Brogi.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS .) ..) Faust and the Magic Disk .


be international as well as patriotic. culture and in the end all the great developments have been international. nation. The work in the hope of serving that end by learning to understand better the main forces that have gone to build up European culture and the main contributions of Europe's different nationalities to the common stock in spirit that'^shall for this book has been undertaken literature. The effort brings home to the student. religion. as we study the compUcated story of European civilization we can see how in the shelter of each nation distinctive types of excellence have been fostered. of European To recognize this is not. On the contrary. and very forcibly. by a common partnership. philosophy. The menacing features it would be foolish to deny. and art. politics. even in the midst of incessant Nation has learnt from strife. to obliterate the national boundaries. however. but Europe and her children hold in common a peculiar and opulent inheritance. Between all nations doubtless some unity is latent. and more paralysing. 1 1 . the underlying unity that subsists between the nations of the West. science.THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY to overlook the hopeful signs. Among these is surely the prevalent desire to study history on broader lines and with a WE are living in an aftermath of war and revolution. but it would be equally foolish. developed.

if history is intelligible at all. no Velazquez ? land. it is true again. and with no Bach. beyond the power of man. but. and seek only to embody as succinctly as possible the main results accepted by most historians and essential for any understanding of European development in the matters of the mind. stares us in the face at the close. so each nation that is a natural unity has been able to give. In this light the desire to suppress any one people appears more than ever as a sin against mankind. What would the inheritance of Europe have been if Persia had crushed the Greeks ? What would it be without mediaeval Italy. it has been necessary to pass lightly over events military and political. no Kant ? The richness and complexity of history is too great to be summed up under any one formula. sooner or later. it is true. Yet it is an achievement at which he must aim or perish. is never exactly repeated). even as each period in time seems to have its allotted task (a task that. But without them and both them genius withers. Neither liberty nor unity can. and an has been effort made never to forget that each stage in history has . and with no Rembrandt. while to combine both in a perfect harmony is an achievement. Either alone. that Europe must now set herself to gain at once greater liberty and greater unity. The treatment is on the whole chronological. And a survey. is incomplete without the other. no Declaration of Dutch Independence ? Without Germany. and with no Cervantes. one the love of of liberty. once achieved. and the moral. certain conclusions can and should be drawn. indicates that there are two chief factors making for all noble achievement in culture.2 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND and we come to feel that. These considerations will meet us again and again in our course. something to the world that no other could have done. no Beethoven. of thempractice. selves produce the vital element of genius. no Goethe. impartial at least in desire. and with no Dante ? or without Spain of the RenaisWithout Holsance. the other the search for are needed alike in thought and in unity. maybe. Since the object of this attempt is to trace the chief threads in Europe's web of culture.

D. It uill be convenient to follow the time-honoured division No into Ancient. and Modern. city and city. through unnumbered conflicts between nation and nation. if we could. ^we feel ourselves more at home in the equally important — — . youngest birth of Time. and merging. beginning with the chaotic struggles of the new rising nations. To the Mediaevalists we are drawn by the faith. Church and State. the fervent beauty. Indeed. First. but sharp-cut lines of demarcation are possible in history. roughly two thousand years in all. achievements of Greece. and consequent Next. and then to go beyond it and conquer unkno^vn worlds. bound up with first power to appreciate the varied aspects of the three that went before. say from the latter half of the second millennium B. the century period which saw not only the Palestine. up to the sixth A. there would be less need to study and reverence the Past. these titles European mark fairly well the outstanding periods in civilization. the conscious desire to recapture the Pagan freedom of thought. Mediceval. into the conscious grandeurs and crimes of the Renaissance. on the basis of a common inheritits ance. but also their stagnation submersion beneath the barbarian floods. but which we cannot or write reproduce. the of experiment in all directions. through But in other ways ways their turbid and savage strife. are. the thousand years or so onwards to and including the transitions of the sixteenth century and the seventeenth. the long stretch from the dawn of regular history to the fall of the Roman Empire in the West.INTRODUCTORY in it ciate. as we have said. the human love and tenderness that shine out. our own modem period. followed by the blossoming-time of romantic poetry and religious art. Finally. 3 something of unique value which we can leam to appreand in that sense make our own. Renaissance. the age of science and The best hopes of this..C. to realize the value of Europe's spiritual achievement in itself and to see that it is throughout a joint work wrought by many hands. and Rome. We shall never build another Parthenon another Divina Commedia. the picturesque splendour. strangely and strongly.

like double attraction of the past and outdoes ours in its wealth of imaginative genius.4 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND light of reason that shone for the ancient Greeks in Athens. but critical. for all its admiration. but even where Plato and Aristotle are obviously grown men trying to follow and our own reason grows. not by sweeping that work aside. felt the the future. for they. not unnaturally. their errors are those of reason. In mediaeval thought we are baffled again and again by sheer puerilities. ourselves. was not devotional. more in sympathy. but by working ourselves to find out where exactly it was at fault. but many of their problems were the same and much of their spirit. With the men of that transitionin error. Their attitude to the past. Their age . ancient time usually called the Renaissance. and even those who worshipped the classics hoped to go beyond them. we still are.

they had produced the two epics at once the most human and the most poetic ever known. Breadth of sympathy and delight in personal vigour are the leading civilizations notes in each. this ^ We may use common for the stock. Teutons. Greeks. have been at least well before the first millennium B. if slightly inaccurate. if anything. old and convenient.PART I. name. between the Danube and the Baltic. notably the Egyptian and the Cretan. Persians.C. In any case they made good use of their opportunities. speaking a common language. from whom sprang Hindus.— ANCIENT II CHAPTER HELLENISM and laid them in liberty. THE We glory of Greece may sometimes have been overbut it is. It is a reasonable conjecture that as early as 900 B. and the latter may have been near akin to their own. Celts. do not know as yet at what date their Aryan ^ forefathers. as characteristic as the superb sense of beauty and the swift and stately diction. the epic of war and love and tragedy and a nation's doom in the Iliad. found their way into the sunny peninBut it must sulas and islands of the Eastern Mediterranean. and from the first they must have been in contact with the highest intellectual growth. the epic of home and personal adventure and hard-won happiness in the Odyssey. splitting off presumably from the common family north of the Danube. and Slavs. scant praise to admit praised that the Greeks laid the foundations for all our . probably situated . Italians. Celtiberians..C. then accessible to Europe.

" followed by the Sophoclean harmony of self-controlled sorrow and heroism. the poet is never " so truly himself as when he reaches the high and solemn whole bloody tale in tenderness and inexpiable sorrow. enterprising. as indignation. he can The achievements from the eighth century onwards. It is to democratic Athens that " of . freedom and the pride in the Demos " Jebb spoke melody. pouring out such treasures of literature they were also elaborating architecture. " / we owe Tragedy. are as closely bound up with liberty. it shines in the brilliant laughter of Aristophanes.^ischylus. but no tyranny is tolerated the " " close of the . life. And while they were alert. it. and comedies alike are aglow with the of Athens. struggling for self-government." fire of and the voice of of their language as such in truth it is. painting. The Parthenon. by a radiance of choral song. and yet. as Shelley said." And both poems are marked in almost every canto by the spirit of free enterprise and free judgment. the " many- folded fires the secret of the night • Hid in the day. that spring the songs of Sappho. supreme in flexibility. Agamemnon must . and lit. It is from the city of Mitylene. the son of Ulysses must prove himself fit for leadership before establish his right to be lord of his island. perfect with the unforced perfection of flowers. vividness. add that it is also the voice of free life. unfettered. sculpture. often scurrilous but always searching.source. intense and clear. after the opening of the classical period proper.6 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND No battle-poetry has ever been more magnificent than that of the IHad. clear subtlety of suggestion and appeal. Tragedies whenever he chose. men bow are taunted as not men but tamely to wrong done in high to the will of the army assembled in council women if they submit places. But let us That is as certain as that it has always been both the allurement and the despair It bears the stamp of the people who made of translators. Kings and priests are reverenced. even . and the Euripidean passion of pity and It is to Athens that we owe Comedy.

Anaxagoras. unadorned except for the sculpture. of Socrates. in tall fluted and below the eaves. speculated on a common all matter. golden-white against the amethyst hills and the blue sea. turning aside from such investigations as too remote from human life to be fruitful. splendid in gracious realism and suavity of line. astounds us by its union of the simplicity. won equal renown for his further discoveries mathematics and for his foundation of an independent brotherhood with its own ideals of righteousness in life. of those lithe and stately figures. These three early thinkers may stand among many as examples of those Greeks who awakened in Europe the hope.HELLENISM in ruin 7 and dismemberment. . while their coast of unenslaved by Persia. It may be enough to recall the . later still. Already in the and other lonians. takes the bold step of recognizing Mind as the guiding principle in the universe. common alike to science and philosophy. massiveness. that certain intelligible principles could be found from which could be deduced as consequences the bewildering details of appearances. Pythagoras. had made a momenmathematics. on the other hand. anticipation of the atomic theory by Democritus. Greeks showed the same fearlessness in plotting out the methods of true science sixth century Thales Asia Minor was still tous beginning in physical basis for dominant point of and philosophy. and rich restraint of ornament — columns. That the Greeks did not fully realize the need for scientific but the sagacity of their scientific hypoexperiment is true theses is often astounding. coming to an Athens that had won in her liberty to the full. migrating from Samos to the Greek colonies in Italy in order to escape the oncoming tyranny at home. bearing lightly the huge marble slabs and the low-pitched roof. and dreamed of reaching a view from which the entire world could be understood as one connected whole. a little later. that speak for ever of Athens' confidence in herself and her ideal for those citizens of hers who were to be a law unto themselves. who argued that all the processes of nature were derived from the move- ments minute particles through space.

culminated in the famous every natural " " " Form or thing had a dominant character. and Plato could safely put his name at the head of everything he It was an unsound fabric. inaugurated by the lonians for physics. his beloved Athens put him to death. more perhaps than any single teacher. in season and out of season. and the wood could still grow. like all great things. weak . he set free the mind of the common man. If we planted a wooden bed. her gers." from which its distinctive behaviours were derived and by which they should be judged." The man who could be satisfied with no secondhand definition of righteousness. and the but we do less than justice either to Socrates or to his judges if we do not realize what the shock must have meant. the truth that " the life brought philosophy without thought was no life for man. but a Tree. The " form " was " natural " in the sense that it was not imposed simply from without. In the system of Plato and Aristotle for in essentials the two philosophers had one system and the same the search for satisfactory causes and definitions. To discover the fundamental Forms and trace their consequences and connexions was the prime business and fruitful doctrine of Ideas. we ought to recognize with Hegel that his criticism was much too powerful and solvent to be merely " innocent. and pur- — — sued fearlessly with the free man's readiness to follow the argument wherever it might lead. almost solitary act of persecution. for all its charm. preaching valiantly. it is clear that Athens repented of this. the doctrine that . has its danMoreover. it would grow up not a Bed. his devout and humorous search after clear thinking in all conduct. and how it may have unsettled the looser minds. Liberty. in alarm. who could not even rest in the answer that it was obedience to the will of the gods. extended by Socrates to ethics. writes Aristotle in his pithy way. shaking was sorely needed wrote. And if.8 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND " " into the market-place by the fascination of his lovable and strenuous life." And thus. its Idea. shook to its foundations the fabric of Greek mythology and ritual. The disciples of Socrates were honoured for honouring their master.

« O r .w N w <A [^ c w K H p- w H CQ [/.


only in a well-ordered State could man attain the true end of his being and a happiness worthy of himself. The State. on the study of the ^ its natural functions. In man this effort towards Perfection involved the pursuit of a happiness that culminates in the Knowledge of Truth. Aristotle's doctrine of ^ " the golden mean " implied Phaedo. the Point on which hung all the heavens and the earth. a supramundane " " share in. in Plato and Aristotle. That the discovery of the true Forms meant long and patient search. so far as it could. Therefore. to copy. as one of the first human body and principles of medicine." as Plato's eloquence phrased it. observation as well as analysis. What Aris" " totle always demanded was not an empty syllogism but " " should register a genuine and middle term one where the between the Idea and its further consequences. in a passage of permanent inspiration. For the Ideas were conceived as good in themselves and as ultimately brought into operation by the desire of every natural thing to attain. the orderly search for the Ideas was linked with a remarkable philosophy of religion. Again of man's Form that he should seek to follow Reason and live in harmony with his fellow-citizens. points an argument by appealing to the scientific method of Hippocrates. in " Idea of Heavens. bej^ond this manifest world. are not distant because they twinkle they twinkle because they to Aristotle. in some " real but mysterious a Place above the sense. said Aristotle. Aristotle knew well enough. his natural faculties being wrought into a harmony dominated by this." the Goodness. who insisted. in the " Ideas as Aristotle put it. it was a corollary are distant. though far less interested in science proper than Aristotle. to paraphrase an instance of his own.HELLENISM of thought. . the life of God. the desire of the Perfection of a world. or to Type existing. . 270 d. it exists for the sake of the good life. and even Plato. into being for the sake of life . 9 and the rules of the syllogism were framed with the express object of keeping the results clear." as they said. Further. as to Plato. may have been brought vital link The stars.

to make any man lose heart. empire The history of Herodotus is planned to exhibit the clash of the opposing ideals and the deliberate choice between submission to a magnificent autocrat and loyalty to the laws and covenants agreed upon by equals. knew The comedy The Peace-maker. had been won in connexion with their resistance as freemen to the aggressive tyranny of the Persians (490-480 ff. paralysing as most characteristic part of their hopes. This doubt. a deepened by failure disastrous enough. too weak. The apparent progress of the world at certain epochs might be balanced by recurrent cycles of decay.C. Faced with the baffling intricacy and evil of the physical and moral world.C. But was man capable of such sublimity ? Here the answer of the Greeks was at least doubtful and grew more and more despondent as the years went on. they could not shake off the suspicion of an irrational element in things that reason could never understand nor effort subdue. by Eiiripides the poet. join together in an effort to save of " . But. B.).). but balance and limitation to serve this definite and sublime end. even by the poet's inveterate critic Aristophanes. though neither nation it. who strove to end it by kindly laughter. the cities and men who had stood side by side against her turned on each other in fratricidal conflicts." Aristophanes called Lysistrata. Aryans like themselves. after its opening brilliance. by Thucydides its historian. waged for nearly a generation between Athens and Sparta (431-404 B.10 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND not merely balance and limitation. was the final political failure of their country. and the liberty they loved was too often only their own. Their first triumphs in culture. writing his most moving " " play of The Trojan Women immediately after the Athenian violation of Melos. Persia once defeated. but Aryans who had built up a brilliant on the basis of despotism. where valiant true-hearted women on either side. though recognized for the curse it was by many of Athens' clearest minds. Athenian and Lacedaemonian. as Their sense of unity was needless as they were murderous. after the it was to the bloom of the Epic. Of all the conflicts the most tragic was the long Peloponnesian War.

for the union of old. Thucydides saw and admired the admirable conception of civic life upheld by the Athenian a life free." us by " Suddenly out of the darkness Flashes the golden mirth. ! ! ! ! And summon her too. sing to her too. The Queen of the Brazen House • But the lovely song stops short. and song. but it is a deathless thing.HELLENISM 11 Greece by withdrawing from all men until the foolish war is and given up. adorned by an art that was never luxurious and a culture never effeminate. the Lady of Might. and claim knowledge where knowledge was not. Like gods defying the Persian host Women and love and the glory of old. joyous. And the cry for peace. Let them end the weariful war Drown it in laughter. with which it closes is among the most musical ever sung for " that graceless master of Attic grace. too wisely modest to is —the tragedy of the earhest. The chorus. Aristophanes' song with its laughter and light. sing to the gods As the Spartan maidens dance and sing In the deep Eurotas vale. Pure and holy and fair The daughter of Leda moves in the dance. democratic. strikes the reader through all its indecency mirth as one of the most humane protests ever uproarious It was written in vain. written against political madness. riot. Sparta. But he saw also the narrowness of the Periclean imperialism " " had the the School of Hellas the hard conviction that Pericles. : right to take the money of her allies —the Dehan League that . Dance and hymn to the gods Athens. an impartial sympathy too pregnant to err by over-simplification. now fragmentary.— broken •••••• and far In the history of Thucydides perhaps the greatest ever written —one away " ! put before us with a many-sided terseness. Athens and Sparta side by side. but philosophic enough to search for underlying causes and bold enough to state them when found. Leads the dance like a fawn. ! The Warrior Maiden.

ever recovered sufficiently to oppose a united front when Philip of Macedon and Alexander his son. It is indeed most important to reiterate with Pindar that the Athenians had " laid the shining steps Of Freedom's temple. but in and more than once they shared in noteworthy experiments towards federation. nor Greece as a whole. and the thrill of it can be felt even through the jury-courts . It was the prelude to the fall of Athens. by the Greeks themselves. It rings out.12 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND to defeat Persia and use it for her own beautifying (the Parthenon was built with the funds). confessedly complicated oligarchic and militarist. fall. to substitute personal empire for the civic freedom so nobly attempted. but also and throughout Greece by " " and the fierce quarrels everywhere between oligarch " " " of antiquity. From But neither true. following an age-long track. whither Athens had gone to plunder the rich Greek colonies of Sicily. And they knew well what they were doing. follows. as we have said. but the sequence of his chosen facts utters moral after moral. with the her rivals. trusting first and foremost to free speech and persuasion . and so ignobly defeated. class-wars democrat. men of an allied but rougher race. to be subject to impeachment when the term was over". the thrill of pride in . it is the North. from almost all their writing. the imperfect medium of translation. The overwhelming defeat in Syracuse. for example. the right to push her own dominion and commerce at the expense of all had helped — He shows us the web of good and evil further not only by the selfishness of Sparta. swept down from that she. Nemesis of an ^Eschylean tragedy." After expelling kings and tyrants they had conceived and put into practice government by the majority of the full citizens. they elected their officials for limited terms. straight on the arrogant cruelty with which she had crushed. they gave the plain citizen a controlling voice." the Thucydides rarely moralizes openly. not only in the Assembly. she recovered astonishingly. immediately before. the innocent island of Melos that had only desired to stand neutral in the conflict.

Ye river-founts. to obey. there was nothing like irresponsible despotism. and the shrewd old loyal swineherd. 135). Herein Athens only emphasized what marked out the Greek in general from the barbarian. but appeahng when rid of them to the elemental powers of Nature as witnesses to the wrong he suffers from the Rulers whose equal he is and who ought to be his allies : " sacred sky. But Athens remains the leader. and when they unite they are the noblest of mankind. the Liberator and Friend of Man. but you have no knowledge of freedom. presented by .HELLENISM mand and 13 that ordered freedom which taught the citizen ahke to comNor are the instances Athenian only.^schylus at the opening of the drama chained to his lonely cliff. grumbling at the half-hearted work of the slaves. " admits that a man loses half his manhood when he falls into slavery. 104). on you a god. Slavery you understand. mother of us ! O all 1 All-seeing Sun 1 I call See what I suffer. not with spears but " axes (vii. and swift-plumed flying winds. where the scenes of debate are almost as stirring as the scenes of battle. In Sparta itself. I on you." king " tell Herodotus the Ionian makes the exiled Spartan the Persian Xerxes to his face what Lacedaemonian liberty could mean : are braver than the Spartans taken singly. from gods " ! ! . whom they " fear far more than any of your subjects fear you (vii. There is no wider sweep for the free spirit than the passionate outcry of Prometheus. and sparkling from the sea Unnumbered laughters Earth. Had you ever tasted its sweetness you would have bidden us fight for it. silent before the minions of Zeus. Sparta had her share in the tradition of the Homeric songs. Or take the splendid answer of the same Spartans when Hydarnes the Persian envoy tried to win them over by fair promises : " Hydarnes. For though they are free they are not free in all things they : No men have one master and that master is the Law. in this matter you cannot give us counsel on equal terms. the most rigid of Hellenic States.

Those light decrees of thine have no such power That thou. us. with the tenderness of womanhood or the dignity of old age." 1 Nowhere indeed do the great Greek writers give more winning expression to the love of freedom than when they unite it. unfailing." (Soph: Antig.) sweep all same Antigone who petty enmity away : utters the divine words that . as they often do. but with Him Suffer the worst We were taught to loathe traitors. lovely daughters of Ocean. when the lackey of Zeus suggests that they should desert the Benefactor before the thunderous onslaught of the Tyrant : " Choose other words for Give other counsel. a man. thou hintest ? Nay. not of to-day Nor yesterday. shouldst override God's laws. Clouds that far above me soared thou blue rejoicing Sky Thou rising Sun " Yea. Nor justice dwelling with the Lords of Death. Unsurpassed among all heroines of liberty is Antigone. And no man knoweth when It is the their day appeared. She flings back contempt in the face of the king who would convict her " It of lawlessness : was not God proclaimed those laws to me. defying her city's cruel commands because of her burning love for her dead brother.14 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND It was an appeal to echo down the centuries and inspire more than one poem in our own days the Release of Man in — Prometheus Unbound. but laws that live for ever. and O ye Forests high. everything that is and will be free O And O ye ! ! ! ! The same note is repeated again and again throughout the play and taken up with exquisite effect at the close by the gentle. Then we may Never to this listen ! 1 Play the coward. fiery and merciful." the apostrophe to Liberty Shelley's " " in Coleridge's Ode to France : " " ye loud Waves. Unwritten laws.

now. Our country." ! (Eur: Iph. think : And ! Die for a woman. Our women's honour through the years to come. You who bore your child. putting aside with ineffable gentleness the help young of his Achilles. let me speak This anger with my father is in vain. She " the : and would save her hurrjdng words ! at the risk of furious alarm and desperate resistance Mother. Clytemnestra the queen. Thank our brave friend for all his generous zeal But never let us broil him with the host. Life is not so sweet She who saved Hellas I should be craven. mother. die for Greece is my one poor life to hinder all ? Could we defend that ? Could we call it just ? How could we let our friend And. Vain to use force for what we cannot win. I have chosen death I have put cowardice away from me. victory for the Greeks Barbarians must never rule this land. conquer Troy This shall be : ! ! — : ? My husband and my children and my fame. and my name be blest. say I am : right ! Hellas. and ruin for himself. 15 I I will not hate with you love with you was not born for that. the doom of Troy. mother it is my own free choice. who loves her stills own life. not yourself. My death will save them. in Aulis. fighting all his folk ? A thousand women are not worth one man The goddess needs my blood can I refuse No take it. they are on fire ! ! To serve their outraged country. Our own land They are slaves. mother. our own O mother. It was for Greece you bore her.HELLENISM " I'll _ . Think Thousands of our soldiers stand to arms.) And beside these women of the poets we may put the man of . They man the waiting ships. takes command of her overbearing mother. ! Victory. looks to me On me the fleet hangs now. and we are free. hear me now I have been thinking." : of soul Iphigenia. — ! — — : Honour is mine. and offers With equal greatness terrible herself at her father's bidding as a free sacrifice for a free of the people. No gain to us. growing up in one hour from a girl into a woman.

that is what I think I hear. your own self and your dear ones and your country and us. and it As it is. not set your children or your life or any other thing whatsoever above righteousness. to us who brought you up. Still. injuring the last beings whom you ought to injure.' Crito. the for they will Laws know that of Death. or righteous or just. govern could be good for you or yours. your country's laws. will not be good when you reach that other land. and tender humour than the passage where Socrates in prison explains to his old friend Crito (who has been urging on his beloved master that the really brave course is to run away) how he cannot leave because he hears the laws of his city calling on sentence him " ' to stay : Do Listen to us." and yet with such reverence for his country's laws that he refuses to escape by flight from the execution of the when once it is passed against him. you went about to destroy us. so far as I see at present. and in that other land our if — — brothers. and the sound of the words rings and echoes as in in my ears and I can listen to nothing else. if you speak against speak in vain. Socrates. if you think you can them you will do any good. my dear friend Crito. heroism. Nothing could be more instinct with sanity. refusing to purchase acquittal " unlike a free-born to his judges. so far you lay. beUeve me. to the example of those Homeric heroes man.16 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND life : actual — Socrates speaking in his own defence. that. to defend yourself for this before those who In this life you do not believe that to act thus you go. not yielding one inch of his dignity and independence. lest when you go to the other world you should have there. breaking your own pledge and covenant with us. then we shall bear you anger while you live. rendering evil for evil and wrong for wrong. as the Corybants hear flutes in the air." . say on. you will go wronged wronged by men though not by us ^but if you went in that disgraceful manner. Believe me." appealing who " cared not for death or danger in comparison with dis- by truckling grace. will not receive you graciously. Therefore you must not let Crito overpersuade you against us.

Crito and let things go have said. Plato is " " democracy. Plato and Aristotle included. and especially the Athenians. if too few of them showed the tenacity of Socrates in serving it to the end. in every city of Greece." the basis was always slave-labour. let Then . and to secure the doing of it compulsion was deemed structure broke down. for that is the way that God has pointed " " No. might have led to a itself. and yet the manual toil necessary for the means of living left no room for leisure.HELLENISM Crito. the cultured life that was to them the crown of life. without ample leisure.). Crito. Greek institutions for later political liberty are the more impressive when we this atmosphere of unlimited discussion in which remember they were formed. envisaged a marvellous union of liberty and law. must be done by those who were unequal to the demands of culture. The narrow-based citynecessary. and moreover. for they did not see how to secure. but they made terms with their consciences. 17 Soc. Assuredly the Greeks. the Greeks themselves destroyed by their narrow selfishness what they had designed to create. True it is that some Greek thinkers. Nor was it for want of keen and incessant discussion on the problems of government and sovereignty that they took the line they did. out as I " I have nothing I can say. show that their consciences are not quite at ease about slavery. among the most searching critics of despotism of doctrine as crushing as that of the Inquisition Indeed it is far from impossible that many of the champions for the supreme ascendancy of the Church were not uninfluenced by Plato. probably. as we saw. in the proportion of three to one. even at its lowest." us leave it so. the first first by Europeans Alexander's 2 project was to overcome the Persian . however " democratic. fin. and his conclusion in the Republic (and perhaps " still more in the Laws ") that the supreme authority must be left in the hands of trained thinkers. (Plat.C. however.). Such toil. and with Alexander and his successors large empires ruled we come on (336 B. Most miserably. then. Socrates.

. and continuous. who seems to have dreamt of uniting Greek and Persian under one autocratic rule. Empire —that from Herodotus to Xenophon. for example. the way was prepared for that rehgion which by Jesus ever since has called the West to unity. close. that had never been without a certain fascination for the Greeks. religion and immorality. kingdoms that. however despotic at the centre. direct. And the opening led to large results. did open all the gates between Europe and the Near East. The contact between Hellenism and Hebraism. Palestine. when Alexander's generals and successors were ruling kingdoms throughout Greece. lacking strangely- mingled subjects. It fail to fascinate Alexander. Above all. explorer. Asia Minor. even when they defied it. the religion taught Christ the Jew. Much was achieved in those though they are in the greatest names.18 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND strange compound of courage and corruption. tenacity and weakness. In did not career as conqueror. became any case his own amazing founder of cities. and Egypt. but there were genuine gains from the attempts at unification. still tried to foster both local freedom and Hving culture among their centuries. Liberty suffered.

like Greek. when they journeyed out of Babylonia into Palestine had completed a period of growth roughly contemporaneous with the development of Greece from the time of Agamemnon. but they had. But again. and on their return from the Exile abandoned without regret. " a prophet or a prophet's the rich and the rulers not even as Hebrew son.CHAPTER HEBRAISM the days of Alexander the III Hebrew tribes second millennium B. fiercely resenting either foreign domination or oppression at home. and Hebrew poetry remains as mighty a bequest to ! modern Europe. primeval.. like the Greeks. They had not the Greek genius for constitution-making. Thoroughly typical instances of their readiness to defy tyranny and officialism are the cases of Nathan. was nurtured at the breasts of this free spirit. The mythology they had brought with them from far-off depths. Like the Greeks. had been refined and deepened by the Prophets and their priestly successors. crying " " of Amos lashing Thou art the man to David himself. Semitic. the Hebrews had been rent asunder by fratricidal conflicts. the power both for good and for evil of judging (and destroying) the existing order by setting up a higher standard of freedom and equity. Israel cursing Judah and 19 . the prophet. as men of their race have shown on occasion since. Sumerian.C." but as a simple dresser of sycamore trees. the Hebrew BY of the Semitic race distinct at least as far a branch back as the — — tribes cherished their liberty. Their experiment in kingship was undertaken reluctantly. poetry.

Man was a worm before Him. The Hebrews recked little of art or science or metaphysics or history. Any lay in his power to obey the commandments dignity in man of the Lord. beauty. they had fallen a prey in their weakness carried away captive by Assyrians and Babylonians. ceived as concerned exclusively with the righteousness and safety of the nation. But under the stress of suffering and thought it widened out into something far nobler.worshippers. more intense than can be given in any words but their own. found the significance of life only in walking humbly with his God. unlike the Greeks. There is the sharpest contrast here to the Greek ideal of the individual's many-sided development culminating in knowledge. but even more completely than the Greeks. they learnt much from defeat and captivity. This belief put a limit on their speculation. The typical prophet. this prophet conceives the Suffering Servant sometimes as the whole . Like the Greeks. But. of a Power manifested in Nature and Man. an apprehension. The distinguishing mark of these Hebrews was their peculiar religious gift. and the isles of the sea but as dust in the balance. immortality. writing when at Jews were released from Babylon by the Persian Cyrus. With a disregard for the ordinary limits of personality often noticeable in Jewish Uterature. but infinitely beyond both. up at least to the time of the Exile (sixth century B. friendship. do we find developed the thought of the Nation as a Being not merely entrusted with a Law that could give light to the whole world. and the conception had all the nobility and much of the narrowness of patriotism. One might even say that the ancient Hebrew cared little about individual development at all certainly it was not till a late period that he began to long for individual . The whole nation could be united by its service to its God.20 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Judah Israel. to foreign conquerors.C. and dealing boldly and His God was at first conjustly with his fellow. last the Especially in the Second Isaiah. but also it gave them a principle of unity which the Greeks too often lacked. but as destined through its sufferings to save that world.). That service was indeed at the outset very narrowly conceived.



People, sometimes as the Elect among them, the Remnant, sometimes as one individual Person, it may be his own better self or a supreme Man of Sorrows, either past or to come. " He shall By his sorrows shall that Servant win rejoicing. his knowsee of the travail of his soul and be satisfied by ledge shall my righteous servant justify many, for he shall

bear their iniquities." Inevitably this innocent sufferer, this Holy One of Israel who poured out his soul unto death for the sake of the transgressors, was identified, by all who entered into Isaiah's who was to redeem the world. spirit, with the divine Messiah



was the

easier because the

Hebrews were


a Divine sacrifice, a victim without spot, slain for the sake of the people. Modem research has shown how deep and widespread was this worship of a Dying God, dying to rise again, a God with whom, whether by literally eating his flesh and drinking his blood, or in less material ways, his worshippers could enter into communion, and thus, through him, with one another. The roots of this world-wide sacrament are multifarious, and it varies from the lowest savagery to the most mystical forms There are traces of a primitive confusion between of devotion.

from time immemorial with the idea

the material vehicle and the force embodied in it, as when savages eat the heart of a brave enemy to possess themselves there are signs of the profound impression of his valour made on early man by the natural drama of autumn and spring, the corn dying, the seed being buried in the ground, and rising again with fresh life the following year. But the ritual could never have won the hold it did if it had not symbolized much more, first, the unity between all living powers,

and then

of still greater importance and more and more prominent as time went on the truth that the world advances through the suffering of heroic natures and that lesser men " and women can be saved by them and joined with them."



emergence of this conception into the religious conis one of the gifts that Hebraism, through Christianity, helped to give the Western world, and the clearest This was his contribution, signs of it meet us first in Isaiah.



a memorable one, to the problem of undeserved suffering, a problem pressing heavily on the Jewish thought of the time. The Jew had always had a keen sense of retributive justice, but in earlier days his concern for the nation had quite overshadowed the individual. But now, after the misery of the Exile, the nation crushed and all but trampled out, the question had to be faced. Jewish answers varied significantly. The long wrestle in Job ends without any clear-cut solution there is perhaps a hint of immortality, but the real succour comes to Job, as it might have come ages afterwards to

in the whole imiverse.

Spinoza, simply through his sense of the fathomless majesty Others, like Job's comforters, fell back, in sheer defiance of fact, on the assertion that the good were

always rewarded in this Hfe and the wicked punished. Finally, during the centuries between the Exile and the Birth of Christ, the nation lying under the shadow first of Persia, then of Greece, and lastly of Rome, comfort was looked for in the new hope of immortality, an immortahty marked by definite reward and punishment. The nobler among the adherents
of this

new belief show anticipations, not insignificant, of the Christianity that was to complete their hopes. Heaven and Hell now first become prominent in Judaism,

and with them the belief in a personal Devil for ever opposed The dominance of such ideas in Palestine, aided as they were by echoes from Egypt and by Persia's religion of a cosmic struggle between Ahura Mazda, the lord of light, and Ahriman, the spirit of evil, was the prelude to their overwhelming influence in Europe, where indeed they found congenial soil. For the present they helped to lead a large section of the Jews to an increasing reverence for the Law as a perfect code and an increasing reaction of hardness
to the Lord.

disregard for the sweeter counsel symbolized by the story of Ruth, the alien who was true of heart, or Jonah, the prophet who had learnt that the Lord could have compassion even upon Nineveh.

towards the Gentile, a fanatic

For after the Exile there are two main tendencies to be the one already mentioned, distinguished in Jewish thought wider and tenderer, of which the Second Isaiah is the type

and which was


to flower out later in Christianity the noticeable for example in Ezekiel and Ezra, narrow other, with a tragic narrowness, concentrating itself in a passion of remorseful resolution on the determination to keep the

Law down

in cleaving to the Lord, pure

and thus unite the nation from idolaters. The first was incomparably the finer, but it was attended by its o^vn perils. Among its less high-minded supporters
to its smallest details

there could be a weak submission to foreign rule, a paltering with Greek effeminacy or else a despairing sadness as paralyzing to the full powers of man. The threnody of Ecclesiastes expresses that despair with an imaginative force, a depth and a sympathy that put this little book among the grandest monuments of Pessimism but it is a grandeur of death. The sadness of many a disillusioned Greek had met In the eyes of the with, and intensified, the WTiter's own. Preacher there is nothing in life but recurrent cycles of baffled " effort and triumphant tyranny. All the rivers run into unto the place whence the the sea, yet the sea is not full " rivers come, thither they return again "I returned (i. 7). and considered all the oppressions that are done under the sun, and, behold, the tears of such as were oppressed and " " Revolt is futile. Curse (iv. i). they had no comforter not the king, no, not in thy thought, and curse not the rich
; ;


thy bedchamber, for a bird of the

air shall

carry the voice,

and that which hath wings shall tell the matter (x. 20). Yet even Ecclesiastes will not wholly turn aside from effort. He bids men go on toiling and learning, useless as it may
seem, ploughing the sands," casting seed-corn upon the barren waters. Maybe, after all, something will come of


For wisdom in his eyes


excelleth folly


as far as

light excelleth darkness."



point of fact the Greek genius for free inquiry, the " love of wisdom," was still of a force to be felt Greek even after Alexander, when, though Greek liberty was


was not yet dead. Especially in science did it power known. Hellenistic art and literature, " no doubt, should not be despised. The famous Dying of the most touching figures ever modelled, Gaul," one

a marble copy of a bronze set up in Pergamus by Attains I after a victory over the Gauls of Galatia. The Hellenists noted and wondered at the iron self-control with which these Northern barbarians could die. They had too little of that in their own composition, but they could still respond to the aesthetic appeal of heroism. The old heroic

literature had, indeed, died out.


In the old days ^Eschylus the with nation-wide, world-wide problems " The Persians," the of Greek against barbarian in struggle " The Seven civil strife when brother is slain by brother in

Thebes," the revolt of the innovating Liberator " Prometheus," the against entrenched authority in the " curse of overweening ambition in the trilogy of Agamemnon's House," where wrong breeds wrong and revenge revenge
until at last Justice takes the place of Vengeance and the pure in heart join with daemonic Principalities and Powers

to establish the ordered


of the City.

Issues as large had been raised by Sophocles and Euripides. " The " Antigone of Sophocles, chosen by Hegel as the very type of tragedy, turns on the clash between the rights of the



Euripides had burned out against the cruelties flaming in the mythology of his time, the hypocrisies of war, the Within injustice to slaves, to women, to defeated enemies. a generation after the death of Alexander (323 B.C.), how the Whether in Greece herself range of poetry has dwindled and in the Peloponnese there were recurrent struggles for full freedom or in Asia ]\Iinor, or at Syracuse under an independent tyrant, or at the brilliant Alexandrian court founded by the ]\Iacedonian Ptolemy, what poets there are never touch
rights of the State.

and the

with the

fire of spiritual revolt,


on politics except as courtiers. Sparkle they have and charm, even freshness, as in the delicious pastorals of Theocritus, but the abounding strength has gone which could encounter all the facts of life. The strength which still remained worked in the safer realm of pure science, or quietly in history, or aloof on the grave heights of philosophy. The Greek Euclid (fl. 300 B.C.) consolidates or extends the earlier work in geometry. The Greek Archimedes, half a century later, links mathematics and physics, stating, for example, the principle of the lever, learning how to determine the specific gravity of a material by comparing its weight in water and in air. The Greek Hipparchus (fl. 150 B.C.), studying the heavenly bodies, prepares the way for Ptolemy's theory of their motions elaborated in the second century of our era, a theory coherent

enough to satisfy men Greek Polybius (fl. 127

until the


of Copernicus.


like the

Greek Plutarch two

centuries later, writing of liberty as of a vanished dream, bows before the new order introduced by Rome.

Stoicism meanwhile built, century by century, its castle of refuge for all those who, in the saddening world, despaired of altering the face of things, saw no chance for the individual's

development in human joy, and yet longed to be at peace with the universe. The inteUectual roots of Stoicism are Greek, but growing up as it did in Asia Minor from the day of Alexander onwards, it owed much to the devout spirit of
the Jews, (there is indeed some reason for thinking that the founders, Zeno and Cleanthes, may have had Hebraic blood), and as the years went on it owed much also to the discipline



Rome, who emerges, a century after Alexander, from her mastery of the Western Mediterranean to dominate Macedonia and the Near East and so to challenge the leadership of the known civilized world. The finest prose of Stoicism, indeed, was written under the Roman Empire itself. Drawn from, and appealing to the three great cultures of the Ancient World Greek, Hebrew, Roman Stoicism appeals in every age to the disappointed and heroic heart. The individual must find his peace in possessing his own soul, unshaken in

unshattered by personal or public catastrophe, satisfied that in living the life of self-control he is at one with those divine forces of Reason which build up the connected harmony

of the universe.





Thus even under the shadow for his own soul. But the

of oppression

Stoic freedom

was gained through mutilating man's desire. To be at one with the universe a man must recognize that he was only a part and a transitory, subordinate part of the vast Nature, he must submit God, Reason, Destiny, that embraced him himself to the Whole and not expect the Whole to concern itself for him. He could touch the Divine life for a moment, then he passed, and his place knew him no more. The answer chimed with the austerer notes in men's thought, whether from Greek philosophy, assuming a Perfection in which man


had no abiding

share, or from Hebrew religion, worshipping a God before whom the generations vanished as a watch in the night, or Roman morality, demanding the complete But it resacrifice of the citizen to the Commonwealth. sembled Hebrew and Roman rather than Greek in its contempt for all human excellence other than moral strength. It is significant that even the Greek Epictetus praises the " athletes of God." But narCynic ascetics as the chosen rower though it was here, it was wider than the classic Greek in its growing insistence on the solidarity of all men little in themselves, they were all alike part of the All, and in this consciousness the Stoic attained his greatest triumph. The " Dear city of Cecrops," the classic poet had cried to Athens,

Stoic emperor will cry to the universe,


Dear city of God."^

Marcus Aurelius,


Meditations," Bk.



Epictetus the slave, old, crippled, and despised, will count himself a glad father to all men, singing hymns of joy all day


of Epictetus is comparatively the Stoics show that they lived by broadly speaking, a religion without hope. Those who wanted more turned to the Mysteries, Greek, Egyptian, or Persian, that promised

But the triumphant note

ardent natures redemption through sacramental ritual. Less " " of personal contented themselves with a philosophy
pleasure, refined or gross according as temperament interpreted the ideal of harmony in this life set up by the Greek





The Platonic hope

of a free develop-

ment up

to full satisfaction in the boundless sea of beauty and the clear vision of absolute truth was fading from men's

Even when revived
(d. A.D. 270),

later in the

Neo-Platonism of


from the was best in it. Nor was there as yet any general hold on the idea of world-progress as something to live for over and above the happiness of men alive, although we find
occasional foreshadowings of this hope, as in the Lucretian outline of historical evolution or in the Hebrew prophecies
of Israel's destiny.

appeared rather as a way of escape concrete world, than as a fulfilment of what



such a world came Christianity. Christ have gathered centuries of love
give so

Round the figure of
and hatred, worship

and INTObitter controversy, the bitterer perhaps because of

we cannot know and would
of the confusion


to know.

But out

and obscurity some things emerge plainly " the Jesus of Nazareth lived in the faith that " Maker and Father of the universe was not, as Plato had

hard to find and impossible to declare to all men," but a Spirit who could be found when sought by children and the simple-hearted. He himself, so He believed, was one with that Spirit, and all men and women, if they chose to give up their selfish selves, could be united with Him and His Father, and enter the Kingdom of Heaven, in this world and in the world to come. He died for that faith, and, as He foretold, it has been a light for myriads since His death. But the interpretations of His teaching, both for conduct and theory, have been myriad also. Some consean altogether new sense of quences, no doubt, are clear the Spirit of God gave man a courage freedom and unity and certainty beyond his own and fiUed him with unbounded compassion for all other men as sons of the one Father privilege and pride and lust were swept away, and suffering could be not only endured but accepted with joy as somehow working in the end for the sufferer's good. But what shall be Did Christ preach practical communsaid of other matters ? ism ? Franciscan poverty ? Asceticism in any sense ? Non:



resistance in the full sense


Did He

believe in everlasting

however we may criticize him. and wine which linked a thousand memories of the race with the hope of a new power. dogmatist though he was himself. and making all things new in one wide fellowship.THE COMING OF CHRISTIANITY hell all ? 29 dwelt Did He demand fullness faith in Himself as one in whom Did He look " immediate and catastrophic End of the World " ? the of the Godhead ? for an Passages equally authentic. Paul dreamed of a goal where all men should have life new the liberty of the children of God and be as stars differing only . But the failing heart of the ancient world clutched at the Christian hope that man was not left alone and desolate. It was just here that St. and His words. flowing from a Man who had died for men. a miserable copy of a Perfection he could never reach. and devoted Christians have given diametrically opposite answers. left nothing written. and organizing for the : central rite of the infant sacramental bread Church that ritual of the sacrificial. Paul is responsible for legalistic theories about the Fall and the Atonement that fettered the freer spirit of Christ. Buddhism had preached as much tenderness. Christ. for while Plato hesitated to include more than a chosen few. And the inclusion is fully endorsed by the comparisons of history. the new confidence. Dispute was inevitable even in the earliest days disputes between the Jewish Christians and the Hellenizing Christians almost tore the Church in two. like Socrates. the typical answer has been Yes. and joy. even if we grant that. did inestimable service by concentrating on the common elements in the new religion. widening. can be quoted in either sense. so far as we can gather. we must confess. In Paul's give own epistles we can see how this new hope could to the old shining dreams of Platonism. sympathy. unforgettable. so far as he could. Along with this. Paul. None the less he insisted that the love he put at the head of the Christian virtues included faith and hope for all men. to every one of these questions. and new width also. Stoicism as much endurance. were never systematic. the bounds of dogma. vivifying. a feeble flame beating helplessly against a closed ring of irrational matter.

though real great issues for religious thought were actually at stake as well. but hierarchy. Meanwhile the general import of the Christian hope goes far to explain the passion in the controversies over the question whether Christ was the same as the Father or only like the Father. howbetween Platonism and Paulinism did not permeate the early Church. round the sacrosanct Law. in glory ever.30 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND from one another. still less from a strong organization that stood outside its own Overt defiance might be limited to few cases." Doubtless these embittered polemics bid fair to destroy the childlike love and trust that was supposed to signalize the Christian. the respect for intellect and science. included). In this. Indeed. When we read how the leaders of the Church met in those Councils where the Spirit of God was believed by the devout to guide His servants into all truth. Christianity had first to struggle for its life against ruthless persecution from the Roman Emperors (Marcus The autocratic Empire Aurelius. the Stoic saint. it is important to emphasize at the outset that early Christianity did lower. to give up our all. the Roman rulers were accomplished enough to discern how obstinate a foe they had nize the State's right to override all private scruples. too often it is the spirit of faction that strikes upon us most. not unlike the old hardening of the Pharisees. Its reverence for brotherly love and sincerity of faith hid from it too readily the value of other greatnesses. and most gravely. that can be discovered The intellectual sympathy. could not tolerate defiance by irresponsible individuals. It was not till the rebirth of thought centuries later in Italy that the possibilities of the union were realized. To say He was only like was. it did not fully understand its own central idea that the highest thing in the universe may be incarnate in the highest powers of man. exulting that what had been hidden from the wise and prudent was now revealed to babes. their former kindred and enemies. no doubt. Indeed. in the conscientious refusal to recogIt was . so felt " the Hellenist Athanasius. what we have chiefly to note in these first centuries is a perceptible hardening among the Christians. There were many reasons for this.

THE COMING OF CHRISTIANITY the problem of Sophocles' : 31 once again. To the writer of the Apocalypse. and indeed Nero. And Inevitably the when.d. St. was there. Rome has become a harlot drunk with the blood of the saints. had been cherished by the first generation of disciples.there was a reaction. fertilized. martyrdom. just in time. and his work by his rival. the forces that move men. four years later. immediately afterwards. and the conscience of the her. St. it may be noted. and on a Antigone an intelligent despotism had to solve it either larger scale by crushing the conscience of the Church or allying itself with " " The attempt to crush was made first. 6o as the year of Paul's departure for 68 or 69 as the date of the Apocalypse. There is no further dream of reconstructing the fabric of society on earth after the pattern of the Heavenly Kingdom. from the bounds of Persia on the East to Britain on the West. young community tightened centuries. This is curiously reflected in the history of doctrine. we should call it now. had drunk enough and to spare of blood. bursting out in 64. Before the persecution of Nero. Paul had been right in divining that the Church must somehow come to terms with secular Renan in taking a. the first in the sinister list. Rome by the Councils as Incidentally the alliance nipped whatever seeds of socialism. * I follow Rome and . he was to suffer martyrdom. and the natural was embitter ment. But inevitably for the time. according to tradition. during which Paul was martyred. its lines. defined alternately of the Church and by the Emperors. felt this themselves. A revolt compelled Nero to suicide. Paul had looked to Rome as the crowning-place of his mission. then the temptation to rigidity assailed the Church in an even more insidious form. result people justilied the compulsion. together with that of his colleague and in fact to bear rich fruit later. Paul had boldly appealed to the very Caesar under whom. ^ The Romans. a Beast not only in the imagination of St. came forward under Constantine to make Christianity the established religion of her own vast empire. after three with her genius for acknowledging. She had become the ally of a world-wide despotism. the Neronian persecution. John. Peter.

St. against its extremer forms. average Stoic or the time. The setback to free inquiry was aU the greater because of the neglect into which Science now fell under Roman rule. we may note. rapidly stiffened into impenetrable orthodoxy. the recluse of Egypt. all the more rapidly because of the Jewish tradition on the one hand pointing to a divinely-revealed Rule. a " " matter neglect again increased by the ascetic contempt of Orthodox prevalent in all schools of religious thought. Anthony. on the Fathers of the Church. convinced that the truth. so far as it was to look on this world as a snare more than worthy of a man's whole study and devotion. . but on the least as saturated with it as the whole the Church Neo-Platonist. but the price she paid for this was perhaps higher than he knew. or at best as a training-ground for character. stands as the first founder of Christian monasticism. on the other. The early enthusiastic faith. ready for experiment. once discovered by the cultured intellect. when the sterner Latin Fathers replaced the especially influence of the subtler and more sympathetic Greek. taught men to escape from. in the name of the Incarna- was at tion. in these early years of Christianity that hermits and monks first make their appearance in the life of the Western world. confident of persuading men to be Christian. The dogmas of ecclesiastical infallibility and of Hell for the heretic took firm hold. Christianity did indeed struggle. in More spite of men like Origen. could and should be imposed on the incapable vulgar. The whole spirit of definitely religious. and the Greek tradition. going back to Plato. And the Christian distrust of the intellect could not but increase the harm. never as something of absorbing interest and value in itself.32 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND and pagan life. It is also.

her power. Map out the sky.CHAPTER with science. except ROME. Past. but with the scope the Umitations are unconsciously revealed." p. certainly a typical Roman.^ Vaguely she respected knowledge and art. or plead with subtle skill. but first and foremost she was absorbed in Government. shows real enthusiasm for scientific knowit is not without some reason that the careless slaughter of Archimedes by a Roman soldier at the sack of has been taken as symbolic of Rome's whole attiSyracuse tude. partly because of their internecine struggles. ledge. fallen." Virgil's well-known lines mark the scope of the Roman Imperialism at its best. " Let others learn the courses of the stars. and. 144. absorbed the divided dominions of Alexander. might seem to justify her.) "The Living 3 33 . and teach her ways. IMPERIAL. as in 1 In fairness cleared with his (See we should add that Cicero. was little likely to rescue even of the classic prime. destroyed her Semitic rival Carthage. At the time when Virgil wrote and Christ was born Rome had dominated the Italian Peninsula. all VI ROME. Or mould us hving faces from the marble Thou. and her astonishing success in this. subdued Celtic Gaul and Celtiberian Spain. : Lay down Pardon the the laws of Peace. DECADENT No Roman. Roman. shalt remember how to rule. and Lucretius. REPUBLICAN. own hands the tomb of Archimedes from its overgrowth. overthrow the proud. all deductions made. piece by piece.

It is important to remember that. In a sense she had been nurtured in that freedom. and with the help of those Greeks and Syrians that the Empire accepted as Roman citizens. but also because. 1 8. better than her rivals the standards of law and would never justice. except for Virgil and Horace under Augusbuilt 1 Roman Polyb. a better chance to the Provinces saved from the greedy officials who courted the favour of a corrupt electorate. to a direct voice in public affairs. largely because the Empire offered a truce of kings. and the sternness of Tacitus shows how keenly the acuter minds could feel that loss. simply as citizens. : and repubHcan rights (though only after a long had been extended from patrician nobles to all the freemen in the city. But she had done nothing really to solve the problem of rich and she had scarcely dreamt of a solution. was up mainly in Imperial times. and a chance at least as good to the poor and the enslaved. and Roman victories went far to breed in the whole city the vices of an oppressive. Nor is Tacitus Rome's only witness to the value of freedom. partly because of her own huge strength." On the contrary. § 37. and law was one of Rome's real glories. Complete independence of herself she was something in the claim of " always eager to incorporate in her own system elements in a former administration. poor. on the whole. so that in any the Near East she became not so much the successor as the efficient Rome was new and energetic partner in the Hellenistic enterprise. slave and free And she had lost her republican freedom her citizens had no longer the right. once fully enfranchised. once she had conquered a country. The Republic fell. allow. but there it was not the Roman the consul Flaminius ^ that way to destroy those who had been their enemies. Bk. But the Roman plebeians.34 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Greece and Palestine. and quarrelsome oligarchy. . ambitious. struggle) to factious intrigue. None the less the loss of liberty meant a loss of creative powers. law. for her history begins with the expulsion . even if they held no office. she did maintain. showed themselves every whit as narrow to outsiders as ever their patrician opponents had been to them.

enlisting the intellect of Greece so that the Empire became almost as much HeUenistic as Roman. Tsars. traditions. fleeing for refuge to absolutism. endured for centuries because it recognized so much human solidarity. of favouring tumults and of licentious controlling the actions of their sovereigns and again of controlling those controllers. however rigid. Catullus. Innocent III. Mazzini said. She stands for unity as the Republicans stood for hberty." France. Lucretius. DECADENT tus. Even under Louis XIV Corneille thrills to their memory. Charlemagne. have remembered Rome and her Empire of the World. REPUBLICAN. lived on side by Livy.ROME. aU. once as Rome of the who have dreamed classic Mediaeval Church the herald of . teaching order to the barbarians. how: ever absolutist her own government. and every reader knows the part it played. once as Rome of the Ancient Empire. And thus their writings have with the Greek as an influence for freedom down the side ages. both of uniting what was best in the Republican and the Imperial. IMPERIAL. under a false show of hberty. felt Hobbes in England. building up a fabric that. accepting religion from the Jews. HohenzoUerns. Cicero. Napoleon. British Imperialists. when fully aroused in the French Revolution. Barbarossa. Modern Europe united he called on her to give it a third time as in a Federation of free its spiritual and equal States. never martjnrs of forgot the classical heroes and freedom. all her most remarkable writers were bred up in liberty and bear the marks of it. apostle of the most generous political gospel ever for preached. " By reading of these Greek good reason to fear it from their childhood have gotten and Latin authors men a habit. 35 captivated by the fair hope of peace and union after bloody civil war. On the other hand Imperial Rome has cast a spell as potent and as far-reaching by her work in welding the nations of Europe together. And the potency of her spell has been both of good and evil. succeeded by . Louis XIV. And there have been idealists like Mazzini. had twice given the word to Europe. At its best the Roman Empire. in varjdng ways. Rome.

panegyrist of Julius. even his murderers. THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND the Roman Church. its slow " Decline of the ability of its autocrats." But this noble dream from the day of its birth till now has been obscured and defaced by the petty ambition and greed of man. except for what radiated from the focus of Constantinople. And that in consequence the empire Julius founded was not. still sensitive to any magnificent appeal. as the children of Israel themselves had done in the time of Moses. between two spiritual forces. to them insoluble. government and liberty. a pre- art. The later Roman Empire is marked by an ominous dearth St. The long sequel and Fall. The German Mommsen. this hope. one of the greatest architects of order who ever lived. had a tragic sense of the truth tragic. cherished the hope of universal peace based on universal law. put forth the last of its great blossoms. He must be blind indeed who of would deny greatness to it. anything but the least bad of the courses then open to statesmen. was part of the divine. and could not be. the austere and grandiose flower of Byzantine Art. " " God can hamper God. to quote Seeley. From the first the Roman Empire sinned against freedom. Augustine's is the only vailing deadness in literature vivid name and in Europe by a complete absence of vital — — of science everjrwhere. we say. because they themselves were caught in a conflict. but it was conceived in iniquity. nisi it the very essence of tragedy. Caesarism made in the end not for life but for death. the whole race passing out of its state of clannish division. There the old root of Greek imagination. so also were those who clung to the shadow of Republican liberty. both. needed for the world. as Tacitus recognized.36 heir. : gods of this world had disapproved. and approved the cause that the '"' . of the Roman Empire. has seen this plainly. as Hegel knew and Shakespeare felt." If Julius himDeus ipse Only self. The opponents of Caesar. and becoming fit to receive a universal constitution. has in " Nihil contra Deum." in spite illustrates this. Such a conflict. abundantly Gradually even local liberty was stifled and with it imaginative genius. an art . It has an immortal destiny.

as Aristotle said. might the tradition of Europe have been The Roman Empire. but given. and ! how far happier. Obviously. this double goal can never be reached.ROME. because of the hardness of men's hearts. And the knowledge of this one fact should be enough to make a nation feel alarm as well as pride But with if she finds herself compared to Imperial Rome. never wholly perfect freedom of individual judgment. and his own opinion needs all other In short. IMPERIAL. the early Republicans. he believes he opinions before it can reach truth. this one exception a paralysis seems to fall on the imagination of Europe. instead of scouting the offer of the hardy Italian tribes whom they fought Had so fiercely and so long. This way and that he tries. and by so doing to keep ahve a tradition of splendour in Art that was to guide the Italian painters when. DECADENT rigid 37 and hieratic enough. but able to body forth with a unique dignity the stupendous visions of the Christian Church. was indeed given by God. Perhaps he can never reach this goal. REPUBLICAN. ages afterwards. And here we come to the centre of the difficulty. barred her own way to better things. Man at his best desires to be reconciled on this planet : two things. was made for life in common. by her is and corruption. But. in earlier days. they rose in the light of the Rebirth. we might say with Dante and Augustine. but he can never cease to struggle for it. had they even co-operated with Carthage instead of destroying her. accepted the proposal that one consul at least should always be a Samnite. and can only grow to his full stature in a society. so long as men hold contradictory views. Julius and Augustus saved all that could then be saved. For at bottom he believes that his own personality depends on all other persons. the best in man cannot be at peace unless he can count himself as advancing towards it. we may ask ourselves. equally truly if less obviously. But ]\Iommsen that Republican selfishness equally right in emphasizing the truth Rome herself had. the mysterious broodings of the East. but it was far from all that man desired. and hence the age-long conflict . the majestic ideals of the Empire. we should add. how different. and complete harmony with other men both in thought and in action.

Less harsh too in its treatment of slaves than the Roman Republic had ever been. still it was less harsh than many in mediaeval days.38 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND between the two principles on which all communities hang. where men and women could be dealt with directly. 550) can make us understand how Roman Law evoked the enthusiasm of men so wide apart as Dante and Rabelais. could bring inestimable help. as they struggled to evolve order out of chaos. and in the treatment of slaves and heretics. The common consent of Europe has recognized. Help. the senseless practices of ordeal and wager by Roman law. 17). as we shall battle. built by a Greek architect under Justinian himself. notably in the sanction of torture to procure evidence.. even a cursory glance at the Codex (completed under Justinian circa a. the boast of Constantinople to this day." even if after all the justice was but Roman " defects. law and conscience. to men bewildered and wearied by the divided loyalties of feudalism. In the long development from Hadrian early in the second century a. did try to 'build of order. public authority and private judgment. the good side. the Church of the Holy Wisdom. the extravagant claims of the Church. ever since the revival of learning.d. For that Law. There is a greatness about it. but. the man and the state. between order and freedom. close of the Roman Law And at the Middle Ages. On aim at thorough-going justice. whatever its see.d. the service rendered by to one at least of these two basic principles. directing skilled jurists to consolidate the " " law of the praetors itself an inheritance judge-made — . The softening is notable. a comprehensive sweep of design which it does not seem fanciful to compare with the grand structure of Santa Sophia. government and individual enterprise. And if the code is harsh. The Codex had some reason for its high claim to be "a Temple " of Justice. their special duties and rights recognized as before an omnipresent and consistent Judge. did up a complete system (i. danger also. and to be ascribed in the first instance to Stoicism with its stress on the solidarity of mankind. a nation and its rivals.



But. But the are bom free and equal (Digest i.ROME. None the less. 4 pages go on to enumerate the disabilities of the slave. because the massacre at Thessalonica. All the rights and all the powers of the Roman people have been transferred " to the Emperor. : . the code through its insight into the true nature of law did lay corner-stones for the building of an ordered and free society. " No man shall be a judge in his own words among us all " " No appeal for mercy shall be made case (Codex iii. REPUBLICAN. and here we come on the second grave defect. : : — The ominous doctrine follows immediately is set out by Justinian himself and on the proud humility of the Theodosian . under the Roman Empire the law was made " not by the people. had been provoked by a monstrous outbreak of unruly Greek citizens against loyal Gothic soldiers. That penance is the more noteworthy. soldiers whom Theodosius with a statesman's insight was trying to win for the Empire. " while a case is being tried (Codex i. in the last resort. and here lay a deep defect. and for the Imperial Power to " submit to law is greater than Empire itself (Codex i. but by the Emperor. "By the law of Nature men Ulpian may write in its pages " Ixvii. So true is it that our authority rests on the authority of justice. This reverence for law extends into the political sphere. and the rift runs right through its magnificent scheme. It countenanced no such absurIts maxims have become household dities as trial by ordeal. 14). IMPERIAL. — In spite of this. Nor was that superiority acknowledged only in words. "It and the Autocrat himself acknowledges its superiority befits the majesty of the Monarch to declare that he himself is bound by the laws. savage and lawless as it was. genuinely anxious to bring the laws of Rome nearer to the law of Nature. DECADENT 39 from Republican times a high place is held by the labours of the Antonine emperors. Ambrose at Milan to expiate a deed of lawless cruelty committed in the haste of his anger. 21). 32). 6). 17). Theodosius the Great submitted in act when he did penance before St. Roman law never repudiated slavery." To him alone is it granted to make the " laws and to interpret them (i.

40 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND 1 The two together foreshadow many a later quarrel between constitutional monarchy and despotism. and. the Theodosian by Milton. But the utterance seems too remarkable to be his own. ^ The saying stands in the name of the younger Theodosius. father. treatise Vindicice contra tyrannos. One speculates Is it due ultimately to the influence of his grandas to its history. as the legend of the French Huguenot saying. before Milton.g. the great Theodosius himself ? . Both were in fact constantly quoted. e.

Often they entered the service of the Empire peaceas soldiers or administrators. Goths. Vandali were not only vigorous and able. Saxones. a pressure that has left ineffaceable marks on almost every country in Europe. We but call these wandering tribes barbarian. in particular. Gothi. The forces of its were so strong and its structure so firmly despotism knit that the Empire might have endured indefinitely as it was it survived with the Greeks in Constantinople for more than a thousand years had it not been for the persistent pressure of the barbarians from North and East. many of them. The fully. for example. but the conquests of Caesar and Pompey removed that danger for ever. attract us both by their ability and their 41 — — . a step that led to the division of the Empire into East and West. travelling West and South. and served it well.— MEDIEVAL VII CHAPTER EUROPE AND THE BARBARIANS: THE DARK AGES AND MONASTICISM Graeco-Roman Empire lasted. and it was largely to guard against them that Constantine {circa a.d. there from within. thenceforward the WHILE was httle quarrel — — Constantinople in his honour. they were also keenly sensitive to civilization. In the Republican days Rome had been menaced from the West by Celts of Gaul and Celtiberians of Spain.PART II. modern Europe Franci. The men Rome dreaded later were chiefly of Germanic stock. fathers of and so the}^ were. 300) shifted the main seat of government from Rome to Byzantium. Alemanni.

The ultimate nationality of Ulfilas is doubtful. capable. as it had been given to her. Roman or their Teuton. was blind to it. when the old unity of the Empire was breaking down. Alaric aspiration the Visigoth. daughter of 1 "Decline and Fall." a book that must have done much to strengthen showing signs of its pages were expressly written. yet there remained a greater and more abiding City than the Rome of this Bishopric of Then the Rome —already later commanding position — for its world. by Ulfilas. to wit." as Gibbon writes. " a countryman. though Christian. Augustine wrote his City of God. Even when Galla Placidia. "or at least. was that St. both to defend Christianity against the charge of having caused the ruin and to comfort the faithful with the assurance that. dreamed again and again of uniting the Gothic strength with the Roman reverence for law. defied the weak Honorius in the West and captured the city that had been chivalry. But the turbulence of the one race and the prejudice of the other prevented it. Rome was naturally the centre of the new system both because of her political prestige in the past and the sacred But the dreaded traditions of St. was accounted treasonable and when. though Augustine end to bring a new element of freedom and vigour into Europe." however loyal or That was ever allowed to become Emperor." And the statesmen on either side." xxxvii. peacefully In the century of Constantine they were Christianand within their own borders. were in the barbarians.42 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND ized. ^ a subject of own. " It is significant that no barbarian. and the orthodox Augustine never thinks of heretics as fellow-citizens in the Heavenly City. in 410. A new unity. . The Goths. was growing up for the West. . the unity of the Church and her discipline. as Augustine tells us himself. a heavenly. were Arians. though her secular Empire might be taken from Rome. inviolate for eight centuries the Norman Conquest it — it nearly as long as from now to seemed to many that the founda" — tions of the world were shaken. the king of the West Goths. Paul. Peter and St. by the decree of the One True God.

sometimes by devious routes. to tyranny and cruelty. between Arian and Athanasian helped to destroy the second attempt at a Romano-Gothic kingdom made a century later. Avars. and even in Attila's day there were men and women here and there fascinated by the wild freedom But of their life and its contrast to the Imperial rigidity. and yet we seem able to discern features common to them all. the various swarms have been further modified both by the blood and the culture of the nations with whom they mingled. they are also prone. been without its charm. who the secretary of Belisarius. that has sent swarm after swarm to disturb the West. nursed on the tablelands between China. None the less their daring and simplicity has never for war. and his persecuRomans whom he believed to be conspiring against him at the close. often chivalrous. admirable except for the slaughter of his barbarian rival Odoacer at the beginning of his reign. even more than Westerners. tion of the the " last learned man " of the dying classic world. a man praised expressly by Procopius. the acute and impartial Greek. but a true king. as The testiand Italians ahke loved beyond measure by Goths of Procopius is the more remarkable seeing that he was mony ' ' . Attila and his Huns the first vanguard of the warlike stock. when the Roman Empire was tottering in the West. Bulgars. Brave. did so much to break the Goths and drive them out of And it is confirmed by all we know of Theodoric's Italy. Magyars (Hungarians). Between the two Gothic waves there swept across Europe from East to West invaders of a widely different type. Hims. and rule The same opposition it as a loyal province of the Empire. married Alaric's successor. and far less They have done little for culture and much easily civilized. career. the renowned Byzantine general. tenacious. India. " no tyrant. and Tartars.EUROPE AND THE BARBARIANS 43 Theodosius himself. — proud. . among whom should be mentioned Boethius. and Russia. Turks. under Theodoric the Ostrogoth. Pressing on again and again. the best she could do was to persuade her husband to take his Visigoths to Spain (her father's early home). the chivahous Ataulf. thousands more were only terrified by the Scourge of God and the common terror united and his savage horsemen .

44 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND barbarians and Imperials in a common resistance. untroubled by their merely nominal allegiance to Constantinople. was dreadful. At the end of the sixth century.d. it seems paradoxical to deny that the prolonged infusion of driven beyond the Alps. Until the time of Charlemagne. and there can be little doubt that the story at least marks a stage in the growing power of the Roman Bishopric. plunging into Italy.") The Northern invasions did not cease when the Goths were Attila's last assault. two hundred years of barbarian flood and ebb. and guided by the old freer traditions of Roman civic life. Longbeards). As Attila retreated. to be swallowed up in the deserts from which they came. the Celtic Britons. Celt. completely. And Venice. though the influence of race has often been over-estimated. if less remarkable than the Gothic. long since separated from the Rome that had ruled them and Christianized them. are forced under Teuton pagans ^Angles. It is said that he was turned back from Rome by the pleading of Pope Leo I." (" Discourses on Livy. and a group with desperate courage. fell under the Teuton Lombards (Langobardi. built up from the sea. Saxons and Jutes from the shores are gradually settling acteristic of down into positions modem — . In England. And now the chaos deepens in the history of the West. though neither Venice nor Rome. Independently and confusedly the shifting tribes more or less charinvaders fusing. if of Northern Italians. for example. And. with invaded. as Machiavelli pointed out long afterwards. and Teuton met the torrent of invaders on the eastern plains of France (a. unmolested by the barbarians (who never had ships). two centuries later. 451) and hurled them back. Roman. a virile and gifted race. after nearly Northern blood played an important part in the change from Italy of the Empire to Italy of the Middle Ages. more or less Europe. he struck again at civilization. the greater part of Italy. fled to the lagoons at the head of the Adriatic and there. Venice arose. abortive. grew great because she had "her beginnings in freedom. there is no organization strong enough even to compare with the broken Empire.

and wise administrator and St. dictine monk. Celtic and Romanized Gauls submit to Teutonic Franks from the Rhine a pure German stock and mingle with Teutonic Burgundians on the Rhone. transforming the " . 32. after the Saxon invasion. something of the wily Italian ecclesiastic when we read the different letters he wrote in the same month to Ethelbert the Saxon King. shown by his missionary zeal. where — — the Popes champion their countrymen against the Lombard invaders on the one hand and the caprice of Constantinople on the other. and how later on he sent Augustine. and possibly recognizing that they were too strong ever to be driven out of the country though never strong enough to unify it. Gregory's most attractive side. as well as his most charHistorians is. with many of its virtues and not without its hmitations. In acts like this Gregory must be recognized as a true seeker for unity and truth. have loved to tell how he had pity. as a young man. Gregory the First and the Great (590-610) is a fine type of his order.EUROPE AND THE BARBARIANS of the Baltic 45 and the Northern Sea. on the angel-faced English children sold as slaves in the Roman market. and he won a prostrong A — — found influence over their Queen Theodolinda. the Beneacteristic.. rivalled in the North by St. and how Augustine and his fellows brought back the Faith to the South. to reclaim the island that had lapsed. In France. Yet we cannot help also suspecting in him. through her. as Milman suggests. Columba from the still faithful Celtic Ireland. The Lombards he usually referred " to as unspeakable. into heathen barbarism. and to a colleague of Augustine's.) The priest is told to lead the idolaters gently. hoping. (Bede." chap. to win them for orthodoxy. 30. while his supreme interest lay in serving the spiritual life as he conceived it by the spread of the true faith." yet he saved Rome from their hands by timely concessions and wise pleading. Eccl. especially in Italy. Peter's was already large he was unremitting in relieving patrimony the temporal necessities of his poor. indeed. IMeanwhile in the bankruptcy of civil government the Christian Church stands out prominently. Hist.

as he himself had been. Again.) His chosen emissary was. on the other hand. for him. The value of that example must always be set against the monstrous elements in the monastic rule. himself ignorant of Greek. not destroying them. was to the secular arm. Moreover Benedict by insisting on manual labour challenged directly the old narrowness of the classic ideal that had ruled out from the highest life all men engaged in such toil as unfitted for Here the classic order of merit is absolutely reversed by Benedict the labour that for them fettered the spirit for him sets it free. Gregory reflects the prevailing temper of the Church his monkish cast of mind. 48. the deadening vacancy. is urged by the shining example of Constantine the Great and warned by the appi caching terrors " " of the Day of Judgment to overthrow the sinful structures and " " terrify as well as soothe. He puts celibacy far above marriage. as so often afterwards." (Letters. Benedict. m and. There is a greatness in this resolute self-denial carried through in a world scrambling after booty and power. and the name of the Italian St. Ever since the early days of Christianity there had been hermits and recluses. half a century before {circa 540). if really religious. would avoid such matters. Ethelbert the king. a Benedictine monk.46 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND heathen temples. stands as the great reorganizer of Western monasticism. left The odious part. The highest reaches of the spiritual life are. speaks with pain and astonishment of clergy so far forgetting themselves as to teach grammar. " when even a layman. divorced both from the daily sanctities of common humanity and from the intellectual search for knowledge. : . the later corruption. ix. the inhuman tyranny. communism. And if his own conception was narrow it here corrected a narrowness that could be as inhuman as anything monkish. the bearing hardness and sacrificing not only to abstinence but to an arduous With him revive the active sense of the glory in private gain for the sake of the brethren. The cold contempt for a man who works with his culture. but Benedict's achievement lay in the establishment of brotherhoods vowed old ideals of religious life in common.

(" De Monarchia. so long that even as late as the fourteenth century a mind vigorous and proud as Dante's must be concerned to rebut such reasoning as that because Levi was older than Judah the Church must be given more power than the State. v. and when men the human spirit.EUROPE AND THE BARBARIANS hands was changed by a true follower ence. where scholar- know Nor was it scholarship only ship could find a nursing-place. Nor was the effect of monasticism on culture merely negaMost monks. chap. and thus. it was long before the fetters thus imposed were shaken from Reason rusted with neglect. in spite of Gregory's warning. argued at all utterly childish arguments entangled their genuine thought. and devotion. there were monasteries such as Monte Cassino in Italy own days). that the cloister protected. or increasingly away from the toil of thought and observation the sustained effort of the higher arts to the routine duties of None simple piety and manual labour. and the Irish schoolinggrounds of Johannes Erigena (John the Scot). (Benedict's own foundation and famous up to our Jarrow in England. like the clergy in general.) . the less the spirit dominant among the devout of The trend was still these centuries was simply obscurantist. The lovely illumination in many a manuscript proves the shelter monasticism could give to at least the minor forms of art. It is impossible to 47 of Benedict into reversay how much our modern belief in the dignity of labour may not owe to the steady example of a rule of life so remote from modern belief on the whole. the home of Bede. enough expected at least to read and write and Latin for the Mass. The unsound traditions lingered long. or to the ecstasies of rapt It is easy to persuade men to remain ignorant. were tive. iii." Bk.

marks for Mohammedans to seemed MEANWHILE. the Semite Mohammed was building up a religion which was to vivify and unify the Near East and make a bid to capture Europe itself. almost. he won them before his death (632). (on their Look at way through it how we 48 Persia). new religion spread and far more rapidly than Christianity had ever done. there. till our own time. Mohammedanism was to be welcomed by the Turks India. in the arid land of Arabia. will. sweeping with whirlwind speed over Syria. 732). grandfather of Charlemagne. " the Hammer of the Moors " (Battle of Tours. At once. Later. however. the Hegira. driving along the northern coast of Africa. to be met and defeated by Charles Martel the Frank. crossing into Spain. but. after his death the widely. Palestine. firing the Moors and Berbers. Egypt Egypt dominated ever since. far away. Like most prophets. when European thought was slumbering in chains and European government was all but choked in anarchy. it is and penetrate to an astounding . Mohammed was at first scorned by his own people. by Mohammedan Arabs or Mohammedan Turks forcing — — itself to the very gates of Constantinople.CHAPTER just VIII MOHAMMEDANISM when the learning of the West have sunk to the lowest level. the beginning of their era. And the date of his flight to Mecca only ten years earlier (622). unlike many. penetrating finaUy into France. Persia. overthrowing the Christian Visigoths and thrusting the Christian remnant back on to the Pyrenees.

Granada This is " ^ ! not the rhapsody of was far too great an historian IMilman ^ quotes an account of with Arabia's poverty. disunion. men most desire union in willing service for an end that mocks at mere life. In the comradeship of a disciplined and undismayed. God has ' : : . facing the find last perils together what at their best they — 1 " Carlyle. made us a band of brothers under laws dictated by the wisdom of God. He has said. It is true that men can be made into a band of brothers by common action boldly . On Heroes and Hero-worship. blazes heaven-high from Delhi to . on a world that seemed black unnoticeable sand. if love and reason do not army. us a man. Consummate my work spread the the earth is the empire of Islam over the whole world Lord's He has bestowed it on you.) ^ " Latin Christianity. . The mind is only fettered. This is the germ of truth in the glorification of war. : Such were we once. that force alone cannot unite men and only too often destroys all unity.' " Here we have the note that signalizes both the greatness and the danger of a militant religion." iv. darkness into light Arabia first became aHve by means of it. we may admit." Bk. Mohammed's genius had given his followers a belief in God. the sand proves explosive powder. but lo. But it is also true. contemporary Arabs taunted and ignorance. 49 To the Arab nation it was as a birth from achievement. Men linked by the thought that they are carrying out the commands of Absolute Wisdom are of all men most And all the closer. (The Hero as Pro- phet. a true prophet. and common belief. to guide them through life. up among His religion has enlightened our minds. to lose touch with Carlyle fact. the man Mahomet. . and a clear code. if war for closely linked. their faith is added. These Arabs. and answering Now we are a new people. is it not as if a spark had fallen. quenched our hatreds. one spark. a goal for time and eternity. of no insuperable difficulty. 4 . raised . and that one century. .MOHAMMEDANISM " . and this truth ]\Iohammedanism did not grasp. c. not bound. " a mere rhetorician. i.

" " " ordained the night for caused the morning to appear. hke his reverence for women and " The service of English historian of the Church. abridged). No doubt Christians have incessantly defied his teaching. we cannot fail also to be struck by likenesses.50 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND bind it." rest. There is the same burning belief that : man is made for something more than that a Power infinitely greater than physical comfort " himself has created the heavens and the earth in truth. For this reason. vokes war though waged for the glory of Allah the ComThe passionate or in the name of the Prince of Peace. and the sun and moon to be the measure of time. But it has " " Truces of God have softened acted as a check for all that barbaric fighting fervent Quakers have abjured all war Romanists have hated the temporal power of the Pope. 26). Always the instinct has revived that. not by compulsion (Bede. . did form a link in the chain that has bound the Near East But in comparing the in bonds of desolation to this day. among others. there has never been a Caliphate in Christendom. religion of the Koran with the Christianity of the time. The dissensions in the early Moslem world. in the words his : : : and the unity of purpose they awakened in Europe itself. And it is fair to surmise that the aggressions of Mohammedanism in its early period did War promuch to lead Christians still farther astray. What this has meant for freedom is incalculable. following swiftly on the first brief union. however much we may applaud their devotion of the first sympathy for suffering. Christ's distrust of force. marks one of the leading differences between his doctrine and that of Mohammed. an autocratic authority spiritual and temporal at once. furnish apt enough examples." sent " the rain from heaven and the springing buds of all things and the grain growing in rows and the palm-trees clustered " And this Power speaks with dates (Sale's tr. to man directly by the Prophets. Crusades. " Christ ought to be voluntary. while it is noteworthy that no Mohammedan country has yet freed itself from despotism. bidding him at once submit to the All-powerful Will and stir up his own will to lay hold of Paradise and escape from everlasting Hell. c.

and then followed the life-giving touch with Western thought. the whole intellect of the people caught up by it. of among the ]\Ioslems. where Charlemagne's rearguard. and Roland. It was actually through the work of the infidels that the study of Greek thought regained enough strength in Europe to help form. stimulated. The songs that culminated in the Chanson de Roland at the end of the eleventh century show how deep must have been the impress of the danger to Christendom from the But Charlemagne also welcomed aggressive force of Islam. And the welcome in the end reacted. sending to Charlemagne treasures of Eastern silk. withdrawn from Spain. " " no monkery in Islam rather at first a ready welcome for scientific knowledge and philosophic speculation. Every one knows the story of Roncesvalles. and Moslem philosophers. the Arab prince ruling in Persia and Syria. as it has often done. . both legend and history show us the rival leaders of Islam in contact with the Emperor of Western Christendom not only for war but for peace. For. doctors. in peace ambassadors of the more tolerant Haroun al Raschid. At Cordova in the twelfth century their work reached a climax. blew his horn in vain. the marvel of its is with the There Mohammedans in Spain. dying. seized on what they could in the derelict inheritance of Greek science. mathematicians. that conscious corporate activity which we have already spoken. but of far greater value to lay stress on its services. strangely and powerfully. the basis for the grandiose Catholicism of the thirteenth century.MOHAMMEDANISM It is 51 easy to point out the defects in Mohammedanism. was cut to pieces by the Saracens. a mechanical water-clock. Though its morality was less lofty than the Christian it was also less liable to extravagance its sense of the inadequacy of all human experience did not so easily pass into a contempt of . among other mighty structures. and at variance something charming to the imagination in the intercourse between the two legendary heroes of East and " " Aaron the Just West. on : — — Europe. normal human life or inspire distrust of all secular learning there was indeed no monasticism in early Mohammedanism. but even in the time of Charlemagne.

Therefore strive to excel one another works unto God shall ye all return. Moslems. " unto every one of you have we given Jews. and then will he declare : : unto you that concerning which ye have disagreed. it would seem." .). a "We guardian so Allah speaks to the men of the Three Rehgions. and if God had pleased he had surely but he hath thought fit to give you people different laws that he might try each of you in what he hath in good given to each. " " Here at least the GoodHaroun al Raschid showed himself ready to follow the wiser and milder texts of the Koran." over them (Sale's tr. written. made you one a law and an open path. and a message confirming the Franks in the guardianship of the Holy Places of Jerusalem. texts warning Faithful not to revile even the idols of the idolaters have not appointed thee a keeper over them.52 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND time. a well-beloved elephant. neither art thou " " Unto every one of you. and Christians. before incessant strife had roused the : the Prophet to glorify war against the Infidels.

" Long life and victory to Carolus Augustus the Good. a. made permanent the ! temporal power of St. 800. it was also destined to breed strife Charlemagne himself. ever since the days of Gregory. the essential Europe. Imperialism was re-born and the new-born Papacy confirmed when at Rome on Christmas Day. with all and hamper freedom.CHAPTER IX THE WORK OF CHARLEMAGNE IT has been said that the chief constructive forces in the are to be found in the Christian Church. which. of in name at least. and the Franks and undoubtedly the Frankish Charle- Dark Ages is . among the notable organizers An epoch is marked by his deliberate. attempt to revive the Roman Empire in the West. Giver of peace. his genius for order. Peter and suffered Pope Leo to set the crown on his head while the people shouted. Charlemagne rose from his prayers before the altar in the Basilica of St. an attempt fraught with influences good and bad both for secular and clerical government. crowned by " " God. This alliance with Leo III. who had called in the Frank to help him against the Lombards. Peter's chair. and revived Empire the Holy Roman Empire that — lasted. Emperor of the Romans Annales." 801). Islam. followed the bad precedent of Imperialism in trying to force together nations widely different and 53 . if magne of political unit3^ reluctant. until the nineteenth century unity and was long to symbolize. had been growing in proportion to the growing repugnance felt in Italy against the domination claimed And if the alliance of new Papacy by Constantinople. (Einhard.d. —symbolized.

. and like Alfred a century later. 73. he urged the bishops and abbots to study — — letters and found schools " so that those who desire to please God by 1 " living rightly should not neglect to please lae Holy Roman Empire. men who were to travel through his wide dominions controlling the administration of the local counts and generally upholding justice. but at least the Emperor " took care that the laws of all the nations under his control should be put into writing where they were not already written down" (" Caroli Vita." That ideal was far from being attained. — — None the less Charlemagne gave back to Europe an ideal " of unity with something Roman. Unlike Gregory. p. different peoples he ruled." c. and indeed on the birth of the Holy Roman Empire itself and at the same time he is the first ruler of whom we are told that he was at pains to have the wild songs of the younger nations recorded and preserved.54 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND His needing wide elbow-room for their own experiments.^ in its striving after the uniformity and precision of a well-ordered administration. he was unremitting in his efforts to unify and foster culture." v. Similarly. and next the plans he made to bring some sort of harmony into the divergent laws of the Two efforts of Charlemagne's are typical as ment of what Hodgkin describes " first. He " " loved to hear readings from Augustine's a City of God trait which throws light on his reverence for the Church. as Einhard notes expressly. still more to have taken steps towards the carrying out of it. which should subject the individual to the system and realize perfection through the rule of law. " " methods of could be as rough as any Christianizing Moslem's. We read of men baptized in masses by sheer force and " " thousands of traitor Saxons executed in cold blood. True that these plans. were never fulfilled. and much of his huge empire stretching from the Western shores of France to what is now Hungary in the East and from the mouth of the Northern Elbe to Rome in the South ^was only held together by the false cement of fear. : his appointcommissioners. but it was something to have conceived it." imperial the missi dominici. as Bryce observes. 29).

" The Emperor himself." " (Letter to in Abbot Bagulf. and with right.THE WORK OF CHARLEMAGNE Him also 55 by speaking Robinson's quoted Vol. arithmetic. though his fingers stiff ever to succeed. He marks . keeping the tablets under and had grown too his pillow He practising at odd moments. and astronomy. both for empire and both a reminiscence and a rebirth. stands in history. L) in correctly. as a link between for culture. or West in choosing the best masters he could find East the scholar Europe. Greek. Old and New. Readings European History. a certain Peter the Deacon from Pisa and A human touch shows us the old Alcuin from England. worked at Latin. so Einhard his secretary tells us. warrior toiling to master writing. grammar.

But we should add at once that nothing is more noteworthy in the new literature. the nations that were most prominent in the revival. the pagan North with its gallant vision of Father Odin welcoming to Valhalla. at least in their original "barbaric" form. and the august traditions of Rome. for example. than the intermingling of different races and cultures and the consequent stimulus to feeling and thought. Celtic. There was a foundation. of pure No mythology is so heroic as that of native imagination.CHAPTER X THE BEGINNINGS OF NEW POETRY Prankish songs which Charlemagne is said to have saved are now. and at least we can say that they offered it an admirable soil. no longer known to us. and many signs show how deeply the imagination of the new-comers could be stirred by the adventures of the wanderings. certainly. and a solid one. And we can mark in them distinct elements of race. Poetry. were all of mixed origin. France. But it is hardly fanciful to discern in the scattered poems and legends that do survive from the young life of that growing Europe the signs of new and great literatures arising. that great hall roofed with golden shields. England. Italy. ever finds a beginning in wonder. literatures on which the world has fed ever since. Norman. Anglo- THE Saxon. the encounter with the mysteries of Christianity. or later in the new art. like Philosophy. the warriors to stand beside who were chosen by his war-maidens him on the last grim day when the gods 56 . It has been said that Romance first sprang up in Europe from such comminglings.

If this new teaching can tell us more. any Latin song. . indeed. bria the King's Council were sitting at debate on the new One of them. The poem itself is probably among the earliest to take on a definite shape. not its commercialism. Bede. But in another there speaks the poetry of our race. tells a famous and lovely story that serves well to illustrate the In Northumready response of these pagans to new light. all." The Anglo-Saxon poem on the half-mythical hero Beowulf.' grand poetry poetry at in all the . ^ But the temperament to which such dreams were natural was all the more sensitive to other impressions In England. among the new heroic songs that are something more than mere lays. the echoes of the once glorious music of Hellas weakened and sank as her internecine jealousies sacrificed the last hopes of her liberty the sweet singers of Israel were silent after the ruin of their city the fiery visions of the Apocalypse. had dwindled rapidly as the Early Empire passed into bureaucratic despotism. before it : so we look on this of life of ours for is a little while. They come after a long silence. scholar trained both in Latin and Greek. makes no secret of his simple greed. never exuberant.THE BEGINNINGS OF NEW POETRY 57 were to do battle with the giants for the safety of the world. To him the life of man. . writing from his monastery at Jarrow towards the end of the seventh century. was for choosing the new because the old had brought him no success. a heathen priest. the historian. It is startling to reflect that since the age of the Antonines half a millennium back there had been no — — Western world scarcely. let us follow it. . himself a of immensity. The bird flies in through " Even from the darkness it flies out into the darkness again. And the Northern poems it inspired are not unworthy of their theme. strikes the same note of adventurous and new-found wonder. but of what went before or what to follow we know nothing. compared with the unknown worlds and behind. " " the pitiful pleading of Esdras close the majestic series of 1 Collected in the "Elder Edda. as it is certainly one of the most delightful. completed probably in the century of Bede. seemed short as the flight of a sparrow a fire-lit hall on a winter's night. with a frankness that religion.

" to carry him to the sea " There rode the ship At the edge of the water. bright byrnies. and that a poetry to stir and touch the heart. Beowulf. To go with their lord — ! In the realms of ocean. who puts out to sea at his death. from by a notable Langland and Spenser to Wordsworth and Tennyson. " but the poem opens with eulogy of the Warrior-Danes. not only the story of the sparrow. and of their renowned leader three generations back." a distinct nation. Battle-gear. within its range. bold. We breathe the air of that country where poetry and religious musing meet and dim visions haunt the waking mind. Fit for the hero : And they laid him there On the breast of the ship. it is also. — Spears. if a kindred. the grey-haired Scyld Scefing. Piling up treasures.58 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND those prophecies that are also poems. a child from none knew where. but many a dream in later English song. The hero himself is a Geat (probably a Jute from Jutland). helmets. And here in the very opening moves a spirit of mystery. may be proud to follow its lead. humorous. : " his dear comrades. recalling. mysteriously to his people out of the sea. so the legend ran. Now " The time had come For the greybeard to go To the care of the Master. one of the kindliest of all adventurous songs and softened ever and again sense of mystery. gleaming." He down calls on his thanes. like Arthur. whatever its Hmitations. shows the promise of a world once more alive to poetry. in whose land it took final shape and in whose ancestral speech it is written. Englishmen. Outward-bound. No ship was ever so fair . Scyld Scefing had been sent. Fresh.

the half-magical sea-bear Grendel. sent him Over the A Uttle child Alone on the flood. And when the deed is accomit plished. my friend Thou hast put friendship between our peoples. I shall be ready. possible . descendant of this " old hero." This loving-kindness is as characteristic of Beowulf as the quiet laughter with which he faces." (26 ff. lighting the land. Beowulf speaks to the Danish king • : " This will I say to thee. But none ever afield. Beowulf. heart. the great hall gold-gleaming. in pure love of fame and independent adventure. in their hearts." ! H And Hrothgar answers " : This thou hast done. leader of men ever again I can do thee service and win thy love. to free these foreigners from the nightly ravages of the grisly monster. And they Heavy of In hall or let the sea take him. both leaders find the crown of it in the friendship has wrought." that the royal young Beowulf comes from oversea. the tussle with the monster and his " " burial in the creature's maw. unarmed and relying only on his human strength. And stilled the envy. High over his head They set a gold standard.THE BEGINNINGS OF NEW POETRY Rich as the jewels 59 Long ago given By those who sea.) It is to the hall of Hrothgar the Dane. ! — The Hid secret hatred. Who met that ship and her burthen. learnt.

The brave men are gone." the Northern Goddess : of Fate.60 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND " Grendel If I fail will . It has not the wide sweep nor the powerful unifying plot of the true epics. . to my kinsman. No need to care for this corpse of mine He ! But send If I fall.) But At the in this poem it intertwines also with the new faith. And I must follow. The Wyrd has sent them To dwell with God." (2814 ff. as he lies dying after his last fight against a monster. the fire-dragon that was destroying his people. close Beowulf.) convenience sake as an epic." (445 ff. keep me buries the booty. intertwines. Alone. awed but expectant " : Thou art the last Of all my kindred. its sense of the value and pathos of man's short life spent in a worthy cause. gives his battle-gear to his cousin. On the blood-stained moor. old and childless. : the Wyrd's Let her do as she will. without mercy. and himself meets death.) This belief in " the Wyrd." : (1387 ff. Such We may speak of its title " Beowulf is " for but to the name doubtful. The best I of the byrnies : wore in battle — The The gift of his father And Weyland's rest is work. but still it is epic in its strong simplicity. as in so much heroic poetry. he eats the prey. with an unflinching confidence in a man's own will " Death waits for us all Let him who can First win him renown.

speaks with a simple forthright voice that shows us the man himself in the style. a man who. Let him travel and learn " ! Through the poet's eyes we see the ideal Germanic chief of those early days. Very endearing is the naivete in the paraphrase he made for his Consolations written by the people of the sophisticated " late Latin Boethius. their poignant anxiety for them. As our might lessens " ! So sang the poet of Maldon Battle when his lord had defied the Danes and fallen. England in Saxon times is already sufficiently conscious of something approaching the unity of a nation to care for the history of her own people written in her own vernacular. Courage the more." meaning. defeated and dead. So artificial not understanded of Alfred. He takes the words " We do not know literally and adds for his people's sake of course. have been tortured by their children. the new spirit now broad awake in the world. carrying on also a hundred years after Charlemagne Charle- magne's work for culture. Self-rehant to a fault. And Alfred." " the childless. a man who delighted in success and the feats of his youth and yet was only the more dauntless for disaster and old age.THE BEGINNINGS OF NEW POETRY unity as it 61 has is given by the unity of Beowulf's own character. as Saxon Alfred put it later. manly prose. of slaves " Thought the bolder. heart the higher. He is tures a born leader and born explorer. wrote Boethius to comfort Parents. avid of strange advenand unknown lands : " WTio trusts himself. and with it the impulse to And after song followed the beginnings of a heroic song. a man whose thanes were his comrades. The daring freedom of Homeric times has returned. would count his honour the less if he were the king and not free men. he is the incarnation of free individual enterprise. the king who did most for her freedom and unity. a man chosen king not simply because of his race but because he had proved himself royal. " " by a comfort is : .

and.62 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND when this was done. we feel also behind it. (Wyndham's tr. they soon absorbed French and legend. in the final form given to the age-long legend by an unknown bard towards the " end of the eleventh century. in 862. forced their settlement in France from the hands of the central Quick to learn. and for all their independent audacity they could feel the spell of the past and the empires the past had made. Certain it is that the poem is Norman-French and bears the marks of its long ancestry. but we know that it was a wicked deed. and shadow-gloomed. however proud and beloved. that is to say." " " " If we hesitate to call Beowulf or " Maldon epic we need have no such scruple about the poem most akin to them. and vast "). whose subjects. The capable piratical Northmen." had." but Leon Gautier in his admirable edition gives reason for holding that the poem as he prints it is the work of the Norman cleric called Thorold who followed William the Conqueror to England and was appointed by him Abbot of Peterborough. summoned by the Slavs of " " Russia to rule the country. culture. what we never feel in " Beowulf. learning — — : — " (" Halt sunt li pui et tenebrus et grant. Norman and Saxon were close akin by " " Chanson the work of a far greater race. Instead of naivete we find high and gracious manners even at the point of death Roland and Oliver bow with loving courtesy to each other instead of quaint rhythms and a childlike bareness of diction (as of a baby giant) we find a developed language. already heard of in the time of Charlemagne." High are the peaks.) Again. sinewy and free. are at least as is much his servants as his friends. the famous Chanson de Roland. and a measure among the stateliest ever fashioned in France government (912). but not only is the genius. We say unknown. It Oliver's most poignant regret that neither he nor Roland . which was rich and fertile but "with no order in it. instead of a free-lance adventurer we have the splendour of a feudal monarch. by opening of the tenth century." the mighty structures of Latin Christianity and Franco-Roman civilization.

and God sends His angels. the mightiest king who ever reigned (1727 ff. with the shall certain reservations. and Charlemagne. and indeed the poet himself may well have known of the First Crusade and shared the indignation and alarm aroused in Europe by the coming of the fierce Turks in place of the milder Arabs. "of the guarded mount. which may be go : Who . Roland. in the very fabric poem that genius for unity and order developed so early by these Northerners under the influence of Roman tradition. It is at any rate remarkable that the men who were to be among the strongest rulers and builders of their Further. Beowulf Scyld Scefing in but the poet of Roland and OHver knows quite well whither the souls of his heroes are travelling and how they are to go. suspects offer.).THE BEGINNINGS OF NEW POETRY will ever again 63 be able to serve Charles. We are in the atmosphere of the Crusades. who proves traitor in the end. Michael. after seven years of victory in Spain. Charlemagne's nephew and finest soldier. and St. but the whole of the European world. Raphael. Charlemagne. Roland's father-in-law. Then comes the question to the Moslems on the return embassy. The Christian religion has become an organized certainty. but Ganelon. There are passages in the poem that would suit to a nicety the men of Napoleon's vieille garde." to carry the spirit of Roland to Paradise. urges acceptance. The political is no longer a loose arrangement of independent " " le grand pays It is a great and imperial country. we may recognize. So far as in them lies. St. perhaps. and their proud devotion to the man who ruled all background tribes. is persuaded to retire by false promises sent from the Moslem king. rule and defying the huge {tere majiir). accepts. of the time should at the outset produce a true epic with a plot at once broad and coherent far above its possible compeers. with their memories of the Grande Armee. The mere outline of it shows this. Gabriel. the paladins perform the last rites of the Church. St. and with his last breath he prays " " France dulce for the Emperor and (2015 ff. " " had set sail for the unknown. claiming European host of the Paynims.).

and the choice is approved by the court and confirmed by the king. He goes on the embassy. putting his finger on the tragic pride that had destroyed them all. mar la veismes. but Roland's pride is up and he insists on accepting the perilous station.") (1731) Oliver's flashing wrath at the thought of blowing the horn after all only to reveal their failure. both Roland and Charlemagne discern the malice in the proposal." valour. He returns to his lord with fair words from the Saracens. The same fierce self-reliance makes him refuse Charlemagne's offer of additional support. has been ill for us. far off on the borders of " France la douce. and the withdrawal is agreed upon. and later. Roland. a Patroclus In to his Achilles. Oliver's reproach to " him for his delay : ("Your Vostre proecce. Though not suspecting treachery. Roland commanding the rearguard at Ganelon's suggestion. refuse to blow the horn for help. to be delivered on Charlemagne's rearguard. But Ganelon is furious Why should : his life be held of less account than his son-in-law's ? Treacherous himself." hears it and knows that his dearest and all best are in mortal peril and turns back in burning haste Oliver's very this is worthy to be compared with Homer. words. the end he does blow it. Roland. urges him once and again to do so in time. reconciling the friends so that the horn is sounded at last and Charlemagne. Few passages in literature are more deservedly famous. Then Roland proposes Ganelon as one of the wisest and doughtiest barons. when attacked by the Moslems. offer a striking parallel to Hector's — . A dastardly attack is concerted between him and the Moslems. which Ganelon intends shall be led by Roland. but too late to save himself or his men. although Oliver. a cool confidence that only exasperates Ganelon the more. Roland answers with a proud and chilling courtesy. he suspects Roland of playing him false and threatens him with undying hate.64 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Roland and Oliver both volunteer. Archbishop Turpin's wise and calm advice. but keeps his vow of vengeance. but the king it : full of peril ? will not hear of their lives are too precious to be risked.

himself dowered with many world when he 5 of its fairy gifts. speaks as a denizen of that strange " tells events and people are wild. because he knows that his rashness has and he cannot bear to face his " Hector trusted to his countrymen and hear them mutter. it need scarcely surprise us when we remember that the Conquest brought a second infusion of Northern blood and Northern legend to the descendants of Beowulf's comrades. more extravagant if you will. out of his " way to approve the cruel punishment fel recreant. the Celtic." . passionate. the Volsungs and Nibelungs a mythology made alive once more for ignorant moderns by the magic of Wagner's music. if England has done great things in poetry. more fanciful.") (3973) poetic. powerful. individual renown and yet Church as supreme. Their Such were these Normans. and are Uke unbroken horses. of the Giants and the Dwarfs. but with its own poignant sweetness of love and waihng. wilder and fiercer.THE BEGINNINGS OF NEW POETRY to 65 bitter self-reproach when he stands outside the Skaian Gate meet his doom. But Ganelon is torn to pieces by wild horses. Furthermore. and the poet goes led to the disaster at the Ford. own valour and destroyed the people. — Thus. was itself rich in poetry. (" No So Ganelon died a foul traitor's death traitor should have cause to boast his deed. the other main element in the blended English stock. nen est dreiz qu'il s'en vant." There is no hint of torture in the Anglo-Saxon poem." Charlemagne and his army come too late for succour but not too late for vengeance. that are so much more beautiful than horses us its . and that vengeance is taken with a pitilessness markedly different from the kindly temper of " Beowulf. its own exquisite notes of elfin wonder. Celtic imagination was of another character. A modern Irish poet. and there are several passages praising mercy. : Guenes est morz cume Ki traist altre. fiercely jealous of acknowledging Suzerain and poetry is a strong shoot from that mighty Northern tree which had already produced the rich mythology of Odin and Valhalla. haughty.

the High King of Ulster. looks at it with a grin that have learnt to run between shafts. " Ainnle and Ardan had heard talk of the young girl that was at Conchubar's Court. B.' They did so. and the dusk of night coming on. forerunner in the wistful tenderness that enfolds the first meeting between Deirdre the Beautiful and her lover Naoise under the menace of coming doom. for we have a long road to travel. Naoise and his two brothers are strolling on the hiUside. What cry was that came to my you going to leave me ? ears." finds a real. That come a-swooning over hollow grounds. ' 1 W. to refuse ? ' ' ' ' ' but let us Conchubar's wild ducks. son of Usnach. and Deirdre knew Naoise. and the dusk of the evening coming on. and not easy for me It was nothing but the cry of said Naoise. that it is not well for me to answer. when Deirdre sees them from her palace-prison and her heart goes out to Naoise." to dies. His two brothers see her first. for they had a long road to travel.66 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND contrast this — " These broad spears are coming into fashion " — and Each reader must choose for himself And Yeats goes on marvellous moonlit atmosphere with the actuality of the Icelandic Sagas where the fallen fighter draws out the weapon that has kiUed him. They did so.' said his brothers quicken our steps and hasten our feet. and they were widening the distance between them. and she cried out after them. and it is what they thought. and they dread her beauty. it is for himself he would have her. they said to one another to hasten their steps. Yeats in the Preface to Lady Gregory's Cuchulain Muirthemne. and she follows them. " of ." from which the following rendering is taken. " Strange ministrant of undescribed sounds. So when they saw Deirdre coming after them. if childhke. but the wise will give thanks for both and recognize the two wellsprings that have fed the full river of Enghsh song. are it. The sovereign loveliness of Keats's imagination. because she has been chosen as a bride by Conchubar. that if Naoise their l^rother would see her. ^ which he prefers. for she was not yet married to the King. And wither drearily on barren moors.

are Naoise to . to vision. and I swear by my hand of valour.. the darkness of night is coming on. held a foremost place in poetry. Deirdre. I will go no further until I see where the cry comes from. ' ' ' ." seventh century or the " " Beowulf eighth and therefore about the same time as by bards from the Gaelic branch of the primitive Celtic stock. Naoise son of Usnach. there and then. At that date indeed Ireland. the love that he never gave to living thing. But there were also other Celts in Britain itself. And with the confusion that was on her. so — — and scholarship. and her colour came and went as quickly as the aspen by the stream. op. Then Deirdre ' cried.g. but to herself alone. Britons of Wales and Cornwall. and the sharpest that ever struck my heart. had their own wealth of legend and poetry. together with the allied Britons of French Brittany.' So Naoise turned back and met Deirdre.' said his brothers but let us quicken our steps and hasten our feet. Alfred Nutt in the note to Lady Gregory's trans. ^ either in the composed in Ireland.THE BEGINNINGS OF NEW POETRY selves 67 ! and her. me heart. cit. or to creature. clear cry was that. of all the cries I ever heard ? said Naoise. for example. are that came to for ' my you going to leave ears and struck me ' ' ? What cry was my answer nor easy to refuse ? Nothing but the cry of Conchubar's wild geese. . not well ' ! ! sharp. and they. What is it but the scream of Conchubar's lake you going to leave me ' ' ? What ' ' That was the third cry of some person beyond these. that it said Naoise.' They did so and they were widening the distance between themselves and her. the sweetest that ever came to my ears. And it is what Naoise thought to himself that he never saw a woman so beautiful in his life and he gave ? swans ' said his brothers. The original underlying that was Irish scholars tell us.' said Naoise. a blaze of red fire came upon her. Naoise ' ! Naoise is ' son it of Usnach. in spite of her bitter internal warfare. and Deirdre and Naoise kissed one another three times and she gave a kiss to each of his brothers. the cycle > e. from which grew up by degrees a cycle of romances that have enchanted Europe ever since.' he said. religion. Then Deirdre cried the third time.

68 of THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Arthur the King and his Knights of the Round Table. Lancelot and Guinevere —as the of —and then. "Higt. linked in tales and contrasted with romantic love. first the struggle between loyalty and romantic love Tristan and Iseult. ^ See A. 61 (ed. the thirst for a religious purity unattainable on earth. and we must leave it till later." pp. 1912).. as in the Quest of the Holy Grail. Lang. ^ But this developed form does not appear till the twelfth century. of English Lit. Let us glance meanwhile at the broader political movements since Charle- magne. 60. In their developed form we can see that these tales brought two fresh and fertile themes into European literature. .

But during the whole time it was held more and more slackly. which fell to Lothair (and one of The main Germany (under which. carried with 69 it land. were to excite the cupidity of the other two countries all down the centuries. Under feudalism the mere holding of advantage to the possessor. Lothair as Emperor had also feudal lordship over the North of Italy. indeed. in a manner noted by all historians as significant. precursor of critical struggle many another equally abortive. outlines. Lothair. Lorraine. and Charles. and this weakening was increased by the very nature of the feudalism now becoming prominent. the fact of feudalism (the passion and the loyalty of which are vividly reflected in the Chanson). Louis the German. to be divided. and the first THE the ninth century to the twelfth are the emergence of the European nations in something like their modern between Empire and Papacy. always an additional and . took its name from him). of France (under Charles) and Louis) were destined to be permanent. The brothers quarrelled savagely over their shares. eldest-bom and Emperor. but in 843 a temporary settlement was made by the Treaty of Verdun. THE CHURCH. but the border-lands between. and for nearly a century the Imperial power was in fact held by a descendant of Charlemagne.CHAPTER XI THE FEUDAL EMPIRE. AND THE YOUNG NATIONS outstanding features of the political growth from form. Charlemagne's huge empire split asunder soon after his death. between his three grandsons.

Swabia. Bavaria. once Charlemagne's most doughty foes. The whole political history of the next few centuries is coloured by the fact of feudalism. and the efforts in different lands to buUd out of its jarring elements a stable government under which men could recognize one It is these petty . In Germany. proved to be his most remarkable successors. could be. " History of Europe. and a man. These were practically or. and the central government was none of the strongest. " a ruler and a judge. in his own territory. vi. who was for many years a Franconian. Henry the Fowler. — — independent. Such as it was. but it was essentially a unification that worked through privilege and thus essentially incomplete. the Franconian Conrad. during the century after Charlemagne. . five. though a vassal of the excessive powers. Franconia. For the Saxons. But the first quarter of the tenth century was marked by the accession to the kingship of Saxony's duke. the country was divided into four great Duchies Saxony. a time also when communications were of the scantiest. was chosen largely through the united support of his own race and 1 Grant. c. if Lorraine is included. of considerable force and ability. of troops. And from that incompleteness was to spring a crop of injustice and revolution. for example. nominated by the late king. it seems clear. though ready to acknowledge an overlord. another as united in the same community and obeying the same laws. Owing to the supremacy of the king such a unification was possible." ^ commander obvious what confusion and disorder might arise when " " kingdoms within a kingdom were uncontrolled but obvious also how natural was their growth in a time of individual enterprise and incessant warfare.70 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND The landowner. Henry. and therefore in strict feudal theory not the ultimate king. indeed a typical Saxon of the time in his organizing power. even a collector of taxes. a owner. a crop the whole of which is not yet gathered in." Part II. with all the prestige of the Franks. great-great-grandson through the female line of Charlemagne. the unification was a heavy task and one not always achieved.

THE FEUDAL EMPIRE 71 the Franconians. I am their liegeman. half civihzation. who has married Etzel (Attila). my dear husband. Brandenburg. thrusting back the Magyars. but going back through the folk-lore of many centuries both to primitive Northern echoes of the Hunnish power. He resumed the pioneer work of Charlemagne. put together later. South. and Siegfried's widow Kriemhild. who has slain the unsuspecting hero Siegfried. Magnificent in its fierceness is the defiance between Hagen. and treacherous. crossing the Elbe and conquering territory from the Slavs. towards the land now called Hungary. probably in the twelfth century. and. the home of the when they had travelled upwards from the Vivid lights on the German temperament in these days may be found in the epic of the Nibelimgenlied. Now tell me further. successors of the Avars and the Huns. so do the leaders Unruly. the VolsungSaga of Scandinavia but they appear also endowed with surpassing daring and resolution. Wherefore didst thou that which hath earned thee my hate ? Thou slewest Siegfried. in .' " She said. loyalty of a willing vassal flames out in Hagen's reply when the mocking queen uncovers her deadly purpose : She said. that thou hast dared to ride into ^:his land ? Wert thou in thy senses. notably the land that was to be the March of Hohenzollerns. Now tell me. savage. who sent for thee.' " Three knights None sent for me. greedy. the King of the Huns. whom I cannot mourn enow to my ' ' " ' ' life's end. winning the allegiance of the rest through skilful concessions to local independence. appear in this long string of poems a work that is indeed far mythology and to historic — less subtle and moving than the parallel version farther north. and never yet tarried behind when they rode to a hightide. and through the renown of his victories against the still heathen barbarians on the East and South-East. centuries later. half conquest. thou hadst not done it.' answered Hagen. order to compass her terrible vengeance and lured to his court The proud her own brothers with Hagen in their train. that I caU master were bidden hither. Sir Hagen.' .

that will. and yet still an invaluable sj^mbol to all Christians of Christendom's essential unity. at once corrupt and weak. But the idea. due west of Munich.) It needed the strength of a Charlemagne to bring order among men and women like that. namely. answered. These bishops he appointed himself.). is not known to have been used before the time of Frederick I (in 1157). " Avenge who man or " them the memory of Charlemagne and the state of Italy herself. St. but the vigour of them is undeniable. by Margaret Armour. past. torn by civil strife." according to Bryce {op. Hagen. the Bavarian Eastern Kingdom. and thereupon he " " Marks intended to guard the established. Henry the Fowler and Henry's son Otto I. official acceptation of Christianity as .' (Tr. and behind him again to Augustine and indeed to the the religion of the Empire. c. . ^ among the later day. and on this matter centred many a desperate conflict between his successors and the Popes.72 " THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND He ' ! . Otto the toil on at the work. Great. . dependent on the union of Empire and Papacy as leaders of Christendom. moreover. and suffering spiritually from the shameful position of the Papacy. (955). . among other " " East Mark that was to grow into frontier. the distracted devastated in the North by Magyars. needed the help of the clergy in struggling against his own barons for a unified and settled government. For now comes into full sight another dominant feature of the Middle Ages. the struggle. the hero. goes back to Charlemagne. . Otto loyalty and his warriors defeated the Magyars in a decisive battle on the Lech. Otto." the Oester-reich. To counter the growth of powerful and insubordinate families he endowed the celibate bishops in his realm with much territory and wide administrative powers. Enough slew Siegfried. There were many reasons for this attempt of Otto's to make the Holy Roman Empire once more an effective power. They have at least some personal to work on and abundant spirit for fighting. xii. the Austria of a Finally in 962 he was crowned Emperor at Rome. attacked in the centre and South by Moslems. . It was it I. between the Temporal ^ The actual title " Holy. woman. cit.

the temptation is strong to use the fatal short-cut of force. Even in the modern State.THE CHURCH and 73 Spiritual Powers. For. many of man's finest purposes cannot be served by force. even if the obstinate are not cured. there must be some means of chastising those flagrant wTong-doers who seek to prey upon it. even when allied. kept distinct in Christendom. but actually since it motives. even if it makes men act rightly. in the first place. and hence the Temporal and Spiritual Powers. If often. these . root-problems of government and society. it impossible not to sympathize with the ideals of both however selfish their contest for mastery. Now it is true that though this was not clearly realized by Christian Europe for many centuries. not merely to make men do what they admit to be their duty. were. and that not force. But sometimes. as it often is used. seems unavoidable as a last resort in any organized political State. Through the confused and sordid turmoil we discern great issues at stake and difficulties not to be solved completely while man is parties. with the experience of centuries behind us and without the spectre of eternal damnation before us. Force therefore. she did. and very gether blame her. is there anyone who could claim that we have ? right uses or learnt the just limits of force yet mastered the i\Ioreover. and the heart cannot be forced. for a community to hold together with justice in this faulty world. if only the force of expulsion. was her allotted instrument. of making them act from wrong if it is used. for example. but persuasion. especially what they believe to be ^\Tong. works by threat. at least the poison of the infected may not infect others. remains imperfect. while the neglect of it means everlasting torture. runs the risk. but force. truth that guides conduct and leads to infinite happiness. a struggle which goes down to the Once understood. is worthless if it does not spring from the heart. it was felt obscurely from the first. Religion. Nor can we alto- a great society believes itself the guardian of vital truth. on the whole. On the other hand. The Church did not always forget the lesson of her Founder that His kingdom was not of this world. in the hope that.

disgrace to the VII. but. Patr. Pope under the name of Gregory the Seventh (1073). 794). This can be seen alike in the work of the monasteries and of the prelates. Naturally. Indeed. pointing out to men the highest life conceivable. Ad Concilium Romanum III Additio. and that such discipline was impossible if the appointment of the bishops was practically in the hands of a layman. p. The Emperors must not on their own authority. S. . Greg. but this is now generally disbelieved. not without cause. Hildebrand saw that strict discipline was needed from within. Hence his first concern was to challenge this claim on the part of the " " invest the bishops Emperors. if we think of her as what she claimed. the Supreme Educator. we ought not to be horrified at compulsion in mediaeval times for religious training. in common with all educators who work through institutions. if we do.74 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND change with the changing conscience of man. both of independence and of power." and his indictment of him as a " " monachica professio (Migne. Otto of Freising reports a tradition that Hildebrand was at one time Prior of Cluny. she felt the need. Hildebrand himself began life as a monk. but essential. and to be Here at once he came into conflict dealt with by the Church. and the temptation. her influence. and showing them the only path towards it. notably in the striking figure of the Italian Hildebrand. we can best understand both the breadth and the narrowness of the Mediaeval Church. but to doubt it seems not only a needless setting aside of tradition but exceedingly difficult to justify in face of Henry IV's public letter to Hildebrand as "jam non apostolico sed falso monacho. teaching not only for time but for eternity. To correct the corruption rife among too many of the clergy. and the hostility she aroused. ^ This has been questioned by a few modems. to be. It was a spiritual matter. although there are signs that he went beyond the Cluniac leaders in his zeal for the powers of the Roman See. Most of us welcome compulsion now in the cause of secular education. the reforming monastery founded in Burgundy at the opening of the previous century (910). To the average mediaeval conscience.^ and throughout was in close touch with the great house of Cluny. Lat. the ordinances of the Church were not limits only right.

even so on earth they could grant or take away from any man. dukedoms. and here he was on strong ground. VII. the sainted Fathers and Princes of the Church.THE CHURCH 75 with the young and headstrong Emperor. empires. Paul's curse. and at Hildebrand himself for power. Gregory went much further. and all other possessions whatsoever. but provoked beyond endurance by Hildebrand's lordly tone over the question of the investitures. as Bryce^ points out." They were rulers in what must be their power in temporal things ? spiritual things : what might they not do with men ? kings and all princes of the earth learn to-day how let them tremble. of whom his precursor. counties. One is scarcely with a man of this temper. : It is obvious. ." x. could bind in ally heaven and loose " in heaven. St. marches." Henry. Concil." and the unworthy Gregory. has " brought himself under St. Writing before the excommunication. and virtuclaimed that in view of the Church's sacred character the Pope must be recognized as the ultimate Head of the State and of all States. Paul would not have spared an angel from heaven had he preached another gospel. But. " Romanum c. in set terms. the true Pope. Patr. In the second sentence of excommunication passed on Henry IV. in point of fact. The Holy Roman Empire. according to his desert. bids his opponent come down from the Apostolical seat that he has disgraced. principalities. he prays for all the world to understand that inasmuch as the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul. damned in the eyes of all our bishops and in our own. had " written Fear God and honour the King. Peter. the German Henry IV. Henry takes upon him to dethrone the Pope. ^ * Migne. Lat." ^ They were " Let all to judge angels. because he has least as eager as : slighted the will of the Emperor. the appointed of God. that claims such as these civil made government all surprised at the Emperor's fury at his sneer that in Hildebrand priest but impossible." "St. was exemplified the typical drunk with power. Gregory the truly Great. kingdoms. had spoken. mighty ye are and what your power is and mock no longer at the commandments of your Church.

iv. The tide soon turned. and implored with much weeping the aid and consolation of the apostolic mercy. and it is not that the actual Henry's claims are at least as arrogant as Hildebrand's own. Dukes. . And there. Lat. p. had moved all who saw or heard of it to such pity and depth of compassion that they interceded for him with many prayers and tears and wondered at the unaccustomed hardness of our heart some even protested that we were displaying not the seriousness of apostolical displeasure but the cruelty of until he . the Abbot of Cluny. Lib. tyrannical ferocity. Nor was it The possible to support them in the eyes of Christendom. Bishops. Registrum. impossibility became manifest even to Henry when the chief barons of Germany seized the opportunity to revolt.. however. . Greg. The city of Rome itself " Translation based on that of Robinson. . for three days before the gate of the castle. clad in woollen. Readings in European i. was not for long. ^ ^ History. had obtained pardon and absolution. Counts and Princes in the German Realm who defend the Christian faith. .76 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND are taken surprising The letter from which these aggressive words makes a super-Pope of the Emperor. Henry gathered his forces again and returned to the attack in a manner suggesting that his parade of penance had been rather diplomatic than real. the Countess of Tuscany. laying aside all the trappings of royalty. He was forced to submit and undergo his humiliation before the Pope among the snows of Canossa (1077). Epistola xii. Christendom did not at bottom desire a Caliphate. humbled to penance. . and Matilda. barefooted. who were witnesses of the hollow reconciliation. 283. Among these may have been Hugh. and indeed the close of the last quotation from Gregory himself indicates that already there were devout sons and daughters of the Church who thought he had gone too far. . Original in Migne. having come " of his own accord with no hostility or arrogance in his bearing to the town of Canusium where we were tarrying. in wretchedness. S. Gregory " himself wrote in triumph to all the Archbishops. Patr." Henry's humiliation." recounting how the king." . he stood Pope retaliated.

nee antemeos antecessoribus tuis id fccisse comperio." Migne. 77 he was forced to retreat. while. more than seventy years later. munity may exist inside the political community with special rights and privileges of its own. : . and the clergy were to do were to be homage to temporal possessions. free from his incessant interference the leaders of the Church must allow that not creed but common work on a common soil is to be the predominant . Like all compromises. nor can I find that my predecessors ever did so. it is true. the Concordat has been claimed as a victory for either side. as a rule. the Popes were drawn. There were eddies. but it is perhaps best looked upon as an admission. op. but gradually the struggle " the temporalities on the part of the Popes was more and more confined to Italy. Hildebrand had boldly claimed feudal overlordship in England. on the other hand. as is for Both " evident from the dominating position of Innocent III. and they must make their sides were slow to learn. him for their force in fusing men into nations. but he could not press the claim when met by the curt refusal of William the Con- queror " I never intended and I do not intend now to swear fealty to you. terms with that. the struggle about the Church appointments went on compromise was arranged by the Concordat of Worms the bishops control the the Emperor giving up the claim to invest (1122) with the spiritual symbols of ring and staff or to elections. therefore Still I acknowledged Papal dominions and died." until a . that not supremacy but co-operation is the fundamental secret of The sovereign Emperor must admit that a comsociety. under Normans from the South. embittered but " I have loved righteousness and hated iniquity die in exile. Fidelitatem facere vobis nee volo quia nee promisi. even out of the : indomitable. the elections held in his presence.THE CHURCH turned against Gregory shelter of the . the nation from which." ^ : * " cessores cit. I never promised it. reluctant and incomplete yet significant.

78 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND King John. who thought much on government. Otto himself. Especially was this felt in the towns. the head of which should stand above all the separate States. in their artistic achievements dependence. in the righteousness of the custom that " when the Emperor enters Italy all magistracies and offices are suspended. they love liberty so well that. they prefer to be governed by consuls rather than by princes. Innocent III revives the claim and exacts submission from Yet in the end it is only to be repudiated by the growing national feeling of England." Indeed. For. they could not fail to resent the pressure on themselves of an Emperor who was in practice invariably a German." Yet he says in so many words that "it is owing to this that they surpass all other cities of the world in riches and power." and all things are regulated by his will. Bishop of Freising. throbbing with a vivid and turbulent life that recalls the cities of Greece. and in Italy and Germany it complicates the struggle between Emperor and Pope. to guard against the abuse of power. Even Frederick Barbarossa (Emperor 1152). both and in their aggressive into look at the splendid architecture of Italy in the twelfth century is almost enough to make us understand how the cities rose against the claims of. Otto. as well as the exaction of a crushing ." He is shocked men of the knighthood and ofhce lowest and most mechanical trades who." by their admitting to " Citizens of this type fiercely resented the Imperial claim to override their decisions. among other peoples." he goes on. recognized that cities such as Milan deliber" the greatness of ancient ately modeUed themselves on " " Rome. That potent spirit had indeed been growing everywhere. however much the Italians may have sympathized with the ideal of a united Christian Empire. conflict legalist form. say. and inevitably came into with the revived Republican principle of free selfgovernment in the cities. The modern reader cannot share the obvious belief of Barbarossa's uncle. are shunned like the pest by those who follow higher callings. of the jurists. acting in accordance with the instructions of the law and the decisions it It is the Imperial tradition revived in its if most despotic.

and castles which ventured either to refuse the tax towns. 280. their own jurisdiction. under the porch of St. Frederick submitted into the " • to the Pope as the supreme reconciler. even invasion of England. indeed. the rulers in the land before the ^ Norman under the overlordship of the Pope. and in 1177. their own fortifications. ." ^ Emperor Holy Roman Empire. and when the Pope mounted his mule he held the stirrup and would have held the bridle if the Pope had not declined the comphment." p." lation based on that of Robinson. c. when those cities. Deeds of Frederick." defied the Redbeard who had seemed unconquerable. He knelt before the Pope and begged for his forgiveness. " " were razed to the altogether or had paid it only in part "^ ground as a warning to posterity. and lord of Naples and Sicily through his Norman mother Constance. cit. . The Pope (with whom he had quarrelled) supported them. 13. » (Trans- Op. op.) " ' Grant. to which indeed Barbarossa had always professed " devotion The cities were now recognized as practically independent they governed themselves they had their own : . and this was a humihation almost as complete. armies. Book II. was made by Barbarossa's grandson. tribute whenever the kings decided to visit Italy. and a brilliant one also. " It was just a hundred years since the great humiliation of Canossa. and defeated him." Nor were they conciliated by what Otto tries to justify as the In point of fact the historic warning which Otto did not was given to the Emperor himself (and to all those who try to hold do\ra an alien and unwilling people by sheer force). But Frederick IPs " Otto von Freising. Mark's at Venice. cit. heiress of the bold adventurers who had fought the Saracens and made themselves of So ended the most brilliant attempt since Charlemagne to unify Italy and Central Europe under one sovereign head. The to\vns of Northern Italy formed themselves live to see — — Lombard League.THE YOUNG NATIONS " 79 " inevitable result of their insubordination." 2 But the real humiliation was rather before the cities than the Church. Frederick II. another effort. A century later. History of Europe.

The reawakening desire and need both for commerce and life in common had led the townsmen either to take for . across the Alps in Italy. The Emperor's constant absence from homxC. had shown himself not only an audacious speculator in religion. His despotic temper roused the Northern Communes of Italy once more. but it was through lack of any unifying policy. prepared. notably in connexion with the towns. The developlost the Holy ment of the towns. thirteenth century. and recalling so significantly the city-states of Greece and Rome. but a far too ambitious Empire-builder. The faint promise of a coherent system embodpng popular elements died away in a confusion of separate jurisdictions. as we shall have occasion to note later. Frederick. the power of it being nowise founded on hatred liberty. was as marked in Germany as elsewhere. Naples and Sicily were left to be for centuries the prize of war between French and Spanish claimants. largely feudal and seignorial. so important for the growth of modern so characteristic of the leading European nations in the life. and once more the Papacy was wise enough to support the people against the despot. moreover. in defiance of solemn engagements given personally. It had reasons of its own for this. and the chance of a solid union in Germany In particular is to be disappeared for many a long day. a hatred kept alive through fear. to grip the Popedom between his Northern and Southern dominions.80 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND attempt failed in its turn. but soon afterwards his whole dynasty was swept away. noted the increasing chaos in her judicial courts. once its candidate for Empire. left. and his race being dogged to its doom by the of the Popes. made it impossible for him to cope with his own turbulent barons. The struggle was undecided at his death (1250). without the guidance either of a clear and consistent law or a uniform body of judges appointed from above. There was rich material for corporate life in mediseval Germany. The early history of Roman Empire is strewn with lost opportunities for Germany. These repeated and vain attempts to unite Italy and Germany under one Empire were costly to both.

" into guilds of craftsmen The townsmen. no Teutonic Emperor could really identify himself with his Italian subjects. through the mightier cities. one of the great forces for general emancipation in Europe. Across the Alps. clustered in the city. frei. found popular " Die Luft der Stadt macht expression in a German proverb." In the young vigour of these early German efforts a wise and bold ruler might have found a factor of the highest value for uniting the country on a basis of freedom. Freedom from all serfage was one of the foremost privileges. Arts and prices should be fixed : — — furthermore. on the other hand. and the principle that he who had lived in a free city for a year and a day became a free man whoever his lord might have been.THE YOUNG NATIONS by 81 themselves (as in Italy). playing off the barons against the cities and the cities against the barons But on simply to suit the apparent convenience of the moment. his rare visits to Germany his policy seems to have been nothing but narrowly opportunist. were organizing themselves and traders and struggling with what call we should now economic problems how. the broad result being to leave chaos and conflict to the German people. When we deplore the evil side of the towns we should remember also that many letters. The privileges of the towns might have been confirmed and developed on the understanding that they were to co-operate with the king in maintaining order and serving the nation at of our finest large. achievements have been made possible only " Not through the mighty woods we go. but through them. or whether an additional sum might be asked when the commodity was in high demand problems to be debated in our own time with a renewed and deepened intensity. Had Holy Roman Empire been effectively established in Italy by a German it would probably have been only a the 6 . or more often (as in England) to win definite grants the right to definite liberties and even to a large measure of self-government. for example whether solely by the cost of the materials plus a fair reward for the craftsman's labour. moreover. Frederick II in particular had the chance offered to him.

as I heard tell. and kingless we German people. 1230) cried out each on the distraction of his country. Evil in cloister-garth and cell. He cried to God. were outblazing the light of the Crown the realm had less order in it than the animal and the disorder was fomented by the Italian kingdom Popes. failure. hear my cry The coronets carry themselves too high Let the lonely Jewel of the Crown Outblaze them all on Philip's Throne " ! ! ! ! " I Rome. Alas. On the Italian side Dante. ' 1 ' ! Vogelweide is sensitive to the whole of life. a schemer like Innocent III keeping two German candidates in play and cheating both. and on the German Vogelweide (d. . Fervent pilgrim as he was. militarist and external. they saw them cheat two kings at home. Walther von der Vogelweide. that this should be. Vogelweide foresaw even at that date a breach between clergy and laity and the consequent break-up of Christendom. the Pope is rash and young " May Christ have mercy on Christendom heard the lies told in 1 : — . was a patriot and a man of religion as well as a true poet. His passion for the welfare. . and Empire and Papacy profoundly embittered against each other. But the laymen numbered more and more. and freedom of his fatherland was every whit as spontaneous and strong as his passion for love and beauty. and at times his breadth of view strangely anticipates Goethe's. A good monk wept. The coronets of the barons. he protested earnestly. for his heart was wrung. The hive with a king. though we for and regret. . The laitterest known in all this life The clergy strove and struggled sore. perhaps the loveliest of the Minnesingers. Clergy and laymen fell to strife. that the struggle against it left either people rather a congeries of may jealous units than a united society.82 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND We cannot regret its despotism. . . he can think of God as receiving the prayers of all creeds. unity. " O German people. and deeply.

" Him dominance His protest against the selfishness of the struggles for in Church and State was unavailing.THE YOUNG NATIONS " 83 Christian and Jew and Heathen serve Who gives the bread of Ufe to all. . but it remains of enduring significance.

the Norman conquerors had the ability and the luck to enlist in their service both the Saxon strength and the Celtic fire of their new subjects. Russia was was and by her sister country of Poland. Edward the Confessor. was split up among quarrelsome vassals. Spain divided between Christian and Moslem. the possessions he granted them being scattered about over England. successor to the degenerate Carolingian line. whosesoever men they were. showed the fairest promise. France. indeed. all : 84 . like Germany. But in England less than a hundred years later. The chief pitfall of feudalism he avoided by ensuring. so was left far in the rear even of the civilization attained OF the young nations England.CHAPTER XII SELF- ENGLAND AND THE PROMISE OF GOVERNMENT all flung back. And. next. Norman William took the line that he was not an alien conqueror so much as the rightful heir of the Saxon king. by the Tartar invasion (1223). that landowners should swear fealty direct to himself. and so guard against the divided loyalties which grew up thickly on the Continent and increased the chaos. From the first. The direct evidence of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle " is worth repeating All the men of consequence who were on the land all over England. first. although a nucleus of the future kingdom began to form itself at the end of the tenth century round Hugh Capet. already organized into a kingdom. from a political point of view. though as yet without Germany's temptation to waste her strength beyond the Alps. that none of his barons held too much land in any one place. and for centuries.

daughter of Malcolm the Scottish king and In 1166. 2 into ordeal followed use of ordeal. uninterrupted. but also of a princess with Saxon and Celtic blood. and soon afterwards trial by 1216 the Church forbade the further ^ from admitting was but a short step to Trial And " by battle fell it." " ^ by jury. we can trace in the Assize of Clarendon the beginnings of our modern William's work for justice further other men. . that after all Might was not Right. on however small a scale. might walk through the realm with his bosom full of gold and come to no harm. it agree that Chance was not Justice.ENGLAND AND SELF-GOVERNMENT 85 bowed down to him and became his men and swore oaths of fealty to him that they would be faithful to him against all The good order. nor was the jury he established a real jury of judgment. disuse. Henry I. The growth. it is true. just a hundred years after niece of Edgar ^theling. the sceptical king added that whatever the result. What was done was to provide that in criminal cases twelve men sworn to speak the truth should be appointed to make a preliminary inquiry." Warner and Martin. and if they contrial sidered the evidence grave enough to present the accused for trial. Nor durst any man slay another though he had done him never so much evil. based on Gardiner's in the " ^ "The Groundwork of British History." Student's History of England. the Conquest and eleven before Barbarossa's defeat. of a true jury system from such small beginnings is a classic instance of the value in getting a rational scheme started." a requisite of any real unity." and unification was carried by Henry IL grandson indeed of a Norman. Edith (called ]\Iatilda)." In This Tr. Only the beginnings. though he should go to the ordeal. fin. Neither the Saxon trial by ordeal nor the Norman wager of battle did " " Henry set aside. then. In civil cases also a jury was allowed as an alternative to wager by battle. that William brought into the country is also clear from the " A man of substance reluctant admiration of the Chronicler. in place of an irrational. c. he must leave the country within forty days on pain of death.x.

beginning of the thirteenth century led to the Great Charter with its stress on principles of freedom. It corresponds to a sound instinct deeply rooted in those peoples of Europe who were awake to freedom. . where. as subtle as The advance towards a justice had its parallel in free was Roman jurisprudence. since the days of Republican Greece had this principle received in an organized State anything Hke such emphatic assertion. many of them simply imposed from above. 164. Trial by jury was not only a victory for reason over superstition and force. Its value for liberty is obvious .86 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND experience between individuals within the nation may yet be repeated between nations within the world. perhaps. commenting on the study of " law in the Universities. ^ J. The scheme would have been a priceless boon to the Germanic tribes caught in a maze of conflicting jurisdictions. Political Theories of the Middle Ages." Preface by xiii. Grimm in the Preface to Thomas's " Der Oberhof zu Frankfurt " am 2 Main. and so to fortify that reasonable criticism of Roman Law on the part of expert jurists which made it possible for England to assimilate so much of the good and avoid so much of the harm in that rich but complex inheritance. a man was accustomed to ask his neighbour for justice as he would for a light. still more. but through it the principle was established that the people themselves should have a vital share in the administration of justice. as a modern German has put it. 1 Furthermore. Never. Maitland points out how in the fourteenth century Wyclif the schoolman." 2 and reasonable organization of Already Henry II could rely on the old national levy. more democratic method of more primitive days. in Blondel's La Politique de Fr6d6ric II en Gierke. and still hankering after the older. as reasonable." Maitland. p. never since quite politics." " Quoted p. and dispense with The very misgovernment of John at the foreign mercenaries. for the enlistment of liberty in the service of law. can protest that English was as just. the habit of sitting on a jury must have done much in England to instruct public opinion on weighty legal matters. the fyrd. Allemagne.

and for limited terms the people were not governed solely by just . or outlawed. Now. the knights of And towards — — the shires. or 39 (46). area of the electorate was too small. it should not be forgotten. but it is claims without representation. after the long interval of the bureaucratic Empire. : . No taxation " dispossessed. to make our eldest son a knight. A genuine element of representation. except to ransom our person. " Whatever affects all should be approved by all " so run the statesmanlike words of the Royal Summons. except by the judgment of his peers or by the law of the land. nor will legal we go upon him. Officials were elected. or in any way injured." the end of the century 1295 according to the old dating. The little sentence touches the heart of self-government. the privileges that the barons won by the document. and the citizens and burgesses throughout every county in England. had been present alike in Greece and Republican Rome. but also of the clergy. But the effective irresponsible and hereditary magistrates. The modern maxims. 1275 according to the latest research ^Edward I summons a Parliament comprehensive enough to serve as a model for every Parliament that followed. the prin- . the representative system is of cardinal importance because through its machinery it was to make selfgovernment possible over a large area. followed by the loose organization of peoples emerging from barbarism. nor send upon him. comprising as it did representatives not only of the barons. and we have — not rise of The yet exhausted the implications that it holds. the small clergy as well as the great. essential to reiterate that the barons coupled also with their demands for the privileges of towns and for the rights " of the subject as such." No arbitrary imprisonment without trial.ENGLAND AND SELF-GOVERNMENT 87 Certain modern critics emphasize forgotten by Englishmen. or banished." are already in substance acknowledged " 12 (14). No scutage or aid shall be imposed in our kingdom save by the Common Council of our kingdom. and once for the first marriage of our eldest daughter and for these purposes it shall only be a reasonable aid." " No free man shall be taken or imprisoned.

enough experiment more persistently and on a scale at once large to mark it off from those of the city-states. in those days of imperfect communication and no mass of the population. these her representatives held on. In France Philip IV (Phihp the Fair). to the power of the purse (granted by the Charter). she tried the stripped her neighbours in three ways. In noted. differing herein alike from the ancient and the mediaeval Italian. to the power of the sword. Nor should she forget that for centuries she has failed to apply it consistently to the country of her neighbour. to the two decisive powers." assembly at Westminster is the but she should not speak as though the idea had been peculiar to herself. choosing their own officers. in so far as the poor parsons could speak for them. nobles. Emperor. simply ineffective for the as was notably the case with the of the Emperor. not excluding even the peasantry. Next she drew her representatives from almost all classes. summons the first " General (1302). and then. are. representing clergy. through the power of the purse and their own resolution. and whether influenced by the Spanish Estates in provinces example or by that of the local such as Languedoc. with their habit of controlUng their king by his council of wise men and his assembly of free warriors. conspicuous for their energy and Germany the highest office. indeed. had done much to prepare the ground. that of the principle elective. or by the step of his English conStatestemporary. in his struggle against Papal encroachment. as Italy " " " we have already independence. . or by all three. In Spain both Castile and Aragon possessed a Cortes. German " election " printing. and thus implicitly recognizes that it is at least wise in a crisis to consult the nation at large. And it is well to note that the effort is not made in England alone. and commons. is itself in But England outFirst. more and more firmly. Ireland.88 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND ciple is revived and extended. In the communes. and yet not so large as to become. Many of the barbarians. Thus she has some reason for her proud boast that the " Mother of Parliaments. Thirdly.

England laid the foundations of a political system steadier than any of her neighbours. Nor was England leader in any art. free grace of its proportions. begun by Wilham in that city. we can only feel it the fumbling of a 'prentice hand when we think of the buoyant ease and mastery shown by. The age was. at first. 89 . a confident symbol of strength. There was not in England during the twelfth century or the thirteenth anything like the vigour of corporate life that we can discern in the Italian cities. looks to-day what it was meant to look centuries ago." built by the Conqueror to command the town. and. has indeed a jubilant hghtness of effect not elsewhere found in union with the Norman " The WTiite Tower. They did indeed learn their lesson nobly. The Church of St. pre-eminently the BUT Romanesque of age of architecture. however touching we may find its single-minded effort to express a vision beyond its grasp. There the primacy belongs to France and Italy. still essentially the Tower of London. We look at the clumsy. Etienne. and it was from the France and the Norman conquerors that Englishmen first learnt to build. " " majesty. let us say. and they had much to learn. the early Norman work at Caen. it must be remembered that she was slow to develop it. beautiful through the high. on the margin of the Thames and at the corner of the old Roman wall.CHAPTER XIII THE NEW ARCHITECTURE: ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC if. during these early days. heavy Saxon work just before the Conquest. but they never surpassed their teachers.

but it was soon felt that the pointed style with its soaring arches. perfect as a sonnet. but delicately the visionary longing for a resting-place express of peace and purity. rendered visible in stone. had been felt by the primeval builders who reared the huge monoliths on the downs ages before the lovely and conscious monuments of Christendom. and looking far beyond it. its flying buttresses. the Norman. Richard de la Poer. It was fitted to effort to Already we can see in the Galilee Chapel of Durham an make the round arch adapt itself to the new concept of form. but even allowing for that. of one clear emotion. And — as the twelfth century closed. the Early English Gothic. we can hardly suppose that the English artists produced such a wealth of splendid glass as the French. but they are linked by a true resemblance. derived again from the movement abroad. like most English cathedrals. at once simple and infinitely diverse. superseded less majestic no doubt. another style. is a thing among the marvels of architecture was built within a century of the Norman Conquest. suffer from a paucity of stained glass. offered a more expressive medium for the lyric aspiration that filled the hearts of the devout. it illustrates the truth of Hegel's assertion that the impulse to architecture springs not simply from the desire for shelter but from the And that same desire. Durham and Salisbury.90 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND The greatness of English architects lay in the swiftness with which they seized on the foreign culture and developed it in their own way. itself against As it stands among the stately trees. This is partly due to Puritan destruction. desire to symbolize the Absolute. still on earth. solemn and gentle in the golden-coloured and it light. its slender spires. Stonehenge and Salisbury a mighty gap lies between them. though freed from the dross of earth. matching them and overtopping them. a longing that lit the central fire for the work of the Church and all her influence. — . The Early English Chapel of the Nine Altars at Durham was commanded by the very man. an example. to whom we owe Salisbury Cathedral. in a dumb and savage way. The interior of Durham Cathedral. it should be added. arch after arch repeating the same splendid theme.



or the noble six-sided Baptistery at Florence. St. but. until indeed the Northerner. its " " Romanesque like the others. austere rhythms of Virgil and Lucretius. Mark have an aerial — lightness utterly different from the sternness of any Byzantine exterior. and irradiated. The splendours of St. directly and another world. arches and in developing the round-headed the long straight lines of the Roman fine precision quite and it developed them with a unlike anything Northern and at the same time tenderer than anything classical. as in England and France. we know. nothing uncouth. we are aware that the grand lines of dome and gallery are aglow with the luminous dimness of mosaic and marble. And from the outset ItaHan architecture had a markedly distinct character.THE NEW ARCHITECTURE And the most moving elements the strange effect of the colours on a grand scale in mediaeval architecture. with his love for romantic mystery and strange ." do recall the stately. so beloved of " il mio bel San Giovanni. from the twelfth century onward. but. overwhelming examples of its power are to be found in France (see below. at its best. Mark's is finished like a jewel. Mark's at Venice were. but warmed by a religious faith that Greeks and Romans never knew. and certainly the most mysteriously. dark and light at once. once inside the Baptistery walls. the new hfe transport the into overflowed abundantly into other spheres. In Italy. as though a veined inverted tulip-flower hung over the heads of the worshippers. It was. Nothing is left rough. at the end of the chapter). Both without and within. The clear severity of outline in the facade of San Miniato. and indeed much the same might be said of almost all Itahan architecture at this time. any extravagance subdued. by an unsurpassed fantasy. but it took own way Roman basilica. is 91 one of can It imagination of the beholder. any feeling for the grotesque is mellowed into fancifulness. itself inspired by the Mother Church of Santa Sophia but the fairy domes of St. marked indeed at its best by a sense of form derived perhaps from Greece and Rome. Dante. in part directly inspired by the Church of the Apostles at Constantinople. it is in architecture that we see it first. certainly.

furthermore. For it was from France that the pointed style. To-day there are still places. first came over the Alps. the instinct was most widely spread." and the grandeur of a grey English cathedral. still feeling. was before Italy in the mastery of sculpture. perhaps. the so-called Gothic. take us back to the influence of France. This was so throughout the But in greater part of England. It would. among the great contrasts of tragedy things of the world. and Italy.92 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND and farce. however. inspired stinct for rebuilding have on the everyday dwellings. It was not till the second half of the thirteenth century {flor. where the wanderer lingers to look simply at wall and angle and chimney-pot. when indeed it looks like a shaft of magical white fire held motionless against the darkness. but in the as a whole. magnificent or humble. coloured like a morning cloud and chased like a sea-shell. be a capital error. Nor is the certainly it is in Italy that the ravages of left least trace proportion only in details. and glad to feel. tells how at first he resented the unflawed perfection of Giotto's Campanile and " " till he came to thought it meanly smooth and finished live beside it in summer and winter and watched it in sunlight and moonlight. cliff-like among the green lawns and waving trees. as for example the details in Giotto's Campanile. Ruskin. so compelling is the grace that lives in form and proportion and in them alone. Germany. Under their hands a barn could hold its own with a church. France. Then he came to place it where it should be placed. if we thought of mediaeval architecture as always by religious emotion. These builders had the inharmony in every building. as in Siena or Venice. harmony of each city Many points in Italian religious architecture. his steps trammelled by sheer beauty. 1260) that Italy produced in Niccolo Pisano a sculptor . and go near confusing the unique value of visible form with that of spiritual edification. in a passage once celebrated. and France. religious or secular. may be tempted to rebel. the sharpness " of the contrast between the suave loveliness shed from that serene height of mountain alabaster. Italy.



We have only to compare the finest of the pathetic sepulchral slabs at Athens to feel the difference in the age of faith. there is reason to think. the priest who is also pre-eminently a debonair man of the world. owed at least as much to French work as to the rediscovery of classic. the best of early Greek work. making the building. Certainly as early as the twelfth century the French builders of Chartres show an amazing power in the treatment of their the figures. is the outlook on mundane things. in purity and strength of line and love of natural form. We learn to know them we might from the pages of Chaucer. Figures of clerics and monks. Nowhere is the power of characterization inherent in mediaeval sculpture better seen than at Chartres. the movement and the draperies of the angels raising the Virgin after death are astonishingly like those of the attendant " " on the so-called Birth of Aphrodite nymphs in the " Ludovisi Throne. the look of ineffable security that the Church promised to those who died trusting in the promises. though they often recall. Yet and here we see what makes Chartres a treasure-book of knowledge for the Middle Ages the sculptors with all their devotion show us other sides essential to a solid view. both in themselves and in their relation to architecture. We are shown not only the high-minded intellectual. Chaucerian. one The figures do not of the most impressive in the world. The undesigned For example. the tolerant amusement . surpass. but the domineering fanatic. leaving the precipitous lines of the building overhead untouched and free. anything but ideal. likeness and the difference are both startling. concentrated and clustered as they are round the three great portals. too. are modelled with an observation at once so incisive and so restrained that — — we wonder how far the delicate irony is conscious. But they express emotion and individuality in a way seldom even attempted by the Pagan sculptors. while he himself." but the face of the dead woman shows a new thing. and the foolish young deacon who has not here as stamina enough for workaday life.THE NEW ARCHITECTURE 93 of the first rank. together with its noble structure and the uneartlily splendour of its glass. and it was long before otliers followed him.

transepts majestic.94 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND : with which different types of worldly womanhood are given the spoilt young beauty. strange. and remote. has never been more nearly achieved than at Chartres. but are warmer and deeper. supercilious. consciously or unconsciously. The effort of the artists in the service of the Church to symbolize something that included the whole of human life. Pythagoras.worldhness after all that is the dominant note. together with this zest for life are signs of the renewed thirst for knowledge. and rich. at once ordered and spontaneous. gracious. days : — — Euclid. but. in this early Revival long before what usually called the Renaissance could recognize something of its true kinship with Greece. for the whole building is an expression. compared with what is to come. one would have said. are. the whole scheme has been built up in a harmony to enhance. in the tall windows that close the apse high shafts of silver and pale amethyst send down their clear light on the culminating station of the priest. philosophic. subtly and impressively. is which had not been and which already the thirst scientific. . : is each window a glory in itself. finally. the rehgious appeal of the Church and her ritual. in a lower and Then at the centre there blaze out from the quieter key. more than we entering the building. their figures are thought with good reason to hold an honoured place at Chartres. and. " " Still it is other. unearthly figures in flaming scarlet and gold beneath rose-windows bright with purple. far so. or the queen of lofty charm and intellect. As in the Baptistery at Florence. and indeed experience an actual shock of awe on The light of common day has gone something apocalyptic meets us in the long aerial lines ht by colours unimaginable. It is easy to credit the records that the whole countryside toiled at the building. though always intense. all-encompassing felt in its fullness since the of Greece. so here. Moreover. of a vast and unifying faith. on earth. Beyond in the ambulatory of the chancel the colours recall those in the nave. At the entrance of the Not only nave the colours on either side. and went far beyond it. Aristotle.

HEAD OF THE VIRGIN LYING DEAD (From a porch of Chartres Cathedral) .


and Chaucer. Three men. and enriched enormously. FRANCIS THE monuments variety at Chartres may help us to realize how charged with varied emotions the Middle Ages could be. in his turn. Dante. and instinct with the Vasari's impress of a singularly attractive personality. Giotto.CHAPTER XIV THE NEW LIFE IN ITALY: GIOTTO AND ST. Giotto. may be taken as types of genius working. carrying on his master's work. The portrait of St. the new inheritance of painting opened up to Cimabue (i24o(?)-i303). who. noble in design. is at once intimate and grand. Nothing could be finer than his glowing. beside the builders of such as Chartres. Francis. Giotto (i267(?)-i337). for unity. in different ways. him by his master had taken over the accomplished Byzantine tradition and filled it with a fresh and tender life. one of the greatest artists who ever Hved. The shepherd boy of Fiesole entered into. emotions often conflicting and strugghng either for unity or mastery. laid the best foundations both for the decorative achievement and the dramatic. due either to Cimabue or a pupil and based apparently on a fair record of the saint's bodily presence. charming story of Cimabue's Madonna being carried in triumph through the streets of Florence bears witness to the enthusiasm for expressive form and colour now aUve in Italy. luminous colour. an enthusiasm that was to bring forth the most perfect painting ever known in Europe. appeals to us also as a great humanist. in the fresco at Assisi. or the subtle and majestic 95 . his sense of balance and broad rhythm.

the love that made him conquer his natural loathing and nurse the " the Lord Himself did lead me among them." of Celano. Mary the Mother of the Lord. Francis and curiously like what we can con- and in more points than one Francis himself bears a resemblance to a modern man of Both men raised a burning protest genius. and. and I lepers : — had compassion upon them ^ the love that made men fancy he could tame wolves and win the birds to join with him in worship.96 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND simplicity of his contours especially in his latest and grandest period as shown in Santa Croce at Florence and the Arena — But from the very first he shows also an and breadth of sympathy to win all hearts. against the unspoken belief that a man's life consists in the jecture of Giotto's attitude. other " active Also in the " Life — In The Mirror of Perfection. It is characteristic of him to delight in the touching legend of Joachim and Anna. preter of the Franciscan story. the love that sings all " — through his Canticle. Nothing can surpass his feeling for the sweet and poignant domesticities of marriage and motherhood. and when he paints St. Leo Tolstoy. abundance of his possessions to Francis a breviary was already more than enough for a true friar to possess both of them went back to primitive Christianity in exalting brotherly love even to the neglect of 1 all — " virtues —both. intensity. " " by Thomas . At the same time Giotto is unsurpassed as an interChapel at Padua. to be reunited at last by the Angel of God. sincerity. the cunning depicted in the sturdy rogue's face tells us plainly that the painter understood well enough the abuses of indiscriminate almsBut he loved the boundless love of Francis for all giving. in their old age. and comforts them with the promise of a child. The modern mingling criticism of his doctrine of is reverence for St. the legend of a Saint vowed to Not that Giotto shared the Franciscelibacy and self-denial. who sends them to meet each other at the Golden Gate. Francis giving his purse to the beggar. separated by the misguided Priest. can faith there are verses of his extant in which he smiles openly at any worship of poverty. long childless. things living and even for things we call inanimate.

THE (From a KISS OF fresco JUDAS by Giotto. Padua) .


was actively supported by Dominic. and still more the growth of independence. Dominic. by their espousal of humility and submission. always ardent of itself and inevitably excited by the struggle with the alien Moslems. and their Rules saved the Church from the fate prepared for her by the evil lives of the great clergy. Years after Francis and Dominic. in the brilliant. Francis and St. and there can be little question that " of God {Domini Canes). Dominic. Living in poverty themselves. and gaining authority with the 7 . restless civilization of for — — Provence. the Spanish contemporary of Francis (Franciscan Order founded i2og. and it is the first organized persecution on a large scale of Christians by Christians. even if we admit real cause for alarm in the subversive theories of the persecuted. full of ill omen for the future. and indeed often wild-thinking heretics who centred at Albi. it would have been utterly destroyed. in spite of their services to thought they were a learned Order did infinite harm in heightening the fanaticism ready to flame up in Spain's devotion. The relentless crusade against the free-thinking. Both. Dominican That Dominic was the first founder of the Inquisition 1213). Both. " The Hounds is admitted. at the same time paying the founders full honour for their faith in Christianity and the succour they gave to Christian institutions. with accustomed his insight. notes the support that the doctrine of submission could give to tyranny.THE NEW LIFE IN ITALY 97 though Francis far more than Tolstoy. greatness lay in union with a God greater than by the sharpness of their negations. Machiavelli. Tyranny joined with bigotry in the attack. " For had not this religion of ours been brought back to its origins by St. They. looked to Death as the Guide into a vaster world and claimed for man that his real himself. all but cut themselves off from the very civilization which supported them both were followed by a few whole-hearted disciples and by a far greater multitude giving them a reverence which nevertheless they could not square with their own workaday creed. by their voluntary poverty and their imitation of Christ. rekindled in men's minds the dying flame of faith . We see this again. strongly in the influence of St. tended to hamper .



them beheve it was wrong to speak ill even and that it must be right to obey our rulers, who, if they sin, should be left to the judgment of God." " "A teaching," adds Machiavelli, which encourages rulers to behave as wickedly as they like, for they have no fear of a punishment which they cannot behold and in which they do not believe. Nevertheless it is this renewal which has maintained, and still maintains, our religion."^ The divided loyalty which appears even in this late passage, recognizing one rule to live by and one to revere, was very characteristic of the ferment in the mediaeval spirit from the twelfth century onwards, avid as it was beginning to be of secular knowledge and earthly splendour, conscious that the But the spirit fullness of both would never satisfy man.
cannot rest in a divided loyalty either of thought or feeling. An artist like Giotto, through the sheer strength of his humanity, his hold on the inner links of beauty, could achieve a reconciliation of feeling, but a reconciliation of thought was needed also. And this, to some real extent, was achieved, though achieved, as we shall see, at a price.

people, they made of what is wrong

"Discourses on Livy," Bk. III.



Tr. based on that of N.




on Pagan thought and early Christian,


the mediaeval thinkers built up a unifying system which culminates for us in the writings of Dante, and

that system, broken as it is, will always have light for the world. It goes back, along one line, to Aristotle. That " master of those who know," working on the basis laid down

by Plato, developed, as we have already suggested, a view of things which, whatever its imperfection, could scarcely fail to inspire that eager world, and can be full of inspiration for us even now.

Putting the gist of it into modern words, we may summarize First, looking at the physical world, roughly as follows Aristotle held that if we could understand motion in its ultimate nature we should realize that it was an expression of vital energy, not indeed the highest expression, but still a

genuine expression, and furthermore, that if we were to conceive motion in its entirety we must conceive it as in some sense curvilinear and returning on itself. This is because we can neither grasp as a whole a sheer unlimited movement in " unlimited space an infinite regress," to use the technical nor yet can we admit any arbitrary limit set to space phrase

or movement from without. But circular movement might seem to have a principle of limitation in itself, being neither unhmited nor externally limited but as it were self-limited. Such a movement Aristotle and his followers beheved to be the movement of the heavenly bodies, and it may be worth





close, this







Copemican theory, and, next, how


from time to

time in the history of thought, theories as to a possible curvature of space have been propounded as suggesting a solution for the problems of the mathematical infinite. Further, Aristotle looked on the movement of the heavenly bodies (which started all other movement) as itself aroused by a conscious desire for the Absolute Good, the stimmum Aristotle did, indeed, actually honiim, which is also God.
conceive the highest stars as living and thinking beings far
greater than

man, a.conception

that, as





cannot accept to-day


by most men

of his


was not even accepted less, so far as we know, by

Yet, in spite of the fallacies of a crude we must admit that we do not seem anthropomorphism, able to understand any ultimate activity in itself except after " what is good or seems good," nor the analogy of desire for feel complete satisfaction in any explanation that fails to

mediaeval thinkers.

show us not only that a thing

to be there.


starry heavens

is there, but that it is good for as to Greeks and mediaevalists, the seem in a special way to proclaim the


glory of God.

Something deep
closes his

which Dante



in us responds to the line with of God," the poet in Paradise

finding his desire


will at

one with

The Love that moves the sun and


the stars."

This movement, in Aristotle's scheme, is communicated, mechanically, through contact between one sphere and another, from the highest circle of the furthest stars down to our own earth. And there it stimulates a pregnant movement in the four natural elements (the Hot, the Cold, the Wet, and the Dry), elements which possess already, each in itself, an inherent principle of activity, a principle among the many
manifestations of what Aristotle calls Nature, Physis {(pvaig). Such a principle constitutes the essence of every natural a object, being something that causes the thing to possess
character of its own, not simply one imposed on it from without. And this principle, once more, is conceived on the

analogy of desire. animate world, and


Even throughout what we

the in-


in its lowest forms, this principle manifests the tendency of each natural thing to persist in being


the conatiis in


esse perscverari

as Spinoza

higher manifestation appears in the living world of plants and animals, where the natural force not only makes for persistence but enables the organism to grow, to use the surroundings for its own advantage, present



centuries later.


still, in the world of human consciousness, not only grows, but, being definitely conscious and able to direct his will, can set before himself an ideal of how he desires to grow and, within limits, attain to it. From lowest to highest each natural object, creature, soul, reflects so far as it can some aspect, some form, or idea, or thought of God. Man is the highest creature in the scale that we know on earth, though far from the highest possible. Thus in a sense the love for God, the thirst for diverse forms of perfection, is the motive power of the whole universe,




the natural



that sustaining Love

Which through the web

of being

bhndly wove

By man and

beast and earth and air and sea Burns bright or dim, as each are mirrors of




Shelley may be found an admirable commentator on Plato, Aristotle, and the mediaevalists, indeed on all Natural Mystics,
ancient, mediaeval, or modem. In any case there can be no

doubt that

this vast


elaborate scheme, whatever may be thought of its truth, fired the mind of Europe afresh when Europe awoke from her




not the mind of Europe alone or even

thinkers of Islam, still full of Mohammed's belief that the whole universe was the work of one God and therefore that nature and the joys of sense were somehow consecrate, had, as



saw, already seized on

what they could


teaching, brought to them, strangely enough, through Syria and Persia by Christian heresiarchs banished from Orthodox Constantinople in the early centuries of our era. a chmax was Finally at Cordova in the twelfth





reached in the work of Averroes, the commentator on Aristotle, " Averrois che il gran commento feo," Averroes whom Dante saw in Limbo together with his precursor Avicenna and


for the






founders of medicine, Hippocrates and Galen, with other sages of the past, all honouring the master Aristotle, lit by the one circle of light in that dark land, an oasis of green rolling meadows within a seven-walled castle,

An open

place, full of clear light,



(" Inferno."

Canto IV.)


may have


and was, severely

criticized in detail

by Christian scholastics, but none the less his genius, though hampered by ignorance of Greek, did stimulate with splendid results the influence of Aristotle on Christendom, and this towards the belief, at once rational and mystical, that man by training his reason, his will, and his powers of contemplation could attain an ineffable union with that Supreme Reason " which is God. The noblest worship that can be paid to God lies in the knowledge of His works leading us to the knowledge of Himself in
^ For Averroes there all His reality." was nothing inherently impossible in any creature attaining this union. But in point of fact he looks on it as only attained " It depends," by a few chosen spirits among mankind. " on a kind of elective writes Renan in his brilliant book,

very word leads us to the typical Christian It has been said,^ and truly, that in the centuries the leading ideas of the Church were Sin and early Redemption, while from the day of the Dominican monk, Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), they come to be Nature and Grace, and the God of Grace is also the God of Nature. None " It does not destroy the less, Grace is higher than Nature. " " Gratia naturam non Nature," Nature," but it perfects The natural man alone cannot attain tollit, sed perficit." he must be endued afresh with power full blessedness

Grace." "




doctrine of the time.



Quoted by Renan, "Averroes By Baron Fr. von Hiigel.

et I'Averroisme."



" No created creature has sufficient strength from on high. to win Eternal Life, unless the Supernatural Gift of Grace " be added to him (Qu. 114A, 2). The likeness to, and the difference from, Averroes appear even in these brief quotations. Averroes, like Aristotle himhe has only a hint, as we saw, self, is far more rationalist

anything approaching a theory of supernatural grace, while the reliance on grace is absolutely essential to Aquinas. Averroes further, again like Aristotle, cared little for indiwhile to the Christians of the Middle vidual immortality

Ages that hope was
In point of




the thoughts stimulated through Averroes to widely different and often jarring views prompted Europe to the orthodoxy of Aquinas and Dante, to the eclecticism of

the Emperor Frederick II, to the bold experimentation of Roger Bacon, the Franciscan friar trained at Oxford and " GodParis, perhaps even, five hundred years later, to the




Pantheism of the Jew Spinoza. but inevitable that conflict should mark Christen-

dom's reception of the new learning, coming, as it did, largely from infidel sources. Two powers had long been at work among the faithful, the reviving desire for reason and the old dread of rationalism. The study of Greek thought had never the Platonic absolutely died out in the Christian Church echoes in St. Paul had been taken up and intensified by many Even in the Dark of the early Fathers, Greek themselves.

Ages, the Irishman, John Erigena (sometimes called John the Scot), could deepen the Platonic tradition, though it is true that the appearance of such a thinker in the ninth century was, as Wicksteed observes, something of a portent. And


the sap of intellect and imagination was rising high once more, the Crusades, from their first inception in 1095, had helped, in spite of many drawbacks, to widen Europe's outlook both towards the Present and the Past. On the other hand, there were men like St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1091his preaching 1153), endowed with eloquence and intellect for the Crusades was famous over Europe and yet one to

— —

whom all secular learning


seemed a worldly snare fettering



The struggle between him and spiritual advance.^ Abelard towards the middle of the twelfth century marks already (though Abelard knew no more of Aristotle than some of the work on logic), an acute stage in the conflict between the reborn curiosity of reason putting all things to
the test and the fervid, unquestioning piety whose watchword " Faith is not Opinion but Assurance." ^ was,

What would men like Bernard's followers think of paltering with the views and doubts of Moslem infidels ? Thus both in the twelfth century and the thirteenth we are faced with
sharp contrasts.

As early

as the opening of the twelfth


Bernhard of Chartres, student of Plato and Aristotle, " We are dwarfs speaking with enthusiasm of the ancients mounted on the shoulders of giants we see more and further than they, but not because of our own sight or stature."^ Thierry, Bemhard's younger brother. Master at Chartres in II2I, accepts all he can of the scientific inheritance pre:


served or expanded by the Arabs, the medical tradition, for example, going back to Hippocrates, Ptolemy's work on astronomy, and the use of the zero number, either discovered by the Arabs themselves, or, as some hold, taken over from Indian thinkers, a discovery invaluable for mathematics. In Spain the Archbishop of Toledo, Raymond, follows up the


of Chartres by founding a whole school of workers, them Jews, to translate the Arab treatises into Latin and diffuse them over Europe. On the other hand, we find the Church authorities insist-



ing at the University of Paris that books on the teaching of Aristotle must be burnt. It is in the thirteenth century and at a time of acute danger to renascent thought that two

devout Churchmen come to the rescue, the German Albertus Magnus, Albert the Great (d. 1280), and his greater pupil, the Italian Thomas of Aquino (d. 1274). Especially through the work of Aquinas a way is found by which Aristotle can definitely be reconciled with Christian dogma. Up to a
Life of S'. Bernard," by Cotter Morison, p. 1 1. ^Op. cit. p. 317 ff. John of Salisbury, "Metalogicus," III. 4, quoted by Uebersveg, " Geschichte der Philosophic, " Vol. 2.


.4^ ;f^

certain point Aristotle


after that, and in be trusted Revelation and Faith take not fear up the tale. Henceforward devout Christians need to study Aristotle, so long as they do not study him indebut the limitation pendently. A victory for thought is won, indicates it will be a Pyrrhic victory, to be paid for at a



matters where his insight


heavy price. Yet it is easy to understand the timidity of Churchmen. The Sicihan court of the Emperor Frederick H may furnish, amid much they could welcome, alarming examples of what find a more they feared. Nowhere did the new teaching his masterful, many-sided welcome than with him ready At intellect was eager to lay all lands under contribution. " so that those who hunger Naples he founded a University, for knowledge might find within the kingdom the food for which they were yearning." ^ It was at this University that Thomas Aquinas studied as a lad, and, after Frederick's death, came back to teach it was there that the translation of Averroes' Commentary on Aristotle's Logic was completed by a Provencal Jew, who prayed that the Messiah might come in the reign of his patron, " while Michael Scott, damned as a wizard by Dante, magni" " of Dante's own fied the renown Philosopher," according " the to Roger Bacon, by bringing to the knowledge of " " on natural science and mathematics." ^ his work Latins There is something, no doubt, singularly fine in this large:


It recalls the unifying grasp ness of intellectual sympathy. Travellers to-day of Frederick's own Norman forefathers. can marvel at the twelfth century Cathedral of Monreale, above

Palermo, built high among the lonely hills, like an enchanted Castle of the Grail, where the first impression suggests the force of Norman builders, while within the church stand ancient columns, the upper walls are brilliant with majestic Byzantine mosaics, and the fairylike cloisters and fountain
of the adjacent court reveal the influence of Arab fantasy. Frederick himself, even if we credit all the tales of his gibes

Grant, op.


p. 290. p. 204.





Opus Majus,"

pp. 36-37.

" he will write. All thought is dangerous. Nor without reason. Frederick was not the man to enlarge the bounds of know- incorporate ledge without scandal. make experiments. reinforced the fear naturally by any independent interpretation of Aristotle. and criticize not merely mistakes judged from a theological standpoint. and Arabic tradition. Catholic doctrine shrank from this virile teaching. Bridges on . agree to call schoolman. a worthy service. him as freely as he criticized his commentaAristotle made many mistakes. girding at the work of Albertus and Aquinas." ^ But assuredly. Roger Bacon. audacious and self-indulgent as he was. free-thinking court of Frederick. such a one would hardly have been surprised to learn that Dante. Greek. and ultimately. Bacon could admire Aristotle A and yet " tors. seems to have dreamt in his devouter moods." J. like the earlier dread of the Albigensians. therefore. of "an enlarged and renovated Catholicism which should bind together and at the clergy all that was best and noblest in Hebrew. in spite of Frederick's own savage laws against heresy. It could not be a force for freedom if it were not. take nothing simply on trust.106 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND and the friars. A soldier who persisted in a Crusade when excommunicated by the Pope. " ^ Roger Bacon. Bacon's own service to thought. him down into the Inferno among the The dread of such experiments in life as those made by the free-living. put heretics. an amorist whose mistresses were chosen from East and West. Yet it is from such encounters that further truth arises. him the Philosopher par excellence. and Bacon's condemnation is an inspired ominous landmark " progressive profoundly. in spite of all that Frederick's enterprise had achieved for his own master Aquinas." in the chequered history of culture. an Emperor who crowned himself King of Jerusalem with his own hands. was a real menace to the calm and order of the Church. In this free spirit he showed himself a truer follower of such a master thinker than any slavish disciple. lay precisely in his conviction that men must search freely for themselves. hke Roger Bacon himself.

cit. was indeed the last of the great Mohammedan Mohammedan who had so great a scholars. 30. A similar.MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY Bacon was condemned to silence. the field to an orthodoxy grown once again " The fate of Islam was the fate of all Catholicism in Spain. 107 hampered for centuries. op. Renan points out following among Christians Jews. p. and left fanatical through fear. reaction took place in the that Averroes. and might have been the fate of Europe. founded no vigorous school among the men of his religion." ^ ^ Renan. . and the freedom of thinking and far deeper. and own world.

the supreme representative in fit for his winged and steadfast imagination. Deeply learned in the most flawless poet of his country's classic past. so compassionate and so ruth- delicate. Furthermore. the danger of reaction quite markedly 1321). Like Wordsworth. To a religious poet of his depth the blessing of the Church on the good work of the natural man as the necessary prelude to grace." 108 . Brightening through all the calm depths of the sky Up to the highest heaven. comforted me. About the splendour of his poetry there can be no question he is among the chosen sublime masters. but nothing of the bright. and so narrow in the exclusiveness to which he found himself yet forced. mysterious music wherein the secret of his heart is hidden. he took the humble vernacular of his own day. It is far this man's work. so eager for unity and the breadth of knowledge.CHAPTER XVI DANTE poetry of medieval faith and thought. piercing and from easy to sum up : WE can feel in Dante (d. even apart from the wealth of his genius. the man himself is at once so human and so hide-bound. and on all the lovely works of Nature as witnesses to God." The morning sky can heal the " wounds of Hell : The sweet clear sapphire of the eastern blue. Most enthusiastically he welcomes the broadest elements in the teaching of Aquinas and his school. that one can hardly speak of him without paradox. must have brought sheer exultation. and made of it a language august and simple. he is happiest when he lives " in the eye of Nature. Something of his content can come across in a translation. less.

he fuses physical horror with spiritual. The whole of terrible symbolism as he was. " I see well had hold on that our thought can never rest is Until It lies it find the sunlight of that Apart from which there Truth no room for other. And this vision of truth is recognized for Nature's goal. 124 ff. with hope because it is the place of man's spirit lifting itself his Paradise is immeasurably into harmony with its true self beyond our modern dreams of progress because he has taken flight altogether beyond this world and found a rapture loftier than any other poet has ever attained. IV. when it has reached it. And reach it can. fit to meet Beatrice face to face. and evanescent beauty with eternal. and that it has trust in The same . the thinker who counted man's — — recognition of inadequacy for a sign that he Adequate Truth. life grouped itself before him on and triumphant drama. Dante found the principle of unity on which his genius fed. the world's desire would be in vain. The cosmical setting of his theme is of instinct with the poetry latent in science because to him time and space and movement were manifestations of the thirst for the Divine. . It is the rapture in all the vision of absolute truth bringing absolute harmony among who behold it. If not.. Doubt springs from that. And it is Nature That drives us on from peak to topmost peak. His words in Paradise surely the noblest defence of doubt ever written could stand as a motto for the most daring of all philosophers. down in that Truth. and.) Nature breathes through the climax of the Purgatorio when Dante has struggled to the top of the Mountain. the German Hegel. like a strong sucker growing At the base of all our truth. Like a wild beast in its lair. master this basis as a vision is the realization of irretrievably The Hell he evokes is appalling because his a Power turned directly and his Purgatory thrills against its true Good .DANTE the Church 109 In the system of Aquinas. and Virgil tells him that he is now the master of himself." (Par. where the grace given through is conceived as crowning Nature and the Nature that turned from grace as something lost and damned.

across summit " " of Mount Abbaye de Thelema. and purified Thou wouldst do wrong didst thou not follow it. Slow travellers. steep ways and the narrow He behind thee. company ." The : And the same sympathy with the natural thirst for know- ledge fills the glowing passage that inspired Tennyson's " " and was itself inspired by echoes of the Odyssey. however appalled by the poet's ruthlessness. XXVI. Ulysses is .' I said. The small soft grass. when at last we reached the strait Where Hercules set bounds to say. shaU we fail And grudge the httle left of waking life To the great venture past the sunset gates Into the unkno%vn world ? Think of your birth. but was driven out once more by And • all the thirst to see and know the world the sins and splendours of mankind. My comrades and myself were old and worn. the is thrust down into one of the lowest circles in Hell. Obey its Rule. . • • • • • • Thus I set sail In one hght ship. Thy Will is free now. with that small Faithful to me for ever. After ten thousand dangers. modem reader. the trees.' " ' (Inf. No farther ' ' ! ' now we have reached the West Brothers." The gulf of difference of Purification could be called an " " a Monastery of Man's Will the : ! Look up and see the sun that shines upon thee. But to serve thought and follow after valour. sane. . the glad wild-flowers Henceforth thy own desire be thy guide. Here. not even to comfort his aged father his son. Strange ! hkeness to Rabelais. Ulysses where the old Wanderer tells the poet that he could not rest at home and Penelope and " after his retinrn. I make thee here Over thyself Crowned King and Mitred Priest.110 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND his become bounden duty the to follow his own desires. not bom to Hve like brutes.) Yet Ulysses indeed. Behold. imprisoned for ever in a tossing spire of flame. can understand his moral sc£de.

his own human unbaptized however innocent. coming himself to aid in the torture and justifying his aid. is A man bom in India. after he had promised the unhappy wretch that he would touch his eyes with a human hand to melt the frozen tears and let him weep once more. and there's To speak to him of Christ. however noble. It is impossible to reconcile that spirit with the exalted rapture that closes the Paradiso when looks into the Light of God and sees within its depths Dante . It is impossible to forgive the spirit that made Dante break his word to the damned soul in the desolate circle of ice. But he dies unbaptized. nay. And all his acts and thoughts are good and true. and honourable government killing all hope of the unified desired by Dante beyond all things earthly. no Where is Was it his fault the Justice that can damn his soul ? he could not learn the Faith " ? Yet Dante bows submissively to the Angel who tells him it must be. the man whose verses drop tears of blood for the tearless agony of Ugolino.DANTE 111 condemned for that spirit of lawless and treacherous intrigue which was the curse of ancient Greece and mediaeval Italy. even earthly knowledge. His own protest in the Heavenly Sphere of Justice is so heartfelt and so moving that we are tempted to ask why it did not shatter the merciless doctrine outright " : find the poet treading " " down none book to teach him. only increases the pitiless effect of the general conclusion. But we are revolted when we pity for those heathen who. So far as Human Reason guides him. must be damned That Dante allows one or two specified exceptions eternally. and the submission checked the sweep of the poet's thought and stifled his tenderness until we find the man whose compassion had made him fall fainting that so " as a dead body falls " at the doom of Paolo and Francesca. pure In word and deed.

the better half. he rejected passionately of civil government. all deeds. But none the less. in such way — That what I saw was one unbroken light. bound to use the sword in defence of civil justice. in Dante's view this civil government that was to embrace all Christendom under the over-arching rule of the Emperor was. she was not to touch the indeed. the sphere of the Natural Man. 8. All things. scattered through the universe. 15). only the work of the Natural Reason and only made up one-half of what man needed. after all. lay in the search for the Beatific Vision." The truth seems to be that Dante felt he could not give up the doctrine of Hell without giving up both the inspiration of the Bible and the inspiration of the Church.112 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND " Deep down." Bk. III. chaps. but like many such it pays the price of coherence it.. security of his whole system. and both to him were vital. bound up by Love All that is into one whole. 9. unable to suffer interference with this God-ordained work. by cutting out all that does not agree with . The other. all natures. A breach there would have been fatal to the : Excessive claims of the Church. It is a coherent scheme and a stu- pendous one. and of the gate to that diviner world the Church held the keys (" De Monarchia. sphere guided by the dictates of Natural Reason.

and there are that his sunny kindness. Certainly it may be said that the nation which produced Chaucer gave the better promise of unity and peace on earth. a kindness never separated from shrewd insight. and some of them very bad. he is infinitely WIDELY moment tolerant." with their rich fellowship of diverse characters.' And this liberal sense of unity springs from Chaucer's own creative joy in all his different types. from the " to "the broad-speaking gap-toothed mincing lady Prioress parish priest » " " Preface to Ward's "Poets. a poet. from the devoted single-minded It is sufficient to : ' and the to the verray parfit gentil knight " scurrilous miller and the shameless pardnour. but it is larger. a fact he recognized himself. His unity is looser than Dante's. is of Chaucer's very essence. He does not obscure the values good is still good and bad bad. is more to us than all the austere glories of the Italian. bad or good.CHAPTER XVII CHAUCER AND HIS FOREIGN TEACHERS different was the spirit of Chaucer half a Far inferior as century later {circa 1 340-1400). must feel with " Matthew Arnold The right comment on it is Dryden's : : say according to the proverb that here is " ^ God's plenty. and not for a to be compared with Dante as a thinker." 113 8 . Every one who dehghts in the prologue to the " Canterbury Tales. but he makes us feel the human worth in them all. where Dante feel times when we is hardly tolerant at all. The humorous good-nature. this that has been the safeguard of English politics. the sense that it takes all sorts to make a world.

need not dream of marrying his mistress indeed. have had my world as in my tyme " ! '^ There is some satisfaction in remembering that Dante never had a chance to put the impenitent old woman into Hell." original. and yet the secret itself is not shameful. wife of Bath. always been) . It did not believe that passion could live in wedlock. as the French" " Thomas forgives Isolde her cruelty and speaking poet of the lover to his mistress. Yet it was a devout age with all its crimes. So it was ready it had just discovered the poetry of passion. to forgive everything to a grande amoureuse. The vowels are to be pronounced much as in French.114 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND is. as he is of licentious grace and abrim with the zest prodigal The code was of living. he had . have as Chaucer and for Boccaccio For Boccaccio. The lover loyalties the compromise is apt to be ludicrous. along with its Filostrato. The long poem of Troilus " is of extreme interest. better not if he wishes to keep desire at full flood. " Nor Chaucer's Cressida either. Boccaccio's poem of code of love. ." Coarse old profligate though the wife cannot help exulting in her cheery cry : we " But. for his lady will be shamed if the truth is known. " on the chivalric damned without hope by Dante. they have an ensnaring charm. indeed. it had a fineness of its it own in the loyal service by the doublefaced attitude towards marriage. and. lord Crist. curiously inconsistent (as in fact most codes of love have their worth for among the forces of human life. 1 469 The Prologue to the Wife of Bath's Tale. lusty and poetic as it was. but he must at all costs preserve the secret. It tikehth when that it remembereth me Upon my youthe and on my jolite me aboute myn herte-root ! Unto That this I day it doth my herte good. and could not refuse an inner homage to the sacrament of single marriage Between these two blessed by the Church as inviolable." ff. The very errors of that code. "Canterbury Tales. not only for its own and Criseyde charm but because of the light it throws. but was vitiated treachery because of her consuming love for Tristan.

so she yields to Diomede And yet against her vow of fidelity and her love of Troilus. Fraunces Petrark. of first telling the tale with his unrivalled clarity and skill. of poetrye. and he has given us in Criseyde exactly the charming. humanist. Petrarch has given it a high dignity. in such a way that we cannot be stern with her not. The same free handling of a much-admired foreign model appears in Chaucer's rendering of Patient Griselda's storj^ known to him. unstable creature. the laureat poete." "whose rhetoryke swete enlumined al Itaille have left their mark on the subject. delicious and frail. the gay gallant Pandarus. and drawing the first strong lines of the characters. It is scarcely " No " in earnest to any ardent lover. remorse and lightness. not in its original (and most brilliant) form in Boccaccio's prose Decameron (which he does not appear to have read). sure to be nurtured by such a code. as Chaucer gladly acknowledged. " " and publicist. never deceived. if they are to come up to the required standard. as Chaucer tells the story. and both the lovers lie. possible for her to say and just as. observed the good and bad of it all \vith searching s^mipathy. she recalls Homer's Helen.CHAUCER AND HIS FOREIGN TEACHERS 115 but a grace and glory of delight. To Boccaccio belongs the honour. however indulgent. and openly admits to herself that she prefers a lover to a husband. The direct result was to encourage weakness in woman and duplicity everywhere. though without Helen's matchless dignity." All three \\Titers husband : . by his sense of the power to endure that it implies in human nature but Chaucer himself does most to win our hearts by his frank outburst of indignation at the monstrous tyranny of the . Boccaccio's Griselda never feels compunction. but as told to him in Padua by Boccaccio's friend . the gentle lover. He has softened and subtilized his heroine until in her mixture of tenderness and deceit. that is. In nine cases out of ten she must jield. encouraged by her youthful uncle. she yields to Troilus in secret against her vow of chastity and her love of fair fame. Chaucer." the worthy clerk. and sometime mentor Petrarch. as in the Cressida story.

was then lagging far behind French and Italian. who themselves had learnt from and then outdone the French. English literature. except perhaps by Marlowe.116 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND " (1. In the sheer craft of words and rhythm he owed most perhaps to his French models." we refreshed by his robust refusal for the to take of Griselda's lamb-Hke submission as a model women own country." the rhyming line of five accents in lovely " " which the are written and which has Canterbury Tales been used so often since by our poets. . been used. and Chaucer had the wit to lay France and Italy under contribution wherever he could. we may add. But it has never. with the mingled softness. yet discreet and independent. Chaucer offers indeed a classic instance of how a poet can be formed by the loving. and with such varied effects. perhaps owing to the disturbance of the Norman Conquest and the intrusion of Norman-French. lightness. study of foreign models. 620) O needles was she tempted in assay ! But wedded men ne knowe no mesure Whan Likewise are his that they finde a pacient creature. including even the " heroic couplet. Certainly he studied them first and his metres are taken from theirs. and it is obvious that he must have profited greatly from the liquid delicacy and golden depth of his Italian masters. and strength given to it by Chaucer.

as in the opening of the Roman de la Rose. Chemisette avait de Un. Chauccs eut de jaglolai. following on her success in epic.winged flight : greater Voulez-vous que je vous chant Un chant d'amour avenant ? Vilains nel fift mie. Boccaccio ? We cannot read their interminable couplets without effort. Entr' les bras sa mie. although France led the way in developing the romantic forms of verse and the Ij-tIc. yet she never reached the heights to which some of her INDEED. Their greatest charm lies perhaps in a certain flowery fancy. The characterdrawing is slight. Et blanc pcHsson d'ermin. scholars attained. Ains le fit un chevalier Sous I'ombre d'un olivier. 117 . as for example in " slighter lyrics show this short. AND THE BEGINNINGS OF PROSE as Matthew Arnold was the first to emphasize. and their moralizing. has lost the freshness it once had.CHAPTER XVIII FRANCE. Chaucer. Ceinturette avait de feuil Qui verdit quand le temps mueil. Yet the charm. Et bUaut de soie. though often acute. THE TROUBADOURS. Et solers de fleur de mai. Where do the long-winded troubadours stand now compared with Dante. Estroitement chaucade.

Du plus haut parage. sella ert dorade. Belle. Pleust a Deii nostre pere Que vous me fussiez ' 1 donnee A fame esposade " " Will you hear a song of love. . Something like a bird-woman is doubtless still Ma . : Underneath an Clasping his olive-tree. m^re etait hirondelle. Loyal love and true of heart ? Churl could never make it Made by true knight on a day." : and its English rendering. Li pendant furent de flour Par amour fut donade.^ Qui chante en la mer salee El plus haut rivage. 1 Cf the ." meaning intended. ? Li rossignox est mon p6re Qui chante sur la ramee El plus haut boscage. : Biau ' ' I'ont saluade : dont estes vous nee De France sui la loee.118 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND D'or ert boutonade. Roman de " la Rose. translated by mermayden. own lady. bon fussiez vous n6e estes emparentee : Et de haut parage. L'ansmoniSre etait d'amour. Si s'en vat aval la pree Chevaliers I'ont encontree. La sereine ele est ma mere. An echo of the delicious verse survives in the refrain in France " Mon pfere etait rossignol. where sereine is The word is also influenced by serin. popular fringilla serina. Et chevauchoit une mule : D 'argent La ert la ferreure.' ' Bin Belle. ' Sur la croupe par derriers Avait plante trois rosiers Pour faire li ombrage.

Shoes of pearly hawthorn-buds. whence come ye ? has honoured me. Gift of loving-kindness. France.marshes. . were silver-shod. and suggests later delightful affinities with Italian .' she said. . And his harness gilded. Girdle of the freshest leaves Gathered when the woods were green Clasp of it was golden Hanging purse of lasses'-love Hung by flowery chains above. High in chivalrye.' High your birth. Down ' she rode along the mead : : Noble knights have met the maid. — ' ' ' My father is the nightingale. Lou ted low and asked her Fairest lady. Fashioned straight and slender . Close behind her on the croup She had planted roses three. And my mother is the bird WTiose enchantress-voice is heard By the salt sea. Made her saddle shady. 119 Surcoat soft and silken Buskins bright with cloth-o'-gold. . On an ambling mule All his hoofs she rode . Cloak of ermine snowy-white. " My own wedded lady : ' ! That little song by an unknown author of the thirteenth century breathes the fanciful grace of the Provencal Courts of Love. O lovely maid Noble parents have you had. Singing on the topmost bough In the copse at evening. ' ! High in chivalrye Would to God our Lord that He Gave you of His grace to me.FRANCE AND THE TROUBADOURS Shift she wore of linen Hght.

and therein set up a piquant model for all Europe. choose her language in preference to his own.120 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND with Marlowe's " fantasies such as Botticelli's " still." " offered A belt of straw With coral clasps It makes us comprehend how France captivated the poets of other countries by her melodies. its crisp chiming the witty brilliance won shrewd observation of men and animals. with its pictures of " " and blind old Dandolo leading a-flower with ships the sea his Venetians to the sack of Constantinople. jewels of pure poetry such as this were rare in France and somewhat lacking in weight." and later Shepherd Song. but France first of modern nations gave them a polished form. It is curious to note. or. moreover. fables are instinctive in most peoples. Dante's master. Through Joinville's eyes we can see Louis under the oak-tree at Vincennes in the summer- . Louis IX." where the maiden is and ivy -buds and amber studs. Already she was showing that her real strength was to lie in prose. also. The peculiar by combination of fancy with dry. Yet. after all. and how Brunetto Latini. to Dante's indignation. could. not to awaken magical echoes in the heart but to point a neat moral. how early is foreshadowed her acknowledged superiority in historical memoirs. that true saint and noble king. it is a delight to read as literature the account given by Villehardouin (1130-1213) of the splendid and sordid Fourth Crusade." justly celebrated. as Animal befits the land that was to produce La Fontaine. caustic humour that marks or to heighten with the typical fable is eminently characteristic of France. Masque of Spring. Where verse is used at any length it is apt to be most telling when used as in the fabliaux. Joinville's still finer story of his master. Already by the close of the twelfth century the romance most enchanting to us nowadays only appearing as interludes —known is the prose idyll ^verses " as Aucassin and — Nicolette. for the direct and startling picture of peasant suffering that breaks through its amorous blossoms. Quite apart from their high value as history. a century later.

I would stay where I was to help and protect . but of equal interest the pendant where he shows with characteristic freedom of speech the harm the Crusaders did by risking disorder at home. if I wished to please God. But I answered that while I had been in God's service oversea their owm Serjeants had plundered and ruined my people. justice. and the desire of the clergy to unify all things under themselves. is Joinville's account of Louis' knightliness as a Crusader. his councillors on the grass beside him. always read3^ to give a helping hand to settle the troubles of his people. giving in easy colloquial form the gist of many a vital struggle between the rising forces of national unity under the king. Louis and the King of Navarre both urged him to take the " cross a second time.' " " year. and pleaded to such effect that in the end the Pope for condemned the submit in the clergy. first Now I if I had forced the Count to and against him. : ' : seven years against the prelates in his Brittany pleaded although he was under excommunication all the province. time. " I never heard that the demand was repeated (c. On § 64). And so I told them that. should have sinned against " God and that the bishops gave way.FRANCE AND EARLY PROSE 121 time. any whose cause was pleaded amiss." writes Joinville. St. and firmness of the king could not be better given. wherever it was proved to him that they were really in the wrong. with "his cloak of black taffeta and his to would gladly do so. or coming into his garden at Paris. The perfect courtesy." who had determined to insist on his enforcing their decrees of excommunication by confiscating the goods " To which the king answered that he of the recalcitrant. The passage is a model of light terseness. 13. Deservedly famous. he himself hearing case after case. But the bishop said that the clergy could not possibly consent to defend their decisions before him as though he were their judge. " aU the prelates of or giving audience in his palace to France." peacock-feathered cap. The king said in that case he could not act it would be sinning against God and against reason if he forced men to submit when the clergy were doing I will give you an instance the Count of them injustice. again.

when French prose was at these first fine beginnings. bidding his sons go indoors with him. And together with honour. not by the comments of the narrator. . fey " ^ burnt indoors along with him. the old man without fear or failing. He gives the order for the burning. and probably were con- to Professor Ker points out that. Throughout that so tent far many miss.' said Helgi. but the high sense of honour that is the most attractive part of chivalry never received more poignant expression than in their writing. Dramas they never wrote. " Let us do. overcomes the noble-mindedness in the leader of the band. away in the North the Icelanders had already developed a prose literature. But let us follow the example of their sagamen and as far as possible allow them to speak for themselves. in a style that has never been surpassed for strength and power to thrill. never believing that the men against them will sink so far beneath the code of honour as to burn them house and all. as our father wills that will be ' ' . for now " but still I may as well humour my father by . 144. 735). humour and tenderness come shining through the fierceness of their tales.' being The passion of strife It falls out as Skarphedinn foresaw. he not so sure of that.' says Skarphedinn. curiously enough.' " ' am ' " is 1 " Saga of Burnt Njal. but their work has dramatic elements in the nervous intensity with which the situations are realized and the characters left to disclose their secrets by what they do and say themselves. tales of warriors as they are. their virile sagas and histories. 127. based upon Dasent's. Joinville gives us the direct sense of reahty of the romances miss.122 the § THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND men and women who were given into my charge " (c. wise and gentle beyond his fellows. The Icelanders lived far away from feudalism and the customs of chivalry. Here are two passages from the central situation of the Njala. But he knows quite well I best for us. Tr. where the sons of Njal have the house burnt over their heads by their foes. At the approach of the assailants he makes his one mistake in counsel. and with them perishes their father." c.

' . ' ' . Now you must see where we lie down. and little fitted to avenge ' my sons. and he can is When the house ' ' old " man. master Njal. for I mean not to stir an inch from hence. and I will not live in shame. Our father goes early to bed. that we would both share the same fate. that we should never part so and I would far rather die long as I wished to be with you with you and Njal than live after you.' " Then she carried the boy to their bed. We will go to our bed.' " Then she said to the take out . and gave over their souls into God's hand. and he did so. . you shall not boy Thord. whether the reek or the flames smart me. both of them in their bed.' said Njal. Kari's son. . I will oi^er you. and they put the boy between them. Do you come out. and that to be looked for. burn indoors. " Flosi went to the door and called ablaze.' says the boy. and he is said. There had been an ox slaughtered and the hide lay there.' for I am an is a monstrous deed. Now Njal does so and Flosi said. for it is unworthy that you should ' I will not go out. and I have promised Then ' ' him " this. " Then the great beams out of the roof began to and .' said Njal.' Flosi said to Bergthora. " So there they lay down. for I will for no sake burn you indoors. You I will burn in here. . houseI was given wife. and that was the last word that men heard ' them " ' utter. Skarphedinn saw how his father laid him down. leave to go out. What counsel shall we now take ? said Bergthora. ' grandmother. Njal told the steward to spread the hide over them. and so you will be able to guess where to look for our bones. . for he is an old man. what was fall . Then they signed themselves and the boy with the cross.' away to Njal young. and lay us down I have long been ' ' ' ' : eager for rest.FRANCE AND EARLY PROSE that it 123 still honour Njal.' After that they both went back into the house. and Njal spoke to his steward and said.' said Bergthora.' You promised me. out to Njal and said he would speak with him and Bergthora.' " The steward said he would do so.

in richly adorned " The twelfth-century romance of Tristan and Isolde. and only through the sacrifice of death working or free. it is Meanwhile of the romances. Wales. compounded of good and evil." prose. Now must my father be"dead.' The Icelanders.124 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND ' Skarphedinn said. for example. and in We find copies of it. as later. important not to undervalue the influence whether in verse or. And English. " " by law shall our imaginative life. faithful this form it captivated Europe. and building up deliberately an ordered commonwealth Iceland lost her freedom through her factionfights and after the thirteenth century we have no more — By law. many more. and I have neither heard groan nor cough from him. lessness wasted and spoiled. as well as in later English and French. part of the Arthurian cycle to which we have already referred. appears to have taken its first compact form in the French tongue and under French inspiration. warring against other loyalties. to when indeed it has inspired many. with all its modern complexity. Italian." But Iceland and France between them foreshadow how great a part the prose of realism was to play in Europe's memorable works. a strong literature and law. is but one more variation on the old theme of that dominating. devouring passion. perhaps of Welsh finally it is to the English Malory missed. Wagner's opera. commonwealth be built up and by lawIt was the waster that won. in itself free at last. German. extraction — —writing after an interval of three centuries. The internationalism of the romances is a point not to be " " The texture of Tristan and Isolde shows threads that are traceable some to Brittany and the Norman Coast. never fulfilled their magnificent promise and their work was little known in Europe at large till and might be a model liberty the nineteenth century. that . some to the Celts of Cornwall. it is true. again. In the case of Ice- land. Czech. And the charm has lasted to our own day. Iceland that —men shows itself closely linked to had been a home for freedom " travelling West to escape being the king's thralls " under Harold Fairhair." the far-seeing Njal had said. and Ireland.

and to thy kingdom turn again and keep for as well as I have well thy realm from war and wrake loved thee. story 1 We in this outline of Romantic Quoted by A. and I command thee on God's behalf that sake my company. guided by the most delicate taste. for an admirable account of the work. and the like. Malory. gentleness. worked freely on the ancient material. sense and sense of humour. but always lovable. Sir Launcelot.FRANCE AND EARLY PROSE 125 the modern reader will look for what is intrinsically most valuable in the whole cycle of the Round Table stories. mine heart will not serve me to see thee. Lancelot and Guenever. and noble and renowned acts of humanity. after the Queen has become a nun " " taken her to perfection. of Malory's solidity. for all the love that I require ever was betwixt us. Caxton." At the sorrowful close. and enriched." g." and Therefore. Morte d' Arthur until. and ^ chivalry. is dissolved in treachery heights. . sentimentality too often taking the place only . and in his French book he has selected. have overrun our dates and must return. the the problematic " " " " " reader finds before him many joyous and pleasant histories. Lit. Malory rises to great romance have more pathetic dignity than the farewell of the once guilty. for . of Eng. polished.. of honour. when the fair fellowship of the Table Few scenes in and bloodshed. through thee and me is the flower of kings and knights destroyed. to quote the stately words of his printer.v." It is not surprising that Tennyson felt the impulse to recast but the attempt was this splendid stuff in modern poetry half successful. that thou never see me more in the thou forvisage. Lang in "Hist. thee and beseech thee heartily.

whom he much resembles. wondering. sincerely and sympathetically. {" There was never war in this world nor wickedness so fierce that Love. In the remarkable allegory where the visionary seeks after Piers Plowman.CHAPTER XIX THE PROTEST OF THE PEASANTS with Chaucer was William Langland 1362-1400). And pees. and Peace. we can discern Long Will himself struggling with the real. could not turn it to laughter. : Was never e werre in this Ne wikkednesse so kene That ne worlde love.") 126 ." (Passus xviii. To laughynge ne broughte. how to ensue peace and Like Bunyan. an him liste. how to reform the abuses of the over-wealthy clergy and the lazy friars without destroying the unity of the Church. fighting as Christ had " " for mannes soules sake unslaked. how to relieve poverty among a reincarnation as rebuild His Church the labourers without encouraging idleness. that second Peter. (or Langley) [circa CONTEMPORARY it were of the Saviour's Spirit. AUe perilles stopped. coming to and teach men how work and prayer should fitly go together.). through Patience. fin. of the seer to the power still fought. a writer far more insular and far less poetic but still a true poet and one always noteworthy for the light he throws on the time. clinging in the confidence ensure justice. make an end of all perils. heavy problems round him. thorw pacience. His thirst " of the spirit. the ideal man of labour and love. Langland calls them to labour and bear with one another. calling unceasingly on men to repent. if he chose.

Into the complicated questions about the full authorship of the poem whether more than one man had a hand in the work we cannot enter here. fiercer.THE PROTEST OF THE PEASANTS ness before there 127 But there was to be enough and to spare of war and wickedwas any sign of peace or patience. — . among them.^ peasants is — The movement has a thought. simplicity." The Peasants' Revolt (1381) and the problem of the the . backed by force. such an eager plea for humbleness. the moral advice was wasted on Lancastrian England. Wycliffe. the burning of Lollards — . . and we see in John Ball's letter that Piers Plowman had become a catchword : . ." was a popular mythological figure before the poem was written. however. The rising was not the least among the movements making for freedom in a century marked by Chaucer. p. And if through the serious ' Kenneth Sisam in an excellent little book. the attempt . the murders the dull prolix stuff that did duty for poetry and literature. . cit. that " Piers Plowman. definite definite place in the development of Here. bloodier. and more ineffectual. " Fourteenth Century " Prose and Verse " (Oxford University Press). Both France and England were thrown back in their development by class war and by national war. Parallel with it came the Jacquerie in France. accompanying all this. we have the emergence of the demand. and. writes " Andrew Lang (op. Their indolence and supposed improvidence are exposed as unsparingly as the vices of the rich. from ideahzing the labourers. ' ' It is possible. though he is far. and honest labour could not fail to encourage the political hopes of the poor. — uppermost in Langland's mind forms a wellknown landmark in the history of England. io8). that the humblest manual worker should be counted as a free man and have his right recognized to a living wage. practically for the first time. Still. which rushed into the madness of the fifteenth century the burning of Joan to conquer France as vain as unjust of Arc the twenty years of defeat and disgrace which followed and avenged that crime the fury of the Wars of the Roses. Of Piers Plowman's poet. It may have occurred while Langland was actually WTiting and possibly been inspired by something of his own ideal. writes It must not be that Layland idealized the labourers. butcheries." — — . as it has been pointed out. and the Lollards.

What have we deserved. Adam and Eve." The Rising in England. " " than forced Wage-labour was found to be more paying labour. and that the lords be no greater masters than we be. to know how a modem poet and reformer could sympathize with the Dream of John Ball and his plea for enlarging the bounds of liberty Ah. the matter goeth not well to pass in England nor shall not do till everything be common and that there be no villains nor gentlemen. that the change from serfdom to the wageearning status had been going on for a good century before the Rising in the informal English fashion. though beaten down. We must remember. lover of lords and ladies and all the pomp of chivalry. came at one time near success. It was the English translation into hard cash of the deep moral summed A man loses half his manhood up in the Homeric adage.128 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND eyes of Langland we perceive something of the discontent fermenting in England. or why should we be thus kept in serfage ? We be all come from one father and one mother. Landlords were glad to let their villeins buy themselves off if they could hire free labourers instead. but that we may be all unied together. we should remember the picture of " peasant suffering two centuries earlier that met us in Aucassin et Nicolette. saving that they cause us to win and labour for that they dispend ? They are clothed in velvet and camlet furred with grise. and in any case it foreshadows the end in England of the worst features in feudalism. and the idea of a fairer distribution of wealth was only the hope of a few.worker to his lord. citizen of France and friend of England. and we be vestured with " and unity : . It " would startle Froissart the brilliant and aristo- cratic chronicler. quite unsystematic. when he falls into slavery." But the process was wofuUy tedious and incomplete. ye good people. never" " free theless. and quite as much with an eye to profit as to principle. the slavery of the lowest land. whereby can they say or shew that they be greater lords than we. a hope to which the conscience of the modern world answers far more readily. however much its practice lags behind.

" actually conceded. or enclose for their own use the ancient common land.) their estates. the immediate The landresult was increased hostility between the classes. the chance came the promises were flung to the winds and the rebellion ruthlessly crushed." and sheep needed began to evict less care than men. writes Trevelyan. The gist of them. a text for William Morris's And as readily as Morris will modem historian sympathize with the demands. wherever they could to advantage. but neither concession was ever seriously meant." would have done much for a truly independent peasantry such as has never been known These demands the King in his alarm in rural England. there were new methods of exploiting the land without it. labour made itself scarce and dear." (Vol. turn the plough-land into pasture." . the process of manumission was resumed under the Tudors every man was free. c." " and the commutation of all servile dues for a rent of four" the creation of pence an acre. that the men put forward. and without we do Lord most The passage has been the poetic and moving romance. and we have the pain and travail. together with a free pardon to all the When rebels. The great landowners their tenants. I. For this no doubt there was a certain amount of economic justification. and to the world at large. » 9 ^ "The Age of Wyclifie. and of the chaff and drink water they : dwell in fair houses. and generally.i "complete abolition of serfage.THE PROTEST OF THE PEASANTS poor cloth : 129 we have the drawing out . Berner's tr. rain and wind in the fields and by that that cometh of our labours they keep and maintain readily their service. anything but extravagant. spices and good bread. we be beaten. they have their wines. often without the semblance of law. There was an ample market for wool on the Continent among the weavers until " of And although Yprcs and of Ghent. 381. In itself the wool trade between England and Flanders was profitable to both To ensure its safety was parties. If the old lords found fresh ways to keep the upper hand.

unregarded. poor alone. a father of free criticism and a leader in the translation of the Bible. The solitary excuse for Henry V's monstrous renewal of the war with France lay in his desire to the It failed divert his nobles from their intestine feuds. There seemed no voices left to respond to the appeal of Wycliffe. . by found that he needed all his prudence to escape active perseNor were the nobles content to tyrannize over the cution. loved order but hated oppression. who. that war went far beyond all reason and justice. like Langland.130 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND the one justification for resuming the campaign against France that Edward III had begun and that developed into the But just as disastrous Hundred Years' War (1337-1453). and Wycliffe himself. and was rereligious intolerance. His plea for human charity and ecclesiastical poverty went great nobles despoil the labourers beyond inforced The fear of sedition reinforced. . Wars of the Roses followed Agincourt. They struggled to tyrannize over each other and over the monarchy. so did the all right that could be pleaded on economic grounds.

CHAPTER XX THE HUNDRED YEARS' WAR AND FOR FRANCE effect ITS RESULTS the struggles of her leading nobles against the Crown. in the ways of common men. by the Black Death. the maid The high beauty of her character. into the desire to dominate others. her (1422). her inspired leadership in the field. to save killing anyone. statesman131 ship without deceit. Jeanne d'Arc. of Orleans. . valiant. " She loved her banner better. in debate. France. or even the weaker but no less unscrupuEven his death did not help lous attacks of his following. the Jacquerie. but with her the struggle for freedom and unity never degenerated. She showed no hatred for the English when she bade them return to their own country. struggles France as selfish as our own but much more formidable seemed to have no vigour left to counter the brilliant general- THE on France was almost as grievous. forty times better. It was I myself who bore it when I attacked the enemy. and — ship of King Harry. the beloved of ages." than her " sword." Jeanne remains for all time an example of what cynics call impossible : generalship without ruthlessncss. compassionate. true-hearted. as so often with lesser natures. Not only did she set her country free and awaken the spirit of national unity. weakened by the ravages of the war under already Edward HI. the saviour of France. make themselves of her deeds felt even now in the contemporary chronicle and words. for I have never killed anyone. Then appears in the general desolation she whose bare history outdoes all romance. her devotion. her sweet humanity.

after the blow of Poitiers (1356). Nobles. Etienne Marcel." writes Michelet. so early as 1302 by Philip the Fair (Philip IV). continued its made all was no The body called the Parliament of Paris. and Commons. du sang qu'elle a donnee pour nous. the States-General. although it had the right of the royal edicts. work but. had proposed a scheme that would have made them really such. . would grow into a really representative Parliament. de sa tendresse et de ses larmes. Priests. indeed. standing for the three orders. and an army in which all the captains were to be nominated by himself. This ordonnance de la gendarmerie allowed the king to levy a tax on land and property for the creation of a standing army. chez nous. est nee du cceur d'une femme. Nor were these sacrifices And excesses of the Jacquerie terrified sober citizens and popular movements suspect." disbanded the outrages of the roving mercenaries of all nations whose one object was plunder. the horrors of the Jacquerie. Thus the French people surrendered both the power of the sword and the power of the purse for balanced by any increase in yet one might have hoped that popular representation. Indeed. and for years there further attempt. perhaps because the the sake of peace. the foundations of the royal despotism. . Frangais. itself prompted by the fear of war and " Free Companies. it was rather a royal Court of registering Justice than any vehicle for popular political feeling." But the woman was martyred and the man who carried on the work of unification was Louis XI (1461-1483). had made the people only too ready to acquiesce in order even at the price of liberty. No attempt was made to reverse the momentous decision " already taken in 1439. the tools In the work he of whose ability were force and fraud. Provost of the Merchants. the incessant quarrels with the nobles. for the control of taxation was to be theirs. For strengthened the sufferings of the war. and inaugurated. que la patrie. as we have seen. But Marcel failed. making himself master of Paris.132 " THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Souvenons-nous toujours.

P. there too Art was at her best. Trevelyan (c. and where it came nearest success. and the despots. though the despots also loved the arts and tried to foster them. and seldom even allayed by the — ^ " A Short History of the ItaHan People. Everywhere in the end the popular parties were beaten. and even in certain cases showed that despotism itself by securing order could prove — — better for culture than sheer blood-stained anarchy." 133 by J. the oligarchs. and in the cities themselves for the conflict between the popular leaders. in Northern Italy generally and pre-eminently in Florence. The field was left clear in Italy for the struggles between city and city." ^ Nor years could any Pope be a symbol of national unity during the " " of the Papacy through the greater Babylonish Captivity of the fourteenth century at Avignon under the influence part of the French kings. Italy was left without any central government at all. Siena. followed by the inevitable setting-up of WHILE an anti-Pope.) . and almost everywhere ^Venice was a notable exception the despots won. xi. It was the fever of faction that lost Italy her chance of ordered freedom a fever never at rest. But the struggle for liberty was long and hard. and Venice. no Emperor descended on the Italian plain.CHAPTER XXI ITALIAN CITIES AND ITALY'S LEADERSHIP IN ART France was tending to centralization under a despot. After the crushing of Frederick IPs " for sixty dynasty at the end of the thirteenth century.

But the nobles only made castles of their city palaces. as one that could not be improved upon at the present day. we can form some faint idea of the flaming background for the Its vividness at Italian Art of the trecento and quattrocento. least will cease to surprise us. to quote her latest historian. we recall the insolent. tr.' writes Marsiglio. under pain of punishment" ("Defensor Pacis. I understand the whole body of the citizens. but never understood perhaps us never can be ^the penetrating. obviously connected . quarrels in which Marsiglio himself bore a prominent part. the them. and to this day there is a notable healing gifts of grimness in the fortress. many of them unknown. " " " By the Legislator. How real the desire for civic freedom could be the student may learn not only from. that some special thing in the sphere of civil action must be done or avoided. an outstanding example of what has often been seen.walls of their towering dwelling-houses at Florence. c. The splendour and exuberance are. with such words in mind. if we remember the unceasing quarrels between the temporal and spiritual powers. To Marsiglio. Marsiglio of Padua." Part I. nurtured on Aristotle. declaring by their own will and choice. as ours is the Age of Science. they would force the nobles to leave their castles and enter the cities to be under the eye of the people. Perugia." but also from the writings of Dante's contemporary. uttered in a general assembly. When the popular parties were at their highest power. when the " bade fair to become a city. Bologna. the very source of law springs from the " " the legislator Creighton quotes his definition of people. however.. powerful faces of typical ItaHan despots. or the majority of people. even though we cannot hope to lay bare all the causes of its splendour and exuberance. it is not merely the pre-eminent height of individual genius it is the crowding multithat amazes us in Northern Italy tude of true artists.134 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND common sense and compromise. xii. true republic of craftsmen. say. based ' on Creighton's). transforming power of by — — . If. It was the Age : of Art. the surprisingly democratic ordinances of the Florentines in the days of Dante.

One Giotto of the first great names in Florentine painting after is that of the monk. Though it uses imitation. because personal and self- It grows through the reliant activity is the very life of it. showing a largeness of design that does away with any over-sweet or over-childish sentiment. over. opening vistas inaccessible to the solitary all the while making his own flame burn the The artist of original force. Most " " Annunciation painted impressive of all perhaps is the httle for an inner cell.ITALIAN CITIES AND ITALIAN ART 135 co-operation in a common task. it is not to be confused with mere copying. but never did the power work with greater amplitude and opulence than in this Italy of the centuries between Dante and Michael Angelo. and a strong lead in the search for a truth desired by many. where the Angel and the Woman are linked in a wordless intimacy of union. as for example in the lunette of St. and when working freely in art or science. as in poUtics or in rehgion. and the infection of a sacred fire seems to run from mind to mind. And the fact may bring us comfort when we moiun over the political feuds. it hfts the individual above himself. with his finger on his suffering lips. the bulk of the painting at the outset was religious and could appeal to the sense of a common faith. The free Morespirit of beauty could make light of party barriers. and some of his finest work lights up the corridors and cells in the Dominican Convent of San Marco. too deeply charged with its . Given these. or on the Elizabethan stage. develops his own genius just because he can learn from his compeers. of science. enduring all things to the " " Annunciation where the exquisite death. That power goes down to the roots of human nature. interplay of personality. like the genuine man brighter. or in the large outlines of the vernal woods and the broad spaces of the open loggia enhance the impression of the clear intent look in the eyes of the girl absorbed in her effort to comprehend the words of the wide-winged messenger from the skies. and cannot begin to work effectively without strong personalities to work on. Martyr. Peter. So it was in the Athens of Pericles or in the schools of the Prophets at Jerusalem. Fra Angelico (1387-1455). and abysses. lighting up worker.

and so appealing in their own way. and during its course they exhibit the veins of finer stuff that run athwart the grosser elements in their national character. young painters at the close of the century.136 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND solemn and precious burden for gesture or excitement. Van Dyck. It is interesting to compare him with two of his contemporaries in a foreign land. the most remarkable. after Italy. 1302). that culminate in the pathetic splendours of the life. show a singular and admirable balance of the mystical and the mundane. was not cloistered in the study of his craft." but also his interest in the new science of perspective and the new research for natural form. religion. France. and no treatment of it has ever surpassed his. as elsewhere. but their pictures at period." to quote his brother's affectionate and extrava- Dutch Rembrandt. the Flemish brothers. Their painters initiate a series that continues (with many changes) this down to Rubens. though he painted most for the A keen cloister. Hubert and Jan van Eyck. modern critic^ has pointed out not only " the gaiety and purity of his delight in nature. . so different from the rhythmical forms of Italian painting. But the Angelical Brother. Of all themes the Annunciation was best suited to Angelico's virginal insight. and Watteau. interpreter. as good a painter as Lamb. and at this period the Flemings are." begun by ever lived. in The Adoration of the Mystic " the elder Hubert. and even Germany (not England) could all boast artists of recognized merit. and glorifier of ordinary " the other hand. The headship of Italy in painting was un- challenged. Jan Ruysbroeck (1293-1381) is to be classed among the great mystics of the world. The picture in our London National Gallery of a man reasoning with his wife in the warm and ordered comfort of their own bedchamber marks the beginning of that long series of homely scenes. are in the main devoted to At the opening of the fourteenth century the Flemings had already shown their vigour and independence in matters political (Battle of Courtrai. but Flanders. The brothers Van Eyck. On 1 Roger Fry.

Donatello . we feel the The mystery of the Chrisspirit of the Church at her best. the emergence of mundane themes for art goes on steadily. surrounded by adoring seraphs and virgins. to take weightier examples. The white altar. that his gift of monumental design will lift the whole thing into sculptural beauty. The primacy was now clearly with Italy. and the wise kings. of a vigorous old baldheaded craftsman. where a school was that can alone challenge comparison for range and developed mastery with the ancient Greek. As in Flanders so in Italy. come the saints and martyrs. fair as the golden lavish loveliness of nature. and the common people trudging afoot. obviously. or. than his rehef of John the Baptist as a boy. so that study of expression he will not shrink from any harshness needed for the truth of his conception. the wild-eyed resolute child. a contemporary of Fra Angelico's. as to a goal. is placed in a flowery meadow. could never lie straight for two minutes together. on the Musicians' Gallery. and for all angels Jerusalem. the greater for triumph over physical defects. firmly built as any Flemish town. shine out the towers and steeples of a city. more arresting. while through the gaps. and to this. where the green hills soften into blue. for the and archangels. girdled by pleasant orchards and rocky heights. with the little rough head on which the hair. Donatello had a special love for this " the Bald-head." Nor was he figure and liked to swear by its .ITALIAN CITIES AND ITALIAN ART 137 gant eulogy. or the charming ugly lads singing with all their energies. the David whom Donatello conceived as peasant-born and endowed with the unconscious dignity. the figure of the sturdy Shepherd- King. trusting. and in Florence we meet with the ardent and powerful realism of the sculptor Donatello {1386-1466). and with their mouths wide open. in sculpture Like the men of Chartres. and with good reason. Yet in emotional character it is closer to the early French that had done so much to stimulate its rise. and completed by the greater Jan. is fascinated by the character is everything to him. tian sacrifice is made the centre for human effort. and the young knights riding abreast. Nothing could be fresher.

George. her grey eyes full of brooding wisdom. as in the tall distinguished figure of St. blossoming almond-boughs.138 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND when grace was called for. sharp and dehcate as . but with perfect calm of bearing. or in the monumental simplicity of the soldier Gattemelata on his charger in the square at Padua. he was almost equally attracted by the humanist ideals of the growing Renaissance. visions of dove-eyed Madonnas. a man who would have swept aside the beauty of the flesh altogether as something that merely ministered to the lust of the eyes. the revival of the Greek reverence for reason. at a loss or the look of breeding and trained the young self-control. if only because of his fervid emotion. perhaps the grandest equestrian monument in existence. the pet of the Medici. Botticelli's figures divide themselves into two distinct classes. The goddess is clothed in translucent pearly raiment embroidered with branch-work of green olive-sprays and a — . or else enchanting fantasies of pagan Floras. alert and ready for action. But room must be for Botticelli (1446-1510). his well-shaped hand resting lightly on the shield before him. until indeed Ruskin led found the reaction and re-awakened the world to the charm of those slender dreamy figures. only just below the first " rank. swaying in a soft clearness of light touched with the pathos that waits on loveliness. subduing with sovran gentleness the Centaur-Man. as we might expect of a nature so sensitive. is typical enough of the countless delightful artists. and love. physical beauty. and by religious fervours such as blazed out in a Savonarola. a characteristic figure with the long sinuous line of which he had the secret. and Zephyrs and the division shows that. Venuses. or Lippo Lippi's bowery flowery angel-brood. Johns and ethereal angel-figures." Lippo. so strange that it repelled lovers of art for centuries. his strange and poignant beauty. Donatello's joy in children and his understanding of them call up a thousand bright associations with other Florentines Luca della Robbia's swaddled babies set in medallions above : the Ospedale degli Innocenti. whom we must pass over here. attended by wistful St. One picture of his combines both ideals in a harmony that is much his own Pallas Athena.

/. en O OS u <: OS .


Perhaps the greatest of all his works is the fresco of the Resurrection still preserved in his native Borgo. bearing the burden of the unborn life within her. the look of death still lingering in his dark wide-open eyes. where the dead lie among the remote Umbrian hills. the cognizance of the Pitti for whom the picture was painted. Luca Signorelli. one foot planted on the rim. marked contrast to the perfervid emotionalism of we have the calm strength of Piero della Francesca (1416-1492). example. The Roman lie soldiers. Piero was much like himself when he put In Botticelli his noble peasant IMadonna. much that is most attractive It is characteristic. a mantle flung round him rosy as the flush of dawn. With Piero. irresistible. It is the dream of a painter who is a poet and something of a pubhcist also. And he can use with equal decorative effect the dilapidated walls of a farmer's outhouse and the fluted columns and rich ceiling of a neo- Pagan palace-hall. to modem minds one of the most sympathetic in the whole company of these artists. lifting himself back to Hfe by a stupendous effort. whose worn lovable features have been preserved for us by that superb medallist Pisanello.ITALIAN CITIES AND ITALIAN ART 139 repeated device of three sapphire rings interlaced. as guardian of the white-walled Campo Santo at Monterchi. sleeping in front of the . triumphant. Born in a quiet little Umbrian town. and it throws a side-light on that patronage of culture by which the great families in Italy helped to maintain their position. indeed. stronglimbed. the ideals of Paganism and Naturalism seem spontaneously to support and enrich the Catholic dream of another world as the crown of this. golden-haired. of Vittorino da Feltre. rises straight before us out of the grey sarcophagus. for in the fifteenth century. the broad-minded teacher. where Christ. carrying the banner of victory. but triumphant through tragedy. near the cypress avenue His stately figures combine a statuesque majesty equalling the ancient classic pride with a new and grave serenity of their own. in their rich dark-coloured accoutrements. The aspiration to unite Pagan and Christian ideals marks. he was trained at Florence and himself taught the teacher of Michael Angelo.

140 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND sculptured tomb. the sun not yet up. y . the spring-time scarcely begun. one tree leafless against the quiet faintly-tinted sky. in the solitary presence of the dawn. The miracle of life is being accomplished alone.

ATHENA TAMING A CENTAUR (From the Painting by Botticelli. Florence) .


The old unity of the Church was threatened at its base. The process was quickened by the fall of Constantinople. criticism. already. Byzantine scholars to the study of and more and more widely. Political stability hardly existed there was no central government. The situation was full both of menace and hope. It was no longer a mere question of Aristotle in the light of Aquinas. What was the new order to be ? In Italy the situation was at its most dazzling and its most . It is impossible to assign any one date at which this period begins ever since the twelfth century there had been a revival of thought ^but certainly by the opening of the sixteenth the forces of free speculation. hating each other. Men were now reading the Greek authors for themselves and rediscovering much that could not be incorporated in the traditional theology. the despots. captured at last by the Ottoman Turks in PIERO — 1453. were all of them insecure. and neo-Paganism were gathering head. being pursued in Europe.PART III. and the republicans were struggling Ecclesiastical authority was underagainst imminent defeat. ominous point. — and the consequent impetus given by dispossessed classical learning.— RENAISSANCE CHAPTER XXII ITALIAN ART AND THE TRANSITION: ITALY'S LOSS OF FREEDOM DELLA FRANCESCA comes just before the climax of the Renaissance in Italy. mined not only by the growing scepticism but by the corruption of the clergy and a licentiousness always strong in the Italian 141 .

with splendid names. discoveries. leant rather to scientific speculation. how the French made their disastrous incursion. but it was for the time full of ferment in thought and feeling and crowded temperament. more curious. though his vision nature had No painting of the Siren woman has equalled his Monna Lisa he has understood the spell that goes far beyond a merely sensual lure. of the passions frozen his affections. but in almost all his work there is an underlying coldness it is as ." should be marred. sculptor. and to the daring spirit that heralded alike the Reformation and the beginnings of modern science. followed by inevitable stagnation. such as the world-renowned " Last Supper. despot of the cause of Italy's ruin. painter. subtler. not as though. though in different ways. like Shakespeare with Cleopatra. but Leonardo genius. the other in shame and agony.142 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND The period ended in disaster and slavery for the land. Among the artists let us take as typical Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and Michael Angelo (1475-1564). and acute than da Vinci's. engineer. perhaps at the instigation of Ludovico Sforza {il Moro). Both watched. " flooding the country to counter the French influence. nor yet that some works which he meant to be subhme. by a touch of self-conscious- . and weaknesses in human rather that knowledge of good and evil that will gods. and as Machiavelli called him and how the French were followed by the more lasting curse of the Germans and the Spaniards. to the splendour and corruption of their time. patriotism. Each of them was a many-sided thinker. and religion. he had lived himself into the woman's heart. make men as given with an extraordinary aloofness as though he were anatomizing a strange creature of the infinite sea. both keenly sensitive. with the consent. enemy of Florence. promising . one apparently with impassive contempt. It is not surprising that his caricatures are among the most terrifying in the world." Milan. . pleading their claim on Naples. how the quarrels of Popes and tyrants led to the extinction of Italy's freedom. Both were Florentines. free. Michael actually forecasting modern Angelo to No imagination was ever poetry. for it is all Yet all their amazing skill and dignity.

the other in the Duomo at Florence.. worn shame and suffering. 143 He studied human nature too much in detachment to his surprise of the aged does real tenderness its last and finest secrets. in the faces Adoration of the searching psychology as in the unfinished where the haggard faces of old men who have spent Magi. it is bound up with his greatest achievements (for his temperament was tragic). indeed.forcing themselves back on the city that had flung out. Twilight and Dawn.ITALIAN ART AND THE TRANSITION ness. puts below their effigies figures that typify the elemental Powers of them Nature. » Clement VII (Giulio de Medici) and Charles V. though not overcome. once citizens. or as in the incisive drawing where the deep eyes in the old father's worn and furrowed face scrutinize the arrogant features of the magnificent youth who does not care to understand him. who had fought them himself. Only. The whole scheme for the tombs. intended for his o\\ti tomb. and the symbolic this sensitiveness increases " Dawn as they are with of the ^ledici tombs beside her. his tendency to exaggeration. then masters of Florence. are still her sisters. Michael Angelo. and he. on the contrary. True. the dead Christ stark on the knees of a woman who looks at once a youthful maiden and the bereaved mother of men. resentful ^ The first is in St. nun-like saint. had crushed her liberties at last with the help of Pope and Emperor. and Night and Day. but a woman formed for the fullness of life and happiness. Peter's at Rome. . to the last study of the same theme at which he toiled in his old age and. and both the solidity and the pathos of his work. The Medici. The sculptured Madonna now in the Medici Chapel at Florence is no bloodless. perhaps. so it is Yet he was also singularly said. from his first Pieta carved when he was only twenty-two." their lives in the vain search for knowledge peer wistfully through the dim soft shadows into a sudden light of hope. shows in another " and " " Night way that largeness of view in Michael Angelo which could counterbalance.^ sensitive to — and veneration enrich " beauty of the free and vigorous Pagan type. is even hampered by his power for suffering.

splendid in athletes. women of intellect. steadfast or overwrought.winged hopes fettered by the weight of a world gone wrong. the garlands have thickened into heavy coils. None the less in the statue of Lorenzo full justice is done to what was fine in the witnesses of the wrong. fills the painting of the Sistine roof with the heroic gloom that darkens its glory. but faces and figures are tense with the burden of the doom they apprehend or strained by the intolerable waiting for deliverance. He stood and watched the grief and shame endure That he. and the defeated judge their masters out of the universal disgrace. And fain he would have slept and fain been stone. Swinburne has woven into his verse. The instinct of " " centuries has chosen the Creation of Adam as the finest of the separate pictures among the crowding visions —a man with . And the same slaves to the same tyrants thrown. scholars. a reference to lines of Michael Angelo's own that prove what his feeling was " : Pale. naked boys playing with shields and garlands. and old age. The boys have grown to be young men facing battle. open out above us. So again we can gather even from the unfinished fragments for the monument to Pope Julius how complete and how stern in its completeness the presentment of what Julius desired would have been. overthrown but indomitable. their force and the beauty they loved. And the same sins done under the same skies. as of eagle." This sad proud spirit.144 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND The triumph of tyranny is felt to be an outrage on Nature herself. maturity. Medici. prostrate beneath insolent conquering youths. and nursing mothers. of human life in youth. their distinction. might not cure. prophets. The grace and vigour Significantly the painter has made a tragic use of a joyous neo-classic theme. their intellect. written when Italy was at last regaining her freedom. The base of the monument for the majestic figure of the martial Pope was to be supported by captive slaves and old men. though highest of Angels. and the shields they strain themselves to lift suggest a long and doubtful struggle. with the whole world's judgment in his eyes.

MOTHER AND CHILD (From the Drawing by Michael Aiigelo. Florence) .


leads him to discoveries that go beyond the appearances of Nature. nor pictorial. however closely they may be connected with them. The sculpture and painting of the two centuries before his own had been marked by a signal union of deep and sincere emotion with an intimate sense for the direct appeal of form and colour. Their achievement was made the easier. hills weak from the uncompleted. no doubt. and if he left so many works incomplete it is partly because the conception itself was never completely sculptural. on the primeval above the void. are apt to seem a little impertinent. And he was a bad master to follow. over and above any content that could be put into words. The over-emphasis that we forgive in him became empty rhetoric in his imitators. sustaining himself by his desire for the life-giving touch from the finger of God. . Moreover. and the least inadequate theories of aesthetics are those that admit an unknown unity from which both Art and Nature are derived. architecture. perhaps. valuable as they may be for clues. thus apprehended by the true artist in a way that eludes explanation. enhancement the three elements. Italy's painting and sculpture up to the height of the Renaissance had held in a marvellous fusion and for their mutual make something new. Perhaps there never was an artist so great who was at the same time In sculpture. He comes too at an age when the once rushing stream of Italian art had begun to fail. Some such union. lying. is the distinctive mark of all the arts that appeal to the eye they exist to express something that can only be so expressed. all of which we have to recognize if we are not to mutilate the ample inheritance her artists have bequeathed to us. everjrvvhere so faulty. Freedom was failing and with it inspiration. painting. Anyone can find flaws in Michael Angelo's work. by 10 . nor architectonic. and dramatic. there are obvious blunders and faults of taste. decorative. His task is always to Yet every true artist has felt the stimulus of Nature. descriptive.ITALIAN ART AND THE TRANSITION a woman's wistfulness in his all his 145 face. the unique significance of form and colour. His fury of emotion could not master his'medium. a strong birth man still nerveless for strength. and hence all mere words about visual art.

must have smiled more than once in his sleeve. of discovering for themselves the laws of perspective. Pinturicchio. in the self-seeking of the Medici Pope. the faU. as for the rising up. and ignorances. the possibilities of light and shade. painting the wicked old Borgia in his charming and quite irreligious frescoes. the excesses of the military aggressiveness X Borgia Alexander VI (1493). Their early lack of technical skill in the minor branch of mere representation was of actual service And that in two ways there was the less danger to them. vivified their perceptions of complete distraction from their peculiar task and on the other hand the excitement and prevented them from becoming the slaves of outworn tradition. but the strength of the Pagan ideal. credulities. Nor were the professed leaders of the Roman Church the men Criticism had only too much to feed on to avert the change. as yet unshattered by criticism and of which central idea was exactly that an ineffable Thought had been certain simple worked. It is easy to understand why religious painting explain. The ultimate not fully explicable with our present knowledge. brought to light not only the weaknesses of the Fathers. becomes ineffective. they kept the good of a living and growing science without the dead weight of pedantry and irrelevance. The most vivid minds in Italy were ceasing to believe the old mythology in the old and simple That fall is sense. Christian. is not enough to account for the dwindling of . : of pure design. Change of doctrine. for example. Thus. causes for the dying away. and for a long while. The steady growth its of learning produced inevitable result. Leo (1513). and criticism had The widening knowledge of Greek. the the made manifest in flesh. And in the fifteenth century the bounds of their art had been widened to include the secular But in the sixteenth century comes as well as the sacred. the humanity and richness of those spirits that Dante had put into everlasting hell. certainly. their discrepancies. But some points we can of genius still lie beyond our ken. the facts of anatomy.146 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND and inspiring conditions under which they They shared with their pubhc a grand mythology. the of Julius II (1503).

But Raphael (1483-1520) is almost the last painter of commanding genius to be found in Central Italy or Florence. to whom the Papacy was a gift to " be enjoyed. . we realize little but echoes of something far deeper and more moving." with his serpent-hke nephews behind him. still Spain. but in portraits Raphael's hand is freer and his genius masters triumphantly the grim strong face of Julius. schemer. 1519-1594 Veronese. however. a great school of secular painting. or the unscrupulous self-indulgent jowl of Leo X. Tintoretto. The grace and sweetness of Raphael's Madonnas are. For. In Italy. But Venice after all was a small and narrow oligarchy and ' Now in our London National Gallery. Giovanni Bellini. and Veronese. a and the new joy in change from the work of both of the old religious fervour on through the superb romantic charm full of Giorgione to the more mundane brilliance and gorgeous " " of Titian. And so at first there was. her independence and in Venice painting still kept much kept of the old vigour. Venice. but it is overwhelming in the sternness with which it presents a mockery and a cheat. though sorely crippled by her rivals. We can watch the man life. speaking broadly.ITALIAN ART AND THE TRANSITION religious art. and sensualist. one fancies. without feeling poesies the destruction of power (Titian. the stress to ennoble the souls it shook. have been. under happier conditions. does not lessen Even it the dramatic force with which he handles religious themes " " only changes the direction. lay prostrate in the centre under the Pope and in the North and South under Austria or But Venice. 1477 ?-i576 Tintoretto. . this. 147 Rembrandt the Protestant would alone prove the bitter scepticism of the amazing Fleming. and it seems impossible to dissociate the decline with the extinction of freedom. connoisseur. with the marked exception of now. Pieter Brueghel the Elder {circa 1525-1569). His Adoration of the Magi : ^ suggests no sudden unveiling of unhoped-for truth. after the complicated struggles in the sixteenth century. the greater part of Italy. 1528-1588). religious doubt had not. and in Italy religious painting was clearly on the way to the Yet there might still soulless insipidities of a Carlo Dolci. .

and in Holland Rembrandt show this in different ways. with their close clinging to the actual tend now to become the themes most stimulating to European artists at large. like an emissary of superhuman vengeance. The artist is to live more by will all Van Dyck. to be wearied by a skill hand and the undeniable why all This inner emptiness on the one on the other go far to explain the Italian art of the seventeenth century which delighted " of the eighteenth and dilettanti has been found burdensome in the nineteenth and twentieth. The reaction may have gone too far. with the faults of a man grown old in greed and cunning and more than half wearied of a thankless task. In Flanders Rubens and sight. it may be added. implacable and resolute. Poussin in France (1594-1665) and Velazquez in Spain (1599-1660) show the marked impress of Italy. the dominant political figure of his day. but also. riding. His two portraits of Charles V. are left as a rule. In Italy the decline of painting and sculpture was paralleled by the equally rapid decline in literature.148 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND down in the in Venice also the great succession dwindles seventeenth century. and in him we . in Spain Velazquez. While in the Madrid picture Charles is the transfigured monarch of romance. but it is based on a sound instinct. uniting as it did a command over realism with a high poetic majesty. was exactly of the kind to delight the age. Titian's virile genius. Both have grasped the character of the ruler. and in France the impulse never quite died out. Machiavelli (1469-1527) is one of the last original forces. Portraiture and landscape. and less by faith. and obviously. it is true. serve well to illustrate this double power. across a lonely enchanted forest land. By the close of the sixteenth century in Italy the connoisseurs " " " the living fountains were being choked. while recognizing accomplishment. in particular. We brilliant endowment and vague burden of hollowness. but the one now at Munich gives us merely the human statesman. with the dignity of a king. Nevertheless the traditions of the last Italian painters to the great age remained vital enough to inspire belonging both France and Spain.

imquestioned king. could note as he travelled in Italy that Nothing has been wTit these many years but fi. The time far off when Milton. is How true concerning the more slowly-developing great was the native Italian gift for this. as can be plainly felt in his Discourses on Livy. among those masters of the limited har- monic sequences. After Machiavelli and Ariosto. shows unmistakable signs of decadence. was to reinforce political despotism. the carefully-chosen concurrent notes. Italian literature sinks into sheer weakness. had disillusionized him as to its possibility. bend the weak and quarrelsome citizens to his will. he seems to have thought. ]\Iachiavelli's contemporary. for anything but authority. to whom we may add the slighter Tasso a little later (15441595). turned to the ideal of a free self-governing " community. may be recalled from the mere mention of Palestrina. And its influence upon history has been thought its own tragic." but experience. during the sixteenth century. classic and romantic alike." Some- was not what the same art of music. especially the experience of the Italians he the RepubHcan in its freest. Religious despotism. for us to understand how Spenser in the English re-awakening could take him for a model. and he calls for a Prince bold enough to stick at no scruple if he can drive out the foreigner.ITALIAN ART AND THE TRANSITION see at 149 war the Imperial tradition in its most despotic form and less of his nature. But the primacy in music passes from an Italy of the Popes . and expanded harmonic rules much as Germans were to do later. doubtthe deepest. There are signs that Italians could have gone farther. early in the seventeenth " century. But still there is spirit and grace enough in his elaborate scholarly fantasias on Europe's poetic traditions. One part saw round him. The history of Machiavelli's is tragic. however. and so save and unify the country in its own despite.ittery and fustian. which had been discovered for the enrichment of single melodies. fostered by the Spanish reaction from the Re- formation. the courtly Ariosto (1470-1533). for it is that of a mind led largely through boldness and clear-sightedness to a vicious view of a statesman's duty. Such men were not fit. the most mysterious of the arts.

after Not only shall find in the sixteenth century but in the seventeenth we alike in epoch-making work by Italians. mathematics. nomy. more searching spirit of the Reformation. Yet. physics. and medicine. though freedom had gone and with it a free art. astro- i . to a land that kept alive. and here once more the history of Italy recalls that of ancient Greece. flict. the Italian genius still showed itself for a time in science.150 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND however devastating a conthe freer.

Naples. Spain. king of Spain and suzerain of Germany. France.CHAPTER XXIII THE REFORMATION AND THE GENIUS OF GERMANY Round him indeed culture WE have mentioned Charles V. he was by inheritance the ruler of Austria. theirs. Her political position does not seem to have been substantially worse than though it is true that she had made far less progress towards national unity on the one hand. and Spain. son of the mad Joanna (daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile). with distinct rights over Germany and vaguer rights over the North of Italy. The traditions of his house on both sides were despotic. as the dominating poHtical figure in the first half of the sixteenth century. the : Netherlands. and the web they weave is growing thick. And among them are three who now begin to take effective part in the joint stream of European culture Germany. or democratic government on the other. the Netherlands. Grandson of Mary of Burgundy and Maximihan the Hapsburg Archduke of Austria. and Italy in her general development. but his own bent towards despotism was checked by a fine sense of what could and what could not be done with the different nationalities throughout his vast dominions. and by election and Continental Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. It is not a little remarkable and not altogether easy to understand why Germany had till then lagged behind England. The Emperor's lordship. cluster the leading threads in Continental political growth. for example. 151 .

and the commons at large had no such representation in the Diet as they had gained in the English Parliaments of Edward I. and with reason. the side that would appeal most to a philosophic people in the Ages of Faith. Teresa later in Spain. if spasmodic. before him in Flanders Juliana of Catherine of Siena in Italy (1347-1380). Norwich . in England. St. seem only to appear late in any civilization and after a In any case it is laborious accumulation of facts and tools. was. and no manual of devotion has ever appealed to the world at large so persistently. John of the Cross—but he out-distances them all Not only is he in popular estimation. for example. Thomas k Kempis was a German monk (1380-1471). there had been vigorous. (1293-1381). to be noted that Germany's distinctive contribution to the culture of Europe during the long period from Henry the Fowler to the dawn of the Reformation lies in the realm of mystical theology. and science. a Kempis is only one in a long train of devotional writers penetrated grip with the monastic Jan Ruysbroek. and that not in Germany alone. as the " Imitation of Christ. Still.152 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND of the was shadowy compared with the vigour its monarchy at had been more oHgarchical and less independent than their most advanced contemporaries in Italy. in spite of its narrow outlook. metaphysics. efforts for organization and Towns such as Nuremberg that won the right to liberty. lies in the complete surrender of his will to a Will greater than his own or any other man's. buildings. der Vogelweide." And this because of its unwavering on the doctrine that a man's peace. and St. both in art. St. None the less. his freedom from degradation. at least as vitally interested in politics and religion as in love. literature. and learning. and these. as in politics. day the quality of and private Walther v. the German free cities manage their own affairs reflect to this their life in the fine architecture of their public The greatest of the ]\Iinnesangers. the Germans were behind their neighbours. ideal. and perhaps the fundamental reason is that the German genius was pre-eminently fitted for music. in their full development. we have already seen. strongest in France .

at times. and a master to is many attracted to reader. the contemporary of Dante. and art thereby displeasing to the Trinity ? Surely great words do If the world could not make a man holy and just. and the searching and ironic simplicity of his It is impossible while reading a Kempis not to feel thought.THE REFORMATION AND GERMANY 153 the others are that also but he brings absolutely in earnest the task of self-conquest into close contact with ordinary Hfe." good. v/ill it avail thee to be engaged in profound reasonings con- cerning the Trinity. may seem exclusivel}^ concerned with the salvation of his own soul. 4 Kempis. but yet with a wider range than a the earlier work of the Dominican Meister Eckhard Kempis. not though all the pains of hell should hang on it. not for one moment. " my friends' sake." as the highest possible : would confess that the eye was more to it just because " it was in the head than if it were actually in the foot so." Again. off from God for for God's sake to give up God." (I. seeing that he strikes dead at the heart of ambition. A modem a thirst that was to become so marked a feature in Germany's intellectual life. moreover. and even more profoundly.) follow a Kempis the root of all wars and tyrannies would be done away with Far less for ever. has once felt the touch of Truth and Righteousness and Goodness can never turn away from them. i. and by his never-failing sense of a fundamental unity with other men. " What the emptiness of fine theory divorced from practice. the graces in another can be more speak. but " I would that I were cut Eckhard speaks of St. if thou be void of humility. example he foreshadows our modern social gospel of mankind as an " " "If the foot could in his parable of the body organism of love. while his book lies open to all men in virtue of his terse and — — vivid style. (1260-1327). Paul's cry. the siu-eness of his touch on the weak places of the heart. him by his deep thirst for universal knowledge." In one . it : intimately our o^^^l if we love them than if they were merely " ours. widely known. is mj^stics in his day." Again Eckhard's thirst for knowledge is bound up with a belief in the natural affinity of the soul with all things " " He who the spark in man never extinguished.

But knowledge of the Truth means Eckhard far more than the orderly apprehension of " created things it means insight into their ultimate cause and the ground of their unity." with which. perhaps. Along with it. can we comprehend the passion of the fanatical wars that meet us in the sixteenth century and the next. clearest and Germany. a goal that the individual can attain by persistent effort and prayer. notably in England the end of the fourteenth century. under the rough bold generalship of Martin Luther." The goal of life is the again for " : apprehension of this hidden unity coupled with the sense of a man's entire dependence on it. without understanding it and the reactions from it. and not without reason. perhaps. and in under Wycliffe at Bohemia through the more daring development of the Lollard doctrines by Huss.154 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND place he goes so far as to say that if it were possible for God to be separated from the Truth and the soul had to choose. liberty both of thought and action. But Wycliffe had avoided any irreparable breach with consti- . As a spiritual force. on the whole. it blazed out with renewed vigour and in strangely different forms. but he who has never understood it has never come in sight of the summits to which man's thought can reach. the whole of the modern world is in revolt from that attitude. as a rule. and particularly. In Germany. There had been . where men were turning more and more to the interest and delight of the concrete. and especially in Germany and Spain. The danger of this attitude. Nor. though sometimes also opposed to it. went the growing demand for liberty. it was outworn for the time in Italy. as of so much mediaeval mysticism. but elsewhere. is that it leads the mind away from the concrete facts of life and the " scientific handling of the created things. Broadly speaking. the situation was. we have first and foremost to do. is rightly acknowledged as leader in the Reformation. of German. and the interplay makes the period intensely complicated and intensely interesting. and to which they return as rivers over the earth. earlier fore warnings. it would choose Truth. after all. the source from which they " derive as waters from the sea.

felt so deeply by Eckhard and " " Thomas a Kempis. and in no slight degree. It is entirely in keeping with this deep element in his nature that he should have re-discovered with rapture the fourteenth " century treatise known as the Theologia Germanica. . bearing indeed marked signs of his training as an Augustinian monk." where the unknown author. the mystical apprehension. and the revolt of his Czech followers." wrote " it be of myself and I speak as a Luther. no book hath ' and Me and Mine and We have early writer and his and Ours " " ever to learn. within Umits. the same championship. and in this respect Luther. even against the — anti-German and communistic as authority of the Church. combining two other elements important and mutually opposed. of personal union by faith with a Power behind all the shows of this world and the deeds of men. the Reformer and the Protestant.' that next to the Bible and St. and man and all things So strong was Luther's sense of the need for such a union that like many theologians of not dissimilar temper then and 1 From the preface to Susanna Winkworth's tr." a union of Love in which all Self departed. In these earlier men we find the same fierce attack on the scandals among the clergy. or would wish more of what God. He had in the first place. Germ. is notably mediaeval. it was. brings ideas such as Eckhard's home to the religious consciousness of simple men. deprecating rebellion with a true English feeling for Huss had been the value of a settled order.THE REFORiMATION AND GERMANY 155 tuted authority "God must obey the Devil. I will say. of the Throl. But Luther had something more. burnt at the stake (1415)." 1 come into my hands whence I have learnt." that for Luther. writing in his native German. as for this fellows. put down in blood. are. however faulty. was " the living basis of the spiritual life. A union with an Absolute Goodness greater than " " this or that special good. though boasting fool. and Christ. of private judgment. "he is said to have declared. Hence " " the Lutheran insistence on as somejustification by faith thing much beyond mere morality. the same appeal to the individual conscience and the authority of the Bible. Augustine.

and somewhat weak. inevitably. and the Puritans in England he would on occasion scout as worthless any other goodness that could — — not be shown to depend directly on this supreme experience and on the Biblical texts that had wakened it to life. Dean Colet and Sir Thomas More. But.156 later THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND in Calvin. however warm his sympathy with the reaction from monasticism and scholasticism. there was a genial. Why dogmatism. he seemed faint-hearted and half-hearted. Knox Scotland. as many extremists did in Germany itself. Hence his rejection of Monasticism." But nevertheless. and Wein and Weib to Gesang. like his nobler friends in England. for example. one on inscrutable could not Christians be content with ordinary human reason and charity ? Erasmus is in significant ways a forerunner of the modem attitude towards theology. moreover. felt no fear when he struck at the authority of the firm Papacy or the whole monastic system. witty. strong in the liberty of a Christian man. Erasmus desired indeed to reform the abuses of the Church. A true German. Passionately he insisted on the absolute authority of Christ's words as found in the Bible and on the vital importance of Baptism and the Eucharist. he rejoiced in music. and this is and noteworthy. It was exactly the union of the two forces in his ardent and powerful temperament. " Luther. . of a defiant reformer. he did not feel himself strong enough to depend on this mystical freedom alone. on the other hand. but detested almost equally the rough breaking down of an old-established unity and the setting more in its place of one more theological rigid system of unintelligible beliefs up matters. There he stood " could no other. and here he was in line with the whole Renaissance movement. and to Luther. that made him so universal a linked power. Erasmus. Neither the mystical ardour nor the fighting spirit found a response in the Dutchman Erasmus. the Oxford Reformers. even a coarse. the temperament. Cultured. element in his nature that made him assert and re-assert the full claims of the flesh." a liberty on the mystical marriage of the soul with the depending Bridegroom Christ. in France and Switzerland.

Syndicalism. but a God-inspired will of the of this divine manifestation. however sublime. Great as was native " the sword of the Spirit this could not compensate for the harm of helping to rivet a dead text. a man also to be noted as a forerunner of Germany's work in philo- among sophy and science. by translating the Bible into his German and furthering the study of Latin. ill-organized. " " is a scabbard for and Hebrew a language. Deeply religious and penetrated with the religious vision of mankind as one people. than she ever actually attained. in one Great Society. Greek. and many of them rose in the very " that Luther proclaimed. . was the union. primarily is from God . It community was the organ just in the voluntary consent of the governed that a govern- . Christian liberty Fanatical. but to the better mind of the German people as it had shown itself earlier. Gierke quotes. Gierke has made it clear that in the earlier Ages Germany had been feeling her way Middle towards confusedly a far richer ideal of political organization. was not supported or stabilized by any adequate unifying system. But this impulse. Yet it was only natural Luther should seek a support for men's consciences in place of the one he had taken away. His work in politics was parallel." he wrote. the far-reaching projects adumbrated by Nicholas of Cues (1401-1464). an impulse reviving modern days under such varied forms as Trade Unionism. Internationales. and scarcely understanding their own cause. other striking instances of such. the Peasants were none the less appealing not merely to fundamental principles of right and justice. secular or religious. Nicholas looked on government as in its essence both divine and popular. like man himself. hardly comprehending her own desire. of manj^ societies. the service he rendered — — on the thoughts of living men. . Late in the day Germany that had her Peasants' name of the " Rising. What she desired. although active corporate isolated thinkers brooded on noble schemes. each with its own special focus of in life.THE REFORMATION AND GERMANY opening the 157 way for a tyranny of dogma almost as oppres- sive as the one he did so much to overthrow. Home Rule. " In his eyes all earthly power proceeded.

of its traditional connection with the Empire. university education came to her late. at any principles of free association. as we saw. the idea of the sovereign as representing the people had become even in the best days of the Empire rather a pious wish than the expression of a sance. as the fifteenth century with the absolutist tendencies of Roman For this there were several reasons.158 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND : ment tunc divina censetur. In the Roman code there was no room for " distinct organizations. Furthermore. sins of man. And. we can still agree in his general living factor permeating the conclusion that 1 it was a deplorable day for Germany when vi. as Maitland does. as regards all such proposals as these. quando displays its divine origin ^ per concordantiimi omnium consensum a suhiectis exoritur. critically as law had been studied in England. whole life of the nation. " Political Theories of the Middle Age. There was chaos. Making all allowance. as the fifteenth century closed. as regards the former." Nicholas had definite proposals for realizing his ideal both in Church and State. in Germany's . we have seen. Naturally its august. by Maitland). references (tr. not till the latter part of the fourteenth century and neither her own laws nor been studied at an early period keenly and Roman Law. the code had never shaken itself free from the taint of slavery. on the other hand. and the natural to contend not only with particularism." § Gierke. lucid. with other ." The individual was dealt with directly by the sovereign. in early days an adherent of the Conciliar movement and placing a General Council above the Pope. But it struck hard. being. and therewith an end. and coherent system appealed to men weary of chaos. German thought had inertia. when adopted wholesale. as Maitland points out. but also by the close of Law. political and judicial life . came in with all the prestige. we may add. precisely because he held that in virtue of the representative character won through election a General Council would be the clearest medium of the General Will. of the Renais- Roman Law had and the prestige also. no empires within the Empire. for the benefits brought to Germany both by Italian science and by the training in systematic thought. But.

no more than the abolition pastor for themselves of serfdom. was a " convenient one under which to group all peasants (" Hist. is painful to record the reactionary intolerance of Luther. and a definite worsening in the position of the peasants. and in the fighting that followed the excesses of the mob were countered by still more savage reprisals. " If we arc deceived. inspired by Luther's fiery preaching of a gospel that gave men the hope of freedom. c. pricked by their own intolerable situation. What did Roman Law know of the old Germanic liberties ? " asks Henderson. it oppressions and frankly admitted that some at least of the involving first demand — should be was the —community of water. by the end of the fifteenth century. I. a check to the development of the free to\vns. andnoted." ^ To us indeed they seem surprisingly moderate. But all the demands were rejected." ^ She did not even win the good of unification on this basis. and pasture. The peasants On — — buttressed their twelve articles with texts from the Bible. wood. And here it freedom to choose a relief from the crushing burdens of tithe and tax. The net result. let Luther correct us by Scripending. * d'Aubigne. was a German invention above all. And at first Luther frankly blamed the lords for their ture. " The code of Justinian had no words for the different relations between master and man the term servus. op.THE REFORMATION AND GERMANY she " 159 bowed her neck to the Roman yoke. History of the Reformation." . it should be remembered. was an advance towards absolute power for the petty princes. which had already made him reject every Protestant who went farther ^ Introduction to his " tr. their rights lessened. of Gierke." Vol.) the other hand." new demands were " just and equitable. His hatred of anarchy. or slave. and their " labours and burdens increased. cit. x. this. at the opening of the sixteenth century the peasants themselves were awakening to revolt. More and more of these were actually classed as serfs. : of Germany. stimulated by the spread of learning printing. German particularism was now too strong for the Emperor ever to become the direct and efficient sovereign.

the headship of the believers which he had taken from the Papacy he transferred simply to the " The secular ruler. since a Lutheran could leave a Roman Catholic district or a Catholic a Lutheran without exiling himself from Germany. " " at will. It gave but a breathing-space before the struggle Thirty Years' War. the number of principalities being large." can only admit that Luther was essentially an assailant. obviously. Every prince was allowed to decide on the form of faith for his own province. Again." On those who dared to protest he turned with fury. no other can. so he had nothing to offer the peasants but " Rerenewed submission to their lords. saw no reason to protest against selling those very men." he wrote to the Elector of Saxony. "it is your duty to regulate these no other person cares about them. while defying Pope and Church on behalf of individual Christian men." Peasants' to be killed They were " like mad dogs. like other animals. Once they " arms and plundered convents and castles." he " them to deserve the death of body and soul. Just as Roman law could satisfy itself with a lip-homage to the general principle of human freedom while making definite arrangements for the torture of slaves. not a constructive genius.160 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND than himself made him brutal towards the peasants." agreed to shortly after his own death in 1546. Time after time he had to fall back on systems outworn or makeshift. 1554)." Luther's action here helped towards the compromise of " aijiis regio. the provision allowed after all a substantial modicum of religious liberty. Papal order being abolished. and it is idle to attempt excuse for his share in the ferocity with which the had held risen in Rising was suppressed. But." if they were servants. it was a compromise that could scarcely be expected to last. and. and things no other ought to do so. and closing the first stage of the religious : We (Peace of Augsburg. in every " formed principality. The mingled hope and gloom of this time is concentrated . so Luther. Just as he had nothing to put in the place of Papal infallibility but Biblical infallibility. ejus religio.

A massive the in thought. sits brooding among a figure. Durer.THE REFORMATION AND GERMANY " in 161 " Melencolia engraved by Albrecht mysterious one of the few great painters Germany ever produced. and symbols. but with access to strange regions of the imagination where Holbein could never have ventured. Charles V's owti wily statecraft which told him that he could not afford to alienate a virile people by insisting on extreme measures provinces. elaboration of detail. beyond her own but they power to interpret or put to use. a fault common to so much German art. German particularism itself. womanly litter of . is dominated by a superb design in which form and significance are fused. than his dehghtful contemporary Holbein. Luther's courageous common sense and " I can by no means admit that false teachers tolerance should be put to death "—and lastly. plunged books. faultier far. 11 . in the main. — against the Protestant leaders. and the rainbow-lit sky to hft her are not strong enough For once at least Diirer's tendency to overis stormy. She has wings. instruments. which three elements to thank the Emperor faced with a number of sturdy cities and left : many of whom were in avowed sympathy with Reformist doctrines. it is true. For the fact that the rehgious ferment did not lead at once into the chaos of the Thirty Years' War we have.

" the SIMILAR though he set up an Inquisition and executed sanguinary he was prudent enough to leave the administration of them to the natives. In Spain. " " Catholic Kings was. as he warned his son to be. Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabeha of Castile. We have mentioned already 162 . . after aU.CHAPTER XXIV THE DOMINANCE OF SPAIN caution marked the dealings of Charles with Netherlands. against friction between Spaniard and Fleming. full rein could be given to his despotic tendencies both in Church and State. always on his guard. That strange country had been unified po itically by the marriage of his grandparents. Isabella at least \^ith a genuine conviction that made her influence both more inspiring and more dangerous. " and his heart's desire was to cut out the root of heresy. For seven centuries the Christian had struggled to reconquer Spain he The . he came to feel most at home. . it is generally policy of the two admitted. only the culmination of a long process. He saw well enough that Calvinism was making headway there. had succeeded inch by inch. and they had employed religious bigotry to cement their work. and with the struggle the bitterness had grown ever more bitter. It was she who revived the Inquisition under but. where. Torquemada she who was foremost in completing the reconquest of Spain by the capture of Granada with its jewelled Alhambra. where he was born. edicts. the last monument of Moorish art in its decline it was at the height of her triumph that the harsh edict went out for the expulsion of the Jews.

and did choke. The age-long conflict and the ultimate triumph acting on a people naturally proud. confident that they were commissioned by God to rule the world in the interests of the orthodox Faith. regained their country for like soldiers. in point of theological passion to his antagonist and contemporary Luther. An engrained contempt for ordinary craftsmanship and trade had been further stimulated by the racial and religious hostility against the Arabs. fierce.THE DOMINANCE OF SPAIN St. bigoted and aggressive. sought another route to the Indian . and visionary. note) were all devoted Romanists. John of the Cross. a soldier devoted world-wide Society of Jesus rings out like a military oath and the threats of hell recur like the penalties of a through : drum-head court-martial. and the Moslem reaction towards narrow orthodoxy after Averroes. Curiously similar. Bartolommeo Diaz rounding the Cape of Good Hope in i486. Teresa. he is furthermore. the genius of the Italian Columbus. Westwards. the founder of the Jesuits. the Moors. is a characteristic type. : A blundering policy in economics bition of valuable exports and made matters worse heavy dues on : prohi- all sales even within the country could not make up for the exemption of nobles and clergy from taxation they could only choke. they For a time Spain was spared the full consequences of this The strangling system by the discovery of the New World. produced only too easily a nation of relentless warriors. St. and to die. Prince Henry the Navigator sending an expedition to the Azores in 1460. and many of lesser The people at large had themselves by fighting the infidel and like soldiers they were prepared to think. and Vasco da Gama reaching India in 1498. the natural channels of trade. lead that they won in the early days of the invasion. all differences. on their side. and the Jews. enterprise of her sister Portugal opened the way Eastwards. and the vow of obedience in his above everything. 163 Dominic's gospel of persecution. mystics (St. recognized and employed by Isabella. who. The unmistakable menace to freedom of thought was the more ominous because it chimed Their in with the dominant spirit of the Spanish people. Ignatius Loyola. never lost the commercial to act.

164 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND regions and found instead the way to the Americas (1492). steady autocracy of Charles V. and is in curious contrast with the spirit of classic Hellenism. it given by the vast European possessions of Charles V. and the sixteenth century is not surprising that Spain in felt herself at the top of golden opportunities and ready to welcome a despotism that promised her both this world and the next. fierce dignity of the period. exquisite and strong. utterly out of sympathy as He attracts an age. they the most . the painter still known as El Greco (1548-1625). There were. the modern world can trace as in a magical mirror the intensity and strange. even an extravagant. Equally curious is the marked effect El Greco has produced to-day on artists and critics of modern sympathies. leave to his son Philip II a submissive country. and the grim apocalyptic visions that must have floated before many a Spanish mind. work of a sensitive Greek. the ready — — tool for his fanatical ambition. testantism. Even the example of Aragon with its more that Aragon which Isabella had truly representative Cortes " condeclared (because of its relative freedom) must be " her husband and herself could not achieve any quered by The Emperor could political liberty for the rest of Spain. even if we see also in lower moods signs of an exaggerated religiosity cloaking sheer pride and lust. certain struggles just as there were leanings towards Profor all such movements were international. But while we note these dangers to liberty it is important to recognize the force that the people gained by the active In the sense of a common mission and that mission divine. wear}' of are with his theology. on what was strongest and fairest in this world. for freedom. Add to this the accession of power. apparently immense. The readiness of a Greek to accept a visionary. poised. and the hopes of popular representation were destroyed by the animosity between the nobles and the non-privileged orders. but heresy was stamped out by an Inquisition that the majority of the people approved. outlook recalls the mood of the Byzantine artists. Both classes were left too weak to make head against the quiet. it is true.

intimate and critical. two men to show her power exactly here. Cervantes was Shakespeare's contemporary. Velazquez for tenderness and gravity. that made him at once appreciate romance and caricature it. The sweet wdnd of laughter " that blows through Don Quixote. it is admitted. and . the sixteenth and seventeenth. among brushwork." how was it that it did not blow all t.THE DOMINANCE OF SPAIN design. (he had entered into the Italian inheritance and used its lessons to develop his own gifts). his power of lovely Velazquez painted (1599-1660). high-strained. the kings of painting for the sheer beauty of his craftsmanship. and humour. died indeed in the very same year. for dignity and unity of impression. And yet Spain brought forth in these two centuries. 165 photographic verisimihtude. we can recognize in Cervantes the Shakespearian sympath}'-. Among native Spaniards his nearest analogue is perhaps the dramatist Calderon (1601-1687). in whose work the Devil enters as an actual and terrible dramatis persona. Cerv^antes for humour and tenderness. tenderness. and human still beings live a fantastic life.yTanny and self-deceit away ? The same sort of question rises as we study the portraits tinction He stands. and yet show his master far the greater man. Without attempting to put the Spaniard on a level with the Englishman. and cahing up from realms beyond appearance new and indescribable impressions. 1616. his feeling for subtle gradations of quiet tone. the broad fun and gentle ironic laughter that could embrace both Sancho and the Don. What Spanish life and Spanish art lacked in general were the qualities of sobriety. often over-strained. a devotedness in every ludicrous energy of his that wins the devotion of his shrewder servant and the love of every intelligent reader. and it is no idle fancy to compare the two. both men for a sober facing of the world. give Sancho the precedence in all matters of mother. but of a dignity and beauty that explains his appeal to Shelley.wit and common sense. for space and atmosphere. and both also with a native understanding of that lofty disand proud sense of honour that is peculiar to Spain. by the sharp strength of his gaunt flaming forms knit together by their own rhj-thm.

but ready than the splendid full-grown to run a man through the body who dared openly to pity him the tiny crippled scholar. cannot save a nation. He paints men and women in their weakness as a Recording without anger. . admitted. without liberty. is The towards dominion and persecution. their naturalness. debased and menacing. that had taken him off his guard X — . could only paint " what he saw. one fancies. Velazquez will paint us children. it is plain to see. Scarcely another name can be found working for among Phihp the great men of Renaissahce Spain as free criticism. unmasked in his sodden old age. but without extenuation. gazing out of the picture into the eyes. creatures. understood them all. among such ing statements of themselves. the stimulating effect of unity dies away and Spain at the close of the seventeenth century sinks down into stagnation." scarcely taller hound he is set to hold.166 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND is which is quite other than vulgar illusion. brooding wistfully over the book almost larger than himself the deformed heroic little figure seated on the ground. the stern eyes of Velazquez softened by an infinite compassion. He will not over-emphasize for any obtuseness of the critic. And so. Most appealing of all his works are the pictures of those dwarfs whom the cruel Court of Spain bred up for its own amusement. or in his grasping cupidity and impotent ferocity. Innocent could possibly have accepted with complacency these damnBut. gives no sign of heart in his work. by their quiet sympathy. The painter. II the whole trend of Spain. moreover. with a sense of their freshness. even such men as Cervantes and Velazquez. After Inquisition did its work too well." Yet probably it is only his soberness and self-restraint both in conception and design that hide from the impatient observer his powers of penetration and pity. If Angel might it were not for the blind fatuity of mortals we could ask in for that sense of reality So much : wonder how Philip IV. But two men. as they endured the humiliations they were brave enough to " hide from others the defiant alert Inglese. but it is often said that he had no inner vision. their morning joyfulness that has never been surpassed. speaking broadly. .

A UW'AKF (From the Painting by Velazquez. Madrid) .


But the most dramatic struggle was in the Netherlands. his attempt at a universal league against heretics Philip II had planned was countered by the Huguenot resistance. Protestant Republic. and the dream of the French crown for himself died in the face of the national distaste for a foreigner. for France. a defeat the more galling after his position as Mary Tudor's husband. it was only gradually. and by the shock of persecution on a generous and resolute nature. he failed. In France. to defy invincible.CHAPTER XXV THE RISE OF THE DUTCH REPUBLIC AND THE DECLINE OF SPAIN the Netherlands. The most 167 brilliant and eloquent of . more or less completely. who prided himself with some reason on an eye for men. where the tenacity of a stubborn people joined forces with the genius of a born ruler. and for England FOR either persecution or conquest or both. William the and defeat a tyranny that seemed all but William of Orange. The sharpest single stroke against his designs was dealt by the defeat of the Armada (1588) at the hands of an England roused in defence of herself and the Reformers. and bred a (1555)Catholic though born of Lutheran parents. and it was on his shoulder that the Emperor leaned when he came into the great Hall at Brussels to abdicate in favour of Philip his son Trained in statecraft under a despot. had thrown in his lot with the Netherlands from youth. He had been singled out for special favour when only a lad by Charles V. Everywhere. that William grew into the rebel leader of a Silent. born in Germany and of German blood crossed with Dutch.

My cities sackt. harbour here in safety from those ravenous dogs. with a tongue that could court any way he liked. V. without betraying his horror by a word. and step by step the fearful cruelties of the persecution drove Orange into definite revolt. Canto 5. He had learnt that the Spanish forces in the Netherlands were to be the tools for massacre he warned his country of the danger. he listened. Philip would never grant. like the ending of the Inquisition and the restoration of the old liberties. half patriots. not even when the friends of freedom were driven back on a strip of territory barely " two miles broad with no help but from the wild Beggars of the Sea.'" me " ^ 1 Faery Queene. But this." Years afterwards. does the desolation of Beige in her dark hour not exaggerate : " ' Ay me ' ' (said she) all and whither shall I go ? places full of forraine powres ? My pallaces possessed of my foe. he spoke of the deep effect the revelation had made on him." half pirates.168 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND " turn all the gentlemen at men. to drown what was ." Bk. Spenser. exaggerating as usual the part played by England " " under the Faery Queene in succouring the distressed. For the time he acted cautiously but swiftly. Riding alone with Henri H of France in the Bois de Vincennes. left to them of the land. and their skj'-threating towres Razed and made smooth fields now full of flowres Are not ? Only those marishes and myrie bogs In which the fearefuU ewftes do build Yeild And their bowres an hostry 'mongst the croking frogs. in the " " Apology that Orange published when banned as a traitor by Philip." he won his paradoxical name of " " the Silent by his reticence on an occasion crucial both for himself and Europe. and henceforward their removal became one of his cardinal demands. if need were. . Once the breach was made he never faltered. Stanza 23. while Henri expounded as to a sympa" all the details of the plan arranged between thetic hearer the King of Spain and himself for the rooting out and rigorous punishment of the heretics. and from the sea itself in which they were ready.

Catholics and Protestants alike. Dutch and fiercely Calvinist. is not enough to keep you apart. (" The differ" the difference ence. nor a more lovable character. little to look for from any helper beyond those marishes and bogs. Harrison . while Spain was sinking under the weight of her own tyrannical system. her enemies defying her. " words written Dieu. who held to the last. He had already forbidden it in the case of men who had tried to murder him before. under the stress of religious bigotry. But that triumph William never lived to see." by F. ayez pitie de ce pauvre peuple round his noble portrait at the Hague. that he had done God service. Holland could be a home ahke for citizens and The French Descartes found refuge there. the difference of race and tradition.THE DUTCH REPUBLIC AND SPAIN 169 Orange had. and foreigners." ^) If he could have had his heart's desire. her population crushed and impoverished. a conflict that lasted for more than a generation with heart-breaking alternations of success and defeat. mainly Catholic. through all the torments of his savage punishment. His dying cry sums up the temper ]\Ion Dieu. the forbears of the Jew Spinoza : there the fathers of New : England halted before they made their way to America from there Grotius put forward his plea for International Law and there a broad and valiant humanity sustained . In the seventeenth century. But the Union broke up. It ended finally early in the seventeenth century with the full triumph of Holland. far in advance of his age. men whose lives he sought to spare." he kept on repeating in his large way. And all the while. ayez pitie de mon ame. In 1584 he was struck dowTi by a fanatical assassin. the ten Flemish provinces. A greater statesman never lived. as a fact. Under him the independent nation of Holland rose to become a rallying-ground and refuge for liberty and for all of his life at the close " : mon — that liberty could nurture. even before his death. 1 From "William the Silent. William would not have sanctioned the torture. It was on them and their people he had to rely. he toiled to bring about mutual tolerance among his countrymen. would have been united permanently Avith the seven of the North. and the desperate conflict against Spain.

but he and Velazquez would have understood one another. Rembrandt's is the wider nature and the richer. a double vision embracing both the outer world of space and light and the inner world of human character. an old and ruined man. lord in particular over the emotional effects of shadow and light. between himself and his contemporary Velazquez each of them nurtured in a strong and self-confident community. among many obvious differences. unlike them. In Rembrandt we have a master in dramatic power and the understanding of expressive tone and form. at the tenderness of his worn Christ suddenly recognized in the shadows of the inn at Emmaus. and seated as on a throne with the right to judge the world.170 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND the heart of the painter Rembrandt (1607-1699). the other among plebeians. each of them outstripping his limitations by his sincerity and intensity of vision. The gifts of Rubens. and unexplored. he was keenly interested in ordinary everyday objects. Like his compatriots. he was also keenly alive to the charm of the mysterious. at his gallant Polish horseman riding out alone in the autumn evening alert on a desperate quest. their shapes and surprises. certainly. a lusty Northerner of genius delighting in the plenitude of the — . at the dreadful majesty of his final Anatomy Lesson or of his Flayed Ox hanging in the common slaughter-house. There is a curious and very interesting likeness. remote. The two interests became fused. The proud Spaniard had really more in common with the Dutch peasant than with the Flemish courtier Rubens (1577-1640). and in the end we gaze with equal wonder at the sheer beauty and mystery that he saw in the light on the walls of a cellar and in the dust of a bare studio. bankrupt. but. but the one among aristocrats. or at the superhuman dignity of his own figure. whom he actually met as ambassador in Spain. Dutch painting before Rembrandt shows a high degree of academic accomplishment and but little else. It is possible to trace in his work two distinct tendencies which in his large nature balance and develop one another until in his last and finest period they coalesce and find their fit expression in a grave and deep simplicity of design.

FAUST AND THE MAGIC DISK (From an Etching by Rembrandt. British Museum) .

« .

THE DUTCH REPUBLIC AND SPAIN 171 Renaissance. are not fit subjects for contempt. young strong woman. His sumptuous colour. the beauty. Of the inner world Rubens knew and cared little or nothing. his exultant expression of the joie de vivre. and deserve to win. enlightened admiration. sympathy say. or of a rollicking Flemish dance in the open air. or of a tiger-cub. his buoyant and intricate rhythms. But the thinness of his sentiment and the grossness of his taste leave something repellent and superficial in all but the very finest of his work where his for some exuberant expression of life. of a . or of a glowing autumn landscape where the clouds chase the light. have won. kindle him to a more than common eagerness.

and the wild. friend both of England and France. example. MONTAIGNE. Dis. " THE Spain. Pleurant sans cesse. for rare. toi que voila. has taken them as he takes all lovely things : 173 . it is not without significant parallel. the quiet incisiveness of Commines. Even during the war the brilliant picturesqueness of Froissart. are enough to show the powers latent in the people. In Villon we hear a sharp-sweet note of poetry rare indeed in France. qu'as tu fait. wistful poetry of Villon. is blood-brother to the mediseval scamp. was at least as fruitful for France and England. Holland. After the Hundred Years' Qu'as-tu fait. But. though Verlaine. France was gradually restored through the statecraft of Louis XI and prepared for the learning and the exuberance of the Renaissance. the same plaintive melody as in the never-hackneyed ballad where the vanished lovely ladies of the past drift through the Death poet's fancy like the ghosts of falling snowflakes. biographer of Louis XI. War. De ta jeunesse ? " It is the same haunting cry as in Villon's futile self-reproach. which had checked French culture almost as much as English. O toi que voila. and Germany.CHAPTER XXVI THE RENAISSANCE IN FRANCE: RABELAIS. AND THE HUGUENOTS sixteenth century that meant so much for Italy. They both draw a peculiar charm out of vice and shame and the fear of death and the biting regret for wasted youth.

equally horrible if left to run wild. si bien parlans. a zest both for learning and life. Meredith has said of St. " Si plaisans en faiz et en diz ? Que " they now. but worshipping Nature. and most inspiring to Europe. Lords of song. also saw the Hog. Gargantua and Pantagruel. horrible if merely thwarted or merely starved. The confusion is the cause of infinite mischief in both directions. But at the opening of the sixteenth century we swing out from mediaeval thoughts of death into a sunlit burst of activity. Yet that obsession is bound up for Rabelais with a belief vital to him. the belief in human nature and all its functions. without ever ceasing to be Falstaff. So stimulating in Rabelais is the torrent of this Aristophanic compound that at moments the reader feels as though Falstaff were with him transfigured into a scholar. and speech. Grundy herself as a relief from the obsession of indecency. its rohicking obscenity. we might add. a statesman. when the same reader wearies intolerably of the Gallic cock on the Gallic dunghill and would welcome Mrs. its confident appeal to reason. Anthony that seeing the Hog in Nature he took Nature for the Hog and turned from the sight in disgust. a generous moralist. and jest. its unquenchable laughter. its boundless vitality and freedom. its contempt of outworn formiilas. its hatred of restraint. In this sense Rabelais revives the noblest pagan . delighted to worship it. and yet Rabelais himself The huge force of lusty at his best indicates the life way out. Gracious in all their words and ways \^^lere are I Whom ? " Death has made them a loathing and a horror. But there are other moments. the gallant lads followed in bygone days. and a religious reformer. And here the dominating It has been figure is without question Rabelais (1490-1553). said that he incarnates the very spirit of the full Renaissance. many of them. can come to its own when nurtured on sound knowledge and disciplined by the training of body and in mhid. Rabelais.THE RENAISSANCE IN FRANCE ' 178 OOl sont les gracieux gallans je suivoye an temps jadis Si bien chantans.

well-born. And to crown all." So trained. cosmography. i.ia). must be given all the wisdom of the ancients. to fill the place of all authority. since knowledge without conscience is but the ruin of the soul.over the entrance to which is engraved the motto " " Fay ce que voudras. 15-24. well-bred and conversant in honest companies. turn aside ring of : 1 * Bk. if The words in Rabelais' sustained it is by reason."i Rabelais' appetite knowledge." and all other learned languages." because men that are free. a force sufficient view. . the conclusion." Greek." those vast sciences. " and music. the scholar is free to enter as yet Gargantua's Abbey of Theleme {OeXr}f." ring with the love of liberty. have naturally an instinct and spur that prompteth them unto virtuous actions and with- " draws them from vice. arithmetic.174 " THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND and anticipates the modern.. : is not more giant for carnal food than for His demands for his scholars are insatiable they unknown how vast. Ponocrates. the Monastery of Man's Will. history. the lazy mediaeval " " into Sophisters. without which a man may be ashamed to account himself a scholar. it behoveth thee to serve. cc. See above on Dante. " the liberal arts of geometry. when by base subjection and period constraint they are brought under and kept down. and on Him to cast all thy thoughts and all thy hope and by faith formed in charity to cleave unto Him. to love and to fear God. Urquhart's translation. p." makes an athlete of him and puts him such a road and way of studying that he lost not one hour in ideals for education the the day." Do what thou wilt. so that thou mayest never be separated from Him by thy sins. now beginning to open before " men's eyes. no. The heard even more strongly in the next sonorous " Those same men. which is called Honour. rescues the lubberly Gargantua from his lounging and guzzling under his old schoolmasters." whose scholar is called Gladheart (Eudemon). Master of Toil. and then the full knowledge by direct " observation of the works of Nature.

Thus it came about that. for it is agreeable wherein they are so tyrannously enslaved with the nature of man to long after things forbidden and to what is denied. since he " uses the name for Gargantua's kingdom. Hannibals. Alexanders. the most doctrinaire of thinkers. The time is not now princes. As might be expected. and Rabelais is one of the first and most remarkable of its gospellers." by the way. Prognostics of the coming religious struggle meet us in Rabelais. notably in his dignified account of the old free-thinker's death a beautiful passage set in a sea of filth but he is — — always careful to guard himself against theological controversy. This imitation of the ancient Herculeses.THE RENAISSANCE IN FRANCE from that noble disposition inclined to virtue to shake off 175 by which they formerly were and break that bond of servitude ." The old order of unity under the Church was passing away. he appears to have read and admired. as formerly to conquer the kingdoms of our neighbour and to build up our own greatness upon the loss of our nearest Christian brother. Of that he has a distrust as shrewd as he has of war. Caesars. he mocks at superstition. if we may use so desire term of a humorist so outrageous. In his " " attack on what we should now call aggressive Imperialism he reminds us vividly of More and Erasmus. Scipios. the hope of the future was to lie in a unity found in science and freedom. self-exiled from France to Geneva. More's " Utopia. and other such heroes is quite contrary to the profession of the gospel of . he strengthened the foundations of that self-governing community which was to inspire Rousseau with the most remarkable political gospel of the eighteenth century. It says much for the richness of the French temperament that the age of Rabelais was also the age of Calvin. and once he had formed his community of believers he too was prepared to trust them with their own self-direction. the dream of unity based on a rigid acceptance of the Bible was doomed at its birth. Yet with Calvin also the appeal to serious a the intellect was incessant. tends obviously to the Reformed doctrines. fast-bound in the sternest of theologies and the narrowest of moralities. gibes at the monks.

speaking broadly. in painting. but the French are distinguished by the sharpness of the clash with which they bring the two together. for want of another word. the way that " " under the form of Beauty of the leads to the apprehension whole universe. for example. with its rapturous ecstasies of rhythm. or Mozart in music. rule and own country and lands. such as Degas. What we miss in Rabelais. nothing indeed is more distinctive in their masterpieces than their formidable power of combining a close grip on the actual with the impression of huge uncomprehended forces looming up behind and beyond appearances. certainly by the present writer. the way of " poetry. and call it is a quality that we miss perpetually in the literature of France and in her art. or painters All artists. That quality is perhaps indefinable. not in the way that we may call. its own triumphs and its own limita- Certainly the typical genius of French literature." So have Europe's great men spoken to her again and again. but it can be recognized. Pascal. The French have abundance of imagination. as a rule. Manet. And to say this it is nowise to discredit French On the contrary. seems less suited to poetry in the technical sense. than to the more . maybe he would never have choked us with foulness. To each method tions. amid all his wealth of humanity. we do now robbery. And they do this. by comparison with which many of our English treasures seem swathed in a mere golden mist of sentiment." the way of Botticelli. combine the actual with the imagined. keep. Flaubert. hostile govern every man commanded to preserve. art. wit. doubtless. Balzac is a supreme example. is the peculiar quality of poetry. and wickedness. thought and humour. but we can feel the same thing in writers as far apart as Moliere. manner invade others and that which heretofore the Barbars and Saracens called prowess and valour. always excepting her great cathedrals.176 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND by which we are his Christ. and not in a . Cezanne. and if he had had this. or Keats and Shelley in verse. but Europe has seldom listened. helps us to recognize a stark and tonic quality in their work. thievery. It is not to be identified with imagination.

the least poetic among poets. Bartholomew H complicated by struggles for political liberty and whole intrigues of sheer ambition. for example. King of Navarre. have more than a touch of . an insistence that has done much to foster the devotion paid ever since to literature in we have had its drawbacks. instead of Simonides. century. cool. And often too the writers chose the wrong models Horace. like the — Huguenots most stirring crises of their fate Marot whose charming fables. Ronsard. hke other branches of art. until the pacification a generation later (1593). the quondam Huguenot leader. needed a man's wholehearted service throughout his hfe. of Marot. IVIarot. But also it : instead of Sophocles. the wars of religion ^Marot. himself attacked and exiled for heresy. and rolled on through the horrors of Catherine Medici's ascendency and the massacre of the St. The real. In any case there can be no question that the French poets of the sixteenth followers in the Pleiade. as later on the dramatists chose Seneca France.THE RENAISSANCE IN FRANCE scientific. he had tossed " 12 qualities of his defects and refused to persecute the opinions aside. I sing to make you smile." There was cause enough for tears when the wars broke out at the turn of the century finally after the death of Henri de (1562). The name anticipates. The Edict of Nantes (1598) gave indeed to the Protestants of France a far better position than was . Tears in my eyes. as the poetic spirit proper was not strong suggested. enough in the French genius. name of Rabelais. whose metrical version of the Psalms was sung by in France and Calvinists in the Netherlands at the wistfulness in their gaiety " : and all the while. models for La Fontaine later on. Accepting the Mass with a grin for the sake of Paris and peace. and his of Rabelais' calibre. perhaps because. 177 and precise language of prose. under Henri IV. are not men Perhaps their chief significance lies in their enthusiasm for learning and their insistence that poetry. if slender stream of often clogged by inspiration in Ronsard and his fellows seems ahen growths. Henri had at least the (1572).

cit."he says The fallacy of literal in his admirable brooding on education. "II y a toujours " — — . endless room for progress in thought. qui pensent appetisser anything else. iii. But he insists on putting all so-called knowledge infinitely prefer agnosticism to parrot " formulas." They could practise their rites freely. grateful indeed and valuable. et les arrester.178 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND accorded to religious dissidents in any other European state. notably La Rochelle. During the long struggle Montaigne. were practically handed over to their control. nos debats. 13. c'est mettre ses conjectures k bien haut prix que d'en faire cuire " un homme tout vif (Bk. c. As in Germany and England. the latter part of the sixteenth century saw a truce. has uncommonly high of them. Apres tout. never found elsewhere except in the passage on friendship or the praise of Socrates he cries out that there is room. (" After all. s'employe k ce qu'elles n'interrompent venir. growing largely as ar esult of the long civil But the equilibrium was not destined to last. ce n'est pas s5avoir. en nous r'appellant a I'expresse to disparole de la Bible.) guesses if we roast a man alive because century before Descartes. petite prudence. recalling Aristotle. op. in the very coolness of that detached sentence runs a love of personal freedom that makes us recognize the compatriot of Rabelais. and here his study of Socrates stood him in good stead. 11). stood aloof. he is the first in the new Europe to advocate the claims of philosophic doubt. he says. (Grant. and certain towns. inspiration could never have entangled him as acrimoniously over interpretation as over would quarrel .) public careers were open to them. so in France. ma liberte d'aUer et Nevertheless." to the test. Ceux-la se moquent.") A knowledge. we rate our c. Sgavoir par coeur." Not that he wanted an end put In words kindling to a warmth surprising in him cussion. iii. " a natural desire of Man. one of the first " Toute ma and most famous of essayists. he foresaw. Equally " marked is Montaigne's dislike of bigotry. war." (Bk. He would men. but unstable. Such freedom was a counterpoise to the still growing power of the monarchy. en ces guerres civiles ou nous sommes.

only my knees. 179 pour nous-mesmes. Nul esprit d'esprit quand il se contente genereux ne s'arreste en soy. love of DisHking Roman all tyranny. Toute inclination et leurs adorateurs. Mais toujours par des hommes.") There is much that is repellent in Montaigne. and other paths to travel. this passion for Reason helps to explain the attraction he has had " for those he would himself have called des ames bien nees. though without the energy to fight oppression in the open field.THE RENAISSANCE IN FRANCE place pour ailleurs. shoots his light. oiii." (" What I myself really adore in Kings is the crowd of their adorers. a dislike fostered by his hterature in its greatest period. " Or maintiennent en credit non par ce qu'elles sont justes. un et II n'y a point de fin : successor. Elles sont souvent faites par des sots.") His bland contempt for the injustice of the law-courts supports in its own way the rushing invectives of Rabelais. Nostre fin est en I'autre monde. " Ce que j 'adore moy-mesme aux Roys. this self- possessed Epicurean. No generous spirit can rest in itself. ce sont mes genoux. and for ourselves. We owe them every respect and all submission. deep and warm enough to endear him to Shakespeare." And we must add his one experience of friendship. yes. My reason is not bound to yield and bend. . and his urbane humanity. C'est le fondement mystique de leur authority elles n'en ont point d'autre. et route par en nos inquisitions. Contentment is a sign that our spirit has shrunk or that it is tired. but apart from the charm of his polished wit and candour. C'est signe de racourcissement ou signe de lasset^." (" The laws hold their high position not because they are just les loix se . There can be no end to our search." (" There is always room for a suivant. Ma raison n'est pas duite a se courber et fleschir. not least his cold play with sensuality. c'est la foule de soubmission leur est deue. sauf celle de I'entendement. mais par ce qu'elles sont loix. Qui bien leur sert. save the submission of the understanding. his clear and arrowy stjde. Plus souvent par des gens qui en haine d'equaht^ ont faute d'^quit6. Our end is in the other world. keen shafts from under the shield of irony against its absurdities and cruelties. autheurs vains et irresolus.

authority. by makers who are vain But and weak. with the scheme of a Grand Design for stabilizing Europe by an alliance between her leading nations. They made by the mystical basis of their it stands them in good fools. example. government and sovereignty. Their debit account is heavy. Still more often by And those who." But here we find at least adumbrated a fresh policy of union that might conceivably take its place. stimulated to fresh purpose old speculations on the nature and limits of for Agrippa d'Aubigne. A shattering end had been put to the old dream of uniting Christendom under one head and with one faith. The mistake was known in time. They are often is but because they are laws. The Huguenots. " Vindicise contra tyrannos. a policy of something not unlike federation. the Huguenot Sully.180 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND That have no other. stead. k quelles causes et par quels les amies" (" Histoire Universelle. and might have been repaired. and of almost equal s'estend I'obeissance importance. whose fate did not touch the majesty of the law. speaks with admiration of the pamphlet. always by men. Anatole France. Anatole France must envy the page full of who were hanged through a miscarriage of justice. The name of Henri Quatre was associated after his death though probably without authority and simply as a pious fraud by his able Finance Minister. should be placed the projects of the pacificators." moyenson pent prendre ii.") It is the note repeated in various tones by Voltaire." the work in fact of a co-religionist. on the one hand. because they hate equality. might " have been saved les miens furent pendus irreparablement. Hubert Languet : "La aux estoit amplement traite j usque ou Rois. the dream of Dante's " De Monarchia. only that precedent had to be considered and prestige upheld. appealing to a law higher than any human authority. and this at least may be put to their credit. xvii. Other men.)." We cannot take leave of the sixteenth century in France the poor devils : pity and laughter concerning " " without noting the impetus given to political thought by the wars of religion. Sully's scheme. c. with all — — . that is to say. fail in equity. On the other hand. Renan.

need not. But he is noteworthy for stating. that everything was permissible to the soldier. the two opposing views on the choice between which the progress of the world may prove to hang one. lien were looking for a fresh principle of harmony and peace on which to reconstruct society. horrified .THE RENAISSANCE IN FRANCE its defects. ^ From the eighteenth-century translation Grotius Society PubUcations. but that always and everywhere the voices of reason. it may be granted. but big. was not a man of first-rate intellect. Hence. Erasmus. bravely and forcibly and with his own preference clear. and should not be a though recourse to unlimited force. and he himself. felt in Rabelais. inchoate and faulty though it is. In the next century Grotius in Holland (1583-1645). even ]\Iontaigne. More. maybe. humanitj^ and moderation should be heard. were silent ." modern attempts to days. it may be. now reprinted in the . that war. a recourse to force. our system of international law.at war the cruelty of war increasing. since laws — —persisting and : when weapons spoke and the other. with consequence of urging nations to their attacks. to work out a " which all Europe might be regulated and plan by memorable in our as inaugurating own — ^ The more visionary brooding over Utopias. looks to Grotius with gratitude as one of its founders. agree deliberately on laws hmiting the nature of The controversies Grotius raised are not yet solved. points in the same direction. is 181 think out — and practicable governed as one great family. and with good cause. took the step small in itself.

Urquhart. sprang forward with a bound towards other and finer activities.CHAPTER XXVII THE RENAISSANCE is IN ENGLAND: ELIZABETHAN LITERATURE IT strange to turn from Montaigne's French wit. writing before the tragedy of the Huguenot wars. have scarcely sufficient knowledge to enable us to answer all the questions about the date and origin of ballad poetry. under Henry VIII. just as it was an Englishman with the Elizabethan tradition. A people follow may somenot the up the promise of its ballads. but the promise promise of a rich humanity. But Rabelais. is When the civil strife was at last closed by the Tudor monarchy and the two Roses were made one. as we have insisted. but it seems clear that good ballads were written in the fifteenth century. to the joy and excitement that mark the Renaissance in England. And the ballads of We Scotland and the Border point in the same direction. Rabelais. it must also carry in thing that thrills and warms the heart. cool. Signs of the coming exuberance had already appeared. kindly. is perhaps nearest to the temper of the Elizabethans. had nothing of the poet in him. and mordant. Even during the desolating Wars of the Roses Malory's work on the old romances shows that the appetite for chivalrous and heroic literature was still somewhere alive. who helped to translate him with such surprising success. released. England. and the Elizabethans are pre-eminently poets. the nation. and a good ballad must not only it tell its story tersely and with spirit. disillusioned. began to take 182 .

Rather they increased. he cannot touch the springs of tears and of laughter. a national poet. he has httle constructive power. Characteristically. a rule that owing to her statesmanlike tact did not hamper what freedom had. the no born story-teUer. though all come thick " together. has always been claimed as the poet's poet. The " " is remarkable in other ways as among the first of Utopia all Utopias in Western Europe the reasoned effort to think out much as Plato had done centuries ago an ideal Commonwealth where to all men of goodwill might be secured the means of living and the incentive to live well. He is no dramatist. he is often over-sweet and over-long. and religious animosity in England never. " Sir Thomas More's Utopia" holds an enlightened plea for tolerance. so there was no attempt. and the feel in his forward-looking view. reached anything like the violence that ruled in France or Germany or Spain.THE RENAISSANCE IN ENGLAND her 183 full share in the general revival of Greek letters and the ferment of religious reform. his But just as IMore's Rome made chief of these was poetry. except during the brief reign of Mary Tudor. so far. the readiness to experiment. the majority of the English reformers eschewed too violent a breach with the old forms. The old economic problems at the back of the Peasants' Revolt and behind the words of Langland and Wyclif recur in More " " but there is something new and sheep are eating men significantly modern in his application of the intellect to their — : — — — solution and own development was cramped by conservative sympathies." but he is also. and markedly. been achieved. The ardour. but they passed for the time into other channels. first of the great names. though his own practice. for the time. hampered perhaps by his devotion to the general principles of the Catholic system. Spenser. to follow up in practice any of his bold speculations. that we can versive theories in More did not disappear. but he can open the magic casements . The Marian persecution and the ensuing struggle against Spain and the nation reluctant to imperil by any subthe unity it had gained under the rule of Elizabeth. was not always on the level of his most daring thought.

184 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND into faery lands. It is all wrapt in the sunlight and the mist of enthusiasm for gallant adventure. But the long rambling unfinished Faery Queene. or again with the enthusiasm of patriotic service and. V. for the glory of the Virgin Queen. we must add. Spenser's qualities at once appealed to what was generous and flattered what was vain in the Elizabethan temper. while his early translations prove his study of the French Pleiade but he has given an unmistakably English character to his rich medley of romantic echoes and classical learning. Spenser sings both of his private love and his public hopes. but his fitting medium was prose. to Bk. to thrilling " with the new-found sense. dismissing the new claim to equality as a mere aping of justice. Montaigne wrote of himself. Half-way between old and new." (Prol. and his attitude to the struggles of his nation was throughout detached.) faire virtue bore. of patriotic illusion. . yet by temperament aristocratic. and the stars look down on the marriage-night Beauty is almost as exquisite.) alive to courtesy and courage everywhere. for the defence of what seemed a purer The response of his public was ardent and instanreligion. That of the world least part to us is read . And daily now through hardy enterprise Many great Regions are discovered. and charm us with the song of his own heart. looking back whom — lovingly to the image of the antique world. Like his idolized Chaucer he loved scholarship and learnt eagerly from foreigners the mere form of his chief work shows the stamp of Ariosto. taneous. His own wedding-song remains his most perfect achievement. II. is more distinctive both of the man and of his time." though nothing like so perfect. the Epithalamium of revelry and prayer. where the Bacchanal day is holy. no man more fully." (Prol. exulting over the brilliance. from ' ' like spirits in Paradise. " When as man's age was And the first blossom of in its freshest prime Bk. the endurance. His Platonic " Hymn to " — he learnt most.

Spenserian allegory has been with men so diverse as Bunyan and Milton.THE RENAISSANCE IN ENGLAND and the victory in her at 185 of England's queen till he could see no fault he captivated outright the leaders of a nation all. and allegory is a form Allegory form well suited to the EngHsh genius. a nation overflowing with vitality. its mettle tested by a struggle for life and death. and they are It is." of art capable. Yet in the eyes of the chivalrous Spenser the only remedy was that the His picture of oppression should be made still more severe. But Spenser's dreamy fantastic chronicle wherein. starved with callous indifference . with Shakespeare. " It was the time of the Plantations. Soon the country was in a flame of revolt and the cruel oppression did not put out the fire. beautiful old rhyme In praise of ladies dead and lovely knights. Spenser's own letter from Ireland furnishes a sardonic — commentary on the poet's legends of justice and courtesy. It was a passionate age also. but nothing can palliate the tyranny with which lands were taken from the Irish people and given over to the clutches of needy Englishmen. undeniably. mostly younger sons of dominant families and eager themselves to dominate. very ill to bridle. its imagination fired by new discoveries. we read descriptions of the fairest wights. many. enchantment that showed them so much of their own ambitions " " ? in lond of Faery transfigured came naturally to Spenser. The disunion gave some real pretext for interference. Keats potent and Shelley. whatever its dangers. its intellect stimulated by a new learning that What more welcome than the greedily absorbed the old. a singular successes. of " And beauty making knights and ladies succouring distress and achieving selfcontrol all of it reflects after all only one aspect of the Elizabethan age. moreover. the starved peasantry. united once more under an adored descendant of mighty kings. a determined effort to subdue Ireland to her own laws Ireland had never united herself and was thus the less able effectively to resist." when England first made and customs.

after the Divina Commedia. as all men know." that can compare with the poetry of Greece. " Much more of the typical Elizabethan quality. is reflected. with which indeed dramatists or would-be dramatists. long coincided. " that one achievement of European literature. the very carcasses they spared not to scrape out of the graves. the form and " of its eagerness for all experience. for theyr legges could not beare them looked like anatomyes of death. either direct or derived through the Italians. On " the the contrary it is the deliberate advice of his Irenseus." it not drawn to make his readers shrink from the policy. sudden of rise of it is to The the full Spenser's supple and as startling as the sudden birth elaborate diction (nurtured on the it nearly golden numbers of Ariosto)." that the system should be extended. yea. forthe . to repent . but it is only a ghmpse. and the models chosen were from the dull Seneca. or clownish farces. they spoke like ghosts crying out of they did eate of the dead carrion. man of peace. in its drama. good or evil. In less than a generation we It is very suitfind ourselves borne up by Marlowe's flight. wider. " . happy were they if theyr graves in so much as they could finde them. efforts had been poor. stripped of Gloriana's golden trappings.186 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND through English policy. is drawn with the vividness of a poet. although Spenser knew was of " sometimes forsuch wretched- was any stonye harte would have rued the same. It is a glimpse of the actual world. its pressure often careless of delight in free and forceful individuahties." The legend of the man who gave his of immortal soul for knowledge and beauty and power." The ness as picture is often referred to. more vividly indeed than any of his tapestried horrors in the " " Faery Queene : Out of every corner of the woods and glinnes they came creeping they upon theyr handes. But the after a style at once grander. able that Marlowe's most famous work should be the drama " Doctor Faustus. The harsh reahties of a conqueror's career are seen here naked. and one another soon after. English limited to a narrow round of conventional miracle-plays and moralities. had begun by the middle of the century to feel and more orderly. others' freedom. but it it is gotten that.

In words and cadences he has all Spenser's sweetness. obviously his nature was as free and generous as it was broad. " Still And always moving thirsting for the flowers of poesy. dramatic mighty line. tragedies. as much a poet's mind as Marlowe's or Spenser's. the attempt to reach the man behind the pageant of For his work is always fascinating and far from impossible. to be felt. . was a fit theme. . had not only the imagination of a dramatist. my Christ " Ah. in the end of his where the great cry of unavailing agony serves only to infuriate the fiends " : " See where Christ's blood streams in the firmament One drop would save my soul half a drop ah. There was never a better example of Plato's dictum that it belongs to the same man to Sensitiveness and strength are write tragedy and comedy. and his mind. " and with it a superb." climbing after knowledge infinite as the restless spheres. and it is good to remember Shakespeare's generous " Dead Shepherd. not only for that wild genius in a tavern brawl. for example. has given undying expression to the multiform cravings of the soul." demanding the whole of the earth for its field of conquest as Tamberlaine demands it." As to Shakespeare admiration for the Born in the himself. seldom divided in him sympathy and insight never. but a steadiness and veracity that prevented it from being hoodwinked by shows or paralysed by dreams.THE RENAISSANCE IN ENGLAND bitterly 187 and in vain." immortal beauty that drops from the " and not for it only. who plunged into vile and glorious excesses and died Marlowe. if fluctuating. more perhaps than any poet. but also for the age that included the Renaissance and the Reformation. but for a beauty which into words no virtue can digest." " " Faustus force. but he An iron quality can be felt in his is immeasurably stronger. rend not my heart for naming of my Christ — ! : ! ! in development. but more precocious Marlowe is the right herald for our supreme poet. That is one reason why we can endure the most heart-breaking of his At the worst he makes us feel that man is great. same year as Shakespeare.

And it is in first full to last he should be the greatest of accord with this tenderness of nature that from all those dramatists . but because they have lived we cannot despair.188 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND For he could not and would not." permeated poisoned by a sick loathing for the Troilus and is — I lust had almost written and cruelty which masquerade as love and patriotism. But he would have laughed also if he had been told that " Henry V was his Ideal Man. They are doomed. He knows quite well the hardness. we know. How this effect is gained we cannot say. So with Edmund in " Lear." And in the end he who faced resource : none the less : for his leader's gifts the spectre of world-destruction in his most tragic play " It will : come : humanity must prey on itself Like monsters of the deep. the craft and the self-deception that go too often with an empire-maker's gallantry and : he not only admires Harry the King he can laugh with him delightedly. A substantial part of the overwhelming impression made by Hamlet comes through showing us how a nature nobly born and unblemished can be shaken to its foundations by the discovery of foulness and treachery and by the demand for ruthless punishment. brute and degenerate. he can sustain us by the vision of such lovable characters as Hector and Troilus." he who still faced it when he drew Caliban and Trinculo. Yet he can face them with a smile. To other men horrors may be mere names never to Shakespeare. like in the demi-devil " — Cressida. So with Richard HI. Even when he draws an lago. Chaucer's all-embracing charity revives in him. but certainly never bj^ cloaking the terror in life. the same all-enduring kindliness." Lesser evils he notes with the same unwavering swiftness. we are surprised at the last into a throb of admiration for the courage who. So with Shylock. raised to an incredible power." Even when the whole play. will never speak again under whatever torture. separate the Heaven in the cosmos of humanity from the Hell. came more and more to find his comfort in the mercy he had loved when he wrote his early comedies. as Dante could and did. The over-word of " King Lear " is " Bear free and patient thoughts.

There is a simplicity and a dignity in the death of his Calantha. and later * " T. and it is impossible not to deplore it. The English might have learnt from the Greeks order. Beaumont and Fletcher enhance each other's gifts. and starry names come Terror and pity perform their purifying " " because they are work in Webster's Duchess of Malfi blent in the right tragic mould with wonder and admiration. WTien straight one news came huddling on another Of death. The best of Shakespeare's contemporaries and immediate successors. or the bees working at their honey. that recalls Antigone and Iphigenia : " O. G. They cannot claim that profound union of the richest poetry woven into the actual stuff of life that puts William in a place apart. are not unworthy of ever had a more intense realization than he of love's need for his companionship. and death still I danced forward. of the Dover Cliff." a paper read to the Classical Association of Victoria. through difference. The likeness. of sober alive among upon crowding in us. But the contagion of genius was the Elizabethans. strength and warm sensuous imagining. The last thing Shakespeare could be called is puritanical. though obviously below him. neglected so much of the finest material.THE RENAISSANCE IN ENGLAND who 189 ever took for theme the sweetness of true love. . Tucker in Shakspere and ^schylus. John Ford knows the springs of tenderness. of the Elizabethan drama to the Athenian. her love and her sorrows. my lords. mistress of herself. A modern scholar ^ has pointed out how the long descriptive passages in Shakespeare. serve the same purpose as the lyrics of the classical chorus. is indeed incessant and notable. and death. the Elizabethans only studied the Greek drama at its best ! on the French. at once relieving and broadening the Had tragic effect by recalHng its setting in the larger world. It is hard to understand why both they." They . but no man purity and faithfulness. I but deceived your eyes with antic gesture. — are the silent griefs that crack the heartstrings Let me die smiling. for example. and the secret of structure. reticence.

it but his real power is to be felt in his seizure of grim j " prosaic types." Yet after all the best scholar among the Elizabethan dramatists is true. The cunning. I seems to allow himself a side-thrust at the element in Shakes" " Tempest which he chose to consider mere monsterpeare's making to please the groundlings. appals us by his unsleeping malignity. were not for his prodigal barbarity of structure Ben Jonson would suggest a French dramatist of genius rather than an Elizabethan. sycophants terrible who crowd about him Volpone." " The comedy of " Bartholomew Fair.190 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND and the French might have learnt not to be afraid of homehness " and naturalness in the highest reaches of the style noble. fiercely contemptuous of the for his money. cannot escape wearying the reader in the end just because it has not a hint of the marvellous to relieve its squalid riot. Ben. . extorts our admiration by his indomitable grin at his own hideous doom. remains the least poetical. but can never unlock the secret fountains as Timon of Athens docs for us when he tells the world that he has built On his everlasting mansion the salt verge of the embossed flood." while it abounds in real laughter and vivid portraiture. only lifted into tragedy dignifies their by the If it force of will that commonplace desires. his cruel laughter. Ben Jonson has poetry. But a touch of the magic which can "make Nature afraid" would have made all the difference to his own work. his more cruel lust. in his own preface.

He felt. transHere they lations. and it will be an evil day for English prose if the Bible ceases. to be a household book for the common people. sensitive and able. The name of Francis Bacon used to be cited as pre-eminent But it is now in the advance towards modern science. narratives. . is attain their loftiest. sermons. working together without or private ambition on a book known and reverenced as envy The Authorized Version was long in beautiful and divine. Its influence on the literature and the : imagination of England has been at least as great as on her religion. above all in the translation of the Bible. the enthu- siasm for knowledge and discovery that stirred his age. was far from being in the first rank. and science in Europe. though sagacious. and also he gave them pungent and the impulse to free criticism he was keenly aware of the need for steady glowing expression. The range of the prose writers is enormous. Their power is shown alike in comedies. essays. and the sustained nobility of the language a marvellous instance of what may be accomplished by a of minds. generally recognized that his mind. and the group that completed the Authorized Version under James I. and some think it has already ceased. two the splenother achievements claim our attention did development of English prose and the birth of modem : AS Elizabethan England passed into Jacobean. Tyndale and Miles Coverdale Wycliffe in the sixteenth. 191 .CHAPTER XXVI : I I THE NEW LEARNING IN ENGLAND FRANCIS BACON the sixteenth century led on to the seventeenth. it was true. number Purvey and making and there were many makers in the fourteenth century.

tr. and mathematics. and this too at a time when momentous advances were being made in physiology." free from those idols of the tribe. " " that were drowned? ^ In more formal language The painted : first " true induction. and we can easily understand : Harvey's curt summing up of his writes on philosophy like a Lord high pretensions Chancellor. He quotes with zest the ancient apologue of the wise man who was shown by a miracle-monger the votive tablets of those who had prayed to Neptune and been preserved from " " but where are they Yea. by Ellis and Spedding."^ It is. S xvi. while he himself never contributed to a single great discovery nor conducted a single fruitful experiment. physics. prejudices common to the race. or peculiar to the person. slow-paced practice and trial." Bk. were of scant value. Philosophy neither relies solely or chiefly on the powers of the mind. while insisting on the test of thorough observation. Mill's Method of Agreement and Difference." said the sage. nor does it take the matter which gathers from natural history and mechanical experiments and lay it up in the memory whole." Bk.192 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND " experimental labour. Bacon insisted also that science is more than observation . shipwreck. He scouted the Copernican theory. in essentials. experiment and theory must go hand-in-hand if causes are ever to " be discovered. 2. the experimental and the rational (such as has never yet been it . or are found in some absent . made) much may be hoped. ^ Novum Organon. the cave. Therefore from a closer and purer league between these two faculties. or bred of talk and haphazard theory. astronomy." Moreover. the market. of which he was so proud. V.." At the same time we must admit that Bacon's own detailed suggestions for research. and the theatre." Bacon writes. . just enough ahead of public opinion to lead it forward amid ^ "He " " De Augmentis. as it finds it but lays it up in the understanding altered and digested. we might add." Or. is the rejection or exclusion of the several natures which are not found in some work of instance where the given nature instance where the given nature " is is present. a journalist of genius.

And Bacon is never so truly power eloquent as when urging the nobleness of knowledge in itself and " in its uses. suggests acquired : a Utopia of shopkeepers and his conception of purpose in " the universe is on no higher level. . error or confusion. looking idly into the shop-window of Nature instead of going boldly into her " warehouse and searching for themselves. tend to ease. to ply our arts. (Nov." charming as it is. For we cannot command Nature except by" obej'ing her. Aphorism 129. physic. or refresh us . The empire of man over things depends wholly on the arts and sciences. clothing. did spread and and experiment. 13 . is a principal reason that they have traditions so httle. The vegetables and animals of all kinds either afford us matter for houses. And the uses of it so assuredly the very contemplation of things. or so that everything in nature seems made Yet. . Let men be assured that the fond opinion that they have already acquired enough. habita. Bacon to follow." with whatever drawbacks. or support. rather too often the bait of a low " utilitarianism his New Atlantis. without superstition or imposture." . food. or delight.THE NEW LEARNING IN ENGLAND 193 But let us add in fairness that such a universal applause. it is true. Org. is in itself more worthy than all the fruit of inventions. but his assault on the lazy subservience to Aristotle was always stimulating. but for man.) Bacon's attack on Aristotle was often ignorant. schoolmen had been content themselves to take false words for had satisfied with and hasty generalizations." He (" Advancement of Learning. . enabling us to walk. to read. yet (to speak the whole truth) as the uses of light are infinite. is never to be despised. The things. to and nevertheless the very beholding of recognize one another the light is itself a more excellent and a fairer thing than all . as they are. tions.") dangles. although it was other men who had begun and who continued the actual work of discovery and marked out the most hopeful paths clarify the desire for research not for itself.

They proclaimed and rightly the need of an experimental method. So it is with the re-founders of science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. and that the greatest merit of the great man is seeing some old half-apprehended truth in fuller hght and great when two same " " with new connections. Singer. — — Yet the appeal to experiment was no new thing. S. 194 . then. that sometimes the experiment or the brilliant idea remains for a long time fruitless. himself made experiments. " De Revolutionibus Orbium publication both of the " " Celestium by Copernicus the Pole. See also The Legacy of Greece " 2 Paradiso.CHAPTER XXIX THE AWAKENING (F. making. and of the De Corporis Humani Fabrica " by Vesalius the Belgian. a fresh synthesis. How does it happen. against whom Bacon invoked it. 95. (Clarendon Press). always find that some one has anticipated them. in fact. It was experiment which decided Galileo and laid the foundation of modern mechanics. Dante has a famous passage ^ in its praise. while 1 Dr. somewhere and in part. IN SCIENCE Marvin) has been recently pointed out by a writer ^ on the It saw the history of science that 1543 is a notable year. and Aristotle. It is useful to note such epoch-marking dates and especially convenient IT men publish their Opera Magna in the But when we come to look into the details we year. Studies in the History and Method of Science " " I and II. Vols. " (Clarendon Press). Roger Bacon extols it. II.

and the appeal of Roger Bacon events had been happening Now West which recalled these ancient times and promised a similar sequel. And the circumIn each stances of the time were in many respects alike. In the ancient world the birth of science took place. the other. The Greeks transmuted these into science. of self-governing political As in Greece. case a new spirit of inquiry was beginning to stir in a world in the still largely dominated by theological beliefs and organization. In each case the area of free inquiry was extended by com- merce and travel. This time the Arabs played the part of Eastern sages and the Italians represented the Greeks. the seed falls on good ground and springs up and bears fruit immediately and abundantly ? The reason is much the same The ground is fit in one case and not in as in the parable. six centuries before the Christian era. science is a social thing and its advance depends even more upon the whole state of society than upon the individuals in whose minds the new ideas first appear. In other words.THE AWAKENING IN SCIENCE 195 sometimes. so in Italy. for some little time before the thirteenth century a. centuries. wits and a habit of travel had enabled them to extract hints from the priesthoods of Babylon and Egypt. And the rise communities hastened the process. Then a little later came the beginnings of scientific medicine and biology. who had stored up astronomical and other observations. They had established there Quick flourishing cities and had grown rich by commerce. among the Ionian Greeks on the west coast of Asia Minor.d. East and West had again come into contact. and especially geometry. with certain references to astronomy. . For the springing-up of modern science the soil it was stirred again by began to be prepared by the Arabs the Crusaders and became ready in the thirteenth century it was delayed by the feudal disorders of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and by the distrust of the clerical leaders it began to bear its crop in the sixteenth and seventeenth . . It related in the first place to mathematics. and are the first of mankind about whom we can predicate scientific thought. . as with the circle and successors of Gahleo.

there was so much movement in the the appearance of an anticipating genius such as Roger Bacon was not quite miraculous. whither the argument led the mind. feudal conflicts and clerical timidity hampered the free growth of thought. The world of thought was extended by the renewed study of ancient authors classics of Greece and Rome who had thought and written and thrived outside the limits of the cloister. and the " Almagest " of Ptolemy. which had its first Western home at the Univertranslated into sity of Salerno. . Here science begins before it there was no science. just before : air that the thirteenth century. The physical world was being enlarged by the Eastern journeys of men like Marco Polo. as already noticed. nor advancing. Padua and Bologna. far from wholly impervious to the new influences.196 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND thought flourished in cities hke Florence and Venice. Pisa and Genoa. It has been already stated that just before his day the scientific works of Aristotle had begun to reach the West. and in philosophy Aristotle while in biology and medicine Galen. in fact. not to be discovered by observation of the world around and the use of the individual reason. which had an intense political life of their own. It is not till well after the Reformation that we meet the full dawn of modern experiment. — — It is clear that when we thus envisage scientific thought as one function of a developing social life. In astronomy Ptolemy and his predecessors lived again. was re-examined with more impartial eyes. Side by side with the revival of mathematical and astronomical science appeared the science of medicine. we cannot sharply " define its advent and say. as the Greeks had taught. The Church. Yet the two centuries and a half though . who explored the high and distant lands of Central Asia. But. the ideal of the cloister had arisen in men's minds. before. had been Latin." But we can see how. In each case the new school of thinkers first turned to what had been done by the earlier founders. clung to the enforcement of belief on grounds of supernatural truth. who had enjoyed a more unbroken sway than any other Greek. the storehouse of ancient astronomy.

perhaps the most gifted man of the whole Renaissance. especially By the end of the century we meet the amazing achievements of Leonardo da Vinci. coupled with the gradual free use of the intellect in criticizing traditional ideas and opening itself to the real world. like many universal geniuses. and by his study of the ancient authors became a living link between old and new. he strewed the ground with such a profusion of pearls that many of them escaped notice till well be he. modern drawings of human and animal . especially of Greek writers. it might Ingenious inventor.THE AWAKENING IN SCIENCE 197 which passed between the death of Roger Bacon and the date 1543. probably used by Columbus. went farther. Mathematics took a considerable place in his thought and he anticipated Galileo as well as Copernicus in on the movement of the earth. Of these humanists. unwearied questioner and observer. a later age. Nicolas. deserve high praise. modern geology with anatomy with his exquisite forms. Early in the fifteenth century his friend and pupil. as it has sometimes been represented. The Renaissance was not. approach towards scientific hght. Toscanelli. He also made a famous map. accomplished artist. the Italian. and the German Nicolas of Toscanelli had set up a gnomon Cues. many of his views. in the cathedral at Florence which measured the height of the sun to a second. and he showed throughout the true scientific spirit by carefully testing and measuring every phenomenon which occurred to him and was capable of measurement. If any one person were to be studied as exhibiting in all its richness and versatility the new spirit of free inquiry. he did not become a modern mechanics with his his views on fossils. if intermittent. who had both interest in and influence on science. science. He anticipated instruments. It and was a gradual rediscovery of the work of ancient thinkers writers. a sudden revelation. which we have suggested for the birth-year of modern are marked by a real. eagerness and enjoyment of nature which mark that age. We cannot sharply distinguish the dates nor the different aspects of this awakening. and was the first to engrave maps on copper. But.

He found this open to many difficulties and encumbered with many complexities. The Pythagoreans had taught the doctrine of a central fire which warmed and enlightened all the heavenly bodies. and Martianus.. which is the celestial order centre of the universe.C. revolving in circles. Aristarchus of Samos. a first suggestion of the theory in the work of Martianus Capella. had advanced to a more accurate conception of the first and made. Copernicus the Pole. He went farther among the Greeks themselves and found that other hypotheses had been put forward by earlier thinkers than Ptolemy. which more steps than we have space to mention. though right in the case of Mercury and Venus. But there seems to be no intermediate stage between Martianus Capella and Copernicus. though composed many years before. so he tells us. That position is held by his younger contemporary. one of the Alexandrian School in the third century B. founder. in 1543. whose work on the movement of the heavenly bodies. is of high value and interest as an example of the continuity of scientific thought. He found. was only published after his death. His story is typical of the science of the Renaissance. just under a century since the birth of Leonardo. He also held the view that the earth revolves and that the sun and the fixed stars are motionless. by a strictly scientific method. who wrote a sort of encyclopaedia of knowledge in the sixth century a. at increasing distances round the sun.d. Copernicus extended this doctrine to the other planets and drew in his book a diagram of all the planets then known. includes The whole story of the filiation of the doctrine.198 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND He was too many-sided to create a school in any one branch and attained an isolated and shining eminence rather than a step in the ascending scale of knowledge. It was on this hypothesis that Copernicus fixed and he saw its advantage in simplicity over the Ptolemaic system. does not . He began with the Ptolemaic system of celestial spheres revolving round the central earth. Martianus taught that Venus and Mercury revolve round the sun. the approximation to the relative size and distance of the sun and moon.

when Galileo had made the question burning and crucial. to a long and searching examination by other workers. and says explicitly that the earth the centre of the universe. Darwin three hundred years later In each case the first hypothesis was subject gives the other. and. He tried to simplify. though rightly regarded as the pioneer of astronomy. modem ential examples of it . preconception. to calculate the correct orbits and motions of the planets. invalidate the general truth of the original assumption. Holy Writ still The tells us that Joshua bade the sun stand still and not the earth. metaphysical or idee fixe. More than seventy years passed before his work was put on the Index in 1616. The gravest error of Copernicus lay in representing the orbits of the planets as circles. " fool would turn Astronomy upside down. and in each case large corrections were subsequently made which did not.THE AWAI^NING IN SCIENCE is 199 apply his truth generally. and he tried to make " " the scientific law fit better to. or better express." There was the hitch. the observed facts. which Kepler was able to wield seventy years later with the aid of the telescope. when he said. His modest avowal of a mere hypothesis prevented the immediate outbreak of the storm which raged round the head of Galileo. however. It was an obvious simplification to assume that the earth revolved on its axis once in every twenty-four hours rather than that the whole multitude of heavenly bodies revolved round it. though we may pardon Luther as in this matter an ordinary member of the unthinking public. and Copernicus gives us one of the two most influCopernicus. an unreasoning attachment to an accepted text. Luther expressed the prejudice of the popular. with an additional movement of the opposite kind to account for the precession of the equinoxes. and more of the traditionally religious mind. This is the constant aim of the scientific inquirer. because the circle is the simplest and most " " Herein lay a perfect figure. had not the knowledge or the power. which the want of adequate instruments prevented him from correcting. we may .

and in biology until nearly our own day. yet the different branches of science have come to maturity in a different order. Melanchthon. If a book. were to be the standard. and by that very order have revealed their interconnection and a great deal of their nature. The crisis in cosmical science. But in the case of the Copernican doctrine even the unbroken tradition of the Church at last gave way. the whole body of the Church. But for the Protestants the bulwark against innovation was far less easy to defend than for the Catholics. speaking for fifteen hundred years through the mouth of its chief. We noticed the year 1543 as a critical date both for cosmical and biological science. the final authority in questions of science as well as of conduct. the year of Copernicus' book and of " Vesalius' De Corporis Humani Fabrica. But for the year maturity of both branches of science we have to wait for some time longer. saw the importance of the new teaching more clearly. tative interpretation. and we standard itself study it in a later chapter. of various dates and different authorship. of which the work of Copernicus was a leading step. The decree of 1616 condemning his work fell gradually into disuse and oblivion. and was still more active in his opposiHe held the Copernican heliocentric view to be so The Bible was to be godless that it ought to be suppressed. tion." It was a birthof new interest and new mental activity. came in the seventeenth century. By that time a mechanically coherent scheme of the physical order of the universe was reached to which later thought has constantly added amplifishall . or rather a collection of books. who had a mind more cultivated for the apprehension of such discussions. It is important to master this fact because. and was in 1822 finally withdrawn.200 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND question whether the revolution in scientific thought which he opposed and despised was not really greater than that which he carried out in the domain of religious doctrine. who was to interpret the ? Every man who read it might interpret it For the Catholic there was only the one authoridifferently. though the growth of scientific knowledge is similar throughout and due throughout to the operation of an active mind upon its surrounding phenomena.

when the doctrine of evolution plays somewhat the same part in transforming our outlook which the Copernican theory. from the crusades and the rise of the universities to the work of Galileo. when Copernicus was twenty-four years old. hitherto unknown facts from all quarters were coming into ken. Art played its part in this awakenlife as well as scientific observation travel was as fruitful ing . now became the centre of a far wider influence destined in the nineteenth century to encircle the globe. Men began to take delight in picturing truly not only the plants and other objects described by the ancients. but not revolution. which bore their fruits gradually and built up a new order of life and thought of which we are even yet only beginning to discern the clear outlines. played in the physical world in the seventeenth. just coming to the birth from an unfettered study of the Greek pioneers. new animals. And the widening of the world to the East which accompanied this was as extensive and of very similar import. In 1500. new plants. played at . but what they could see and handle themselves. In the early stages of the sciences of life. new observations of all sorts were being made.THE AWAKENING IN SCIENCE cations 201 and corrections. But the corresponding crisis in the sciences of Hfe does not come till the nineteenth century. seeds of all kinds were being sown. which had been the centre of the earlier culture and the first world-organization of the Greeks and Romans. when Cabral landed on the shores of Brazil. The explorations of Central and Southern America by Cortez and Pizarro were going on while Copernicus was exploring the heavens for new truth there. and the explorers were daily adding to their wealth. The Mediterranean Sea. In the four centuries from the end of the twelfth to the end of the sixteenth. developing his During the years in which Copernicus was theory. as experiment. explorers East and West were adding to European knowledge new lands. Art first a considerable part in aiding strictly scientific observation and experiment. elaborated by Galileo and Newton. Cabot first landed on the North American continent in 1497. Copernicus began teaching mathematics and making astronomical observations at Bologna and at Rome.

Galileo. the This first first with accurate detail of flower and fruit. gives us 1. if indeed it has reached it now. is preliminary to scientific law in the stricter sense. dissection. as a young man. the greatest of the forerunners. Leonardo's anatomical drawings we have already mentioned. Anatomy. at the risk of his own life. " De Corporis Humani Fabrica. Galileo's birth followed the death of Copernicus after nineteen years. whose life falls within that of Copernicus. and Kepler attained a degree of rational co-ordination which the science of life did not reach our own time. being of the descriptive and classificatory kind. who studied in larger scale. and he took particular pleasure in adding them as Others did the same on a subsidiary to the main subject. side by side with the telescope. was driven. But there one link between the two main branches of science at this time which is full of interest. in the early seventeenth century. Physical science at the hands of Copernicus. contrivance and perseverance not : inferior to that of the travellers who explored the Spanish main. and should be mentioned before we turn to Galileo.500 drawings of plants. was at the same time passing through a similar stage. represents altogether i8o different plants and animals in his pictures. moreover. the foundation of biology.202 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Albrecht Diirer. Vesalius. Vesalius' own book. It will be noticed that the work on biology at this stage. born at Zurich in 15 16. in order to secure a human subject for dissection." is splendidly illustrated and the drawings are attributed to a pupil of Titian's. But more dissection was imperathan draughtsmanship was needed tive. a'nd classification had to precede the scientific study of the law of growth. aided by the microscope. was essential before classification could be descriptive stage attempted. to carry off the body of a criminal hung on the gallows. which was being developed. The religious prejudice of the time against mutilating a dead body was still so strong that the dissectors had to be prepared for adventure. Strasbourg and Paris. Gesner. till is He was teaching mathematics and physics in Padua from .

and succeeded greatly in other cases. There was real connection between the former. as well as a scientific mind of unexampled He surpassed Leonardo. in his as in so many subtlety and persistence. His at the College of " mind v/as the strongest influence in the awakening. musician. thanks to Vesalius and his school. Galileo's at once became the starting point of the mechanical ideal of the material universe which is the leading feature of seventeenth century science. He began to expound The CirculaPhysicians after 1616 and it was published as " tion of the Blood in 1628. It should be remembered that Galileo himself had begun by the study of medicine and that he was of the Renaissance giants. a man versed like Leonardo in art and study of all kinds. There. however. who studied in Padua from 1598 to 1602. supplied the stimulus which set his mind to work on its own lines. At twenty-two he received his first lesson in Euclid and soon passed on.THE AWAKENING IN SCIENCE of 203 1592 to 1610 and attracting thousands from every part Europe. which had made great strides in Italy and was in advance there over the rest of the world. Harvey had gone to Padua to study the science of medicine. The ancient thinkers. He quickly grasped the conclusions . painter. They revealed to him the first fresh appreciation of the fundamental laws of geometry which underlie all our accurate thinking. Vesalius himself had worked and taught in Padua. burning with interest and enthusiasm. Among these was an EngUshman called Harvey. to Archimedes. mechanician. The coincidence of Galileo and Harvey is as noteworthy as that of Copernicus and Vesalius and more significant. He was eighteen when he began to attend lectures on medicine at Pisa. one direction by having the wisdom early to discern where his proper work lay and where the most needed advance in science was to be made. but while Harvey's discovery had to wait for the development of chemistry to unfold its full meaning. between the two converging influences a true anatomy which studied the actual build and functioning of the body and a new mechanical conception of motion and force — — Harvey first conceived the first mechanical law introduced it into biology.

He which. He succeeded in establishing them. however. odd numbers. This experiment. In 1588 " The Centre he wrote. connected with the name of Einstein. the telescope and the microscope.g. that the time occupied in any portion of the fall is equal to that which would be taken by a body moving throughout that the spaces that space with half its velocity at the end in each successive interval are to one another as the series of . the best known and most easily intelligible of all he tried. after Kepler's thus founded the science of dynamics work on the planets. who blindly followed the traditional interpretation of certain stray and rather obscure to the earth passages in Aristotle maintained that bodies fall to their weight. was used within a hundred years by Newton to bring into one synthesis the motion of the earth and all the heavenly bodies. are to one another as the squares of the time would fall e. they His first advance on Archimedes was the construction of a balance to solve more simply the problem of the Crown of gold of the pioneers In this. in times inversely proportional weight of ten pounds would fah in a tenth of the time that one pound The book philosophers " " A He let Galileo put the matter to a simple test. Like so many of the greatest men of science. take. Archimedes had discovered the principles of the lever and of Galileo went the foundations of Statics." Professor of Mathematics in Pisa and began his series of researches on motion. specific gravity — on immediately to lay the foundations of dynamics. in falling. he showed the value of great manual dexterity wedded to a powerful mind. . as later in the construction of alloyed with silver. the two weights from the top of the leaning Tower of Pisa and settled the question in his sense. Later researches. inspired by Archimedes. He showed that the spaces traversed by bodies uniformly accelerated. a treatise on The next year he was appointed of Gravity in Sohds. he had wonderful hands. was but a small part of the mass of ingenious tests he applied to ascertain the simple fundamental laws of force and motion.204 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND and went on to conquer along the road which had opened. carry the .

between the power holding the moon near the earth and the attractive power of the earth over bodies at its What he observed. among them one day himself to be blind. but. In 1610 he went to Florence. in Saturn and his rings were chiefly and insistently interesting The earth and as confirmations of the Copernican theory. In 1592 he had left Pisa for Padua. the home of freedom to many bold thinkers in this and later years. he was finally condemned in 1633 and forced to read and sign a written abjuration of the Copernican doctrines. in the phases of Venus. of the motions of Jupiter's satellites confirmed him But in the belief that there was a common law throughout. where most of his astronomical work was done. and set Milton. linking up inertia with gravitation. a laboratory where his marvellous mechanical talent knew how to devise ever new . he did not attain to its statement. time till his death he knew no peace. where he freely advocated the new conception of the universe. active in mind though in his last few years blind. where in the first decade of the " his house was not only a school to seventeenth century " which flocked students. and in 161 1 he visited Rome. the Dialogues on the Two Sciences of Mechanics and j\Iotion. more than this. Giordano Bruno had been burnt there ten years before.THE AWAKENING IN SCIENCE 205 synthesis even farther. and foreigners from every country. him out from aside. full of his new conviction. The fear and opposition which had been slumbering since the new truth was first suggested by Copernicus long before. for From that boldly following out a similar line of thought. through his newly invented surface. telescope. Visitors sought our own all parts of Europe. To his mind the motions which he detected in Jupiter's system. But his golden age was in Padua. now broke out in full force. Italians. GaUleo himself suspected the analogy which Newton demonstrated. all the planets moved round the sun. In spite of his personal friendship with the Pope. His closing years were illumined by his greatest book. Thereafter he lived in retirement near Florence till his death in 1642. famous." published four years before his death in Holland.

An active and subtle mind.206 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND It was an academy in the true sense of the word expedients. a constant readiness to fight and demonstrate had been nothing the truth to ignorant and often prejudiced opponents. and now. convinced that the language of the physical universe is mathematics. to reasoning and calculation. a master of re-awakening thought in Europe. He describes his own gifts when he tells us that. There like this in the western world since." One's mind goes back to the old debates of the Greek philosophers in Ionia. in mechanics. as the great founder and intermediary between the mathematical science of the ancient world and the physics of the modern. and that we must first understand the language before we can read the book. were discussed with perfect freedom." Looking back upon him now. a steadfast adherence to great conclusions once grasped and the adding to them of fresh illuminating and relevant observations these were the leading features of the most influential . He is true to the best in both worlds. in Magna Graecia and in Athens. founder of modern science. we see it aided by a new spirit and a new apparatus of experiment. questioning every received opinion. following out any suggested harmonious explanation of the facts. he yet never aUows a pre-conception of the meaning to divert his mind from the accurate observa1 Favaro. and where it was possible to submit the deductions of reason to the salutary test of experiment. He bent himself from the first to trace the mathematical truths intuition he turned involved in the facts of motion. " Ignorance has been the best teacher I have ever had. we shall admire him more the more we study him." . " Galileo e lo studio di Padova. in order to be able to demonstrate to my opponents the truths of my conclusions. and the results i of experiments. in their turn. though to satisfy myself alone I have never felt it necessary to make many. and in mathematics. I have been forced to prove them by a variety of experiments. where the gravest problems in physics. since. in astronomy. when the free-inquiring mind began to work again. and by a true first to those of which the laws could be most But though easily approached and most surely established.

.THE AWAKENING IN SCIENCE 207 He believed that the key of physical science tion of the fact. in one direction by Descartes and his school. but mathematical research must be itself In this attitude he controlled by observation of Nature. as we shall see. stands more perfectly than any other man as the representative of modern science. strained later. was mathematics. brought back in our own day nearer to its true balance by the doctrine of relativity.

plays but a IT The reason is not far to seek. whence cultivated lands and cities soon become desolate and waste. the second factor.CHAPTER XXX THE STRUGGLES FOR LIBERTY IN GERMANY AND ENGLAND: ENGLISH THOUGHT IN RELIGION AND POLITICS is to be noted that in the work just described. and there is no German culture. The waged not only with terrible Thirty Years' War (1618the fury of partisan bigotry and sheer selfishness. by foreign and greedy mercenaries. crippled the unfortunate land for nearly three generations. Before and after that devastating ability strife Germany has shown her creative power. advanced culture. and then men return to their own depraved natures. learning and philosophy is infallibly torn to pieces so that only some scattered fragments thereof can afterwards be found. but also. And if the disorder continues. up and down in a few places.") : The sixteenth century had seen in Germany. requisite for soil. and largely." (" On the Interpretation of Fables. after liberty. The seventeenth century is a barren time for And obviously this was not due to lack of in the people. with the significant exception of Kepler (1571-1630). the setting-up of an unstable equilibrium in religion and 208 . change of race or creed to account for the contrast. Germany. the invaluable pioneer work of modern science. half of the seventeenth century unity. was scarcely to be found on German 1648). as elsewhere. It is a tragic instance of the truth in Bacon's warning that under the " din of arms first the laws are silent and not heard. During the first negligible part. like planks after a shipwreck.

the turmoil was complicated by racial antipathy and foreign intervention. led by the Jesuits. now embodied in the Austrian House of Hapsburg. not it seems unjustly. He supported the stricken Protestants. the Emperor's able general. himself a Bohemian and once a Protestant. always alert to prevent a strong mihtary empire threatening the French frontier. broad and genial however rough. professed Catholic though he was. Frederick. and as the war spread Wallenstein. cause of Protestantism seemed well-nigh lost. who." the chivalrous Gustavus Adolphus. Finally Old Faith. while the Catholic League. The the WallenCatholic princes were jealous of imperial dominance stein was suspected. The German Hapsburgs were Catholic. overthrown. The fervour Luther. The Imperial Representatives were hurled from the windows of the Castle by the infuriated a fitting signal for the savage campaign. and the outbreak was precipitated by a revolt in Bohemian Prague against the destruction of Protestant Churches at which the Emperor was thought to have connived. but again Richelieu intervened. accepted the crown of Bohemia. both Tilly and Wallenstein. 209 of This now broke down altogether. was replaced among those who should have been the leaders either by indifference or by doctrinaire fanaticism. the Calvinist elector of the Palatinate (son-in-law of James I). in the chaotic He met and defeated struggle.STRUGGLES IN GERMANY AND ENGLAND politics. supreme power fomented the suspicion in order to check the power of Austria and suddenly from Sweden across the Baltic appeared the " Lion of the North. the one champion of religion to take arms. sharpened the opposition from the side of the Moreover. Tilly. and so came definitely . the ancient struggle revived between the semi-independent princedoms and the Imperial ambition. of grasping at the wily Richelieu. only to be Bohemians. against 14 Austria's ally. . trampled on the country. was unquestionably sincere. battle with Wallenstein. But . Once more German Protestantism ran the utmost risk. added his genius signally to the devastating power of the Imperial mercenaries. but was killed himself in the . minister of Louis XIII. Spain.

and. and Germany was now more than ever divided into little States. and Verdun. As in Germany. oppression and race hatred worked fatal havoc. to begin with Restoration. perhaps. and led directly to the aggressive into the for the designs of Louis prey.210 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Turenne and Conde won renown and terror field. where intolerance. Europe in general was beginning to see the cruelty and folly of religious " The Utopian conviction that it is in no man's persecution. either with despotism another form of the inveterate conflict between Liberty and . The Tudor equilibrium was shattered under Charles I. But. and gains were in the end achieved. was a notable triumph. consolidated. French arms. " was gradually sinking into power to beUeve what he list men's minds. of the State is bound to consult the nation its chosen representatives. from whom she was later to receive constitutional king. France acquired almost the whole of Alsace and had her claim recognized to the border bishoprics of Metz. and the eleven years of the great experiment in a Commonwealth (16491660) follow immediately on the Peace of Westphalia. matters went back The citizen had to comply with to the Peace of Augsburg. so far as treaties could go. XIV. While the Thirty Years' War was ravaging Germany. except in Ireland. It was an important stage in the secular duel between France and Germany. Prostrate Germany was a tempting In religion. was in essence vindicated. after the interlude of the It is best. with the a exception of Holland. stood victoriously for the idea at a time when the other great countries of Europe were threatened The struggle was at bottom or anarchy. England was entering on her own internal struggle. the creed of his State. the English leaders never certain solid entirely lost sight of reason and humanity. religion and poHtics interlock in the struggle. But he could leave his State. and when the war finally ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. by the end of the seventeenth century. the poUtical side. Toul. and England alone. by which the head through It The principle of responsible government. Moreover.

was driven further and further to work against it because he foresaw that if the nation was allowed to have its way it would both of God. Cromwell's own high-souled failure led to fruitful searchings . if the bulk of them went a-whoring after strange gods. It was nowise prepared to allow Cromwell what it had refused Charles. The nation. it may well be pleaded in Cromwell's defence that the nation had not yet worked out any scheme to combine a clear expression of the people's will with the swift coherent execution only possible to a single man or a small group of like-minded men. calls them. As far as England is concerned. and Milton could " " conquering the Irish. but there closer approximations than seemed possible then." his admirer. Cromwell's life that he. As he said himself. the enemies of God and mankind. " " confidently appeal to him to save the tyranny of the new Presbyter " free conscience " from who was but old Priest writ large. it was his dearest wish that all the Lord's people could be prophets. and Cromwell had no right to demand it." as Milton. for in England he never dreamed of such excesses. But if they refused. 211 And the difficulties can be gauged by the perplexities It was the tragedy of that dogged the ablest of our leaders. it was this that appears to have darkened his insight. however. His was the tragic mistake of forcing a nation to be free before it desired freedom. a true lover of liberty. have been Doubtless this goal has never yet been reached. and the freedom was destroyed by the force. In Ireland he went further still. and it is impossible to read without a shudder his pitiless account of how priests were " " and the inhabitants of Drogheda knocked on the head and Wexford put to the sword.STRUGGLES IN GERMANY AND ENGLAND Order. it was for succour the remnant of him and the his army behind him to Lord's people. and reject the Puritanism that to him was the gospel surrender to Stuart absolutism. had only raised an army to avoid being governed by a ruler who would not submit to its control. Historians have long ago given up the vulgar misconception that personal ambition drove him forward. The evil tradition of these murderous Irish.

parts. that sovereignty is not after all a thing essentially one and indivisible but a structure achieved and supported by cooperation. I rule not my people proud humility by tyranny as if they were barbarians but am myself liable. And yet scrupled. at least it shows the English political genius in travail of a great idea. suggesting instead of an impossible communism the eminently practical plan of limiting estates in land.212 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND among friends significant " Oceana." Harrington is indeed sympathetic to have glimpses of a truth not yet generally accepted." He cites the dictum we " have already quoted from Theodosius the Younger that on the authority of law the authority of a prince depends." " How can any king in Europe maintain and write himself accountable to none but God. without going into such detail as Harrington. especially as regards the functions. P. And if his book. surely they that shall boast. famous separation government " the senate of in the executive and deliberative Harrington's view having three proposing." one of the most practical Harrington's Utopias ever penned. He revived More's its attack on excessive wealth and pressed it with greater seriousness than More." . The book had a lasting influence on the best thought of the period and later was appreciated to good purpose in America. does not solve problems. as we do. was written by a man who had deep of heart and opponents alike. when emperors in their own imperial statutes have written and decreed themselves " accountable to law ? (" Tenure of Kings and Magistrates. it is clear. Here the best of the classic tradition He appeals to the lives again in the scholar and patriot. He stands half-way here between Cromwell and the Levellers. In fact the idea carried him beyond the bounds of politics in the narrow sense. the ^ magistracy executing. enough namely. Milton. Gooch. ") if No " And 1 G. to be a free " English Political Tiiought from Bacon to Halifax. " of Euripides' monarch. Milton also could be driven counter to his own love of liberty. the people resolving. one is more outspoken than he in attacking the extravagances of divine right. at Cromwell's despotic rule. to suffer justly. like every other. It is that and warm sympathies for both sides. I do unjustly.

Council. There was another alternative that ^lilton himself had all but to let the people have their way." . ready or rather creep back so poorly.") There lies the hope for any solution of the conflict between But the conflict may go deep.) Yet the same Milton. who ever knew truth put to the worse in a fair and grapple : open encounter?" (" Areopagitica. when faced with the bitter fact that " to fall back. we do injuriously by licensing and proLet her and falsehood hibiting to misdoubt her strength. the winds of doctrine were let loose to pla^^ upon the earth. (ibid. as masters of family in their own house and free inheritance. but practically irremovable. . so truth be in the field. and no one liberty and law. fit to cozen babies but we are indeed under tyranny and servitude in wanting that power. That law it conceived as laid down fully by the Hebrew Scriptures. under the control of a elected indeed. which is the root and source of all liberty. was better calculated to feel the depth of it than a Puritan who was also a poet." the theme of which is precisely the battle of unchartered Liberty and supreme Law. and in the last resort inscrutable to Man. trusting in the indicated " Though all power of truth at last to bring them round. a battle conceived with indescribable grandeur as the cosmic struggle which it is. the nation was hankering for the Stuarts. The impress of this faith can be felt all through " Paradise Lost. or rulers. with the government itself upon urgent cause. liberty's sake to Grand . may please their fancy with a ridiculous and painted freedom." could urge with equal fervour that they should be " " the less number having the right for placed by force. to dispose and economize in the land which God hath given them. to their once abjured and detested thraldom of Kingship. and stood for the conviction that there was an absolute law beyond the individual's caprice. ceremonies. as it seems the multitude would. Puritanism at once appealed to the individual conscience. bidding it judge freely for itself beyond all visible signs. compel the greater. or subordinate. and not have in themselves the power to remove or to abohsh any governor supreme.STRUGGLES IN GERMANY AND ENGLAND 213 nation.

Virtues. are my gain. however degraded. 822). working in Powers. iii. who made Thee what thou art. v. Princedoms." of Milton's into the gloom of Tartarus profound." Milton saw in that misuse the central tragedy of the universe. " " " without freedom. Lost. envy. the richer through the poet's " Shalt thou give law to God ? shalt thou dispute With Him the points of liberty." forced to seek the help of Chaos and say with him : " " Havoc. . and formed the Powers of Heaven " Such as He pleased and circumscribed their being ? (v. and ruin. and spoil." though plunged " because of sheer pride. 690). the fiats of an irresponsible God whom all created beings must obey without question. But the sublime effect can be marred and the poetry frozen by the stiff conception of arbitrary decrees. knowledge of what might lead good and evil. though again even there the greatness in Milton's religious and poetic passion can dignify the argument.) The fall of Lucifer and following that the fall of Man are conceived as essentially tragic because they mean the waste " Will and Reason (Reason of a thing essentially glorious." (ix. " Thrones. useless and vain are also is Choice) And yet freedom implies the power of choosing (Bk. And it flowered into the most majestic of English poetries. deep malice and disdain. Comus ") of understanding (that we can see for example in the strong lure in many-sided and unrestrained experience." (Par.) " vice and obliquity wrong and hence the possibility of all against the rule of law. Dominations. " a profound conception. once habitant of Heaven and heavenly-born.214 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND in the character of The dramatic power proof enough Satan would alone be sympathy with the principle of " Inpersonal freedom." drawing men from the unashamed delights of " dauntless innocence into insensate passion disguised as a virtue " " Deterred not from achieving To happier It is life. a Spirit.

STRUGGLES IN GERMANY AND ENGLAND Yet. an inferior poet but a broader nature. without the terror of some power to cause them to be observed." And." is to be " as possibly men can be imagined to make it.' of themselves. and the Saviour for Hobbes To Hobbes the sole remedy is nothing better than the State. could scarcely be expected of Milton's temperament. as great enough to goad Man forward. he " " will on occasion use the term natural law for the highest it is almost always with the can never be strong enough by " " " itself to control our natural selfishness. touch us to — all his nobility there was a strain of hardness in him that He had not that catholic hope in the checked his range. With genius. to pride. The sovereign power whether placed in one man. " " for the natural war of all men against alllies in absolute obedience to that mighty Leviathan. even while he tempts him to sin." he writes. are but words and of no strength to secure a man at all. as justice. although. and swing us up to heights that are truly tragic was some vast thought that would exhibit Jehovah's Law as the deepest fulfilment of what Lucifer himBut that is asking much and of a kind that self approved. yet the consequences of the want of it. as in " as popular and aristocratical commonwealths. as in monarchy. " But " law ' ' ' consequences.' equity. basis of man's thought and man's desire that could make Goethe. If Milton suggests despair of humanity unless rescued from without." Hobbes' dread of anarchy easily outweighs any misgiving " about tjTanny. after all. of greater stature and strength than the natural. revenge and the like. conceive his Mephistopheles. much more does Hobbes. And covenants.' and in sum doing to others as we would be done to. great though of so unlimited a power men may fancy many evil conviction that such dictates of conscience. 215 exactly what Milton needed to fulfil his tears. without the sword. are contrary to our natural passions that carry us to partiality. following classic tradition." that artificial man. " " Hobbes' distrust of human nature dominates his entire thought. which ." the State that is endowed with an authority overwhelming enough to enforce all its decrees. For the laws " of Nature. or in one assembly of men. the asserter of the Self.

Yet if in fact one sovereign should be overthrown and another set up effectively Hobbes would transfer his allegiance without scruple. 20. In action conscience must submit to the State. an idea that goes back to Plato and Aristotle and that was later to be revived with extraordinary effect by Rousseau. Further." and only if other men will do the like. it is absurd to invoke civil war in its name. Private judgment is " " a poison to the commonwealth. He has no The power particular preference for hereditary monarchy. the sovereign authority which is to secure that covenant once constituted.) Hobbes accepts the traditional idea of a covenant between the citizens lying at the base of all civil society." (" Leviathan. Hence. his shrewd insight into human weakness." chap. Hobbes would suffer any oppression " " rather than risk its overthrow.216 is THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND perpetual war of every man against his neighbour. and his sense of civil order attracted attention everywhere. De facto is for him de jure. But his " fundamental law of Nature " conception of it is meagre. while the vigour of his thought. . the much on which it rests being no more than a man's willingness to " give up part of his liberty only so far forth as for peace and defence of himself he shall think it necessary. The supreme object of the covenant being to guard against civil war. and would be morally justified in deposing by force any unworthy sovereign. are worse. he aroused violent opposition both from the partisans of divine right and from those who held that the citizens could never part with their own ultimate authority. to keep order is the real claim on loyalty.

His ideal. granted great rehgious freedom to the Huguenots it had opened to them all offices of State in this respect far more liberal than English practice towards Roman Catholic and Nonconformist and it had secured them in their control of certain fortresses. marked the end of the Huguenot military power. The States-General were — . like that of Hobbes. legal functions. although he had no horror The siege and fall of La Rochelle of free thought as such. it will be religious. 217 . neither then. was a strong government under one sovereign. The political independence that Richelieu denied to the Huguenots he denied to others. And this precisely was what Richelieu would not tolerate. Here again the poHtical threads had intertwined with the The Edict of Nantes under Henri IV had. a concession that had made it possible for them to build up centres of what was practically selfgovernment. but their religious liberty was not curtailed. significant that during his lifetime Richelieu strengthening the bases of despotism in France. nor for more than two generations. remembered. Royal officials took their Taxation for public purposes and the power to raise place. (1627-1628) soon after his accession to office. — never summoned : the Parlements were kept strictly to narrow The powers of the nobles in governing their provinces were cut down so as to make them incapable of active resistance to the Crown.CHAPTER XXXI DESPOTISM IN FRANCE: LITERATURE AND THE FORCES OF CRITICISM on utilitarian and HOBBES had been of despotic it is power as grounds goes as far in support any English writer has ever gone.

and capable. A supreme Council appointed by the King directed and held together the different departments. for their own undoing. because the main drift since Louis XI had in fact accustomed them to a centralized monarchy. and the Huguenots remained strong. (1658). especially for aggressive war. and partly again because they were bewitched by the glamour of foreign conquest. later by its own corruption and the insight of its system It was. with Serfage lingered in France until the Revolution itself. But the nobles and the great clergy were allowed. partly of their privileges. that her gains were confirmed. The Huguenots were consoled for the loss of political power by the wide tolerance of their religion. Montaigne. it was under Mazarin. for the sake of despotism partly. she secured a notable triumph against Spain. lost the spirit of criticism. as in the days of the Fronde. a singularly interesting Ught on the spirit of the more liberal . peace and order after the long strain of war at home. to keep their personal privileges. It was under Richeheu that France began to succeed against Germany in the coveted border provinces. the leader of Puritan England. had it not been that Frenchmen never The impulse shown in Rabelais. through the strange alliance with OHver. of the ancient feudal claims on the services of their tenants. and they enjoyed many. the nobles and the priests by the endorsement And the nation at large accepted the as in the days of Louis XI. and a decade later. They were practically exempt from taxation. And it and sheltering it stood for a century and a half the system inaugurated by Richelieu. as first set-up. though menaced at first by spasmodic revolt. and undermined critics. Despotism in France might have led the country to the condition of Spain. the strongest and most coherent of bureaucracy under one ruler that Europe had seen since the Roman officials. Even in supporters of Richelieu could keep their private judgment The forceful. his successor and the inheritor of his ideas. in the hands of upright remarkable vigour. intellectual genius of Corneille throws play. of Empire.218 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND troops was left wholly in the hands of the king. and those among lives and the most odious.

and only after long and serious doubt. he is apt to lose himself in over-strained and even false conceptions of honour and delicacy. though it drives him to the edge of political murder. Elsewhere. His characters are rather types than individual persons. Cinna ou La Clemence d'Auguste turns on the choice between chaotic liberty and orderly despotism. d. Richelieu was struggling to put down duelling among the nobles and could have little taste for a drama where a duel was defiantly made into a leading incident. The such a despotism. Over his first play of this kind. Les Horaces. Corneille is the first of the great French dramatists. Le Cid. made their peace with absolutism. or a stronger There is some truth in calling him a rhetorician rather than a poet." A year later. his domineering patron. perhaps influenced by his Spanish models. the note of between private affection and public which duty. however. is the conflict Still more significantly. The sympathy of understanding is to be felt in the portrayal of Cinna's passion for liberty. 1684). written at the time of pre-occupation with his strength is manifest. But no writer has the Cardinal's dominance.DESPOTISM IN FRANCE 219 among those who. Corneille dedicated to Richelieu one of his finest efforts. but sincere and splendid rhetoric may produce magnificent art. show his politics. And it is in his political dramas that between ideals. especially in the world of action. bom his at and most the opening of the century. 1606. but they are types corresponding to momentous realities. . striking plays. but only if it is also generous. one too in " which the hero was a nobleman plus grand que les rois. par ses mains. not for freedom : but for servitude. (b. d^chirait ses entraillcs. in spite of misgivings. and in the fiery denunciation of those final decision is for suicidal for the sake of combats where the leaders massacre their countrymen mastery and the soldiers die. he almost quarrelled with a loftier sense of the tragic clash rhetoric. hiding their treachery to a nobler cause in the world-wide throng of their fellow slaves " Oii ces tristes batailles Rome.

: " Soyons amis. both rebel and " Le grand Corneille faisant pleurer le grand penitent. Tous voulaient a leur chaine attacher I'univers Et I'ex^crable honneur de lui donner un maitre Faisait aimer a tous Tinfame . nom le de traitre. . et de chaque c6t6 . so Voltaire from the impetuous Conde when an eager lad of twenty." as Voltaire truly called them." Such was the model that set Corneille. Cinna . Romains contre Romains. against whom Cinna conspires. for the despots of his country.) Augustus offers Cinna not pardon only.220 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Oil I'aigle abattait I'aigle. decides to hold it for the sake of as no hypocrite . ment from a deeper personal " pride : Je suis maitre de moi comme de I'univers Je le suis." Augustus himself. He is drawn his singleness of mind is proved by his complete mastery of himself and his complete forgiveness of He puts aside personal resentthe conspiracy he discovers." [Steele de Louis XIV. and only Rome's unity. up . such the lesson he read " un grand le9on de moeurs. je veux I'etre. Conde d'admiration est une epoque bien celebre dans I'histoire de I'esprit humain. Nos legions s'armaient centre leur liberte Oii les meilleurs soldats et les chefs les plus braves Mettaient toute leur gloire k devenir esclaves Ou." Equal renown was won by the lines that close the drama when Augustus know " bids the rebel leaders let their accomplices et Qu' Auguste a tout appris veut tout oublier. parents contre parents Combattaient seulement pour choix des tyrans. pour mieux assurer la honte de leurs fers. meditates whether he ought not to surrender his autocracy. c. 32. tells us. but friendship France. c'est moi qui t'en convie. like Seneca long before him." : The immediate climax (inspired ultimately by a passage in Seneca already familiar to Frenchmen through Montaigne's most happy rendering) was at once acclaimed throughout The clemency of Augustus drew tears. the Conde who was to be. later on.

as Sarah Bernhardt can feel the flash of its " played her. verse and within the narrow limits he had chosen. But Racine is not often at this height and there seems a thinness in his genius when we contrast him with Moliere. capable of treachery in her despair. has alwaj^s been coveted by the great French actresses. jealousy. alone w^ere seldom touched. allowing for his personal If we resent a certain vulgarity prejudices. most seductive. and capable of redeeming it by a last controlled dismissal of herself from life." loses half sting and sparkle unless we remember Cinna. It was his laughter that rescued Les Plaideurs of Racine and his patronage that protected Moliere. It was the policy of Louis XIV to gather round him not courtiers only but brilliant authors. shame. and likely to endure despotism for ever. nation that produced such WTiters as Corneille was not But for long years. The aristocratic age of Louis XIV was an age of incisive wit as well as of ease. 221 And when " its Talle5Tand's brilliant epigram two centuries later the Bourbons of his day returned after the Revolution. the limits of " " and the hienseance of a luxurious society. The deeper emotions. we must light on authors not vulgar. on the surface." written when Euripides inspired him. including the French king. indeed. The tragic part of his Phedre. tenderness. and might have been disastrous except for the all-important fact that Frenchmen. . swept through and through by desire. were prepared to pay a high price for intellect and wit. was sound enough. having learnt nothing and forgotten nothing. we classicism power. Almost among and ]-)assion. and remorse. And his taste in authorship. the queen. It leaves many a A mark of fulsome flattery on the literature of the time. stately rhetoric. most royal.DESPOTISM IN FRANCE it. his contemporaries Racine could express genuine to this he owes his high place among French Again and again through the pellucid flow of his tragedians. But once admit such laughter and a way is opened for the solvent of criticism. despotism was triumphant. polish. in the grandiose and arrogant display of Versailles. And in this it was nursing a possible corrective for admit also that the Sun-King could shed his who were itself.

The time abounds in graceful essajdsts. stronger than any of the slighter virtuous characters about him. epigrammatists. their mordant wit did a good deal to prepare the way for it. Seigneur." La Rochefoucauld." the powerful hypocrite.) such lines in themselves indicate that he did suffer and had In his " Tartuffe. for at its meanness and to think of deceit. It absurdities. freshness. Oppression may not grieve him. de Sevign^ and La Fontaine. the more telling because of its studied restraint. right through the pretences of its all the actual round him. sparkle. But these are noteworthy not only for polish. If they were not men to make a Revolution. too full of the gusto of life for that. La Bruyere." {Le Misanthrope. but sore at heart. And La Fontaine himself has a keen eye for the outrageous arrogance of the privileged classes. fabulists. Saint-Simon command a deadly criticism. letter writers. would narrow Moliere . beaucoup d'honneur. at his laughter. as in Mme. stands out as so menacing a portent that we are not surprised to learn the play was twice forbidden through the influence of the clergy. When they cut into the human heart they were . levelled at a system of which all the same they were proud to feel themselves a part. laughing. memoir writers.222 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND It is scarcely paradoxical to say that there is something more tragic in Moliere's comedy than in Racine's tragedy. J'accoutume mon ame k souffrir ce qu'ils font. although we smile at the eagerness with which they fitted the cap to themselves." There is much ancien regime was a system of truth and shrewdness in the old saying that the " despotism tempered by epigrams. but it certainly rouses his wit : " Vous les faites en leur croquant. no doubt. Still to train himself to endure. him delights in men as they are : The " Je prends tout doucement les hommes comme ils sont. There are men among them of sterner stuff. ridiculously is him merely as a critical moralist he too richly artist in tolerant. Moliere is so human and life sees so deep all .

SaintSimon recognizes." La Bruyere. the power of all his predecessors. The Huguenots. La Rochefoucauld struck " Nous avons tous assez de force at all men when he wrote. They through . " The King had become colours : They painted — a State within the the State. played on his most sensitive points. the self-seeking. should have chosen for especial blame Louis' Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685). But now and he writes with a sneer as solemn as Gibbon's — — pious. The old frondeur has a les maux d'autnii. and . inspired their fervent disciple with the longing for a signal act of penitence. ils Saint-Simon takes a malicious delight in uncovering the netof intrigue. to strike a masterstroke at once for Church and State. has no mind to " Si le let off the nobleman who profited by his wealth disent de lui c'est financier manque son coup. Catholic by belief." rien. perfectly easy. even the gross physical and his foulness. securing the .DESPOTISM IN FRANCE 223 not careful to spare the great. s'il reussit. pillorying the tax-farmer who ground the faces of the poor. revolt. triumph of the true religion by destroying all the rest. They captivated his kingly pride by the thought of an achievement surpassing the Thus they led him. His councillors ignorant. performed at the expense of others. But they were extremely careful against not to touch on the cause of all those ancient evils. his religion and his passion for power. civil war. beneath the dazzling elegance of Versailles careful portraiture of Louis XIV does not hesitate to emphasize the pettiness in the royal character or the mistakes in the It is remarkable that this French nobleman royal despotism. tradition. open rebellion his royal ancestors. had been inoffensive citizens for many years. les courtisans : " fling at the tricks of monarchs and their advisers. and pride of race. . while remaining profoundly His policy reinforced his piety. of the hatde noblesse. . un malotru ." pour supporter special des princes n'est souvent qu'une politique pour gagner I'affection des peuples. un homme de lui demandent sa fille. foreign intrigue. . un bourgeois. that Huguenots in the blackest had won its licence riot. work . La clemence . . man who piqued himself on governing alone. and ensuring his own salvation.

and punishments that involved the death of thousands. tortures . 1623. to seek shelter in banishment men of wealth. exiles who had been peopled. their knowledge. by these amazing driven out naked and desolate. cities. ever. without the least reason. they contain every kind of lust for . tore families asunder. d. through and through. giving them new opulence it. ruined its trade. with equal prudence. more recently." " The Revocation of the Edict. their goodness. for their piety. not. but the St. The Letters are a known landmark in the development of French prose. a delicate and Provinciales fierce unmasking of the incredible sophistry into "which the " dominance had led the Jesuit leaders. had struck impartially at gentle and simple.224 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND everj' making the monarch absolute for good by breaking link with the Huguenot rebels and rooting them out for Then follows a thunderous roll of indignation. and the philosopher Descartes. to the wonder of the world. incited brothers to rob brothers and let them starve it drove our manufacturers abroad. fault of their men of birth. " As Voltaire said of them later. to comfort. men often reverenced . circles in Bartholomew. so long ago. never dared to publish any of his scathing comments during his own lifetime. bringing prosperity and at our expense to foreign States. after all. old men. Saint -Simon. infirm and frail it doomed them to the galleys and the slave whip. 1662). and the proscriptions which followed it were the fruit of this shameful plot. for no it doomed own." Saint-Simon's picture may be overdrawn. without even the shadow of an excuse. influenced by his tomed : — men accus- personal hatred of Madame de Maintenon and the Jesuits. The nobles received privileges from the political autocrat. for the sole crime of their religion. but it is one of the many instances tending to show how cultured France were far more ready to protest against religious oppression than against political absolutism. It depopulated a quarter of the kingdom. plundered by the dragonnades. authorized . had found it prudent to live in exile. innocent men and women it brought destruction to a whole people. " A more Lettres redoubtable attack had been delivered by the open " of Pascal (b. weakened it openly and admittedly.

He stands between two worlds. A mathematical genius. 225 quiet fatal incisiveness as of a great gentleman eloquence who does not need to raise his voice. the unity in a type of thought where the appeal should be not to authority but to argument supported by a verifiable correspondence with facts." With a fervour que la raison ne connait pas.DESPOTISM IN FRANCE " . intense and terrible through its fear. Le coeur a ses raisons infinis m'effraie. an acute researcher in physics. if him more powerful still was the attraction : of the old mystical religion that offered the soul a shelter from the desolate spaces " of an inlinite lonely universe Le silence eternel de ces espaces recalling Loyola's. One speculates whither Pascal's critical faculty would have led he had gone on with his life. direct fearless invective. 15 . A new principle of unity was beginning to appear. grave irony. he was powerBut fully attracted to the opening world of modern science." But the Age of Reason was advancing inevitably and Descartes had already its been brooding over foundations. Pascal flung himself " back into the inward life of a mediaeval saint. impassioned rhetoric. But the critical faculty was only one side of his strange and highly-dowered temperament. brilliant mockery.


(F. S.


second phase in the growth of modern science though following closely on and intimately connected with the first, is yet different in spirit and more ambitious in scope. Galileo is obviously the master-mind of the first Descartes and Leibnitz are the leaders in the second. In the first phase the mind of Europe was awaken-



it was shaking off the fetters of ecclesiastical control and it was putting itself in contact with unreasoning tradition the world of nature, testing theory by careful observation and



experiment and forming truer ideas of the process of events. In the second phase, encouraged by success, it went on to formulate schemes of the whole and attempted to sec the universe as one harmonious set of laws, all dependent on a few simple principles. The attempt involved an extension of the mathematical method and found its chief exponent in It corresponds in philosophy with the Descartes. development of physical and astronomical science, and a later phase still, in which we now live, comes to the front in the nineteenth century with the growth of biology. Kant represents the
turning-point here, the pioneer of the

modern and


Chemistry, as we shall see, is the linking science taking us beyond the laws of matter immediately susceptible to mathematical treatment and opening the way to the view of matter as the home of life. And chemistry is constituted as a science towards the end of the eighteenth century.



There was probably no period in history when so great were made in knowledge and the formation of knowledge as between the beginning of Galileo's work in 1590 and the Acta Eruditontm of Leibnitz in 1684. In less than a hundred years Galileo had laid down the main lines of the


science of mechanics, Kepler had revealed the laws of the of the planets, Newton had linked up the two by

the greatest of all physical generalizations, Pascal, Boyle and Mariotte had measured the pressure of the atmosphere, Harvey had discovered the circulation of the blood ; the telescope,

the microscope, the thermometer and the barometer were all brought into use, and, most important of intellectual facts, the new mathematical calculus had been invented, which was to give man the power of measuring all kinds of movement and
change, as well as describing every form of geometrical shape. The German Kepler, who must rank with the foremost builders of the ne wsynthesis, was a contemporary of Galileo. His life falls entirely within that of the great Italian, for he was born seven years after him in 1571, and being of a weaker
constitution, died twelve years earlier, in 1630. accepted the Copernican hypothesis as young

Both of them men, but while

more versatile mind was exploring physical phenomena Kepler's was devoted to investigating the laws that hold together the different members of the solar system. Unhke Newton, who was as sparing as possible of hypotheses, Kepler threw out one after another, ingenious, daring, and sometimes extravagant. He was brought into close contact with the facts by serving for two years as assistant to Tycho Brahe, a Danish astronomer, who was working in Bohemia for the Emperor Rudolf. Tycho was an untiring and accurate and Kepler inherited his store of facts after his observer, death in 160 1. He went on to extend these observations in the case of the planet Mars and arrived at last at his first two from the laws of planetary motion (i) That a line drawn sun to the planet a radius vector marks out on the plane of its orbit equal areas in equal times. (2) That the planets move, not in circles as had been always previously assumed, but in ellipses with the sun at one of the foci. This was in

many kinds,




Ten years later he discovered his third law. He had 1609. long known that the period of revolution increased with the He found after long distance of the planet from the sun. calculation that the law of the universe was that the squares of the periodic times are proportional to the cubes of the mean distances. Thus if the mean distance of the Earth from the
period of revolution be taken as unity, and in the any other planet the distance be four or nine times greater, the period will be eight or twenty-seven times longer. This law has been since applied to predicting the period of a new

sun and
case of


planet, such as Uranus, when its distance had been ascertained. These, with Galileo's law of falling bodies, are perhaps the simplest, best known and most illustrative examples of what " law of nature." They show how, in the is meant by a

seventeenth century, more accurate observations were taken hold of by developing mathematics and formed into a solid
structure of thought.
clearly both objective and subjective in from the actual phenomena of motion which origin. man does not originate, but, as an ideal construction, it belongs to man's collective mind developing progressively in time. Kepler reached his laws by induction from observed facts, Newton, with a more powerful synthetic mind and a better calculus, was able to deduce them mathematically from the

Such thought


It derives

laws of motion. Although a generation, including the work of Descartes, intervened between Kepler and Newton, it will be more convenient to consider Newton's work in this connection as completing Kepler's. Kepler had shown reason for thinking that the force which explained his laws must proceed from the sun, but he beheved that this force varied
GaUleo, on his part, had contriinversely as the distance. buted the law of falling bodies which we gave in a preceding

In 1665 Newton, reflecting on this, thought of chapter. investigating the space through which the moon in a given time was deflected from a straight path, i.e. the amount of



feet in

towards the earth. He found that this was thirteen a minute. He took the best estimate of the earth's

magnitude which he knew and assuming that gravitation



acted inversely as the square of the distance, he calculated that the moon would fall in a minute not thirteen but fifteen feet. He therefore put the hypothesis aside for seven years when a more accurate measurement of the earth's magnitude

had been made by the Abbe Picard in Paris. He then took up the calculations again and had them completed for greater certainty by another person, not

He now found his hypothesis the great work remained of showing how Kepler's Third Law followed mathematically from Newton's hypothesis of a force of gravitation, acting inversely




But even

as the square of the distance. For this he needed the help of the work of Huj^gens, a Dutch astronomer and mathema-

on the composition of forces in circular motion. With and the aid of his own new Calculus, the work was done and the first two books of the " Principia " communicated to

the Royal Society in 1686. That we now have reason for thinking, through the labours of Einstein and his immediate predecessors, that the Newtonian



be regarded as part of a

and are subject to correction

still larger generalization in certain cases does not destroy

their value nor prevent us regarding them as the greatest achievement of the human mind up to that time. And we


how men

of all the leading civilized nations contributed

their share to the result.


Galileo, the Italian, was the prime in the train of thought Kepler was a German, Picard

a Frenchman, and Huygens Dutch. But the same age was fruitful of many other advances in
science, especially in physics, for it

was to physics that the
Perhaps of

new mathematics gave most

physical research next to that of falling bodies the most fruitful in its ultimate results was that into the pressure of
It gave us within 150 years the steam engine, most potent transformer of human society since the Stone Age. Galileo had turned his attention to the question of atmospheric pressure but had not pursued it. A pump had been submitted to him in which it was desired to raise the water under the bucket to a greater height than ^2 feet. He did


all lines of




not understand at first why it was impossible to do this, but soon began to suspect that the atmosphere's weight was the
true explanation. His pupil Torricelli, an accomplished mathematician, following out his lead, succeeded in 1643, the year after Galileo's death, in proving the hypothesis, and in measuring the weight of the atmosphere against first a column of water (32 feet high) and then a column of mercury (28 inches high). Mercury being about fourteen times the weight of water, the theory was corroborated in a striking way. ^ Four years later Pascal, then in his twenty-fourth year, carried




He had



barometers measured at different heights and showed, by an experiment on the Puy de Dome in Auvergne, that the pressure of the atmosphere diminished as you ascended the mountain and had a less weight of air to sustain the mercury. The same line of thought was pursued by Robert Boyle, son of the Earl of Cork, who had spent the last winter of Galileo's Ufe (1641-2) near him in Florence and had come under the
great man's influence.

Boyle, after his return to Oxford, invented in 1659 ^^ ^i^ pump and studied systematically the laws of atmospheric pressure. This enabled him to discover, simultaneously with Mariotte in France, the law that the condensation of air is in proportion to the weight pressing upon it, the law afterwards extended to all gases. We notice, on the one hand, the continued extension of mathematical methods to the simpler phenomena of nature and, on the other, the swift application of these results to

Within twenty years after these experipractical purposes. ments on the pressure of the air, several machines had been invented, both in France and England, for utilizing atmospheric pressure for the raising of water. These were the direct ancestors of Newcomen's and Watt's steam engines by various
stages which

we have not space

to explain here.

light also began to be measured in this fertile century, in the lifetime of Newton, who himself devoted much thought to the problems of optics. The part which light has

Sound and

played in recent theories and the supreme position which has



The Steam Engine and





been assigned to

its velocity, give all these earlier steps a Newton began his researches into the nature special interest. of light, as soon as he became Professor of Mathematics at




colours, the different

He continued them for thirty-five years. up the analysis of white light into its prismatic which had been made by Descartes, and measured
in 1669.







started the theory that light consisted of small particles, emitted with great velocity on direct lines from the light-

giving object, and this theory disputed the ground for many years with that originated by Descartes and Huygens, that

was really caused by vibrations propagated in the ether. But the most striking discovery in connection with light next to that of the spectrum which was made at this time was due to a Dane called Roemer, who had worked in Paris

under Picard.

He found
of Jupiter's

(1695) in observing the immersions

and emersions

moons that they took

place with a

difference of sixteen minutes according to the relative positions of the Earth and Jupiter, on the same or opposite sides of the

Sun. This meant that the light coming from Jupiter took sixteen minutes to traverse the diameter of the earth's orbit.

His conclusions were confirmed and extended by Bradley in Wanstead early in the next century. Mathematics had made another and far-reaching conquest. Light, the most intangible of external phenomena, about the nature of which the greatest minds of the day were at that moment in dispute, was found to be measurable. Later researches, near to our own day, have brought the measurement of light into close relation with the measurement of the kindred phenomena of heat and electricity, by means of the new mathematical calculus,which, if we measure by results, was the greatest advance made in the seventeenth century by man's To appreciate the genesis collective and constructing mind. and nature of this, we need to return a few decades to Descartes'
his observatory at

work in Amsterdam during the thirties of that century. Born in 1596, Descartes was trained for eight years by the
Jesuits, but found no satisfaction in the literary culture which he received. He turned to an active life for guidance in thought,

and sensed
in the


army and


from 1617


Then, settling at last in Holland, he gave himself to philosophy in an atmosphere of greater freedom than he could find at that
time in his

own country of France. The next twenty years were

In 1649 ^^ accepted an invitation from Queen Christina of Sweden, but died at Stockholm the following year from the effects of a Scandinavian winter. From the first he sought some basis of thought not open to the attacks and questioning which assailed every conclusion in the traditional philosophy in which he had been trained. Literature did not give this, nor science as he then found it it needed the mathematical discipline which he and his immediate successors were to pro\dde. To mathematics, then, he betook himself, and influenced by mathematical thinking he evolved the most complete and coherent system which intervened between the scholastic philosophy of the middle ages and the encyclopaedic systems that followed his own. We must start afresh, he said, from the simplest and most indubitable truths which every man's consciousness must admit. From these by mathematical methods he went on to explain the whole visible world in accordance with fixed laws derived from the facts of form and motion. The Cartesian system in its entirety has only a historical interest. It outhis productive period.

ran the conclusions of the many necessary sciences involved. But in so far as Descartes invented, in the course of his
synthetic work, a new mathematical instrument, and insisted on the need of clear and consistent thinking, in so far as he
laid the foundation of all future synthesis in the mind itself, he became one of the greatest builders of modern thought. His theory of matter is based on the application of clear it starts from geometry. thinking to the problems of space He complained that the ancients confined themselves too much to the consideration of figures he turned his attention
; ;

to lines and, bringing together the methods of algebra and geometry, he showed that any straight line can, by using co-

ordinates or perpendiculars drawn from each point to two given axes, be expressed as an equation of the first degree, and all conic sections, including the circle, as equations of the



second degree. It was an invention of the utmost importance, not only in itself as giving a fresh and incomparable instrument for exploring the properties of geometrical figures, but as a step leading immediately to an instrument of still wider


differential calculus of

Newton and


note that almost at the same moment at M^hich Descartes published his Geometry, another French mathematician, Fermat, published a work containing the same idea. As usual, great ideas were stirring in many minds at the same moment. We shall see the same thing with Newton and Leibnitz. But whereas Fermat's work was of
It is interesting to

limited scope, technical and practical, Descartes' was part of a far-reaching philosophy which led on to further discoveries
practical method of dealing with the infinitesimal quantities which at once beset us as soon as we attempt either to carry a process of division to its utmost limits or to consider what is involved in any

and the unification of knowledge. Man's mind was at last approaching a

Zeno's famous problem of the hare and the tortoise presented it in the form of an dnoqia or unsolved puzzle. The later Greek geometers, especially Archimedes, approached the problem more nearly from

process of physical growth. conscious of the difficulty.


early Greek thinkers were

another point of view, in their Method of Exhaustions by

which they measured a figure like a circle by summing up an infinite number of measurable sections into which it might be divided. But it was not until Descartes had invented
his of expressing geometrical relations in algebraical that it was possible to deal concisely and effectively equations and the mathematical treatment of with the infinitesimal The all questions of growth involves the infinitesimal.


Greeks were geometers. In the interval between Archimedes and Gaineo algebra had grown up. A Greek, Diophantus, had given the first European examples of the method. The Arabs developed it, and in the sixteenth century Europeans resumed the study. Galileo founded the science of motion,
Descartes brought geometry and algebra together, and within was invented Newton and thirty years after his method

Napoleon. depends as entirely on the calculus of Newton and Leibnitz as the steam-engine on the law of the pressure of gases. view is now gaining ground is shown by the increasing right is number do of works in which it is intelligently presented. even in our higher — — schools. The equations of Lagrange in the time of physics. was the crowning discovery of the first age of modern It brought together the various lines of mechanical inquiry already pursued. and electricity were in this way all measured and brought into the unified world of mathematics. Light. Less obvious to calculation than the masses studied by the early ph3^sicists. heat. magnetism. closing chapter. though we cannot include chemistry within the scope of mathematics to the same extent as we can . still taught the simple principles of the calculus. are merely extensions of the methods of the men of the seventeenth. It is regarded as an advanced and abstruse subject. The practical results were in their way equally great. as it is. with its giant structures and its complex calculation of forces. and important too from standpoint. It would be a fascinating philosophical the subject. the need of which we shall note in our this generally in education. to trace the conquests of mathematics in the sphere of chemistry. and made possible their extension within the next two hundred years to all measurable phenomena. the molecule and the atom of the chemist have also within the last three hundred years come within the range of quantitative analysis.THE TRIUMPHS OF MATHEMATICS Leibnitz It 235 had applied it to the calculation of the infinitesimal. The whole of modern engineering. of Clerk Maxwell in the seventies of the nineteenth century. instead of being. the synthetic spirit. only fit to be attempted by the very few who have shown marked ability in mastering the earlier branches of mathematics. the unifying aspect of mathematics which subsumes all the other methods of calculation and That the applies them to the problems of the moving world. To with the due historical prewould induce more than any other single reform paration. Yet and it is one of the most amazing gaps in our general education not one person in a hundred.

already points the way to the relativity of our own day. however. following Mayo. We might show the recent appearance of similar laws in biology. including in that term all the sentience of which our mind is the highest manifestation as yet known to us. dependent on. has done much to confirm the principle that all our knowledge is relative to. The truth which the calculus serves. by laying stress on the difficulties in regarding Time. prepared the way not purpose. The atomic theory at the beginning of the nineteenth century arises from Dalton's discovery of a mathematical rule governing the combination of atoms in chemical union. Leibnitz. and that the synthesis we hope for. not an absolute. the thinking mind. for his only for modern attempts at more coherent mechanics than were then matured. The story might be extended. the crucial point in the creation of a scientific chemistry. but also for the further analysis of Kant. And this mathematical aspect of the elements seems also to be related with their other qualities and their diffusion in nature. but a human one. disregarding problems irrelevant for its may be merely the truth by which man has mastered own ends certain laws of movement and growth. physics and psychology. of whom more hereafter. came much nearer to the conception that the truths of mechanical theory may be only relatively true. But for our present purpose it is better to conclude here with the work of the great man of the seventeenth century who. while in the latter part of the century Mendeleeff advances the atomic theory by his Periodic Law which exhibits the elements ranged in a mathematical order according to their atomic weight. must be. Leibnitz." It was by the use of the balance that Priestley and Lavoisier. physics. while showing to the full the mathematical development of his time. and partly created by. Since his time the progress in both branches of science. discovered the true nature of combustion. Space. the advance of the mathematical " be noted which show realm of the kinds and qualities of matter.236 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND may spirit into the Three steps. and Motion as absolute. . that we have no reason for inferring they exist as such elsewhere than in our own mind.

") Pushing doubt to its furthest reach. he found there was one thing at least he could not doubt. non que j'imitasse pour cela les ne doutent que pour douter et affectent d'etre sceptiques qui car au contraire. therefore I am. possibly a point from which to move the whole world of thought through a principle on which the mind could rest. seeing that the very attempt to deny them involves their affirmation. but " as a sif ting-test for truth. done " I think." (" Discours sur la . namely. He felt he had gained a sure hold on existence at last. and even mathematics could not of itself give him that. " in all soberness his famous inference. Je pense." did give a new startingje suis. the thing he sought above all else. LEIBNITZ considerations in the last pages : DESCARTES. Descartes in philosophy proper as distinct from science. the existence of himself while he doubted. Here. tout mon dessein ne toujours irresolus tendait qu'a m'assurer et a rejeter la terre mouvante et le sable pour trouver le roc ou I'argile. 237 . Certainty as to the nature of actual existence was. he himself would have us know. Methode. namely. was something he was to affirm as existing even while he attempted to compelled deny it." point to philosophy and suggest a method at least relatively And new. then. of showing by critical analysis that certain principles are implicit in all thought.CHAPTER XXXIII THE RISE OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY SPINOZA. Therefore THE clearer if we go back a little may become and take up the work of he set himself deliberately to doubt everything. not idly. the method.

so Descartes held. the answer itself breaks down. the first place. It is of a God who is the strength of man's weakness. existence. car je voyais clairement que c'etait une plus grande perfection de connaitre que de douter. referred him continually to something beyond. known to him in the effort of his human a line of thought with close affinities not only to the past. " " This God is far enough from the Christian " God " the existence of whom Descartes desired to prove. je m'avisai de chercher d'ou j 'avals appris a penser a quelque chose de plus parfait que je n'etais. a man's consciousness. This bare admission. par consequent. In the first place he is aware of himself not only as a thinking being." (" Discours sur la Methode. Now. indeed. in a form that is None the less. it must be remembered that to Descartes " God " could mean the sum of all positive reality. mon etre n'etait pas tout parfait. But even this step leads at once to the question Is this Reality. but also to all those . the same as the Self I was also forced to admit ? It is conceivable thinking at first blush that the answer should be Yes. it contains ideas of high value. but as an imperfect thinking being. not his but desired by him ? taken that I alone critically Faisant reflexion sur ce que je doutais. derived as it is in part " of things that I am forced to admit. can be put. is it not impossible to deny that such Reality exists ? Surely it is. and the position total sum am the one being in the universe. but it must be admitted that there is confusion as well as profundity His of God's proof from mediaeval thinkers. examined. takes us at first only a very little way. et que. so far. But.238 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND " The procedure of Descartes. this : in his next philosophical doctrine. whatever that Reality may turn out to be. So far from there being any reason to maintain it rather than to doubt it in its turn. et je connus evidemment que ce devait etre de quelque nature qui fut " en effet plus parfaite. is clear and cogent.") Thus he reaches the idea consciousness. In fallacious. And how could he be aware of his imperfection at all if in some way he was not also aware of a Perfection. recalling many of Plato's arguments about the Eternal and Perfect Ideas. and is often put by himself.

Descartes " " And here his recognition of selfworld. : On to the degree that would be involved if there were no reahty The argument. as we shall see. and the wholly different world With the Cartesian attempt at But it is necessary to state though real. he pleads." There is no sense in metaphysical phrase." metaphorically. that of this Substance there are an endless number of essential qualities . 1632. descendant of Jews driven out from Portugal by the Inquisition. we cannot deal here. of speaking. except to be identified with the " " the other hand. d. parts company with Descartes. first. called by him Substance or God. in thing that has length " extended. extended world of of Matter was therefore taken as it real. standard of values discoverable progress. Yet this separation of anything real from God runs counter to the argument for God's existence as the of positive reahty. " a square thought. offering a coherent explanation of all the phenomena forcing themselves God would surely not delude us. that Thought is in no sense that exists in Space. material the consciousness on the one hand and his interest in mathematics on the other led him to hold. Descartes could not bring himself to give up the conviction that something existed that was extended his geometrical discoveries brought too vividly before him what seemed self-evident truths concerning space. forming it was not of It was created by Him part of God's reahty. It is here that sum " ^^e Baruch Spinoza (b. so put.THE RISE OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY 239 hke the belief in genmne vigorous faiths of the future which. In the hands of Leibnitz. His essence." one of the noblest men and perhaps the most impressive philosopher who ever hved. The indicates clearly enough Descartes' line of thought. doctrine becomes central. as : that he did not conceive this ]\Iatter. the matter and breadth and thickness and is. on our senses. but the apparent interaction between a solution Mind remained an enigma. but it in that explanation. that one eternal and infinite self-complete Reality exists. recognize a universal a similar by the reason of man. 1677). Spinoza's fundamental idea is that Real Being must form a rational whole. next turned to Starting with the self and God. is lame.

but that of these Attributes two only are known to us. articulated into an endless through those fragmentary manifestations of their particulars that Spinoza calls the Finite Modes. We ourselves are among these finite modes. but (3) that the Thinking of that Substance. each of them number of particulars all of which Even these are linked together by definite connexions. is incomprehensibly beyond ours.240 or " THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Attributes. borrowing the term " " Mode from Descartes to mean an appearance that flows from a deeper reality but does not adequately express It. spiritual and the spatial. Attributes are only known to us in an imperfect fashion. Moreover. There is a story of Madame de Stael finding Balzac as a little boy reading the She asked him if he understood what he read. (i) that Space (Extension) and its of the quahties in their totahty really do form an Attribute which thinks. He would be a bold man who claimed to understand Spinoza fully perhaps he did not fully understand himself. looked up. sistent. The genius of the man and the unselfishness of his character have stamped themselves on his style. " And she nodded. bring himself to believe that the mathematical construction of things to which we seem forced by physical science does not correspond in the last resort to some reahty beyond his own But neither can he beheve that the thought which thinking. (2) that we ourselves are Infinite Substance fragments of that same Thinking Substance. the Mind and Matter. " Does that mean you understand Him ? And she had nothing to say. Spinoza's large scheme promises to combine at The plain man cannot their root the spiritual and the spatial. when It thinks as a whole. A spirit goes out from Spinoza's writing that fortifies the student even where he fails to comprehend the master or feels compelled to call him incon." each of which expresses Its total nature. asserting. Yet no philosopher has been more inspiring. inasmuch as It is able . not only to trained metaphysicians. Hence the appeal of Spinoza's daring and complex doctrine. but to the plain man. He Ethics. " You pray to God ? " he asked her in his turn. out this construction is itself a mere by-product of thinks shapes in motion.

THE RISE OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY to combine Its thoughts completely with creative in a sense that 241 we are not. and the " " desire for knowledge part of that intellectual love of God which is the crown of man. something that we apprehend but do not in this complete . With God Perception ("Ethics. never holding within us fully articulated the whole sum of Reahty. Schol. made manifest by different attri" butes This is a truth." For us the conception of a thing and the actual existence of the thing do not combine : " way we can only conceive a circle by thinking of something else outside that circle and so on for ever." since we see them more and more connected with everything else in the whole universe. 7. P. In so far as he learns to see both " " " " material mental in their true connexion things and with each other. Spinoza.. Schol. 17. adds (ib." and the Thing Perceived are absolutely united.). Prop. but the Thought of God " is the cause both of our nature and of our existence Part I. A man " is Reality and is not the whole cause of another man's nature.. His thought. seen dimly by the Hebrews who taught the unity of God.). But man." " sub specie aeternitatis. can at least do this much. comprehend. it may be confessed. " Quo magis res singu" lares intelhgimus. something " " in Spinoza's idea of God as the absolute union of mystical Thought and Being. although he can only go from step to step among the infinite details of the two Divine Attributes alone accessible to him. indeed very often.. There is thus. The more we see things so. II. by which I mean something that appears necessary to the logical completion of our thought. but which our thought does not fully grasp. At times. as far as the heavens are above the earth toto cselo differre deberent. But all this is far above our human thought.. the more we see them " under the form of eternity. Spinoza wrote as though this power in man lifted the most essential part of him into eternity: " We feel and 16 . " The circle existing in Nature and the idea in God of the existing circle are one thing and the same. he sees more of God. 24). eo magis Deum intelligimus (V. Prop. and what He thinks of. Prop. The work of science is thus in its essence religious. and in the doing of it lies his link of union with God and his liberation from servitude.

must necessarily desire his own preservation. only considers himself lives in . though the man as a separate individual ceased to exist. is made up by his connexion with other men and other things. 73). Schol. saw no escape but by the external defences of Government. could it grow large enough. Hobbes. a man giving up instinct that there all his efforts part of his liberty in order to be protected in the rest of towards self-preservation. him that the only part of not based on delusion. would be God. " Ethics..242 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND " know by experience that we are eternal (V. But when he himself at all he sees that his real comes to understand self. Spinoza. emotions should be brought into harmony with this fundamental truth. but because he finds in it more links with other men and therefore more of that larger Self. In this way man is from his bondage of illusion and hatred and cowardice. while almost as great a pohtical absolutist as Hobbes." He was stimulated by Hobbes as well great work as by Descartes. He welcomes the life of the city not simply because it is safer. as we pointed out. but pos- sibly that a man's power of thought passed after the dissolution of his body into the eternal life of God." we should also feel them so. and the more harmony between them is and him the more harmony in himself." " Further. A man. The conatus in suo esse perseverari is a vital part of him. we should not only see things under the form of Our wills and our eternity. something of it destroyed with the destruction of the body remains which is eternal. It is obvious at least that he conceived of man's mind as on a different footing The mind of man cannot absolutely be from his body. " A man which.. he holds with Hobbes. What precisely he meant by this it is hard Prop. cuts far deeper.). Prop. that free and brave self. who is led by Reason attains more hberty in a City where he set free accordance with the laws than in a solitude where he " (IV. It is not for nothing that Spinoza called his . and he was led to his system largely by his " that war of must be some way to deliver man from against all which Hobbes found in the state of nature. They are the completion of himself. to say. 23.

and by fragments and therefore he will strive first and foremost to conceive things . conscious. whatever seems impious. confusedly. " drunk with God." " worth proving in detail. if all things are derived from a Perfect Substance." that all Moreover. one in whose system there was no clear place for the faulty cosmos in which at least we appear to live. " a brave man will bear in mind things follow from the nature of the Divine Being and therefore whatever he considers hurtful or evil. and finally struggle to the best of his power. Dominant individual throughout living his system is the thought conscious To not w^zconscious these he gives the name of monads. was rather to be blamed. . the German Leibnitz approached the problem from the opposite standpoint. It is not God who is conceivably denied in Spinoza's system but rather the Individual Man. that of the excommunicated from individuahst. Jealousy. condemned by his brother Jews as an a-theist and their fellowship." Spinoza adds. can despise no one. nor reproachful. such as Hatred. Contempt. Pride . Less striking than Spinoza and far less fine in character. and he conceives them after the — of — centres." The last quotation brings us face to face with the question. springs from the fact that he sees things disorderedly. How. but of astonishing endowment. . or foul. as the only things that can claim to be real unities. can there be even the delusion of Imperfection ? The student asks if the question of evil and error has not rather been to do shelved than solved ? In general the criticisms on Spinoza all centre on the question exactly how does he derive this world of finite particulars from the God who is infinite ? Spinoza. unjust. or subas the sole realities in the world. for being an a-kosmist. be angry with no one. and can never A man wbo It is scarcely be arrogant. nor envious. Anger. . as Hegel says. as we said before. horrible. as they really are and sweep aside all that hinders true knowledge.THE RISE OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY " " 243 is led by Reason will not be led by Fear. that a brave man can hate no one." and perhaps after all Spinoza was indeed the greatest service he does for us is that at moments he enables us to share his intoxication. good and to rejoice.

7. is To the There mocked at this argument and insisted that there was no reason for thinking that such concepts as those of shape and movement. for example — observed." § 60. of the whole universe." Leibnitz seems led to his system by three main threads. fashion of selves. any more than such percepts as those of colour and sound. may correspond to them. does not mean " actual observation. after all. from an individual point of view. J. that God would not delude us. accepted the existence of the material world on the ground. the but they are hmited and differentiated through the . Berlin. power of thought in the self as distinct from " mere nothing in the intellect that has not already been in sensation. Die philosophischen Schriften von G. and our efforts are known to us more directly than the existence of material things. each of them. or selves lower and higher The highest Monad.) Vol." edited by Gerhardt. as Berkeley was to expound to English readers a little later. (2) The possibility of being observed. metaLeibnitz physically weak. nor relations in space and time— movement without the possibility of being as such. other than ourselves. he caUs God. Confronted 1 by the Englishman Clarke with the question C. indeed. p. 488. monads consists in varying degrees of effort and knowledge. . (Referred to in text as G. Leibnitz. But Descartes had. degrees of their distinct perception It is of their essence to be aware. traditional dictum. Something ceiving or conceiving subject. Against Locke the EngUshman Leibnitz " stressed the sensation. but Leibnitz considers it obvious. W. on which in some fashion The nature of all the lower all the rest depend. we is should note. could exist just so apart altogether from any perOn the contrary. he accepts the view that our selves (i) Following Descartes. " whole In a confused way they all strive after the infinite.)." he made " ^ the pregnant addition. feel that sensations cannot exist without something to them. 1875-90. however obscurely. and truth depend on this correspondence. (" Monadology. than human. except the intellect itself.244 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND human selves. Leibnitz quite definite here. Latta's tr.

But Leibnitz went further. 403). but no metaphysician." § 18. and can give us no ultimate explanation. any more than a railway passenger whose vision is confined to his own train and another passing it can tell which of the two is travelling. and this he thought he found in his centres of living energy. so it would appear. If absolute motion can never be detected by the methods of mechanics (since nothing can be observed except change of against Newton. the activities of which may be represented. as anything apart from the " " relation of the matter that occupied it. then. and that all motion. in short. and recent what follows ? and mathematics generally. nonmaterial principle. he wrote. . that is. be content to admit our ignorance and hope for no further success by any other method ? Leibnitz. are incomplete. As a mathematician Leibnitz could hold his own Latta's). Yet one of them it must be. since we can never know by their means which bodies in the last resort are actively in motion and which are not. could only be conceived as relative (" New System. from the physical and mathematical point of view. in opposition to Newton. p. by the appearances of motion according to uniform laws. was not content with this conclusion. notably Einstein's. Must we. researches. most brilliant of mathematicians and astronomers. is for him ultimately position relative to other apparent bodies). that mechanics. Movement. appear to support him in a remarkable way. n'y a point de changement observable. though many thinkers since his day have been. Je r^ponds que le mouvement est independent dc I'observation. certainly. he still sought for an ultimate distinction and urged that it must lie in some non-mechanical. 7.. that space could not be conceived as absolute. Admitting inadequacy in mechanics. mais qu'il n'est point independent de I'observabiUte. II n'y a point de mouvement quand n'y a point de changement observable. il il Et mdme quand il n'y a point de Following this train of thought he stoutly maintained. First.THE RISE OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY 245 whether a ship could not move without every cabin-passenger " remarking it. " changement du tout (G. btit only inadequately. He pressed the consequences of his theory.

beyond existence. If can be shown that there no impossibility in the conception .. seeking an answer to the question why. G. 564). of the Perfect Good as something that was the source both of Being it be. but the principles of mechanism itself do " not depend on mere matter (G. as he tells us himself. by Plato. may also be non-divisible. deeply influenced. so fascinating to the mediaevalists. to translate Leibnitz' own Latin. " " the fountain of the nature and existence of all other things If once we admit that it is better for a good (G. Such coherent appear" ances Leibnitz called well-founded phenomena. 489). 303). the conclusion must follow.246 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND " a sign of life. After all. to become actual (cp. but always explanation up " ne donnant jamais implying something over and above un dementi aux regies des pures mathematiques. being themselves non-spatial. after all. 7. could be satisfied with none that did not conceive it as a constant striving for perfection. Multitude must involve units.. dead " matter Again the problem of infinite divisibility led him to the same results." capable of to a certain point by mathematics. 7. p.. 7. the world exists. p." he writes elsewhere. 509). or. its coherent and multiform appearances. Thus Leibnitz deliberately revived Plato's audacious thought.. but where can " " an ultimate unit be found in a matter which. thing to exist than not (and the admission is so instinctive we scarcely notice how fundamental it is). p. and from which may proceed. the only reason that seems sufficient to us for a thing existing is that it is good that it should exist. that in the very idea of a good thing " there is a need. in some way not yet clear to us. they must be units of vital force which. (3) From another standpoint Leibnitz. thing proceeds by mechanical laws. mais conte" " nant toujours quelque chose au dela (G. are to find real units at : and Knowledge. so Leibnitz felt. and greater in majesty " and power (Rep. and to conceive the universe as is to leave mechanism itself incomplete. which may lie at the base of the physical universe. as it were. Every" in physical nature. as Plato said. 7. p. 305). however small can always be conceived as once again divisible ? If we all. in ipsapossi- hilitate vel essentia esse it exigentiam is existenticB.

by the way. but he divines the reader never feels exasperated with Spinoza that the Jew had bought his certainty with a great price. and hence he looked on — the temporal world as a continual progress of conscious or semi-conscious units to a reahzation and apprehension of It. and if his ideas were profound his emotions were shallow. however. It is worth while remarking. Spinoza also.THE RISE OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY of a boundless. is the first philosopher of note in whom the idea of progress of his is dominant. self -complete Perfection this 247 had been shown —he felt pressing to actualize itself in and Leibnitz thought we must needs conceive it as time. Leibnitz learnt from every philosopher of his time and of the times before him. peaceful at last. Leibnitz. swept evil aside. had a chance of taking her rightful place in the culture of the West. There is something aside exasperating in the complacency with which he brushes " free the evils of the world as mere temporary set-backs in the " and unending progress of the whole universe towards perfection. that he was bom just two years before the end of the Thirty Years' War. It is easy. : . to pick holes in his system. it may be said. Germany. and the boldness and buoyancy thought form a fit prelude to the series of towering German systems. perhaps. after and it is safe to say that no thinker him but owes him a debt of some kind.

He will picture himself lying. 248 . tortured by the stone. he trifle. the reader takes a grim pleasure in setting his witty indecent truth against the German's suave assurances. as . I did not see at first to agree about the happiness. explained that The boldest among them. dence that Tarquin violated Lucretia and Lucretia stabbed herself. the overflowing with the mutilated victims of hundred-thousandth war since wars were known. that sworn foe of religious humbug in every form. and thus rape. my optimist would not budge he kept on repeating. were slaughtered by Caesar. a merciful dispensation of Provisaid. . because this led to the expulsion of the tyrants. IN FRANCE: Candide." with its unsparing tales of human vice and natural calamity. and war laid the foundation of a RepubHc all this was a mere it we should consider I found that brought happiness to the nations it conquered. suicide. roused the scintillating wrath of Voltaire. LEIBNITZ. in a hospital filled to " the last war." "I them of the countless crimes and disasters in this admirable world. wherein lay the feUcity for the Gauls and Spaniards. we are told. a German. is a memorable retort to the doctrine that this was the best of all possible worlds. spoke to . . For example.CHAPTER XXXIV THE STRENGTHENING OF CRITICISM VOLTAIRE the darling and the flatterer of princes and princesses. and though Voltaire is not for a moment to be compared with Leibnitz in metaphysical power. it difficult but Rapine and devastation I also thought exceedingly unpleasant. " Always Voltaire is returning to the charge. three million of whom.

provoked in another way. Geneve. There is no need of portents for the belief in a righteous God to whom the heart of in " man lies our nature." Par un Citoyen de most ." he writes. Most stimulatis tempted to say. Guerre " in the first short of his monarchy. Very characteristic of him is the pointed aside when admitting that the revolts of the Fronde were not marked by excessive " They were not wars for religion. he will change lunge at an opposite danger. and war are the three elements best known in this hfe of ours below. he shows a genuine religious feehng " of his own. Philosophique." and with a Famine. The conviction lies deep enough " under Philosophique (" Dictionnaire Fraude. " the most insulting to human nature. the and of all disastrous.) It was against religious cruelty that he fought in his efforts." Yet it would be a serious mistake to conceive Voltaire as He is not. Against thorough-going scepticism. to save the family of the Huguenot Calas from further torture. The first two But war. 1765. is the despotism of a priesthood sacerdotal empires the Christian without doubt has been the most criminal. and superstition he detested the Church because he saw in it the worst engine of tyranny. Peace." open. Perhaps that is why in dedicatory epistles they are spoken of as the vicegerents of God. disease. consistently anything. for example." cruelty. autocracy.VOLTAIRE AND CRITICISM IN FRANCE the jailer did to 249 your Don " ' Carlos.") More consistent than in anything in his hatred of oppression else. or pacifist.") " under the heading Dictionnaire " fiercely. that unites all their are the gifts of Providence. far worse than any political " The most absurd of all despotisms." (" Idees Rcpublicaines. the most illogical. ing of critics.'" (" More edition fling at Le Philosophe Ignorant. peace. . famous and triumphant. consistently atheist. benefits. comes to us from the active imagination of three or four hundred men scattered over the globe under the names of Kings and Ministers. we have him at his best when we take his irresistone ible attacks for at another front to what they are worth without forgetting that moment. or anti-monarchist. it is all for good. He speaks for himself when he writes.

and he weakens at the thought of la gloire under Louis XIV at the height of his power. question of actually changing the government. Ph. Tradition and Prestige were potent even with him. ce qu'il devait compter pour le plus grand de ses avantages. et enfin la dime a nos cures de tout ce qui la terre accorde a nos travaux. n'aiant assiege aucune place qu'il n'eut prise. droits de tout espece. la terreur de I'Europe pendant six annees de suite. He may declare outright that " " il n'y a que les rois qui preferent la royaute (" Patrie. The conquering never gain from the booty of the conquered they pay people for everything. et. he admits openly. des vertus qu'on ne voit guere " que dans les Republiques (ib.). who had tried to insinuate a change by classing ostensibly her systems among monarchies that were. double vingtieme. France. Why is Why does he actually defend aristocrats and monarchs against the guarded criticism of Montesquieu ? (" Commentaire sur 1' Esprit des Lois. limited. opportunity for praising such. who ever lived. and here he differs sharply from his predecessor Montesquieu. and then taking every : " .") " admire republican uprightness. within his range. Dunkerque et la moitie de la Flandre ." He may frankly (" Siecle de Louis XIV. to ask for any political reform. " Victorieux depuis qu'il regnait. taille. taillon. ustensiles. ajoutant a ses Etats la FrancheComte.). merely to secure for the peasants the right to work for themselves on Sundays and Saints' days and to be relieved from arbitrary rules about fasting. one of the clearest-sighted men. . superieur en tout genre a ses ennemis reunis. Roi d'une ." But he draws back invariably when it comes to the Diet. he not more vigorous in assault Voltaire ? is franker. His pages may flash with thrusts at the selfishness of kings Nations in Christian Monarchies have scarcely ever any interest in the wars of their Sovereigns." he does not proceed. was under a despotism.250 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND When he pleads in the name of the peasants ground down " by the forced labour and the endless taxes. .") Partly because he was dazzled. enfin son Arbitre et son Pacificateur. in fact. as we should expect. impots sur tout ce qui sert a nos chetifs habillemens. . capitation. even he.

that after all Louis and that his patronage of art and literature was of a kind to enchant Voltaire. selves Similarly he sees no chance of (art. Dutchmen. a barbaric structure. as indeed we might guess from his own efforts at poetry. wealth. and the imposing s^nnmetries of and the Louvre were far more to his mind than the grave appeal of Notre-Dame. reign. and Germans to dominate Europe. though the bases of Economics were even then being discovered in England by Adam Smith. but are only the mass are not naturally bad (art. rivalled the Versailles Age of Pericles. or even subsistence. et alors le modele des autres nations. especially when irritated by men in priestly groans over original sin. and af most importance. a lead towards a . a defect he shared with most men of his time. when compared with Renaissance buildings. Although. Writing his history of the " II fit voir qu'un Roi absolu qui veut he writes of him. he had the vaguest ideas of economic laws. In the second place. however much his Voltaire's position was criticism might undermine the old." ("Siecle de Louis XIV. It was his considered opinion that in Uterature the Age of Louis could shake Voltaire's confidence.") y vit de svanites des grands. A man new of this temper could never give men pohtical system. for the human race securing unless there are an endless number of capable men who " car certainement un homme k possess nothing whatever. he never gets away from the " conviction that they are very seldom fit to govern them" " Patrie "). he thought." " son aise ne quittera pas sa terre pour venir labourer la votre " (art. Voltaire's o^\^l taste was far from impeccable. We must remember le bien vient a bout de tout sans peine. he could insist that " Mechant "). " Egahte ").VOLTAIRE AND CRITICISM IN FRANCE 251 nation alors heureuse. He conceives the fooUsh luxury of " le pauvre the rich as a real source of the poor man's wealth Defence du Mondain. corrupted by evil example.") Not even the failure of Louis in the end." (" Finally. for which Paris had to blush. unable in the teeth of Enghshmen. Voltaire's keen insight into the follies and weaknesses of men checked any nascent : faith in democracy." had united the majority of Frenchmen.

He " " worked with the best minds of France at the Encyclopedic end And to popularize knowledge and rationalism. while smiling at. united. Early in his life he crossed to England. he toiled at his task. unremittingly.") Europe. lauding Penn's experiment of peaceful and fair dealing with the Red Indians in America. As we saw. There is no cause for surprise that the two men quarrelled in the end. both of them irritable and vain beyond the common. electric thrills and shocks from one of the intelligent world to the other. then struggling. he was ready enough to put up with despotism as a necessary evil. by fair means or foul. turning the eyes of Europeans in reverence towards the wisdom of China and the East. at last to open her doors and learn from her kindred in the West. as it were. . significant is What is surprising and their long co-operation.252 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND rather to stimulate in detail the intellectual conscience of Europe. devotedly. He watched with real of age-long enemies. Much in the same spirit he maintained a friendship for years with Frederick the Great. He went beyond (" Commentaire sur I'Esprit des Lois. He wrote in friendship and grateful admiration to the Itahan Beccaria then pleading earnestly for a more humane code of punishment. after centuries of slavery and stagnation under the Tartars and their sucesssors. explaining to his discoveries. to raise his little kingdom from an ignorant ill-situated province into a strong. delighting in. That the greater part of these efforts were only incited under the despotic rule of Peter the Great and Catherine did not disturb Voltaire. and cultured Power. making friends everywhere in that land countrymen Newton's Wren's architecture. to send. He reinforced with fervour Montesquieu's noble attack on the European crime of enslaving the negroes. the Quaker simplicity with its marked contrast to the elaborate code of Parisian manners. exalting interest Russia's attempt.

lost his admiration for what was simple. and from a in self-government. His temperament was a maze of contradictions. craving. suspicious. weaknesses were of help to him here.CHAPTER XXXV THE NEW CREED OF REFORM : ROUSSEAU And destructive rather than constructive. Voltaire's invaluable as it was and is. the reasons indicated in the last chapter. but penetrated by the influence of later on — such only appeal nation that city trained which was to give the The voice was the French on the father's the Geneva that was are the paradoxes of reaction —to repudiate his works. never. flung itself on the problems of Society and His very the State with a feverish ardour and indignation. treacherous." his own need of self-discipline. FOR critical rationalism. that the call came new age its distinctive creed of reform. tion of the philosophers and men of science could It was from a httle nation. His sensitive genius. remained the inspira- voice of an obscure watchmaker's son. yet sympathizing in 253 . and by his own swift sense of the contrast between its hard self-centred life of citizenship and family love that he behind him. yet there rise thousand beacons from the spark I bore. generous. Shelley was right when he made him say and the active ideals left had " If I A Knowing have been extinguished. in spite of all. morbidly sensual. but from a to a few. had immemorial traditions of freedom. roused by the clash of thought in Paris. and self-controlled. Jean Jacques Rousseau. side.

and made him into a man. That they could be combined " he held. I." Bk. of the body politic lies in the harmony of obedience and libert}^ the terms subject and sovereign representing two sides of one thing and the same. while obedience to a self-ordained law is hberty. quite definitely. and he did. 8." Bk. he could. the thought of both being united in the single name of Citizen. and we can understand from them alone how deeply Rousseau could influence a temperament so different from his own as Kant's." The words could scarcely be stronger." Trae. and the balance " of gain is so large that if the abuses of this new condition did not often degrade him below that fr(?m which he had risen. 13.) : Thus. transformed him from a stupid and limited animal into a rational being." ^ ("The Social Contract. the glory of the ideal civic life The essence was." . For the impulse of mere appetite is slavery. because only in it could man acquire moral freedom. longing for intimate union with men. Rousseau combine the two principles that we have seen to be of such vital importance and so difficult of combination." (" The Social Contract. c. in many points. c.254 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND every fibre with the craving for personal freedom. the individualist and the social. has since. It is a serious misprision to imagine that his mature thought " hankered after the condition of the noble savage. he ought to bless without ceasing the happy moment that tore him from it for ever. at first hostile to grow to his full stature.) Conscious reason taking the place of instinct marks the change in man from savagery to civil society. And it is only in such a life that man could Ill. confirmed him but that did not prevent him from recognizing the civil state as higher " than the savage. At the 1 — It was from Rousseau that the Revolutionists took their title of ••Citoyen. sets out to — Rousseau. yet turning with disgust from what men had so far made of the world. which alone makes him the master of liimself. he preferred it to the corrupt and decadent society he saw about him and here historical research. feel with the whole force of his fervid nature that the only salvation for man lay in struggling to combine both impulses.

La Volonte the Social Conscience.THE NEW CREED OF REFORM same time he never pressed in his lost 255 ex- his sympathy— extravagantly sophisticated the revolt from writings with The burden of his teaching over-civihzation. conceived not as a supposed historical episode dead and done with the question of historic fact is not for Rousseau vital but as a living and growing factor. and which. unalterable. business of his book. but who were afraid to move . and still more by the principles underlying them. " just this. as every one knows. and not do violence to his thought of the common interest and the public welfare. sovereignty of the people." he wrote. it bottom of they must learn to make the laws as well as to obey them. trained to discuss. and for that est L'homme les the beginning of dans fers. say. must be a disciphne that they themselves in the their hearts can recognize as just. just because it is the voice of the common reason seeking the common " constant. in short." (Bk." ne hbre. never ceasing to operate in all men's minds. good. Thus by his detailed proposals. as he called it — — — that sense. as the very same paragraph shows. is that their justification lies in the spirit of the Social Contract. at " et partout il est The Social Contract. who were bitterly dissatisfied with the old regime. as we might Generate. if only the people do their duty and guiding its general course. and in the last resort A strong executive need not infringe on the to decide. which alone — can fashion a State worth the having. to elect worthy ministers. but recent experience has in watching indicated that it is far more chimerical to hope for good government unless backed by an enlightened and vigorous public opinion. It used to be that Rousseau was chimerical in assigning so active thought a part in politics to the people. in brief." the precise But he does not stop there " . is in itself. a thing This power must be kept active in men by exercise. is to ask and to answer what it is that justifies these chains. earlier — was always as it is. vocal and silent. Rousseau appealed to the numberless critics. And the answer. IV. though it may be over-powered by other impulses. and pure. that if disciphne is necessary for men.

" Nobles Polonais. calculated to arouse also both the elements in his writing but such defects anarchy and the oppression which he dreaded. Burke. il sufht d'etre des mutins. if made demands He did not minimize the dangers. " And again. sense of justice. but just because you are men you have it in you to achieve it.256 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND because they saw nothing to replace it. qu'ils It was a call to rouse the dead. mechanical law. restricting. . her keeping what was good in her past traditions. after admitting fully the hommes soyez defects of the peasants. . sudden and revolutionary In the same excellent letter to that unhappy land which had asked for his advice but was never allowed by her neighbours to act on it." He was only the more an stimulating because he did not at all beheve in Progress as What he did inevitable and. he counselled her to advance cautiously. Nothing can be more scathing in his admirable letter on " the government of Poland than his contempt for those qui." Then. les coeurs pleins de tons les vices des esclaves. but not at once destroying the liberum veto—that fatal right of any one member of the Diet to hold up even administrative measures by his single her opposition— gradually." they chose. pour " " methods. but only gradually. is the basis that you need. certainly not prejudiced in his favour. emancipating Yet he knew that in class division lay her greatest evil. with a magnificent gesture. . in man's latent them. Build on that it will be a long task and a heavy. much more the surging ates. beheve in was men's power to raise themselves into freedom . so to speak. les bourgeois qui the division into sont rien. interested foreigners. here in the pubhc conscience. Nor did he urge etre libres. not to blind us to the depth and value of his central ! . soyez plus. Rousseau cried to " Here. ought thought. et les paysans qui sont moins que rien. back to his fundamental theme. keeping for example. " les nobles qui sont tout." True it is that there were half-repressed forces in France. " comma Mais songez que vos serfs sont des hommes ont en eux I'etoffe pour devenir tout ce que vous vous. serfs. but refusing to elect selfmonarchy elective. Liberty higher than the merely Factious could dream of. s'imaginent que.

THE NEW CREED OF REFORM : 257 did him no more than justice when he wrote during the "I beheve that were Rousseau ahve. 17 . But the influence of his pohtical writings went far deeper and remains far more important. In his novel-WTiting and the extraordinary revelation of his as " Confessions " he opened new paths for the literature of his period. was something pro- and the digious in its day. Intimate and emotional to the last degree. and Goethe to his double ideal of Romance and Law. ways for the direct expression of personal feeUng. watchwords of that gigantic uprising were drawn from him. he left the world more than a But the decade before the outbreak of the Revolution. he would be shocked at the practical one of his phrensy of his scholars who in their paradoxes are servile imitators. the very same year as Voltaire. Of practical results he saw little during his Ufetime. followed directly on the lines of Rousseau. And his influence here spread development Pestalozzi in Switzerland. " Nouvelle Heloise. was thus strongly opposed to Voltaire in spite of much common ground. Dying in 1778. training in widening circles. and in Revolution lucid intervals.") Rousseau. beheving in the possibility of men governing themselves. Educationalists in Germany hke Herder and Jean Paul Richter acknowledged his lead." (" Reflections on the French Revolution." the theme influence of his divided characteristically between the ardours of physical passion and the duties of married hfe. but they are ahve with the vividness of his own mind and temperament. and the belief overflowed into other spheres than the political. The Confessions will probably always be read with keen if painful interest. modern Europe at children to teach themselves in their play. even Kant and Schiller responded to his appeal for humanity and republican liberty. Rousseau is one of the first writers in to urge in detail that education should aim from within. they are also morbidly sensual and charged with the sentimentality so constantly hnked to sensuahsm.

are Such satirists as Gay and Pope. Vaughan. Bunyan. Crashaw. obviously not the least perturbed by the evils they flick The sharp reaction from Puritanism had left so neatly. She counted herself to have attained. Herrick. subtle often and often 258 . in spite of the interest that made him. Donne. and the greater Dryden earlier still. d. Nor should we forget the lifelong evangelical mission of John Wesley his appeal scarcely touched (b. Literature was in essence strong. For political prophets she had little use. 1791). as little as she had for ethereal poets. on In poetry the wild songs and the solemn both fall silent. like all of an earlier age. are Congreve earlier. their political wisdom is actually and in many ways less broad-minded than Locke. alarmed by revolution. and during the hundred years from the expulsion of James II (1689) to the opening of the French Revolution she was perhaps more serenely proud of herself than at any other period of her generally complacent career. is no advance and Burke. Milton. Locke's generous " " come at the close of the sevenEssays on Civil Government teenth century. but as a rule undeniYet the bitter suffering anger of Swift is ably smug.CHAPTER XXXVI EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY ENGLAND AND EXPANSION OVERSEAS England the impression Rousseau made was naturally far less. a distinct dislike for fervour. a startling and perhaps a significant exception. and George III offer him a pension. Until the time of Burke there . Hume invite IN Since the Restoration England had been growing more and more selfsatisfied. though prose. 1703.

and the respect" able Richardson are notably different from the arid brilliance that had just preceded them. must always be coupled with Gainsborough. though he has none of the Spanfire. the lesser Smollett.EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY ENGLAND the cultured classes. as we of the period Gibbon opens a new era shall note in a later chapter. however." a term indeed of opprobrium at the time. Inaugurators of the modern novel. and Hogarth earlier offers a parallel to Smollett that is exact almost to absurdity. Both Hume and Gibbon show a freedom from prejudice and a readiness to dispense with what they would have called changing the orientation of men's minds. and it is ill done ever to be ungrateful. towards the study of this world for what it is and can simply the consolations of religion. one of England's few real painters. even if we feel that they have never visited the high lands of poetry and that too often their wares are fly-blown. The other arts show much the same characteristics a sound sense of proportion. In philosophy Berkeley and Hume make their mark in iard's suppressed criticism. Thought was pointing now in a direction almost exactly opposed to that of mediaevalism. These men are interested enough in human beings to create types that are far more than mere butts for mockery. There are exceptions again here if the stately genius of Christopher Wren belongs rather to the age of Milton. and at the close in history. an assured ease and dignity. but little to expand the higher faculties of the imagination. In Gainsborough's dignity and quiet subtlety there is something that suggests an Enghsh Velazquez. kindling until much nearer the close into anything like "enthusiasm. they brought back imagination into the market-place. not. the era of unprejudiced penetrating inquiry into the long-buried past. the eighteenth century has full right to the grave gracious harmonies of : : Gainsborough. But the strong humanity of Johnson and the kindliness to be felt in the diverse (and often indecent) work " of Fielding and Sterne. 259 And as the century advances there is a perceptible warning of emotion in the world of letters. Reynolds." which indicate the scientific spirit and the rationahst were " how markedly . though the lesser man.

as was indeed foreseen. there were signs of a broader view. Chatham and Burke. still less that a new and larger unity was possible between them and the West. Chatham and Burke. the benefit of the Colonies were plantations home country. and England was foremost in the adventure. but in vain. sound and humane. There was little sense that Europe owed a duty to these countries with whose liberties she gratuitously interfered. moreover. but there was a leaven of criticism. These men knew that a young and virile nation. the younger Pitt. Burke's indictment of Warren Hastings for extortion and cruelty against the Indians. was in full evidence. During the struggle with Louis XIV she had set foot in India. pleaded to no effect. laid foundations of her colonies. England's genius for action. in short with all those systems. But the general attitude to the colonies was still that of the for European world exclusive at large. the protests of the Quakers against slavery. In the case of America a deliberate attempt at taxation without representation roused a spirit of indomitable revolt. founded by men who had left the Old World forefathers for freedom. typically modern. man's own mind and will. turning aside from the problems of another or of the universe as a whole as from riddles felt to be The attitude has much in common with later Agnosticism and Positivism. are noteworthy instances.260 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND be made in itself. Concession was refused and America lost to us. Mistakes and crimes enough England committed. however. that kept her from the worst faults of the Spaniards. by two at least of England's statesmen. and as the century advanced she established broader the the basis of her dominion there. was able to . that admit ignorance of fundamental truths and content themselves with the steady exercise of insoluble. But we learnt from the loss. and expanded her sea-power. The eighteenth century is eminent for the expansion of Western Europe over the savage and backward countries of the world. at least for the time. Still. Chatham's son. would not tolerate claims such as their had given up everything to avoid.

beside ourselves learnt from America's revolt and in other ways. The way was thick with problems. It became increasingly clear to " that more was to be gained in the long-run by shopkeepers allowing young communities to trade freely to their own best advantage and thus to furnish a richer market for our wares than to pinch them into comparative uselessness by Hmiting Others their traffic to the httle islands of the mother-country. It was the call to Repubhcan hberty. WTiatever the difficulties. combining the advantages of large States and smaU (and we may add making room for a new combination of freedom and unity). Egypt. Commercial considerations " a nation of helped him. But it was a daring thing to put in practice on the American scale and a difficult thing. and the pursuit of happiness. and India are not solved. the success from the outset was greater. but never with any persistency except in areas too hmited to show its possibiHties. This indeed had been tried already in Europe. echoing the Dutch proclamation nearly two centuries before. was to France an example in action of what. many of them never solved until that convulsion of civil war which cast out slavery. years as the prospects of self-government have progressed in Ireland there has been an output of distinctively Irish . of Ireland.EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY ENGLAND 261 inaugurate a more liberal policy. there are signs that the solution will be along yet And it is noteworthy that in the last thirty these lines. rights to Hberty. however. even to a people trained in representative government. the British Common- Though the problems wealth has adopted the principle and always with success. Her triumphant Declaration of Independence (1776). for example.Rousseau had been in theory. America set up on a large scale the notable experiment of Federation. and the Federal principle has won its way steadily to fuller and fuller acceptance by the Western world. Moreover. Rousseau in one of his pregnant asides had actually spoken of it as perhaps the best form of government." More and more in recent years. Perhaps in estabhshing it as a prime factor in government America may of Europe as " prove to have given as potent a stimulus to the progress in her defiant assertion of all men's natural life.

the world as a days of the sagamen. whole is turning to the Federal principle embodied in a universal League as the one remedy for recurrent war and insensate competition between nations. .262 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND literature unparalleled since the early Most hopeful sign of all.

But it is a beauty like the beauty of a bird-song or a In mediaeval ballad. at makes something new. nor. undeniably and obviously. into a place which he feels to be more fundamental than the place of appearance and at the same time intimately bound to it. except indirectly and rarely. as it were. hke aU arts. 263 . among the mysteries of Time and Space that are so bewildering to the intellect. neither serving physical comfort. neither utilitarian nor imitative. music of a kind was known. one melody of single successive notes. From the dawn of history. nor giving definite in all Germany and what is MEANWHILE information. no doubt. and the song of the birds suggests a further origin. being.CHAPTER XXXVII GERMANY AND MUSIC through the eighteenth century. though none can explain how. The rise of music belongs in the main to the mediaeval world and the modern. Music offers the most striking instance of the value in Art pure and simple. For music works. had been exploring undreamt-of heights and depths. lifting the emotions of man above himself. But out of these it senses. the stones of its magical building being no more and no less than the effects on the human ear of vibrations that combine with and foUow each other. out of the very stuff of things manifest to the home. the art of music. Simple folk-tunes almost everywhere show a genuine beauty. mimicking natural events. and leading him. it yet moves the world. Free of the world. perhaps the most wonderful of aU the arts.

a richer effect being gained by concurrent notes. living and working in Germany (1685-1750). that during the early eighteenth century. all harshness. but resident during most of his life in England. unexplained paradoxes in history. born either the same year or the year before. but at first the differences were carefully limited. Handel is better genius. It was essential for the notes to conception of differ. there grew up the harmony as distinct from melody. an age. opened new and endless vistas. should have come into its kingdom. the least prosaic And while its of all. a successor first. seem to have led way here. There is no name of the first rank in architecture after Christopher Wren. as something closer to the stress of human life. Bach. of Pales- trina. comparatively speaking. being the according to Professor " Tovey. THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND by steps we cannot now fully trace. known to the English public than any other leading composer. And they are built especially by Germans. when the country was at last. to the world in music may fairly be counted compensation enough. affinities with free architecture seem particularly close. both depending in a high degree on clear and complex structure " " music found its path of architecture is frozen music deliberate use of unprepared dissonances. This serene effect was consecrated by the ideal of church music as of something uplifted beyond the discords of earth. we have suggested above. to make But as the seventeenth century passed into the eighteenth. The palaces of music are built instead. Handel. Of the two Bach is undoubtedly the grander But he is also far more difficult. differing from but harmonizing with each other. pre-eminently of prose. this art. But towards the close of the sixteenth century the desire made itself felt for The the Italians. being avoided.264 times. but a reassuring one. at peace from It is one of the many foreign wars and internal strife. unless obviously transitory. Monte verde (1567-1643). men who for other What Germany has given arts have shown little aptitude." the real strides were made in Germany — — development exactly when architecture was dying. as we have seen. partly through his simplicity and partly through the .

and always. the triple waves of the an ocean of Sanctus more massive than the .GERMANY AND MUSIC 265 happy chance of his residence here. and the solidity that comes from his perfect form is so strong that single notes will give on occasion as monumental an effect as chords. the Christian resurrection a rising-up of " " all hfe. And there are others gentle as the pipes of shepherds in Arcady. It is one of the few masterpieces that are easy for the tyro first to grasp on a acquaintance." That is exactly the impression given again and again as of something free from all created forms we know of. and of rehgion. the most majestic religious work in the world. access to remote places where sorrow and personality ahke seem swallowed up in something quite other than human. aided by the pellucid clearness of its themes and structure. and to this rare combination much of his restorative and sanative power is due. accessible to the multitude. the Christian tragedy a symbol of all heroic suffering. everything in the universe seems to combine together. but he has also. of literature. as well as stronger. and others again wistful and mysterious beyond words. yet out of which creation could rise. far richer. Always the web of his design is so close and firm that it is impossible to misplace a note without obviously marring the texture. however. the Mass in B minor." The appeal of that glorious language for his work is at once to the sense of music. one of the most controlled of ardent geniuses. There are fugues of his fresher than the morning. just as there are others everlasting hills or fuller of rushing force than the sea. He has more human pathos than any musician except Beethoven. moreover. His famiharity with the Enghsh Bible gave him the opportunity of choosing its " Messiah. In his stupendous production. and this composite character. has made it readily And that by no unworthy means. Goethe speaks of his music suggesting " the eternal harmonies at play on the breast of God. before ever the world was made. is Bach. the effort and longing of man linked to cosmic processes. He is. There is a peculiar quality in his work that seems to liberate us from the cark and care of humanity even more completely than the touch of Nature herself.

Beethoven a more burning flood of Mozart. aloof from " " the vital forces of his time. His Magic Flute is a joyful solemn glorification of the spirits that make for liberty and and peace and oppose obscurantism and despotism while " " the sunny music of his Figaro accompanied the satire of Beaumarchais that preluded the Revolution. is . there Seventh Symphony. and in his sentiment there is a clarity. of all musicians. or rollicking among the elements as in the ever. are few of his themes that any one would be tempted to And again he has not the kind of temper that would whistle. child of Romance demands all the loveliness of the world. suffering constantly. Beethoven (1770-1827). in. was master of a form as perfect. born a wonder-child and dying in the bloom of manhood. and all the sons of God shouted for joy.266 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND " The morning stars sang together unfathomable blessedness. and there melodies. as in the Emperor Concerto. any more than other great artists. as in the movement of the C Minor Symphony. gaiety." where the young Euphorion. the Titan who has it in him to become a God. delightful make him passion. the fiery enthusiast for Republicanism. or exultant first and Nor Classicism. is perhaps of all masters the one who gives the most overpowering effect of Man the Titan. or hurrying through a hfetime of restless activity as in the Sonata Appassionata until the sheer force in him tears a of the universe with a pride equal to its last passage through the skies. though he never possessed the massive power of Bach. or confronting the magnificence own. And always and is Beethoven's ineffable lovingness and solemnity. but with a movement of the . more enchanting write glowing songs of love. wrought into the fabric. Mozart gives us tunes." It may be admitted that Bach is chary of. could write the songs for the scenes in the second part of "Faust. among the armies that ride through the heavens at the close. Mozart. whether toiling to heave a dead-lift weight against the thunderous blows of Destiny. possibly unfertile He is undeniably austere. and tenderness that make early it easy to understand how Goethe wished that he.

Strauss ! his range could not write supremely well for the voice. and But . rather the voice of hfe mature and glad. it is So again in the Thirty-three Diabelli Variations (Op.GERMANY AND MUSIC 267 sense of greatness in the suffering at which the music itself seems to marvel. for example. with Caliban and Ariel and his " untried waters. had apprehended a sphere of existence entirely new. where the Adagio seems." but it has never hints of been so marked as in Beethoven. the agony. old. After Beethoven and all through the nineteenth century music has shown no signs of failing. unpath'd shores. but what a wealth is suggested by the mere names of Schubert. after all the abysmal experiences. in Shakespeare. To some extent this may be noted in other geniuses. hke the Paradise of the Itahan poet. with new glories and new terrors. Brahms. resolute. buffeted by Fate In the final phase. particularly in the last of all. the whisperers of comfort. Beethoven with all Schumann. and wildness enter into the music as though the composer. the tumult. of his s5miphonies. rejoicing to embrace the whole world of men in a brotherhood of action. It is most obvious in his also in his later piano it is to be felt sonatas. self-controlled and advancing more and more insistently until it quickens into a triumphant ride straight for the crash of doom and so to the lifting of the Song into the airs of childhood and Paradise. No one indeed has achieved so much and so perfectly as these earlier men. nor yet the ecstasy that is freed from earth. 136). his one opera is not counted among his masterpieces." In the last and greatest of his entry into the aerial places. the final theme chosen does not recall the individual tortured heart. deaf. and the ingratitude of men. while the suffering does not lessen. we are led into a sturdy fugue. but always meant to write and did write when every external joy had failed him. the mystery. an unearthly beauty. Wagner. laughter. the terrible and elfin messengers. at once as full of " peace as a placid sea is full of ripples and vivid with carolling Nor did the breadth of his humanity lessen because flames. nor yet the swan-song of love at the gates of death . crowned by the Hymn to Joy that he had later Quartets.

emergence of Chopin's fairy poetry and chivalric romance. the music of the Slav nations quickened into The closing years of the eighteenth century saw the life. fusing drama with pure music in a manner that. has only just been taken from us.268 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND there have never been greater song-makers than Schubert. does on occasion produce unparalleled effects. 1 . while Wagner and Strauss have dis- covered a new world in opera. and Scriabin. the nineteenth century saw stronger growths in definitely Russian work. with whatever failings and aberrations. and often stimulated by it. who promised to overtop all his compatriots. Shortly after the first bloom of music in Germany. Schumann. and Brahms.

)." Part I. "to be conformable Principles unperceivable counterpart in external objects. HEGEL. entirely outside mind and is entirely different For how can we ever know that such a copy is correct ? How can the mind get outside itself and its sensations so as to compare the copy with the wholly external reahty ? On the other hand the question faces us If there is no corresponding reality at all. Berkeley touched on one of the greatest difficulties in any theory that takes knowledge to be merely a copy of something that exists from mind. awakened him from his dogmatic slumber. § xii. AND MODERN THOUGHT : T second outstanding achievement of Germany during the latter half of the eighteenth century and the opening of the nineteenth was again in the realm And here it is interesting to note that the of philosophy. and Hume. pushed the critical inquiry into the bases of knowledge with a daring and acumen that. England. advance after Leibnitz was stimulated by a foreigner. have we any more right to talk of a — 269 . as Kant " said afterwards. has shown I HE penetration and sagacity in criticism. influenced himself by French scepticism. Hume the Enghshman. Here.CHAPTER XXXVIII GERMANY AND PHILOSOPHY KANT. had familiarized Enghsh readers with the theory that all our sensations and impressions could never really be known to correspond. as Eraser observes in his note on the passage. though she has never distinguished herself by original constructions in philosophy. as Hume recognized (" Concerning Human Understanding." Berkeley. as Berkeley writes " " " with any in his (§ 86). or.

their ultimate cause is. to which they Hume emphasized the bewildering paradoxes " led. what logical right can we have.. to infer that they will always. unless a third should intervene. it is that of cause and effect. On this are founded all our reasonings concerning matter of fact or So again. As regards natural causes he asked. were. in my opinion.). But an hypothesis of this type could not satisfy the robust " As to those impressions. He took up again such questions as those of Cause and such problems as those suggested by the infinite divisibilities that seem involved in our conceptions of Space and Time. For surely if there be any relation among objects w^hich it imports to us to know perfectly. Nothing but custom makes us believe that there is any necessary connexion between what we designate as natural cause and ("An Inquiry concernPart ii. or are produced by the creative power of the mind. perfectly inexplicable by human reason. and 'twill : always be impossible to decide with certainty whether they arise immediately from the object. Human Understanding. He subjected them to a relentless attack. a " " divine symbolism." ing what we designate as natural effect. and he pressed the question. be so conjoined again ? We have no right at all. he answered." of quantity and number were essential for certain grades of precise thought. those. positive spirit of Hume's Inquiry which arise from the senses. for example of sight. while recognizing that the conceptions existence. a visual language by which God made known to us His ideas." And Hume went even further. A real quantity infinitely less than any . or are derived from the author of our being. so to speak. § vii. from the mere fact of two events having often been conjoined.270 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND knowledge beyond ourself ? Can we give the name of true knowledge to what depends wholly and solely on our own sensation ? How can the stuff of that be better than a dream ? Berkeley evaded the difficulty by assuming that our sensations. And yet he saw very plainly that to admit this without qualification was to " shake the whole fabric of scientific knowledge.

or something involved in them. of cause and existence with no sensations general conceptions or memories to fill them would be barren and featureless. being the work of Thought. Kant showed that these conceptions were the work of thought as distinct from mere sensation. Kant's remarkable sj^stem." (" Inquiry. being distrust on every side. simplest experience. at all. nothing but a formless chaos of sensation which we could not realize distinctly enough even to call a chaos. as already Kant showed in the indicated. for example. Neither alone would do. if we This is an impression could not so much as think to ourselves. The it as place that such conceptions as Hume criticized. The mere impression of hght. The two together. Part ii. conceptional element. thought and perception. were necessary for our rational experience. Kant held . this is an edifice so bold and prodigious that it is too mighty for any pretended demonstration to support because it shocks the clearest and most natural principles of human reason. that without them.) The upshot of the whole matter was for Hume a profound " Reason. of light and somehow caused by something." with an possible for us to allow the premises " diflidence of herself inexpugnable she treads." in his own words. there could be for us no human experience. mere little better than vegetables. The ' ' ." and of the ground on which results of Hume's uncompromising doubt. " thrown into a kind of amazement and suspense.GERMANY AND PHILOSOPHY finite 271 and so on quantity containing quantities less than itself." § xii. time. e. were interwoven far more deeply than Hume reahzed into the very texture of our first of quantity. provoking did the original force of German thinkers. is it without admitting the consequences. have not yet ceased to operate. those and space. the clearest and most rational in infinitum : by . " concepts without Percepts without concepts are bhnd percepts are empty" ("Critique of Pure Reason"). cause.. Further. as Kant called it. no ordered world. or.g. arose from brooding over it. But what renders the matter more extraare supported ordinary is that these seemingly absurd opinions nor a chain of reasoning. perception." would leave us On the other hand.

But there is still another side to the matter. influenced by his predecessors.272 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND . In this sens^ we could lay claim to knowledge. The moral impulse. it followed for Kant possible for us in some degree to predict rationally : what our experience would be it would. On the other hand Kant. not being dependent on our will. but always as an End in Himself. And since order-giving conceptions were to be contributed involved in that it was all human experience. to come from the outside world. the stimulus of by the human mind Sensation. touched upon by Hume. and he faced the conclusion that these conceptions of ours led to such odd results that they could not be accepted as giving us the real truth of things. bore witness to a sense of duty as a command over and above the individual wiU of man it impelled him to something that he reverenced whether it harmonized with his personal inclination or not. Therefore this thing in itself." das Ding an Sich. and indicated that the only thing ultimately worth striving for was a universal kingdom where all these Ends could be found . from that of the practical life. showed a deeply sceptical side. Moreover. or the artist's love of beauty. for example. were felt still more keenly by his own more penetrating intellect. This moral command " of the inner voice. was impossible to conclude that it existed in the " thing " itself apart from our impressions. though the stimulus to sensation came to us from the outside world. When Kant attacked the problem from other standpoints. this Categorical Imperative. be bound to conform to the conception of consistency." pointed out to Kant that he should never treat another man as a : means merely. yet sensation itself as such he held to be a matter of human feeling. he found himself led to other considerations. in his critical analysis. In the first place. such difficulties as those in the current conceptions of Cause and Time and Space. remained for Kant (so far as a and it " purely intellectual analysis could take him) a thing in the last resort unknowable. There are passages in his ^\Titings here that reveal the countryman of Eckhard and the Theologia Germanica. he considered. for example.

and which points to the — — conclusion that Nature. learning from him. they admitted. whether we hke it or (" Critique not." of Judgment. the beauty in things so Kant suggested. Therefore in practical impossible hfe a man had to postulate a Will of God as above his own He will and an Immortahty for the attainment of his goal. it whatever that Reahty might turn out to be ? Was not equaUy clear that a thing radically incoherent could not exist ? Might it not be possible to think out what must be If we could do logically involved in a coherent Reahty ? this. so to speak. are stronger than the Gates of Hell. but there were many workers in the field. to look beyond the horizon of the sensible. should we not then be within our rights in claiming that the inner nature of existence was no longer closed to us ? Hegel " The Gates of Thought at least thought the task achievable. but was not Thought able ? Had not Descartes and others shown how it was impossible for a thinking man to deny that the sum-total of Reahty existed. since he is ." 18 " Man. even in her transitory phenomena. " compel us. is here the dominant name. had to act.GERMANY AND PHILOSOPHY subsisting in 273 harmony. as though he possessed this transcendent knowledge about the world beyond himself. and the outburst of optimistic speculation that followed attacked it also from the purely intellectual side. and younger men. might not be able to lead us further than our self.) Thus Kant's edifice shown by himself not of philosophic doubt was. shows a spirit profoundly akin to our own. to be impregnable. Sensation alone. Again. and promises a satisfaction deeper Beauty and its problems than any we can at present comprehend. Kant himself had emphasized the power of thought. and the suggestion goes deep indicated a harmony between every least particular of sensation and our own mind. were eager to go beyond him. But that Kingdom obviously was under earthly conditions." § 57. Hegel. obscure and inspiring. a harmony which we cannot in the least explain by the ordinary concepts of our understanding. whatever his intellectual criticism. avoiding relatively true as only all inconsistencies and accepting what was only relatively coherent and complete.

The only conception that could prove coherent for a complete universe was that of spirits united through their knowledge of each other in a state of existence far above the limitations of time Conceived under the form of time. Since his day. has no power to withstand the assaults of science it must unclose and lay bare the depths of its riches before him. : (" Hist. hidden and barred from him at first. There is the tendency to uphold the work of Kant. and really was." only patient and penetrating enough. and amid the heavy obscurity of his ordinary style there flash out memorable utterances. 2. his general view is extraordinarily stimulat. Current mathematical ideas. of Phil. apart from details. if we were ready for his enjoyment. not that things could never be fully known.) Contradictions and inconsistencies in human thought were not for Hegel insuperable barriers. The nature of the universe. On the contrary. and if we applied them to things as a whole they broke down. he will find nothing so hard and unyielding that it will not open before him. emphasized by Leibnitz and Hume and re-emphasized by Kant. and Kant at his most critical. But.. B. and the ultimate nature of things essentially unknowable to be content with recogniz. ing.. valid within their range. THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND cannot think greatly enough of the greatness and strength of his own mind. this was what the universe Hegel's system has stood fire for a century. as time appears to man. they themselves gave us the hint which showed us how to solve them. for example. and. this was the state to which all things were tending conceived under the true form of eternity. the day par excellence of brilliant systemmakers.274 Spirit. were only true for certain aspects of things. there would be few now to maintain the vahdity of all the complex inferences he considered himself to have established from less adequate to more adequate conceptions." Introd. . to admit that the ultimate basis of our knowledge is ignorance. but that they could never be fully known by such imperfect means. Such inadequacies as those in mathematical conceptions or in the ideas of natural cause. led Hegel to the conclusion. the courses of philosophy have shown three main elements. in this faith.

possibility of a perceiver. So also. gazing at the shadows on the wall. for example. and reinforced by modern theories of the sn&conscious as distinct from the wwconscious. Others. and all such appreciation is in a sense constructive. as for example the calculations of Leverrier foretold the appearance of Neptune. guessed real thoughts might be of the beings who cast the shadows. They ask. that the smallness seen at a hundred yards distance. can both exist apart does not occur in supposing that the man himself as a conscious unit has a hfe of his own distinct from the observer's. if the very fact of mathematical deductions corresponding with experiences not known when the deductions were made. But what man can beHeve that in the full sense he constructs the whole of natural beauty? Is it not after all a soberer is working hypothesis to imagine that a Spirit of Beauty himself with which he can communicate. can be conceived to exist on its own account in a manner impossible to mere It is not things as perceived but things in sensations. while it is practically impossible to suppose that all perceptions as such exist apart from the of a man. that is. the same difficulty In this connexion the speculations of Leibnitz about degrees of consciousness have been renewed. do the chief followers Herbert Spencer. Men can bigness of him seen at close quarters. lay repeated stress on the activity of thought. spell out at least some of its arguments. does not indicate that Thought is active in the universe as well as in man and that man can Similarly with Beauty. . Those who extol natural science at the expense of philosophy belong to this group. but without altogether of Comte and despising philosophy. sense as perceiving that we should take as fundamental. working on Hnes more or less ideahstic and often Hegehan. much as Plato's cave-men. some from any possible onlooker. as mind can beyond meet with mind ? Again. guessed what figure would succeed what the and often rightly.GERMANY AND PHILOSOPHY 275 and with forecasting ing a certain order among our perceptions those in the future. but never asked figure. and the for example. Consciousness of some kind. appreciate natural beauty.

but who. are concerned above all to clarify our conceptions piece by piece. on the opposite wing have stood the poetic sages. brooding too deeply over man's destiny to be called mere singers or rhetoricians. especially the idealistic.276 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Thirdly. And finally. and in particular the speculation led by Einstein. . there are stalwart thinkers who cannot be classified as belonging to any one group. Notable here is the work done in apphed mathematics. accepting nothing that cannot be rigidly demonstrated. but certainly not systematic philosophers. resenting the vagueness of much system-making.

Born in 1749.CHAPTER XXXIX GOETHE such was Wolfgang von Goethe. impersonal calm that has lost Nor to him was it foolishness to attempt a harmony betwegi the Pagan ideal and the Christian. and in art itself he had striven to unite the Romantic and the Classic. His youth fell at a time when Germany was beginning to appreciate to the full both the general inheritance of European culture and her own power of making an original contribution to it. and Goethe was of all men the man to serve their ends. 277 . His long and crowded life links the pre-Revolutionary epoch to our own times. Dying in 1832. the zeal for truth were in the air. the love of Nature. friend of Hegel and Beethoven. just before the turn of the century and while Voltaire and Rousseau were still in middle life. he left behind him nearly seventy years of superb and varied work. only one of the most universally-minded men that Europe ever produced. the fullest expression of the individual's personal longings with the high. More profoundly than any leader of the Itahan Renaissance. itself in its object. to admire and mourn over OF Byron. selfexpression through triumphant activity with the self-sacrificing discipline that could reverence the lowest and weakest of mankind. but neither metaphysician nor musician. For Germany it was a Renaissance more real than any she of our had known in the sixteenth centurj^ The passion for classicism. and to welcome Victor Hugo. he lived to be the revered teacher of the young Cartyle. he combined throughout his life the enthusiasms for art and for science. the year Reform Bill.

and there the joys and sorrows of another people become to us as our own. only not in one man. Like many strong men. a storehouse of The turn his most intimate secrets. though in the end it broadened. routine at Weimar routine which. but Goethe. " where.278 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Blessed and cursed with a temperament inflammable and own Werther. in a sense." he said to Eckermann. as he himself admitted. and his aim at least was never That aim he served faithfully and never conceived egotistic. Stein. but it was balanced by a singular restless as that of his sweetness and generosity. Nur alle Menschen zusammen machen die Menschheit aus." he wrote in so many words. he had always in him a marked vein of egotism. he gives to the old legend is characteristically modern. for a short and easy way into all the fullness of experience. He gave years of his life to arduous administrative narrowly. that he carried in his heart for over sixty years. . but no man ever desired more " Mankind earnestly than he the full development of all men. remains his most representative work. and magnificent. above the nations. unlike the mediaevalist and the Puritan. Faust still tries to sell his soul." His distrust of all political upheaval made him look askance French Revolution." On that plane Goethe lived." long. " is only made by all men. nur alle Krafte zusammen genommen die Welt." he wrote to Frau v." Endless glories " lie latent in man and must be developed. we rise plane. he worked his way forward to a belief in self-control and constancy as the only clues in the labyrinth of love. Nor did this it overflowed fellow-feeling stop short with his own nation " There is a bounteously into the life of the whole world. defective. The dramatic poem of " Faust. difficult. he gave a better lead to democracy than many professed democrats. Undemocratic as he counted himself. often for the time hampered his poetic production. " I can't go on with Iphigenia. finds . " The King of Tauris has to speak as though there were no — starving weavers in Apolda. The crowning " work of his " Faust is actually to drain the marshes for a land at the where millions of men may lead the good life in common. wearied with the slow steps of science. but in many" ("Wilhelm Meister ").

Further. and if he only go on testing all things he will somehow find it " will : A Still true man. the Satan of this modern Paradise Lost and Regained. A web that changes eternally. and hear fire-song. A I living fire 1 work at the loom of Time. Above and below.Spirit overpowering his puny self." . half conscious of this. struggling in the dark knows the way that leads him and blinded. For man is made essentially to desire the absolute Good. song which. because the Self in the man being stimulated. and therefore he can never be satisfied with the tiny closed circle " of the devil's false satisfaction. In the whirr and the roar I fashion the living garment of God. home at last. the asserter of the Self in its narrowest form. charged with peril tliough it is. has to admit that his own power is a fragment of the Force " That wills the evil and yet works the good. he cannot help desiring more than himself. which is not merely his private good. the form that refuses suffering. To and fro 1 Birth and death." stets (" ein Teil von jener Kraft Die stets das Bose meint und das Gute schafft. So the Angels chant at the Thus Mephistopheles." So Jehovah declares at the opening. " The soul that still has strength to strive free. haunts student of science who has in him also any touch of every poetry or rehgion its the : " In the storm of action." We have the strength to close." Even when on the point of rejecting all scientific search in despair. cannot really make Faust his prisoner for ever. he can behold the vision of the Earth. I smite with the weaver's rod. once heard. the seed of Good. Mephistopheles. I life. an infinite sea.") The power to suffer and to admire never deserts Faust. the floods of surge and sway.GOETHE 279 in that very attempt. nigher.

hidden and plain ? So. his excitement in the garden at Palermo over the conception that all plants conformed to the same general type. The airs. the divine element in his passion can still pour itself out in his confession of faith. even when he is on the point of seducing Margaret. So again even after Faust has sealed of life and the universe " : Who And dare name His name Who And The The say. I believe in Him ? dare silence the heart say. one suspicious of dogma but confident in the response of a man's heart to the splendour devil. And the open eternal secret float ' " All round you. a discovery indicating that the human frame was built on the same lines as that of other vertebrates. the waters. a conviction he held in common with other notable men of the time. foreshadowing the more detailed theory of evolution that marks the nineteenth century. All-enfolder. Goethe's emotion in discovering the inter-maxillary bone in man." . Faust can speak for Goethe's own devout joy in his scientific behef that all forms of life are akin.280 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND his wager with the promising his soul if Mephistopheles can satisfy him. are reflected in Faust's hymn Nature for having opened her secrets to him : of thanks to " Bringing the ranks of all thy living creatures Before my sight and teaching me to know My brothers in the quiet forest ways. I believe Him not ? All-upholder. Goethe's own creed. enfold You and me and Himself Is not the sky overhead And the firm-set world at our feet ? Do not the great stars move Through the infinite vault above And look down with immortal love ? And I look into your eyes ? Does not the glory press Into your heart and brain. ? Does He not hold. once more.

" In Sparta's neighbourhood lies Arcady . and at peace. And sane and joyous are they. " Even so among the shepherds stood Apollo. though too weak to save his soul by a supreme effort of self-denial. There Faust discovers that a worthy conception of hfe can The Second only be attained through the help of Greece and the Greek vision of a harmony between spirit and sense. palace prison thee. as it was in the old legend. For where pure Nature leads and men dare follow All worlds can meet together and embrace. lovely and deathless for ever : : " Here happiness through every generation SmUes from glad faces and can never cease. Faust sings his own Epithalamion with the spirit of Hellas. and making the right use of Time they seem to have discovered Eternity. Uke his the fairest face. The winning of Helen by Faust is no longer conceived. guarded by vahant defenders. " No For The world's youth us. for us. leaves her in despair.GOETHE is 281 It is exactly part of Goethe's plan to conceive the Faust who capable of this impassioned insight as also the Faust who her conscience. is necessary for the full understanding of Goethe's outlook on human existence. is yet strong enough to take up the struggle the personal desire for Ufe. Each is immortal in his age and station. too often neglected by Enghsh readers. its of life after the tragedy and make his Future retrieve his Past. itself at rest among a happy people and a beautiful. fresh and free ! ! I and our own secret rapture. but they themselves have escaped from war. no fortress capture flows eternal. Fart. Like him they seemed. seduces Margaret against remorse too late to save her from the law's vengeance for the drowTiing of their child in her madness. to be a mere triumph it is the grasp on the Hellenic ideal of voluptuous ecstasy itself. Warriors watch over the union of Faust and Helen. as ]\Iargaret saves hers when she chooses the scaffold rather than palter with Mephistopheles. His Faust was to exhibit both the weakness and the strength of and ret\irns in As the drama develops through scenes of pity and terror Faust.

above the dim and So long as you endure. It brings Faust face to face with the black element in his nature. Inspired by the memory alike of Margaret and of Hellas he sets himself to a real work of statesmanship. The closing scenes are the test of Faust's endurance. makes head against the spirit of restless dissatisfaction. Goethe always insisted. It is of the essence the actual world. and fulfils it. reclaiming from the lawless ocean the land where he may build up a home for the Hellenic ideal on the larger scale of the modern world. An independent old couple in their cottage resist the high- handed colonizing schemes of this enlightened Empire-maker. to actualize itself. before Goethe's day and more than once since. a curse that clings perhaps most closely to men and nations of the West with their ever-insurgent ambitions. Faust must hold fast to Helen's mantle as she sinks back to the world of dreams of the ideal. that is. Use it and rise For it will carrj^ you Through the clear sky. and heroic. Fulfils it. : "It is not the divinity that's gone. yet it can never do so completely. The vision fades. Up use the priceless ! ! gift ." vile.282 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND it But the is born of vision has no sooner been grasped than something that insists on making its way into the turmoil of It is Euphorion. By a desperate effort he wrenches himself from the clutch of Mephistopheles. the craving for sheer personal dominance that had poisoned his love and made him desert the toilsome ways of science. while it leaves enough light to Hve by. reappears in the politician's lust for power. who calls for the action that breaks the impatient dream. But the sin besetting all his desires. his old enemy. so far as it can be fulfilled in Time and by imperfect mortals. He sweeps them impatiently aside and his servant MephisFaust's cry of topheles burns the house over their heads. son of Faust and Helen. a demon-woman lurking in dry places and hunting . Divine it is. It is another form of the primal curse on men and on nations. remorse that this is not what he had meant is the cry repeated again and again by the conscience of history.

not of a Master. the dogmas of Christianity dropping away from him early in life without disturbing his fundamental faith in the spiritual nature of the universe. helped him to the position that he claimed. in mature manhood of Schiller. in perhaps the last verses he ever wrote. unite once more Hellenism and Hebraism. Paganism and Christianity. a title he put from him with distaste. was at once most daring leader and its soberest critic. Far from that. This breadth of view. as might be apparent from his rehgious its development alone. he wins his freedom by persisting in it. The Angels who rescue him toil up the sky dragging a burden of dross. None the less Goethe does not conceive him to have purged himself. It is significant that Goethe does not make him give up his enterprise. Thus he could at once judge and forgive both himself and his contemporaries. modestly and proudty. in old age of Schopenhauer. and he who was the friend in youth of Herder and Jacobi. the ideals of the past with the problems of the modem world. itself the outcome of the mastery gained by a strong will and a steady intellect over sensibilities far acuter than outsiders guessed. And this because he never lost his hold on a centre of calm in all his storms of emotion. to be cut from him only through the creative force of the Eternal Love that fills the unending circles of the Christian heaven. only without the fevered thirst for immediate triumph. . that of a Liberator. The Romantic Revival with its thirst for experiment in life had already begun in Germany when he was a lad.GOETHE 283 her victims into despair or crime. Thus did Goethe. And it was in part due to this central security that he watched with a patience almost amounting to indifference the huge convulsions shaking Europe for close on thirty years (178918 15) through the French Revolution and the career of Napoleon. at the close of his hfe.

Equality. it is true. The actual Terror. shown that it was possible not only to subsist without the 284 ." was supported by the spirit of rational criticism and scientific research so strongly stimulated by Descartes and Voltaire. and so far as he gave them thought he preferred the old system of an active monarchy with an ordered hierarchy of classes. But the leaders of the French Revolution reahzed that the full development of men's faculties. bright with the watchwords of Freedom. and Directory. 1794) when it subsided. were problems of his own. France was left in the trough of the wave. Brotherhood. The spirit of civic freedom which Rousseau had invoked. The first flush of the movement. proper. it was also inspired by the prodigious spectacle of a nation transforming its entire system under the impulse of a new ideal. no doubt. but they were attacked from quite another Goethe was always neghgent about political questions angle. 1793-July. though Goethe himself scarcely recognized it. and Citizenship. lasted little more than a year but (April. was darkened within a year or two by the distrust and violence of the extremists on either side. — — her fate apparently in the hands of a corrupt and inefficient Yet even then she had achieved marvels.CHAPTER XL THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON problems raised by both cataclysms. the spirit which conceives Law as " the THE expression of the General Will. And if Europe was appalled by Revolutionary excesses and mob fury. their goal as much as his. was impossible without abolishing the old privileges and admitting the people at large to a decision on their own destinies.

the superman Napoleon. aided by her reactionary sons. the status of the Church. and what the wiser of He confirmed once the Revolutionary leaders had outhned. but that her citizen army could repel the had foreign aristocrats who. Absence of official make the average man exert his Therefore with a statesman's instinct he set himself aknost at once to organize the tenure of property. His Italian birth was no accident. was also capable of becoming. begun in earnest by the Revolutionary leaders and foreshadowed even earlier. At this moment appeared. which. for good and for evil. the system of law. and he carried it through to a conclusion that has made it the law of France to this day. made of the large estates he took up the the bourgeoisie and the peasants among constructive work of codifying the law. desired efficient workmen he had some reason for Napoleon The claiming that he was the true son of the Revolution. ." local heads of the civil administration appointed by the chief of the State. while it proved a good instrument for his own despotism. By endowment as by race he recalled those Roman Emperors of the past who together with an intellectual enthusiasm for order had scant sympathy for freedom except so far as it Yet just because provided them with efficient workmen. as it has become since. the methods of administration. He saw that the Revolutionists in their hatred of rehgious fanaticism had . the servant of a Chamber elected by the people. " ouverte aux talens. appealed to him forcibly. and the structure of the army. Up to a certain point he had a marvellous instinct for what the average supporter of the Revolution most desired and needed. But the building up of the new attempted to and stable order of which she had dreamed seemed for the time beyond her strength. adding a body of judges to administer " he set up a system of it prefects. a system and for all the distribution already . and he knew that reward for organization.FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON 285 ancient fetters. it. crush her." an la carriere side of it that meant essential side. and the chance of a special special effort were necessary to ensure privilege was not enough to talents to the full. security.

the Imperial tradition of a dominant race imposing. He insisted on the State having a decisive voice in the appointment of the clergy. But he never had any scruple. he was able to draw all the threads into his own hands without at first too openly or too constantly outraging the democratic faith. Under the stress of invasion the Republic had introduced conscription. after Since his consummate his first recourse to the " whiff of grape-shot. and with results both astonishing and natural. as the greatest generals have always been. any real political influence. No single measure did more to re-establish unity of spirit in France than Napoleon's repeal of these ordinances. and he supported an independent system of secular and State education. ability marked him out for the unquestioned head of the Executive and since no one was more dexterous than he in posing as the representative of the people's will. in the art of combining the two. At the same time he was careful to guard against the chance of the Church regaining nation at large.286 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND their pushed own fanaticism far beyond the sentiment of the They had made it penal for the clergy to their own rites in the ancient churches. But there is no denying his constructive power. Added to this. undisciplined. the enthusiasm of Republican France for spreading her ideas over Europe gave him a unique opportunity for founding an impregnable Dictatorship and gratifying ahke his genius for organizing on a grand scale and his master-passion for power. That he over-centraHzed the goverimient of France is undeniable. and Napoleon was not the man to let the weapon rust. With the eye of genius ragged." in drawing upon military force if persuasion failed. fiery he saw that he possessed in the soldiers of the Revolution a most admirable military material. Only he was a master. and the evil results in this respect may have been the more lasting because of the tendency to overcentralization already strong in French tradition. . and the perform intolerance was bitterly resented by the masses. Thus with the rebirth of Republicanism was also revived once again in Europe.

checked industry. Again. A Prussia of this type fell prostrate before Napoleon. He did to some extent really share the new-born Republican belief in the value of distinct and coherent national units freed from stupid oppression. . hide-bound by antiquated conventions. were perpetually destroying with the one hand what they tried to build with the other. after the vigorous and unscrupulous achievements of Frederick the Great. yet he did introduce a type of unified government. in Germany he taught Germans to break through the petty restrictions that separated tiny State from tiny State. This was part of the general belief in the value of individuality and its natural development that underlay the Revolution. Only his ambition insisted that in the last resort the nationalities must all be subject to himself. a system of good government on subordinate and backward nationalities. the force of his tyranny overreached itself. hampered trade. Serfdom was still in existence. Napoleon saw and said. ancien regime in France. and thus the two of them. Napoleonic France followed him. and no member even of the bourgeoisie could hold land or become an officer in the army. into a half-paralysed condition.FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON 287 by force if necessary. hke Faust in the close of Goethe's drama. and nowhere more remarkably than in Prussia. with the one exception of priestly dominance. was destined for aU her dismemberment to become once again a united nation. Nor was it entirely hypocrisy that made Napoleon give himself out as a Liberator. He saw in that httle State the possiagainst him and he She had fallen in his day. On the other hand. And though he sold Venice to Austria and let his satellites fleece the country which he was by way of redeeming. and the Itahan patriots of his day welcomed his first advance. Italy. the impressions of which were of immeasurable value in training those Italians who liberated their owti land at last. as those of the bilities of the strongest German power determined to crush her. at least as feudal and as cramping. but there was a new Prussia in her womb. and prevented the active devotion to a common cause. and Napoleon was too acute not to see its foundation in fact.

But the angels were beaten in every fight." Bk. A ribald bit of telling doggerel (which he shrank from publishing in his life-time) has in it the cutting truth of satire : and reinforced evil traditions left them by their Goethe saw this his love of order and his Napoleon's genius prevented him from being . And the Lord looked into the whole affair. " The angels fought for us and the right. and while there is undeniable grandeur in a people awakening from lethargy under the very grip of a tyrant and becoming the heart and soul of a triumphant resistance. Cotta. admiration for blinded by the passions of patriotism. Tolstoy's It itself. it is obvious that the war taught them evil lessons also own Frederick. Jubilee Edition). It pays to behave like a devil. ! So now we sing complacently. The modern novel of " War and Peace. And the devil walked off with the whole of the plunder. Then — — ' And We ' sing Te Deiim when all is done. Devil above and angel under. brings this home with amazing vividness. that's the fact.288 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Stimulated by the force of Stein's leadership and by her fury at the monstrous terms Napoleon exacted after Jena. the Prussian nation swept aside the old strangling restrictions." a novel almost epic in its scope.' " Zahme Xenien. They must scruple no longer. all our good folk fell to prayer. sweeping aside also the solemn engagements her king had made with the oppressor. But use all means till the war is won. And lo the devils were whacked in a trice. was not only in Germany that aggression overreached Napoleon's invasion of Russia had roused the country to a sense of unity and a power of self-sacrifice that astonished both itself and the rest of Europe. you (" see. Said God the Son (and we know that He Saw the matter plain from eternity) They'd better act as the devils act.' didn't wait to be told it twice. Patriotism was held to own justify unscrupulous measures. even allowing for . IX.

of the struggle. seemed to be rising from the dead. That had been strong for centuries. highly populated as it is and needing countless materials. and the rights of The great writers thought. was the A huge development of her power overseas. India completely in her hands. Goya. The ferment of Repubhcan ideas about freedom. Spain's work throughout worth ever wrote. began to vivify her dreaming. 19 . The her at last into enduring struggle with Napoleon brought commuiiion with the West. Spain. Turgenev. Dostoievsky. from rice to rubber. The high spectacle of her defiance roused the enthusiasm of that WordsShelley and prompted some of the finest prose Unhke Russia. and England's early triumph in securing a direct hold on such sources of production gave her a perceptible advantage in the economic race. responsible government. show this again and again. often over-strong. is a ferocity of truth in his pictures of war and suffering unique in the records of painting. the nineteenth century has not borne out this promise. Napoleon had quickened the pace by his expedition into Egypt. That need has grown with the growing complexity of civilization. Tolstoy.FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON 289 the caricature in his drawing of Napoleon. but at the time she produced a painter. when actually overrun by French armies. of the nineteenth century. Her commercial Old instinct discerned at once the value of the tropics for the World. At the other end of Europe. but one with far-reaching results. It was the spirit of freedom that released the genius of Russia. Malta and the Cape of Good Hope resting-places for her ships. and the latter the starting point for the control of untapped resources. and England emerged with the basis of a colossal empire. whose mastery of his craft and power of characterization give us a hghtning-Uke There impression of latent forces kept somewhere in reserve. But the effects of Napoleon and the French Revolution together were by-product quite as great as elsewhere and as many-sided. In England there was no need to rouse the national sense. Nor was it only the national sense that was now awakened in Russia. Gibraltar still hers. that can only be produced in the warm places of the earth.

in something like their present topics will occupy our next two chapters. sometimes clearly reflected in the literature. an outburst that has points of resemblance with the earher movement in Germany of which Goethe became the leader and also with the bound forward in France a little later when the pressure of the Napoleonic tyranny was removed. the emergence of problems. But in 1832 the canying of the Reform Bill showed a decisive victory for the popular cause. making a long and doubtful equilibrium in politics. Meanwhile we have to note. These social problems. more particularly industrial and form. . And next. first. a told in the glorious outburst of poetry as the eighteenth century passed into the nineteenth.290 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND At home the immediate influence of the Continental turmoil two opposite directions of Reform and Reaction.

both were united with the found spirit of liberty.CHAPTER XLI THE ROMANTIC REVIVAL AND THE NEW REALISM T common self WO fresh tendencies are to be emphasized in the starthng change from the typical prose that marks the eighteenth century to the poetry and enthusiasm that meet us at the close of it and at the opening of the nineOne we may call. to sweep aside any convenadequate tions that interfere with this. its ardour for the ideal. 291 . and perhaps that is one reason why the great writers of that time are among all classics the chosen of modern readers. the zest for actuahty. the teenth. the marveUous. to the whole of reahty. its dehght in the picturesqueness of the past. in the good sense of that term. the lyric The other is the desire to make hterature impulse proper. since. first herald of the movement (1749-1796). the love of romance. with its renewed search for the mysterious. for want of a better word. thinker. however or repellent to the ordinary mind. to accept any subject. But Burns. though a genuine poet. And he is notliing of a Wordsworth and Coleridge when working together show an ardour for liberty that is far more deeply reasoned. all come surging up in Burns. has deficiencies and crudities that keep him from the first rank. a desire often accompanied by a revolt against accepted standards in religion and morals. The lyric impulse. the passion for freedom and equality. the remote. and both have remained strong in Europe ever have indeed grown in strength. its revival of the longing to sing from the heart. Both tendencies make for liberty. Romantic. if the artist himit fit to his hand.

" It is entirely in harmony with his character that. and splendour to the alliance of close humorous observation The thirst both for the facts of flashing satire with the breadth of imagination that can behold the Prince of Darkness rising on wings hke thunderclouds through the vast fields of space. Elsewhere he is incessantly thwarted and His verse is fevered by a passion Hke perverted by it. accompanying the poet's extraordinary responsiveness to the unfathomable appeal of lonely Nature. unsaved by any sense of humour.292 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND and a union of the strange and the simple that is far more subtle. not a man " There is nothing thin about his mysticism. weary and indomitable among the lonely mountains." Indeed. grows superhuman before our eyes as a type of man's power to match himself with circumstance. This respect for common humanity. into some of his baldest absurdities. gives a massiveness to his most dreamlike is moods. and Faust's for personal triumph. that do not Uve those Like hving men. fretting savagely at any . or sterner than his condemnation of it when it passed into aggression and he could only see " Frenchmen losing sight ful than Of all they struggled for. this desire to keep in touch with ordinary human life led Wordsworth. It unable to face ordinary life who is haunted by huge and mighty forms. But it also helped him to his highest achievements. In this poem Byron is at his finest because a genuine interest in pohtical freedom has set him free for the time from the obsession of his own craving. prophet of solitude though he was. The plain grotesque figure of the old leech-gatherer. The mysterious magic of " Kubla Khan " is set side side with the human mystery of by "Margaret" and the " Idiot Boy." life and the dreams of poetry confronts us again in the lesser and very different genius of " The Vision of Judgment " owes much of its force Byron. nothing could have been warmer his sympathy with the French Revolution in its youthprime when it promised peace to men.

women in the interest of He welcomed science with unfeigned rapture as flinging open the world to man. A similar turmoil of feeling has reappeared now. and he life to help Greece in her revolt from the Turk. like Goethe. with no sign as yet of its ending. yet his sense of a kinship in all life was every . but it was Byron's gallantry that fired him to complete his conception of Euphorion. feverish as his father Faust before him. had little hking for revolution. The first liberty that Shelley. the spirit of restless action born of gave his Desire and Beauty. repudiating as monkish But this mood is never steady : NEW REALISM 293 any control over the flesh.ROMANTIC REVIVAL AND restraint. was filled with longing an external hberty not only political but economic with full opportunity of all good things for all men. however. Goethe. for Byron revered was. as jMazzini was to recognize with burning gratitude. but discovering. His power cannot give him it only tears his owti Hes to tatters. It is thus that he anticipates so many modern movements. Byron is on the whole out of fashion in England for the very good reasons that his poetry is not of the first quahty and that his posing annoys a generation quick to detect affectation anywhere except in itself. He chanted the national independence of every nation that he knew. cynicism he can find no refuge. just not too late. and He demanded men as much the emancipation of as in their own. the goal of a Hfe prepared to die for liberty. by everything that would be repentance if the repentance in its turn could be sure. Long before Italy was free he gave her his genuine sympathy. and even in peace. by ill-concealed remorse. He was the singer of a Sociahst ideal as yet hardly born. we have admitted. But we have not got rid of BjTonism. only political on the other hand. it is shaken perpetually by doubt of itself. social. and while there is no sign that. and next for the inward liberty that should set free a man's own deepest nature. by disgust. The best of his work sprang always from his love of liberty. hberty. he conceived the outhnes of Evolution. wondering wistfully none the less whether triumphant nationahsm would only bring the world back to the conflicts in which men hate and die.

to Ibsen. " The Triumph of Life. tossing the whole system aside and then returning in tenderness to discover. because he could never conceive of liberty as divorced from a clear-sighted and all-embracing love. to throw over every one of its canons. impulses made him. to the full Shelley could never be. He was prepared to test. more visionary even than himself. The Hkeness and the contrast to bold questioners later. except those of truth and brotherly love. what was eternally precious in it. a spite confident believer in progress. long before Shelley. Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand.") Shelley possessed the rare power of criticizing his own criticism. It is only the natural And . and in some respects strongest poem. had sung the joys of sense with an unrestraint shocking to the narrowly moral. What is remarkable in himself and in Blake is their assertion that this freedom of view is part of a finer morality. is closest The fettering of natural impulse was odious to to him here." see a And ("Auguries of Innocence. if he could. for example. no doubt. led by Dante. as such. and. a Heaven in a wild flower. are both noticeable. the dogmas and the mythology of Christianity. His challenge to official morality was as daring. which his sincere and compassionate temperament would not suffer him to question. if only the shackles of tradition could be struck off. in theory. all natural occasional misgivings. or to Nietzsche. Anarchic It is only the self-controlled who can conquer Life. Or Eternity in an hour. Among the men of his time and country William Blake. was beginning to brood over the meaning of discipline. Poets. Natural mysticism is the first thought for the lover of Blake : " To World in a grain of sand. His last. He challenged." shows how his thought. It is of importance to add at once that in neither poets is this the dominant trait. any more than Blake. and there was an anarchic element in their thought that responds to a factor far more prominent now than in the soberer Victorian age that intervened.294 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND His enthusiasm for nature and in of whit as keen. them both.

reappears." poets. less Utopian than Shelley. . But no two men have achieved more in the short compass of their brief hves for the sustainment of all who believe with them that a world without beauty would be a dead world. in their meditations. that the sense of it is a second hfe. as could never be said of Gainsborough's work. and without Shelley's bent for wild speculation." own I have said nothing so far of Shelley's pure poetic gift. The passion dreaming that for Beauty. Whose nature is Where all things divine control flow to all. And a union not dissimilar can be felt in the achievement of his fellow-poet Keats. Blake is our one painter with a power of imaginative design. It is often faulty and erratic.ROMANTIC REVIVAL AND climax of " of all NEW REALISM 295 his feeling that " the Prometheus Unbound should hberated world of his culminate in the vision Man as " one harmonious soul of its many a soul. " We Both of their have imagined the grandeur of the dooms for the mighty dead. but it is full of interest. creating visions that can make him at times a not unworthy companion for Dante Turner. for Nature. can even grow impatient action or of science own art. but not less distinguished by a steady pressing forward from the sheer dehght in sensuous images and the golden coin of fancy to the deeper treasures It is significant that in his earliest long poem " he put the joy given by the loveliness of daffodils and the " side by side with world they live in green of imagination. often too rhapsodical. but the pecuUar mark of liis genius is exactly the union of this high-flown enthiisiasm with the exquisite sense of beauty. can at his best give us something that is kindred to the radiance and the . as rivers to the sea. pouring forth rhapsodies. crying out that the men of do greater works than they. though far less triumphantly. in the English painting of the time. and that they who follow its spirit faithfully can neither be divided from other men nor enslaved in their own souls. is and for that artist's other than Nature.

the element of realistic portraiture and the element of pure design. till well on into the nineteenth century that the Enghsh novel widened out to include all emotional issues. There were clear signs that the ferment of feeling would find its most popular expression in the novel. encountered the keenest. The fullest development of the form in England was to come later.296 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND . England had produced. the echoes of the chivalry and charm of the past blending with a robust modern humour while in Jane Austen the absurdities of exaggerated romance. But it was not most delicately humorous of realist critics. Beside the florescence of poetry and the promise in painting. in which the deepest feehngs were usually left untouched. greatest tasks set to a man. and sometimes a vigorous strife. the art of the novel and the art of history. life than is possible for poetry. The vivifying impulse he gave to the painter's dehght in things seen added a new and needed element to the classic tradition of form that the French had taken over years before from the and that was now threatening to become stereoand empty. between these two elements in art. in a style closer to common art of Italy. like many other absurdities. With Walter Scott a new vein of romance was now opened. pioneers the eighteenth century. The course of painting in France since typed the Englishman prompted the new departure has shown a vigorous interplay. the finding of his true vocation. dignity of Nature as the solemn music of Wordsworth is kindred and the ethereal lilt of Shelley Constable. or rather of contemporary manners. Goethe's had dealt deliberately with what he counted one of the in novel-writing during . searches after a noble realism that explains his influence later in France. as we have seen. that loose form in which a WTiter can heap together. two great branches of literature begin to take on a fresh development. held by the quiet charm of English summer landscape. but their range had been limited to personal themes of contemporary life. both his own personal emotions and his impressions of the world as he sees it round him or dreams of it in the past or speculates on its destiny. once. . In Germany it " " Wilhelm Meister had already done this.

is more modern than Balzac in his preoccupation with ! the problem of the suffering and the poor. Balzac. George Eliot. And this desire. Balzac. but especially for facts that illustrate the wild element in the characters and hopes of men.ROMANTIC REVIVAL AND NEW REALISM 297 and the treatment gains rather than loses in impressiveness because the problem is worked out among the commonplace complexities of Bohemian and conventional life. They are avid for facts. prosaic to the last degree one might even say. despite force of constant lapses into sentimentalities and extravagances. giants for all their faults. Balzac and Victor Hugo at the opening of the century. Smollett. Meredith. is absorbed in a fierce observation of men and women as they show themselves in the detail of their individual lives and passions. is one of the greatest among novelists just because of this fiery He intensity united to an unsurpassed sense of actuality. Walter Scott. our novehsts indeed are dowered with that deheach in a different and highly-individualized form. little concerned with political theory. casting a wide net from elusive shades . it gathered to itself the in most potent forces. that comforting and redeeming spirit in which English writers of lesser calibre surpass him. might have reached unimaginable heights if he had possessed the crowning gift of humour. did not follow up this broad opening. Jane Austen. He and Balzac together head very fitly the long and magnificent series of French novehsts in the nineteenth century. Fielding. and later in Russia. out of date as some of his rhapsodies may seem. though perpetually squandered on trivialities or perverted into monstrosity. Charlotte Bronte. how varied they are in this and how alike Victor Hugo. while in France. The novel Germany. however. were both marked in different degrees by the characteristic union of romanticism and realism. Almost cious all gift. a detail meticulous often to the last degree. He had no remedy for it save the remedy of Republican hberty. except that it is lit up incessantly with a kind of thunderous hght showing in blinding clearness the man's desire. Thackeray. has always something infinite in its character. Dickens. Sterne. but he felt something of its urgency. Hardy.

has in it always a sense of barrenness.298 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND of personal passion to the reasons for a nation's downfall. already. of whom Turgenev at least was in close touch with the French artists. type of the second. is the type of the first Carlyle. by and fostering the manifested themselves again in the zeal for history. for all his humour. with all his values besides sturdy love of independence. On the other hand he saw. Only. corrupt systems which blocked the road. had a fatal appeal for him. as we have seen. Germany all continue the work. full of Romantic affinities. one less interested in conclusions and more concerned with data. and hence not only his deep sjmipathy for the patient drudge. and born the year after Gibbon's death. partly because his perpetual preaching exasperates. or opened the path for others. we miss the indescribable touch of poetry. or swept away. The short-cut of force. Carlyle. was penetrated with a religious belief in every man's duty to develop himself by single-minded work. what has been seen with increasing clearness since. a generation in full re-action from Victorian earnestness and alert to see in life many the strictly moral. where any talk of free self-development was . subtle as it is on the physical side. showing itself in the eighteenth century. profoundly influenced by Goethe. we can distinguish two schools. and perhaps that is why their treatment of love. a desolating gap. The liberty he desired was the liberty to work. France. England. but his exultation in the heroes who had carved their way to full expression. is the . In England Gibbon (1737-1794). even if by a destroying RevoluHe is little tion. roughly. that even political hberty without further organization of forces economic and social must end for millions in a grinding slavery. fostered scientific spirit. making men work at the point of the bayonet if they would not do so of themselves. The insatiable curiosity for facts and the impulse to ask questions and to speculate. who would have smiled at Romanticism. the other studying history for the light it throws on life. as before in French Uterature. The great Russian writers. partly because. contrast very markedly with them here. read now. he was critical of political liberty. And.

299 Hence day Economy of his incomplete — " the dismal science. But without adequate means or end man's Ufe was a chaos. hence his contempt for the current " " Utilitarianism the that seemed to offer Pig-Philosophy men only a sordid happiness. was — of working with inadequate means. .ROMANTIC REVIVAL AND NEW REALISM a mockery. he thought. and Carlyle detested chaos. The one." with dominant its his attack on the PoHtical gospel of laissez faire. the other had no conception an adequate end.

since the end of the eighteenth century. by suitable distribu- the undeserved distress. The Tree of Knowledge can become a Tree of Death. from the superb poetry of so severely. been shifting work on an increasing scale from the field. but perhaps we reahze that chaos more fully than we did. They did 300 make . If we do. The result brought colossal evil as well as good. to A new superseded trades. to the impersonal system of huge factories and mines. made possible through the inventions of applied science.CHAPTER XLII THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN PROBLEMS chaos has not ceased. give him also licence to sink below them. This paradox. the powers that combine with Nature and manual toil to produce all our wealth. The Industrial and the recondite researches of the laboratory to the humbler achievements of the spinning. and the small shop where it was performed under the individual eye of the master. has been proved over and over again both in peace and in war. Science and Toolmaking. the home. it is in large measure because of the impetus given both by Carlyle and the Economists and Utilitarians whom he criticized THE it is Revolution. broadly. powers that exalt man above the beasts. which is also a truism. speaking by the men to whom the structure of society had left the main task of distribution. invention always means dislocation for the and the best cure is. was made at first the products of the invention compensate for But no attempt at this.jenny and the threshingflight machine. had. tion.

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 301 not raise wages. springs ultimately from two sources only. Hence. too many clothes were made. and his view may be taken as typical of the first stage. in the first quarter of the nineteenth century the growth of wealth was startling. marks an epoch. It recognized truths now accepted as truisms but long unrecognized. in other words. was the question of questions and an answer must be found. but so also to any who looked below the surface was the misery and poverty among the workmen and the chronic trouble of unemployment. that to maintain this labour and make it effective a great reserve of capital is needed. . for example. as will appear in a moment." Carlyle insisted fiercety. two years before the death of Voltaire. theorists in France were dreaming of communist Utopias. Not only was the poverty greater than it had been just before." published in 1776. but it laid dowTi certain basic principles. that money is only the symbol of wealth that wealth strictly so-called. or wore themselves to death by toil while others starved for lack of work and others again lived in plenty and The French Revolution had been a Nemesis on idleness. manual and that whatever checks or wastes such intellectual. they lowered them. had been experimenting in Socialism. The work had its limitations. Towards the end of the eighteenth century the problems of wealth and industry. Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations. so far. Something was wrong with a system under which men went ragged because. of men labour is. . the bounty of nature and the labour. the total. but the contrast with the wealth was greater also. and a generation that had heard the names of liberty and equality could not continue to pass " it by entirely. Further. The Condition of England Question. Sober thinkers like John : Stuart IMill turned to reconsider the foundations already assumed for the 3^oung science of Political Economy. production and distribution. destructive. it was said. namely of those goods and services which can be got and given in exchange. had attracted critical and methodical thought. a store of power and material for . was the warning to be in vain ? ]\Ien besides injustice Robert Owen in England Carlyle were looking for an answer.

it could not make her richer than she would artisans own day. industry which. from the side who urge a reckless policy of " ca' canny " of those that there have been had they been free to develop their own energies to the full. Again. But his attention was concentrated rather on high production than on liberal fair distribution. The chief deductions from these now commonplace truths were drawn as clearly. was trenchant enough to kill for ever the fallacy that so long as wages are paid it does not matter much to future wealth what they are paid for. as Voltaire had failed to see. it turned aside the labour necesHis attack on wasteful usages of wealth." It is important not to confuse Adam Smith himself with followers who travestied his doctrine. " be ultimately good for trade." So far from increasing the means of future production. protesting in the sacred name of economic law. pay more is urges. it was because he saw the waste in the dominant colonial system that Adam Smith attacked the policy of exThe colonies could not sell in clusive trade with the colonies. they had less to support future labour and their production was the less. But the fallacy re-appears in many forms : in our in order be work enough for all. that employers should wages to their workmen. as though there were may no danger lest the limitation of production should lessen the material essential for more. Spending money on ephemeral trifles could not.302 future THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND work. receiving less wealth. luxurious private equipages to needless expenditure on war. the most advantageous market. against any serious effort to increase the resources of the . For similar reasons he inveighed against the incredibly foolish restrictions that in his time prevented labourers from moving freely out of one parish into another. Adam Smith saw. improves in proportion to the encouragement it receives. The system might make England richer than other countries. hke every other human quality. and thus. material without wliich production cannot proceed at any adequate pace. from sary for them. but his chief stress He on the point that to do so would be in the interest of higher " The wages of labour are the encouragement of production. it is true. for example.

that with higher wages the labourers would at once beget larger famihes. was withheld from labour in Smith's day by the Combination Laws. At the other end of the scale the public conscience all over the world has been concerned. Since the days of Adam Smith and of ]\Ialthus three considerations have modified this behef in it of wages. with the question of over-payment for slight services. step by step. intermittently but unceasingly. and thus. costs them neither labour " nor care. and this largely because of his conviction. the sense of in the community supported. or with the actual receipt by men and women of "a revenue that. wages would fall The stress laid by Malthus on the need of prudence again. with a greater number of claimants for work. to fix Still. but lessens prevents the greed of the masters from pressing to the full their advantage in a supply of labour that has no great capital This power of combined resistance of its own to sustain it." Property. comfort the inconsiderate begetting of children does not next the power of workmen to combine increase. an advantage . and their gradual repeal has made it possible for the : " the iron law " Trade Union movement to Hmit the desperate competition for paid work that made a penniless man accept wages barely No one doubts to-day that the sufficient to support fife. especially property that. " in Adam Smith's own words. the definite justice restriction by law of child labour in its worst forms. shared by most thinkers then and for some time later. give its fortunate possessor an unearned advantage in the economic struggle.THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION poor. has become evident that with a higher standard of First. it is clear. Thirdly. limitation has on the whole been good. can. hotly opposed as they were for a long time in the supposed interest of freedom by men other- wise enlightened. in the begetting of children was inspired by the same fear. 303 he certainly seems to have felt that any attempt by law a minimum wage would be futile. has had its share in making it possible now to fix by law a minimum wage in certain staple trades. an advantage often measured by money rent. like land. has a monopoly value over and above what is due to the exertions and abilities of the owner. The success of these measures.

how an amount clearly not enough for the full hfe that the modern And up to a certain point competition withspirit demands. that while men are no better than they are now. is of the doctrinaire to ensure a fairer distribution without lessening output. at least in great measure. as MiU foresaw. that he by the opinion and advice of the community ? Certain reguwe have all accepted. the pressing problem of the time. Uke enormous pohtical power in the past. the bribe of high profits and the dread of personal poverty appear for the majority necessary incentives to the needed production. In short. Guild Sociahsm or State. of unfettered personal enterprise. on the whole individuaHst. If the community owns all the terms to all the labour. Should not asked now. is likely to blunt the spur of need and the incentive of private ambition. while it might ensure better distribution. The hope remains will dictate its possible in the development of man to the mercenary instincts. Are we to supplant these indirect incentives by direct dragooning ? There have been thinkers and men of action to urge it.304 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND may use in it is ways disastrous to other men. there is the chance. by supplant that it may become . Not selfishlations ness merely. would only work out for each individual at something under l^fi a year. that in our present society. out a doubt stimulates production. and be limited this power. The other is. the wealthiest of European countries. in their place ? Can it put adequate motives And here two things should be distinguished. Increase in output is imperatively demanded. from Plato to Trotsky. but foresight distrusts the out-and-out demand Communist or Sociahst that all the means of production should be in the hands of the community. But the prospect is scarcely inviting to the lover of liberty. The one. Sociahsm in whatever form. and it is hard to see how this invaluable liberty can be retained under any uncompromising scheme capital of it Communism. at any rate for the luckier individuals. but are not still more needed ? Yet a sound instinct shrinks from over-regulating. cease to be left entirely to individuals. seeing that a rigorously equal distribution of the national dividend in England.

famine-stricken. it is of the utmost importance to recognize them the art of government hes largely in making terms with lower : motives while fostering the higher. the scarcity value would disappear and up it demand was met. as we have fully admitted. would the consumers suffer. the amount that the consumer is willing to give for it. Whether indeed this shall come to pass " not argument." co-operation. depend directly on the scarcity value the goods in question.THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 305 something better. Now the older school of political economists (their followers." supphed. and this latter may." in " God must still obey the one's eyes to the lower is simply to court catastrophe of the type that has befallen the doctrinaires of Russian Communism. prices fall. because. if not their leaders) the operation of these two forces. " " of and often does. What about the short-run ? And the excessive profits made in that short-run ? Do ? away from the dangers their inordinate gains 20 of the The coining they not often go to men who shp " slump. content with least. for if the price went — — would attract producers to increase the output until the Nor in the long-run. as soon as the supply was sufficiently increased. untrained in Wychfhan phrase. the cost of sustaining price is fixed by two main factors : the labour needed to produce the article. perfectly sound. however. as their place is not so shall decide. on the whole. In so far. the give-and-take essential to " the yieldingness of a strong will. as high a price as he can get. During a famine the price of all loaf bread goes up. and takes. In all this there is much. and the consumer. They saw in them an automatic adjustment of supply to demand. first. Devil. and next. so they urged. To shut corporate hfe. but effort or no is a question that. after all. The producer wants. that is But other questions press for an answer. will pay almost any price." and never disgorge " of the word " profiteer . though conceivably for any one particular no more labour may be needed in its production. at were. and with no tradition behind them of sane and sensible compromise. The problems of price alone are enough to illustrate the In an ordinary capitalist society intricacy of our dangers.

where the supply cannot be increased indefinitely and where." Yet to tax the whole of such surplus value of hand in every case is not the simple thing it may appear The boundary between fair to the superficial enthusiast. And even supposing that it is fairly drawn. There the value may go up and up. i. And very likely it will (though this conclusion. There are. most cogent arguments for however. namely. then those dependent on him. may dwindle even to starvation: if it is drawn point. excess profit (" profiteering "). and sheer " " where no labour whatever is performed rent economic and no risk taken. and yet the owners have " unearned incredone no work whatever to deserve their " " out ment. in its distinction from fair the important truth that economic questions are of the significant point. this cursory survey should not omit to note the expansion of those group organizations within the State that play so . This is the case. payment for work done plus a due allowance for often questions of degree. obvious dangers.306 is THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND and shrewd popular apprehension on this " by the way. industry dwindle. risk and for waiting. has some power of controlling the spending. power. be it noted. there are cases. of monopolies and quasi-monopolies. furnish perhaps the this course. profit. for example. it is easy for the fortunate possessor to hold the community indefinitely to ransom. profit. as undoubtedly is the case in most modern societies.e. through its votingcertain). as appears to have happened in Russia too much in his favour. what is to be done with Is the sum that represents the surplus value the proceeds ? simply to be handed over to the State ? That assumes that the State will spend it more wisely than the profiteer. indicates. is uncommonly difficult to draw." Moreover. owing to this. whether consumers or workmen. such as the control over land or over a limited stock of minerals. those. and there Even are other ways proposed of distributing the surplus. If it is drawn too much against the will inevitably capitalist (large or small). are pretty sure to be fleeced. with building-land where the population is growing. is by no means That the community. and that the Government of the State at least professes to aim at the good of all.

Let all the resources of such a trade. something to make them more . skilful at ployed. fixed merely from above they desire a voice in the conditions of the industry by which they five. Another. time-honoured and not ill-grounded fear lest the security gained might lead to a slackening of effort and the stress on than mere " hands. if our civihzation is to become truly civihzcd and our culture . " the principle of the Trust or the Merger. has too great an advantage over his humaner competitors. living tools. but it shows itself now in other forms. a substantial contribution towards solving the problem of All members buying regularly at the Company's shops price. be pooled. they suggest. even good wages. a part in modern The principle that non-capitalists and workers should and must organize appeared first in the Trade Union movement. and a most important aspect of the industrial problem. grinding the faces of his men. They argue that intelligent human beings cannot be satisfied with wages. The consumers' Co-operative Societies.THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION large. is the especial concern of those who advocate Guild Sociahsm or Syndicalism. And they urge that cut-throat competition between branches of the same regular trade has been proved to be wasteful." applied in the interests of all who toil in the trade. for example. That both are imperative needs. and nearly always fatal to reasonable co-operation between employers and emIn a slack time the unscrupulous employer. silly. But the scheme has the huge advantage that it opens to the workman the prospect of an intelhgent share in great enterprises and a chrect veto on degrading conditions." as Aristotle (who accepted slavery) would have caUed them. not of the capitahst Of course there are grave objections. and let all masters and workmen It is join as equals in the general management of the whole. chiefly the merely. 307 and on the whole so promising." mere " team-work prevent personal initiative. have made industry. receive a dividend from the profits at the end of the year in direct proportion to the purchases each has made. Thus if an article happens to be in high demand it is not the producer the benefit is shared only who benefits by the good price : by all who buy it.

continue clamorous for a solution. did not see clearly that what would satisfy men was not they — merely a happiness desired. It is not probable that their services wiU be forgotten. while leaving free play to competition in more adventurous paths : fixing minimum wages and maximum incomes. struggling Meanwhile modern thought. Its goal. institutions. believes it can reach it or not. often selfishly.308 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND of a few. but one approved. nor yet can it accept with a conscience undisturbed. with whatever crudities and fallacies. they do. a basis of practical slavery on which a chosen few could live the life of leisure and culture. If the well-to-do are tempted to forget. for example. more than the precarious inheritance student is no impartial the hkely to deny. on the lines of national services those trades where the ties in : demand is stable or the supply essentially limited. with com- plexities of the problem. and indeed they themselves. prejudices. of the English Utilitarians to make to judge everything according as it served this end It was their defect that creeds. It whether it all. but not so narrowly as to leave scant scope for personal ambition. even if it holds that they ignored too often the connexion of wealth with welfare. the chronic "labour unrest" is not likely to allow it. It is the outstanding merit of later pioneers such as the German Karl that. is that of this : happiness for clear was the merit . The workers. combining both Individualism and Socialism organizing. as the ancients could. cannot be too grateful to the earlier economists who paved the way by first analysing the wealthmaking motives which do actuate the average man and tracking out their interplay. draw attention to the glaring inequali- Marx our present system of distribution and point out the conceivability of an arrangement at once more economical and more equitable. The considerations we have touched upon indicate that the solution will be found in a composite system. like Owen before them. by choosing for their aim the happiness of . The problem is felt to be the more insistent because the modern world cannot go back to any mediaeval worship of asceticism.

It wants the happiness found in health. the dehght in beauty. any more than it has yet found a And it philosophy or a rehgion to unify its speculations. Hence in part the influence of those headstrong reformers who. the discovery But ahnost all these things truth. Yet nationaUsm has There is . that would content them. acting in smaller spheres. laughter. illumined by a slowly awakening sense of justice and a growing realization both of the difficulty in combining justice with freedom and the is from paramount necessity of attempting it for all. and no one as back on the vista of history we see that the modern mind." And as we look himself. The preoccupation with economic questions It that marks this age is not merely a sign of materialism. include the freedom of every man. Only joint international effort can succeed. recognizes not justice and kindness only but other definite qualities in the happiness it pursues. of congenial work. but happiness of a definite quahty. self-determination. require wealth. look to armed the end we most rising of the masses as the only means to of us profess to desire. 809 had admitted. And a sane internationalism can only be built up by those forces of sympathy and unity that. to hide from ourselves the unpleasant would be Pharisaical truth that with the bulk of us it is Httle but hp-service that we pay to our conscience. of labour and capital cannot be solved by any one nation alone. have made nations themselves possible. high or low. no short and easy way out from the toils of a problem complicated by the very forces that may in the end It is obvious. for example.MODERN PROBLEMS all. that it was not any kind of happiness. But it not yet found a solution. at least also a sign of the rich ideal for human hfe gathered the experience of centuries. that the problems find a solution. splendid physique. inheritor of the past. just as it desires in its has thought and its art to take stock of every fact. without reahzing the admission. This is the aim It desires a unity that would of the modern conscience. in despair at the callousness and wilful blindness of the propertied classes. for it was to be based on the justice that counted each man as an end in " more than one.

if it were not that men it desire. Its distinctive achievement in thought. nationahsm once nations would see that their interest lay in helping each other. would probably be adopted universally and increase the wealth of the world at a rapid Even where nationahsm the task. and does conceive a condition for all its children immeasurably nearer to the ideal union of justice and freedom. " association. but the Day of its Coming is not as he thought. as he anCo-operation. And may give us hope that the world of the West approaching nearer to the undiscovered law of far It is. rate. so full of tragedies and glories. characteristically enough. Already before the nineteenth century. satisfied. by the study . So true is it that " the God of old time will we keep him not straight at act Satan of new the higher God aimed. both in the Great War and the founding of a League of Nations intended to be universal. and stiU gives rise. Mazzini's was a true gospel. inspired largely of comparative anatomy and reached the view that all hfe was akin. gave rise. after its long journey. their but to make still in their own country and under own flag. the watchwords of the coming age." should doubtless be. martyr-spirit though he was. does find its richest memories in the varied work of varied nations. the estabhshment of the theory of Evolution. alas been fulfilled.310 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND proved over and over again a foe to that wider development which would complete its service to the world. after its own liberty. This of itself all. comparative botany. ! The is not aggressive." If fervent expectation of Mazzini that. it often comphcates Free-trade. ahke to the most hopeful and the most despairing views of existence. and great disasters. as for example Goethe (mentioned before in this connexion). not merely to make money. the fact remains that the mind of Europe. individual thinkers. It culminated. How 1832 great ? has that hope been fortified by the years since has been a time crowded ahke with great successes. nounced. expectations. for example. but their problems are thornier than he guessed. has not.

definitely advanced to the position that all Hfe was linked together by chains of heredity. vi. " The nascent science of geology. although in subtler and more complicated forms. naturaUy tend to survive . Now this view.MODERN TROBLEMS The Frenchman Lamarck. c. due to the influence of environment and of acquired habits. These difficulties." indicated that the advance was. towards higher and higher forms. of the theory. The upward movement in complexity would be continuous except that changing conditions in the environment could produce different habits in the animal. forms more rich and complex and better suited to their surroundings. so stated. and these. that it was hard by Hugh it Elliot. 311 at the very opening of the nineteenth century. Progress in complexity of organization exhibits anomalies here and there in the general series of animals. touch the . he argued.. on the whole. deciphering the fossil record of the rocks. . while those not so well furnished would die out." (" Philosophic Zoologique. does not directly conflict with a refined form of Lamarckianism does not. when con" firmed. tr. next." Part I. were calculated to secure the survival among of their possessors in the struggle for scanty sustenance amid a host of enemies would. however caused. in truth. could affect their structure. to see how produce anything his subordinate factor of acquired habit could like the effects he assumed. But what was the inner meaning of this advance ? And how did it come about ? Lamarck took the bold and hopeful view that there was an inherent tendency in living organisms themselves to expand their life and adapt it to its environment. that species were not fixed from all time and for all time." The organisms showing variations which. But by the middle of the century a huge advance was made through Darwin's patient analysis of the factor he called " Natural Selection.) were. first. prevented any general acceptance And. putting The drawbacks to Lamarck's way of that the mere assertion of an upward tendency in Nature did not at all explain how exactly she brought her works into being. but came into existence through growth from a primitive common stock. controversy is still raging over them to-day. and. indeed. others.

then the hope that the essential characteristic of hfe on earth is Progress. be enough to develop the complex of Hfe which we behold. That had been already undermined. sexual selection. rehgious. a tendency in itself indifferent. would appear to be stricken at its root. recasting Nor was it to the beasts who the whole system. He thought it enough to admit a tendency to small variations in any and every direction compatible with life. the large mutations. would. Working on this tendency. The exhibition of this factor undoubtedly established the theory. and also in a minor degree the forces of use and disuse so greatly over-emphasized by Lamarck. and widely-divergent forms No It was not merely that it made the the Old Testament incredible. the hope that burst into flower about the time of the French Revolution. even that it allied man by direct descent are believed to perish. and scientific. he held. an admission that he considered to be amply confirmed by observation. sole factor and if the basis assumed for it is that of sheer indiscriminate variation. cannot deny that Natural Selection has been an instrument indispensable in the But if it is taken as practically the history of development. full of heredity. The trouble at bottom lay in the nature of the prominence given to Natural Selection. one can be surprised that the Darwinian theory roused a whirlwind of controversy and emotion among thinkers.812 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND ultimate cause of variations at all. by the study of geology. literal interpretation of religions. What real ground is there for hope if there is nothing to indicate an immanent purpose in the universe life among ? Bhnd accident and the sheer struggle for creatures competing for the chance of a precarious . This seemed to him a plunging back into fanciful and also unfruitful hypotheses. and prepared possibihty of sudden new lights on the inner processes of to recognize. and even to-day modern thought. the forces of natural selection. as Darwin was not. like a recurrence to doctrines of special creation or of God's will in heu of a search into actual processes. But as a matter of fact Darwin was very anxious not to assume any definite tendency to vary along any particular lines. and then by historical criticism and the comparison with other philosophic. first.

for intelligence. that old behef in formative impulses struggling up through chaos into ordered freedom. The ultimate conclusion here is gloomy enough. The moral effort of man and the gradual flowering of culture out of savagery would then take their places as processes in harmony with the fundamental trend of things towards the better. This. even if upward. underlying natural selection and the struggle for life.MODERN PROBLEMS That. and it was drawn by Further. who outlined a conception of the whole cosmos developing from a primitive " " nebulous into a fully-articulated and homogeneity harmonious system. But a wholly different turn could be given to the evolutionary hj'pothesis if it was held that Lamarck. an uncritical application of the principle to the pecuhar problems of man in a self-conscious society. . and that. But if it is a rehgion. and physical energy tends to be dissipated into positions where no activity is possible unless an impact from without disturbs the quiescent frame. and for incessant war. all the it more significant because revives. beauty. it is one crossed by doubt. is it destined in time to reverse itself and recur to the original formlessness ? There are speculations of cosmic physics that reinforce the prospect of such a desolating end suns grow cold. the belief that we saw dominated so much of Greek thought and influenced so profoundly the mediaeval mind. This double outlook towards growth and final decay was actually accepted in the views of Herbert Spencer. distinctive rehgion of our time. meaning by higher those that gave more scope petition. for ruthless com- many. after all. but it did . the xdew of hope. and love. as the Greeks themselves perfection and permanence ? dreaded. at bottom. Is the process. it might almost be called the in our modern world. is the natural inference. least. really towards Or. there was a real tendency in organisms themselves to produce higher forms. at 813 existence are. was on the right track. possibly with the added weight given by modern science. the forces that have made the world. but a system doomed to sink back again into the undifferentiated sameness from which it sprang. is the one that has tended to prevail As such. led to fresh arguments for race and class domination.

the nineteenth century took the belief in Progress through Evolution for the cardinal article of its creed. Germany. reasonably accepted without a further faith in the spiritual as completing and transcending the physical. Without asking whither a real faith in continuous development led the mind. distrusting all speculation concerning ultimate issues. educational. That belief was the mainspring of numberless movements for reform. did the results of the nineteenth century and the years that followed it justify such hope and faith ? . How far. throughout England. France. political. Russia. economic. it was preoccupied with questions of immediate practice and discovery. we may ask once more.314 not THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND bite It was an age after all of general on the age. or whether it could be buoyancy. Italy.



(F. S.


period from 1832 to the present time, though crowded with world-events and developments of thought of the most far-reaching kind, has yet certain persistent features which enable us to treat it summarily in one


survey and give us some indication of a common direction. We take 1832, the date of our own first Reform Act. But it will be noticed at once that 1830, which is the corresponding date in France, has much the same significance. In each case an end was reached of the reaction which followed the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. The forces of reform which had been penned up for thirty years from fear of revoluIn both countries democracy began tion, began to play again. to take on a definite shape and an authority which have never been seriously threatened since. In each case the elevation of the middle-class was the first step. In England the stages are clear and unbroken. In 1867 the franchise was extended to
the working classes in the towns, in 1884 to the agricultural labourers, in 1918 to women and to a large number practically the whole of the remaining adult men. In France, after the


monarchy of Louis Philippe and the short second the second Empire makes a temporary break. But Republic,


power was more apparent than Napoleon III came in as the result of a plebiscite his tenure was short and always precarious and he disappeared,
this interval in democratic

unregretted, at the


serious external check. 315


of the

The democratic lead

two Western European powers

gives in poHtics, as in so much else, the keynote of the tendency All have now become, nominally at in other civilized states.
It might be maintained, perhaps, that the democratic. of the greatest Republic, farther West, counted for example most in this development. But the United States, in their


comparative isolation and with their freedom from restrictive though powerful by example, had less influence in In Europe more difficult problems had to be faced, practice. and France and England, since their final and reconciling This struggle over Napoleon, have faced them in common. was the case in the first Entente under Louis Philippe, it was again the case at the Crimean War when the affairs of the Near East first came under united European cognizance, it has come to a decisive issue in the Great War and the League of Nations which follows.
It is impossible in this short chapter to trace the growth of the other democracies which now practically occupy the whole

But one or two cases are typical of surface of the globe. In Italy we see the others and illustrate some especial point. intimate connexion between the democratic spirit and the
sense of nationality, Italy made herself, as the liberators The national consciousness, finding appropriate predicted. instruments in Mazzini, Garibaldi, and Cavour, ensured her at the same time freedom from external rule and democratic

government within. The House of Piedmont was accepted as the Royal House, partly in gratitude for its services, partly In Germany as the safest form of a hereditary Presidency. the want of previous political experience led to the postponement of a popular constitution which seemed possible at Frankfort in 1848. The training in combination and selfgovernment which the people needed was furnished under It was Socialism of a the Empire by the growth of Socialism. moderate type which disciplined the working classes in the last three decades, and when the crash came in 1918 which removed the imperialistic government, it was the socialists who succeeded to power and who are now preserving the unity of the State in face of grave difficulties on both extremes.



There is in fact no doubt of the triumph of democracy in Western and Central Europe, The Great War removed all the autocratic rulers, and has set up in the new States created by the Peace Treaty democracies of a more complete and sociahstic character than any which preceded it. The other type of democracy about which it is more difficult to generahze or predict is that which has arisen, increasingly
in recent years, through imitation of the West. Japan, the first example, we know and respect for her activity and stable

One awaits with hope, but less certainty, the democratic evolution of China, as a great united State. In India

we have

ourselves to supervise the experiment. Persia, Arabia, Syria, Egypt, all are inspired by the same ambition. In each case there is the double problem, the want of selfgoverning institutions of long standing within the State, and the relation tutelary, mandatory or protective in which

each stands to some European power estabhshed within
It is this relation


which brings us to the second great



democracy in Europe has gone the spread of European power and culture throughout the
It is true that the earhest pioneers of Europe in other lands went under feudal or monarchical patronage. The Crusades were thus organized. Columbus sailed under the

social fact of recent years. Side by side with the spread of


flag of

Ferdinand and Isabella. Jacques Cartier reported to Francis I, as Drake to Ehzabeth. But the expansion, from the Crusades onwards, was in fact a popular one. Europe began to overflow phj'sically just as its mind began to find

Thus the nineteenth century, and the latter part of it, is the period of the greatest especially geographical and colonial expansion, just as it is of scientific
fresh fields for conquest.


political activity.




and detrimental results followed from this admirable exhibition of human enterprise and

One was the competition, at first open, and keenly enjoyed, between the rival explorers and settlers of different nations. The other was the effect, often completely



more primitive peoples whom he

disastrous, always dangerous, of the Western settler on the disturbed. Both of these

a strong factor in the just been to make in the League of Nations. compelled Rivalry in colonies and trade divided Holland and England in the seventeenth century, France and England in the eighteenth, Germany and England in the nineteenth. In the eighteenth it was so potent a cause of strife that some historians though no doubt wrongly have treated it as the leading motive in the period. In the nineteenth and twentieth it contributed to the outbreak of the Great War. The effects, harmlargely

have a long story




which the world has

and otherwise, of European expansion on less progressive people, are a subject still requiring deep and extensive study it is one of the greatest topics in history.

One result, however, of these two dangers among the European nations themselves and

— the competition
the treatment of

weaker people became more and more apparent towards the end of the nineteenth century. Men awoke to the need of much more careful dealings and agreement between nations, and, above all, to the duty of recognizing a higher law than


selfish interests in exploiting

the earth.

may seem

strange to


this claim for


in the greatest of all wars,





an age which it must not

be supposed that the principles involved were quite new ideas both can, no doubt, be traced back for ages. But it is undoubtedly true that more frequent intercourse, the needs of commerce, and the dangers of war led steadily throughout the nineteenth century to a network of international relations being formed, dealing with all manner of subjects posts, and sanitation, commerce, treatment of native races, etc. a basis for the Hague Conference in 1899 and the forming League of Nations in 1919. A great deal of this arose from a great deal including all the arbitration simple necessity treaties was inspired by the desire to avoid wars. For arbitration between nations, as well as the making of per-

— —


manent agreements, increased greatly during this period. The expansion of the West, however, involved the interests of the



whole world as well as of the European nations themselves. This was recognized more and more clearly and generally as Isolated thinkers, especially rehgious the century wore on. men like Las Casas at the time of the Conquistadores or the

North America, had long striven for the more But from the end of the eighteenth century onwards the ideal of humanity and of trusteeship was inscribed on the banners of all progressive nations. If they fell away from, it and they often did it was not from general ignorance but from passion. The wrong was recognized and sometimes



for the growth of humanity in expaninauguration of the League of Nations, is the A previous conference at Berhn Brussels Conference of 1890. in 1884 had secured freedom of trade for the competing nations in the basins of the Congo and the Niger. This was the obvious interest of business. But in 1889 Lord Salisbury, through the Belgian Government, again called the Powers together to consider questions relating to the slave trade in Africa. Now the motive was humanitarian. The general Act of the Conference, agreed to by all and issued in 1890, declared " that the purpose of the Powers was to put an end to the crimes and devastations engendered by the traffic in African slaves, to protect effectively the aboriginal populations of Africa, to ensure for that vast continent the benefits of peace




sion, before the



but not beyond what the dictates of humanity would impose upon a united Western Civihzation dealing with the weaker and less civilized. The League of Nations, with its mandates, is the next great It aims at developing and providing a perstep after this. manent machinery for the purposes of the Brussels Conference, just as on the international side it develops and makes permanent the work of the Hague Conferences and the Hague Tribunal. Europe, as a political, social, and intellectual unity, had since the Reformation lost sight of the common forces which gave it birth. But these were growing all the time under other forms. International Law, recognized as such

A worthy aim,



since the seventeenth century, has its roots in Rome, but spreads its branches over all the world. Science, and its

apphcations to industry and transport, have co-operated in the same three centuries to bring mankind more closely A deeper and more widely diffused sense of a together. common humanity and a common duty is pervading the Churches and bringing them also into a possible concord. All these, more purely spiritual motives, have concurred with the sheer necessities of trade and self-preservation to make a world-organization the natural issue, not only or even primarily of the war but of the whole historical evolution which preceded The war shook from the tree the fruit which had long it.

been ripening. There are many other aspects of world co-operation which
claim attention in this last period of European history, beside the two which took the leading place in the organization of the League. Another, the industrial, has made for itself a It has been clear for over special and a very active branch. a hundred years that a political democracy must carry with it

such regulations of industry as will enable every citizen to act as a free man and enjoy the happiness and opportunities of

This industrial organization of the State has proceeded rapidly in recent years, through trade unions, combinations of employers, trade boards and councils promoted by the State,
as well as

by a mass

of factory legislation.



even look forward to national Councils representing


by their professions, as parliaments, assembUes, etc., No doubt experiments of that represent them territorially. kind will be tried. But this side of national life has also its international bearing. From the sixties onwards men hke Marx have striven to organize the working classes of all nations


in one body, and, though his, the earliest International, failed, " " see at the present moment three rival Internationals " Intercompeting for the allegiance of the workers. The national Labour Bureau of the League of Nations," perhaps its at levelling

most flourishing department, aims
ditions of labour all over the world.

up the con-

pressure of a united

proposes to bring the world to bear on the backward and

recalcitrant nation


which tolerates a standard below that Only thus can the risk of levelHng down be surely avoided only by a united and world-conscious working class can world-peace be secured. Science, even more than labour, is an international activity, and its products in industry as weU as in healing, hygiene, and
generally agreed on.

education, are, or should be, of international application. The war, with its stimulus to scientific invention of a special
kind, has created a wholesome alarm that, unless we take counsel together, men may soon find themselves possessed of
forces so deadly that civilization might easily be \vrecked mankind destroyed wholesale in a fit of madness. It
real danger, but not a






the eighteenth century

onward man's mechanical genius has outstripped his moral powers. He made money by the steam-engine almost as quickly as he wished, and before he knew how to use it for the good of the workers. Hence the slums of our cities and the unthinkable horrors of child-labour. Our present command
over unlimited powers of destruction, by poison gases, by aeronautics, and by explosives, creates an even worse outlook, if the power and the wiU to combine for other purposes lags behind. For nature as revealed by human skill presents problems which will task to the utmost the resources of our wisdom and our goodwill. To hasten the development of the latter must appear, to every thoughtful mind aware of the facts, as the most urgent task imposed on the race in the
interests of its

preservation and prosperity. however, a tragic episode in the human comedy, but the most encouraging, if looked at broadly and continuously, and without a pessimistic twist.


The story

of science is not,

With deadly


potentiahties, it offers immense realized good possibilities for the future beyond the dreams of the past. can only here notice one or two of these broader aspects

which have become prominent in recent years. The first and the most congenial to our general subject is the essentially social and international character of all scientific work. There has never been a time when scientific discovery has
not depended on the intercourse, not only of individual minds,



but of different races, Greeks with Egyptians and Babylonians, Arabs with Europeans, Itahans with ancient Greeks. The last hundred years have accentuated this and made science

and learning appear conspicuously

as the

most substantial

It is one of the striking contrabasis of international unity. dictions of which our nature is full, and which it is our task

to reconcile, that science, containing the possibilities sometimes realized, of wholesale international destruction, is also that department of our activity in which national and other
felt. Every great step in its recent development has been shared, by two or three of the leading nations in the world. Carnot, Joule, Mayer, and Helmholtz

distinctions are least

contributed essential elements to the doctrine of the Conservation of Energy which was the chief physical law reached in the middle of the nineteenth century (1848). Lamarck, Treviranus, Darwin, are three names from a host,

especially of French, German, and English thinkers, which built up the greatest of all biological conceptions in the latter

part of the century. Einstein now takes his place among the giants of mathematical physics whose birth in Italy, France, Germany, England or any other land, has been quite irrelevant
to their fame or work.

The fact is of course obvious and well and every one knows too that, though men of recognized, science and professors may occasionally lapse, yet normally they are much more united in mutual respect and mutual help
than any other


latter part of our period is distinguished

by the number

grew up naturally to promote some common scientific aim and strengthen this Such confeeling of comradeship in a great human effort.

associations which

ferences are the counterpart in modern times of the oecumenical councils in the Catholic world. It will be noted that

conference for political purposes and other practical matters has also in quite recent days become increasingly common and useful, 1 side by side with the League of Nations. Conference


the order of the day, and science set the example.



Diplomacy by Conference,"



Table," April,

192 1.

are pre-eminent in the last seventy or eighty years. showed matter of like molecular nature. brought sun. The third arises from spectral analysis. As Galileo and Newton had identified the mechanics of the heavenly bodies with that of mass and motion on the earth. heat. went the gradual extension of one scheme of thought. The second. magnetism. stars. The fourth. Four groups of discoveries. This was the most imposing feat of human insight and But parallel with it on the mathematical side ingenuity. the tendency is always towards discovering links and identities between phenomena previously regarded as distinct. electricity. and electricity had been reduced. third. The first is of those connected with Biology became in this period the predominant branch of science. and fourth groups come constantly more closely together and form the physical sciences as distinguished from the first. wave-energy. evolving at different stages throughout the depths of space. that in spite of the enormously increased number and complexity of the observed facts. It was thus the completion of the work done by the telescope in the seventeenth century. greatest revealer of wonders to the age. Now it is no idle fancy. The second is of those connected with the conservation of energy. concerns the nature of matter and its connexion with light. and other forms of the doctrine of evolution. to all the types of wavemotion into which the phenomena of hglit. Here Clerk-Maxwell took up the work of Lagrange and by interpreting mathematically . which quite recently has enjoyed special prominence.RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 323 But we Jiave to look at the matter of scientific work even more than at its place of origin to estimate its social nature and its bearing on the unity of mankind. but the deepest conclusion approached by the workers in both the main departments of science. expressed in differential equations. and planets into one chemical system and taught us the similarity in the structure of all the known material universe. special hues of work. The spectroscope. so the dark lines of Kirchhoff and Fraunhofer. the biological or animate. when fully interpreted.

of life consists itself largely in a certain unity of action. Research has constantly traced further into the realm of the living the laws of physics and it has not yet eliminated the distinctive quality chemistry And this of the living thing it has rather emphasized it. impulses of its own. and not exhaustively described in mechanistic terms (2) Their lives abound in behaviour with a (3) There is in Animate Nature a prevapsychical aspect lence of orderly systematization. . and owes its unity to the doctrine of evolution. scientific. but for the continuance and welfare of the race. based on the laws of physical. The conception of Animate Nature as a whole. a complete unity in itself and yet each shares in the common activities which in their highest form we associate with the human race. Such a view gives both a soHd basis and an — — » Professor J. In Professor Thomson's treatment we see this dominating idea of life as a whole worked out with all the detail of modern research. educed by the power On inanimate remains unpassed. quality One of the greatest of our living biologists has summed up his conclusions on the whole subject in a recent book ^ " (i) Living creatures are individualities standing apart from things in general." . Animate Nature far-reaching correspondences to the ideals of the True. gave mankind the highest exact generahzations yet reached of physical phenomena. Arthur Thomson. In fact. the most characteristic. It was another and still more profound act of unifica- of abstract thought. the side of the sciences of life the progress was not widely different. .e. i. qualities. and philosophic achievement of the age. . " Each living thing is an individual. balance and smooth working (4) There is a pervasive beauty both hidden and revealed (5) A very large proportion of the time and energy at the disposal of organisms is devoted to activities which make not for self-maintenance and self-aggrandisement. : . has been elaborated in this period. .324 the THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND electrical discoveries of Faraday. we find in . inanimate nature but rising above them by laws." This is an inspiring and a hopeful view. the Beautiful and the Good. though the gulf between animate and tion. " The System of Animate Nature.

vigorous activity. The basis is natural law and a progress from simpler to higher forms throughout the living world as an incessant and eternal fact.RECENT DEVELOPMENTS infinite 825 hope to mankind. and also their gradual emergence. Beauty and Goodness of which elements are to be found at every stage in the It will process. both in politics and in science. and more into prominence in recent years. philosophy and somewhat similar features. is acclaimed as a leader by many in active life who follow a line " of free development. We have seen. The Pubhc Health Act of 1848 coincides with the Chartist demonstration which was the English equivalent for the French Sociahst Second Repubhc. she has justified herself by the alleviation of suffering and by the increase both in the length and the healthiness of hfe and in the number of those who enjoy it." In philosophy and in active life the real issue. immediately after the first Reform Act. all present We can only judge exactly of the progress made in health and general well-being during the time in which statistics have been taken and preserved. Social welfare falls properly to be mentioned next to science because. and the control of the individual by common duties and supreme ideals." be seen at once idea is to many how close akin this philosophical current notions in the social and political Bergson. is the balance. forced more sphere. This Act constituted a supreme authority for . somewhere and somehow to be found. between the unrestricted play of impulses and notions of every kind. We have noted the urgency of increasing their force both for mental breadth and stabihty and for the peaceful progress of mankind. education and art. the need of such controlling ideas. The hope is the further reahzation of the ideals of Truth. Social well-being. rehgion. as the heralds of science predicted three hundred years ago. or even anarchy. These begin with the census which was first taken in the first year of the nineteenth Pubhc registration of births and deaths followed century. who chiefly represents it in philosophy.

" has just re" turned. which is mental as well as physical. the almost complete disappearance of certain virulent and the mitigation of others. social. having passed in the interval through " the stage of the Local Government Board. Our comparative failure in the latter sphere is due. Medicine is the best example of unquestioned progress due to science. The fall in the deathrate. by making measurements. the high merit of encouraging us to expect similar results in political. and economic matters and to take steps to secure them.e. but in the other. scientific treatment is applicable." It will be noticed that the activity of the State in improving the health of its citizens began. but to the fact that we have not yet apphed our minds with the same zeal and determination to the task. partly as a cause and partly as a result of this. For we cannot divide man's nature into two quite separate and dissimilar parts and say that to one. Nor must we flatter ourselves that the task of . his activities as a citizen. and. It was ninety-two in 1916 and last year it was under eighty. diseases healthier conditions. to its original conception of a Ministry of Health. if life be a good thing and the numbers are not sufficient to interfere with its for medicine. and these measurements have all demonstrated an increase in vitahty and a growing triumph The growth of population. are a clear proof of One fact alone the saving of child life is sufficient evidence of the greater care and the greater skill which medical science now demands and public opinion Doctors had long regarded it as an ideal very supports. is surely a good thing also. too. and the task itself is even more difficult than that of medicine. no law can be detected and no remedial measures are possible. viz.326 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Public Health. which. — — difficult of attainment to bring the death-rate of the first year of life below one hundred in a thousand. as science itself began. not to any essential difference in the two cases. we find medical men the most hopeful of the future and confident of their powers. since the War. It has. Their science is the most perfect type of accurate and systematic knowledge applied to the good of man. happiness. i. health.

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS medicine is : 327 in both regions we are only near its completion our journey. the Institute for the Study of International Affairs has arisen. They were inspired by a passion for international justice and peace but they flickered out. Twin One is the complexity of the quesdifficulties beset them. There have been ample signs recently of increased attention to economic. describe the body truly and Harvey to demonstrate its chief mechanical law before medicine could be constituted as a Thus side by side with the League of Nations. possessions It is not that truth and justice are unattainable either in theory or practice in human affairs. his high ideals. partly because their leader. which must be the foundaVesalius and the anatomists had to tion of any poHcy. not from the point of view of supporting a party or pleading a case. tions involved. but in medicine we are a little further beginning ahead. and international affairs. social. but that we need a breadth and vigour of mind above the average to master the complexity of the problem with its infinite details and to reach the calm height from which they may be surveyed. but in the interest of accurate knowledge. reach therefore the educational aspect of recent proAssuming that our nature as a whole is capable of gress. for the Study of Foreign Affairs. So in home affairs there are schools and courses of social study on economic and problems at all important educational centres. how is this to be secured and what has been done in these last years by education of all kinds to attain it ? Note that education in this sense is a far wider thing than the State schools and institutions which tend more and more We . scientific art. which aims simply at the study of international problems without direct advocacy of any kind. mostly of working men. partly from want of a sufficient intellectual foundation in the members. rising to the height that its advance on special lines demands. with . in being one hundred and fifty Associations. the almost irresistible tendency to In the 'forties and 'fifties David Urquhart was keeping bias. all was himself the victim of violent preon the subjects of his study. the other.

the fullest sense. It must here at least be thought of as the deliberate effort of the more mature mind to train the less developed . in or altering the constitution society. but of so preparing a foundation for the young mind that it may enter later into the inheritance of the race. and become a full citizen of the nation and the world. The democratic basis of government had virtually estabhshed itself in the West before the attempt began to educate all citizens to fill the position assigned to them in the new scheme of things. The School Board Act of 1870 followed closely on the Reform Act of The Fisher Act of 1918 coincides with the latest and 1867.328 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND in ordinary parlance to monopolize the term. the action of individuals over themselves in stretching out to a state of greater power and control over their own natures in the interest of a higher ideal. This has been the case in the great social and intellectual changes which we have already noticed in this chapter. not with appearance in school time-tables. We a view of teaching it all. The educative process follows and aims at raising the whole man or the whole society to another level and accommodating its habitual response to new conditions and new stimulus. — — widest extension of the franchise. and even more than this. All the greatest achievements in scientific settled its discovery and the formulation of results had been " " and recognized before science as a subject made are now trjang to digest into some sort of coherent and manageable mass the huge accretion of knowledge due to recent research. So with the growth of science and the introduction of science into the ordinary curriculum of all schools. It will be understood at once therefore that education in this. We may date this beginning in France and England from the 'thirties of the last century Germany was earlier still and each step in the extension of democracy has been followed by an extension of public education. it must include all collective action of such kinds. making The old pioneer explores and gains fresh hght h criticizes and makes experiments in living. . is sequent and not antecedent to advances discoveries institutions of the human mind of .

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS One is 329 apt in such matters to see rather what one wants to yet there can be httle doubt that in Europe and the farther West the determination has steadily gro^^^l. with a wider content than that of the old rehgious thinkers. and see than the actual facts . both by voluntary and state and will long tax. One may discern emerging in the slowly forming system of education which we are trying to apply the same great ideas and principles which have appeared in European thought as a whole in the tion. through a self-discipline suggested by more fully instructed minds. all attain at least such a minimum of knowledge as will enable them is it This is to go farther and to act intelligently as a new conclusion since the French Revoluinto force. The former was a necessary foundation to the latter and a corrective to still To gain a firm footing in the present. while we are here in the experimental stage. appeared in our schools side by side with the spread of democracy in the state. taxing. and therefore more difficult to make as deep and intense as theirs. integral part of education. and to put years preceding. and that it is part of the business of the State to assist. to see that citizens. resources and the ingenuity of us all. giving scope to individual differences and initiative and imposing a less rigid authority and a less uniform routine. such instruction. newly adapted to our modern hfe. to the utmost the agencies. But this hfe is not to be unrestrained. that of development. Herein we see the new conception of abundant and varied hfe. it is necessary to be conscious of progress achieved in the past and to be guided its possible excesses. and . It is to be subordinated. to look with hope towards the future. Education is to be a freer thing than was. and is now accepted by the governing minds in each community. for the content of the instruction. And. one seems to see it turning gradually to another great conception of the last hundred The teaching of histor}^ as an years. to an ideal of the general good with it which we have to learn to identify our own. Herein is an old conception of sei-v'ice. but not to control. that all young people should be as fully instructed as they are capable of being.

may strike Peace to the soul of the man on its breast As the pale waste widens around him. — It is seen then. the confidence of hfelong devotion — are at present less with us. the calmness of long views. statelier stream May acquire. at each step in our summary analysis. both in the individual mind and in society at large. eagerness and activity. They are full of deep thought and passionate feeling they often have . how Europe and the West. there is no cause for discouragement there is abundant skill. Men sacrificed themselves freely and cheerfully in the war. father and son. And the width of the waters. come in the latest years to the consciousness of a supreme need for stability. its Haply. is less sure of anything. as the towns on Fling their wavering lights On a wider. give evidence of this. As the banks fade dimmer away. As the stars come out. has after unexampled triumphs. But the highest qualities the power : — of seeing things whole. great beauty of expression and are ready to explore new . the persistence of great efforts. were for us in main channels for this spirit of education. the hush Of the grey expanse where he floats Freshening its current and spotted with foam As it draws to the Ocean. We need to collect our thoughts. as a whole. England two The Arnolds. and the night wind Brings up the stream Murmurs and scents of the infinite sea. tracts both of form and of experience but they do not attain the . if not the calm marge — Of its early mountainous shore. reconcihation and hopeful harmony. Yet a solemn peace of its own. conflicts and growth. the vanguard of man's march to conquest of nature and of himself. but the world. the river of Time As it grows. even of the rightness of their sacrifice. than they were of themselves. Art and literature in the latter part of the last century as compared with the earlier.330 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND of the by its lessons. Wlien looking at work accomplished in almost every sphere.

. . and occasional fine things said. transfiguration Knowledge in Uterature. thus famiharized to men. rejoicing in the presence of truth as our visible friend and hourly companion. The man of science seeks truth as a remote and unknown benefactor the poet. a form of flesh and blood. Victor Hugo and Carlyle. had a titanic power of history. shall be ready to put on. the poet will lend his divine spirit to aid the transfiguration and will welcome the Being thus produced as a dear and genuine inmate of the household of man. Poetry is the breath and finer spirit of all knowledge. and the sequel explains in some measure the nature and the causes of our disappointment. The famous Preface to the Second Edition of the " Lyrical " Ballads in 1800 gives Wordsworth's high hopes for the future of poetry.RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 331 grandeur of effort and the comprehensiveness of vision which were hoped for and sometimes reached by the earUer artists. and. If the time should ever come when what is now called science. The has not been accomplished.. as it were. has broken through the limits which would make it. The little great writers of a hundred years ago. We have seen no fellow to Beethoven or to Wordsworth in the later years. as well as in its mechanical applications. parallel to that which needs accompHshment and is being accompUshed.. . though experiments have been made. Goethe. in the social life of most civiHzed states and in It has still to be assimilated — before the ideal of the poet — the international fife of the whole world." It cannot be said that this time has yet come. singing a song in which all human beings join with him. fulfilment. " . the dear and genuine inmate of the house. and an morahty ideal comes near by education and tamed by a true and necessary It is a work of synthesis.' . Emphatically may it be said of the Poet as Shakespeare hath said of man that he looks before and after. ' air of philosophic reflection has come upon much of the poetry and some of the prose fiction since Wordsworth's " " time. and science offered In recent years the material . consuming the material which for their genius to transform. a later. art. for " " the present.

And in them all there is that sure appreciation of greatness and goodness in the persons they portray. have a wider sweep of sympathy than any of their Western contemporaries and a marvellous imaginative power which makes their characters and incidents pieces of real life. But they do not stand alone.332 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND has grown immeasurably. as in so many aspects of recent thought. as against the more artificial and imitative constructions of the Renascence and since. From them have come the Impressionists. in George Meredith. France and Italy have taken the lead lately in the philosophy and science and history. some sort of social synthesis is the corrective needed and the remedy is happily growing in the . we have in her modern school of novelists perhaps the most perfect approach to the ideal of prose fiction in this period. In such things there has been is unquestioned gain since the early Victorian era. In some cases the turn has been so great that the very element of beauty itself has been called in question. but the transforming genius has not appeared in equal force. if it be genuine and deeply felt. The new direction of the century. the zest of life and nature. the mysterious country which brings a breath of the East into European life. Turgeniev. which is essential if art of any kind to raise and fortify human nature. in Dickens the influence of science. . same of art soil near by. In the last century there has been a general turning back from the conventionally approved and ornamental. especially Tolstoy. to the Primitives in art and building and living. the new philosophy of history. however. In this. They. A fresh and growing sense of beauty is one of the many hopeful signs of recent days. While from Russia. — . the humanitarian passion. and Dostoievsky. and men have advocated and attempted the wildest form of expression in the belief that individual expression. to natural beauty and simpHcity of taste. the Futurists. Ruskin and Morris stand out as prophets of a new spirit of joy in beauty and care in securing it. is clearly marked in all the leading writers the zeal for social reform. is the one essential part. in George Eliot the rise of women. and other innovators in painting . .

Life is the creator salvation may be won. though by no complete this work.RECENT DEVELOPMENTS from them. or strictly Durkheim. Bergson has expressed more forcibly and picturthan anyone else the doctrine of the creation of living esquely forms and thought by a persistent force. and free expression on the one hand. " La Philosophie Contemporaine en France. and the fullest human thought is the most perfectly Croce. Yet in France and in Italy the school of positive. was in his time the leader in ascertainable law. as Bergson in biology. experiment. his system from the great structure of physical science. and Spencer. means sufficient to of hfe free. 333 — too." . and a growing sense of social unity and historical continuity on the other. and we — Bergson and Croce. With the death of Wundt in the Victorian age passed the other day the last of the synthetic thinkers of away the kindred of Kant. — is being sought by the co-operation of shall find in it the same elements as in society at large vigorous life. It is in fact from the reconciliation of these two tendencies that Comte. Europe of the new-found study of sociology.^ and it was a Frenchman who. a recent loss. The new synthesis many minds. Hegel. just over a hundred years ago. and laboured abundantly to demonstrate the evolution of ideas and institutions from simpler elements by scientific. perhaps. is thinkers strong also. saw more clearly than any of his contemporaries the hne which rehgious development was to take in the 1 See Parodi. are typical of its chief factors. Bergson and Durkheim thus represent the two poles which divide contemporary thought and which many well-balanced thinkers in all Western lands are endeavouring to bring into harmonious relation. sophy Bergson Germany the most prominent Hving figures in philoand Croce. sees all present events as the unroUing of the human past and all Neither gains much for history as contemporary history. built up by the action and reaction of the mind and external nature To Bergson indeed advance since the beginning of thought. steeped in history. consists in constantly breaking down the systems which thought of the mathematical kind is constantly building up. done most in this role. France has.

ated. it played its part within the Churches as well as without. Later in the century. and became to the evolutionist mind the growth of ages. — — . as de Maistre foresaw. In 1797 Joseph de Maistre declared." He saw the need and the possibility of either event he threw himself strongly into the support of the second he did not contemplate the joint arrival of both. In our clearer. its Roman organization. The vitahty of not judge only by the church statistics of : we must look outside to the vast and growing numbers of looser organizations the Adult Schools. either that a new rehgion is about to arise or that Christianity will renew its youth in some extraordinary manner. the Christian Endeavour members the multitudes enrolling themselves in a new and freer " " in the old spirit under the Christian banner. precursor to that which stirred the English Church in the nineteenth . We cannot here even glance at the questions of doctrine involved . and the Tractarian movement was in turn inspired by the return to the past which was one of the leading notes of the Romantics. in the eighteenth century. had initi. . developing as Western society itself developed. its democratic revolution and its final ideals of freedom and humanity in the nineteenth century. when the notion of development became predominant. " that every true philosopher must choose between these two hypotheses. Authority CathoUc sense they have not. Christianity. the Student Christians. whose long life overlaps that of de Maistre. But they differ from those who cultivate a rehgious sense without the Chiistian name. own days all the latter features become clearer and the Churches are looking out for means of union with one another similar to those which are to link the world in the League of Nations. took on fresh life. a spiritual revival. ready to be cut down. which to the typical Revolutionist was an effete and encumbering thing. and the question of vitality and general spirit rehgion we may estabhshed bodies can alone be touched on. with its Greek and Oriental origins. Wesley. " " Yet the true philosopher now reviewing European thought would surely conclude that something of both had occurred.334 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND succeeding century.

it is a source of strength and unity within their own ranks.RECENT DEVELOPMENTS in looking 335 and a personal them from the hosts of others. In our time this new synthesis is in the making. back to a Divine and human Founder. and to the good of all mankind for the object of its action. whether social Christian. or Art may become a religion." as de Maistre imagined in this shape a has arisen. definitely organized in religious bodies. or also Humanist. and in this sense Socialism. Such a basis is common ground for all current belief. Are there not some clear common elements which have become prominent in all forms of true rehgious activity in these later years ? It will be accepted by most men that there are. and yet are acting in their own way a Men of this kind. control and devotion of themselves to the interests of others. who have another tradition and name another prophet. Buddhists. Theistic. together. Pantheistic. Thej^ rank also the cultivation of the mind as part of their human duty. But it is impossible to ignore the large number of those who would not subscribe to any creed or accept any one Superhuman Teacher. and thus come into relation with the general intellectual movement of the age. and religious part. we may already discern some of its traits. Their universal purpose is service. and that they are identical with the leading tendencies in general thought and hfe for the real reHgion of any age is the synthesis which binds its life and thought . Positivists. It is social and human in the widest sense. All current Western rehgion includes for all rehgious men in some form of a belief in progress. the West now beheve that either by . definite religious tradition If this divides " " to all those who have right to extend the term rehgious a definite non-selfish object to which they devote their lives. and many would deny that " new religion. Mahometans. Ethicists. looking to an immemorial but growth for the sanction of its behefs and its precepts. are very few. and in all cases they have no limit to the sphere of their benevolent activity but mankind. But to the broader view it will seem possible. the like. Science. in any Western country. Confucians.

— — — . However he presents it to himself. that is. but is part of. Modern rehgion accepts and re-interprets the words of Dante. between our desires and the dictates of reason within us. the highest known inspiration it would seem that all forms of religion in the modern Western world are being gradually reconciled. the religious man finds somewhere beyond his own will a greater thing to which he bows. and guidance by. or both combined. and that men must make this effort in accordance with the leading of Something outside and above the individual will. and harmony without between all who make up the human community. which is not merely individual. In la sua volontade e nostra face. and is capable of still further betterment. In such a conception action towards a common harmony and good. . a greater will. and by the strength of which he grows himself in stature and promise. But to this belief rehgion of any order adds. the greatest and highest which each type of rehgious mind can conceive. . that the betterment is conditional on effort. and subordinate to. It may be the prompting of a personal God it may be the immanent working of a Divine Will it may be the Human Spirit rising from the abysses of an infinite past. Our peace is the end harmony. devotion to.836 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Divine will or human activity. the world has grown to be something better than it was. And this peace is to be found by the exercise of a will.

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Emperor. MEDI/EVAL . etc. (800). Teuton Franks settle in Gaul Saxons and Jutes in Britain. 306337 Constantine the Great.D. Pope Gregory the Great. the saga of Deirdre. 700800 768814 They show power and begin to 768814 843 study Greek science and philosophy. St. 450 St. Patrick converts Ireland.D. lands in Kent. Augustine. in Italy. in architecture. the Chanson de Roland. Africa. Virtual division of the Empire into East and West. IL c. flight Mohammed's HSglra). Bishop of Hippo. c. Treaty of Verdun. The Lombards invade Italy. the Benedictine monk. End of the Roman Empire in the West. 8001000 862 c. c. The Goths cross the Danube. 450550 b. 306337 376 379395 395 410 451453 455 476 fl. dividing his dominions into three parts. Persia. Bloom of Byzantine Art. c. date of Rurik the Norseman in 800900 c. 480 d. Charlemagne supports the Pope against the Lombards. St. He is crowned Emperor at Rome He fosters learning and poetrj'. 568 590604 c. Theodoric the Ostrogoth Justinian Teuton Angles. Genseric the Vandal. Beowulf. the Nibclungenlied. c. He recognizes He founds Constantinople. Sicily. . Attila the Hun. Theodosius the Great. the Traditional Russia. c. 341 A. 597 622 Augustine. Traces in the Elder Edda. Benedict. c. beginnings of Heroic Poetry. Emperor. 413 c. 632732 but are defeated in Gaul by Charles the Frank. St. Alaric the Visigoth captures Rome. The Arabs conquer Spain. British Isles. 543 revises and consolidates the Roman His generals drive the Goths out of Italy. 450500 489526 527565 Law. Germany. RIartel. Christianity. Definite emergence of Feudalism. 600850 New Raids of the Northmen in France. from Mecca to Medina (the in Asia Minor.CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE A.

Marsiglio of Padua (writing in Latin). c. He fosters culture. William the Norman in England. "Great Privilege" of Aragon. of the Swiss Confederation. First bloom of Mediaeval Architecture Lombard Emergence c. 10751200 Byzantine and Romanesque in Italy Romanesque in France. Germ c. First First 12731292 12751295 1283 1302 1307 1308 bloom of Italian Art: Niccolo : Pisano. Hugh Capet The Normans in Paris. St. Mongol-Tartar invasion and subjection of Russia. Petrarch. Otto the Great crowned Emperor at Rome. settle in Sicily. c. Emperor. Final form of the Nibelungenlied. c. Giotto. c. 871901 Alfred the Great. The Romances. Frederick Barbarossa. Dominic. Cimabue. 8501200 : . c. ViUehardouin. Theology and Thought Albertus Magnus.D. German}^ Literature Final form of the Chanson de Roland. Proven9al Troubadours. Boccaccio. : c. 12121250 Frederick II. bloom of Italian Literature Dante. Quarrel between Hildebrand (Gregory Henry IV. The First Crusade. : Sagas. Emperor. Emperor. Slavery disappearing. THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND A. 12001300 12001400 12251350 12751375 The Popes go to Avignon. St." Magna Charta c. Averroes. Bernard. Papacy and the cities. of the cities as centres of freedom. Icelandic . 1200 iioo1200 Albigensian Crusade. St. c. Roger Bacon. Philippe IV and the States-General. 1 1 00- Arab learning at Cordova.D. His work for freedom and 871901 Henry the Fowler King over the German Duchies. The Minnesingers. . Francis. Thomas Aquinas.342 A. culture. Parliaments of Emperor. in England. His struggles with the c. c. Rise of Austria. 1215 12241243 121 21250 Edward I. Innocent III and the " c. Rudolph of Hapsburg. England. Bloom of Gothic Architecture. VH) and 918 962 987 10401090 10661087 10751085 1096 11521190 11541189 iioo1200 National unity in England under Henry H. The Fabliaux. Christian Theology: Abelard.

1358 .

16001688 Last bloom of Spanish culture Calderon. in France Rabelais. George Fox. Pascal. Harrington. the Restoration. Kepler.. The Thirty Years' War Galileo. Serfdom increases Wars of Religion m France. c. 16001625 Pilgrim Fathers. Moliere. Rembrandt. c. Montaigne. Teresa. Marot. Sir Thomas Browne. . THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND A. Michael Angelo. James II and the Revolution.) Grotius. 15001600 Renaissance and Reaction in Spain Ignatius Loyola. Tasso. St.D. Saint-Simon. Vaughan. the translators of the Bible. : 16181648 16241642 16251688 Bunyan. La Fontaine. Jeremy Taylor. Richelieu and Absolutism in France. in Germany. " The Augustan Age " in French Literature Corneille. Veronese. El Greco. Ben Jonson. the Commonwealth and Cromwell. Ariosto. 15091603 15331584 15591598 15591609 to Elizabeth). the Huguenot writers. the Fleming Rubens and the : Frenchman c. Servetus. the king of sixteenth century music. Francis Bacon. Shakespeare. de Sevigne. 14751600 The last bloom of Italian Literature and Art Machiavelli. Harvey. Raphael. Giorgione. XIV c. English expansion overseas First charter of East India Co. : 16431715 16891713 Racine. Beaumont and Fletcher. Ivan the Terrible. Titian.344 A. Compromise of c. Correggio. c. La Rochefoucauld. Landing of : : c. c.) Palestrina. Mme. c. c. 15431650 The Awakening in Science : Copernicus. 16001688 Holland Louis : Poussin. Spanish oppression in the Netherlands. Marlowe. Brueghel in Flanders. Herrick. Hooker. Ronsard. Hobbes. Leonardo da Vinci. Rise of : c. English Literature and Thought Donne. 16251688 Charles I. the Dutch Republic. Diirer and Holbein in Germany.D. 15001600 15501625 The Renaissance : c. Cervantes. Vesalius. (Cp. The Renaissance in England Spenser. Tintoretto. (Cp. 15091603 England decides for the Reformation (Henry VIII in Russia. Settlement in Virginia. c. Milton. : 0. Henri IV. 16001700 England leads the combination against Louis to the Peace of Utrecht. in France. Velazquez.

Pope." Political : : c. Voltaire. Laplace." Socialist experiments. Locke. Rise of Trades-Unionism. Leibnitz. Haj'^dn. Charles Lamb. Jeremy Bentham. Dryden. 1800" " 1918 England Reaction"and Reform.D.) (young). Indian Mutiny. Advance in Science Herschel. Jane Austen. 1713Expansion of England of Paris). Jenner. c. Adam Smith. Huygens. Sterne. 17891795 c. Byron. Addison. Spinoza. Swift. Lavoisier. 17601832 and Social Changes c. Fielding. : : c. Frederick 1740fosters education and culture. 1772 oversea (from Treaty of c. Utrecht to Peace 1763 Rise of the United States. A. Schubert. Smollett. Industry in England: Spinning. Hogarth. Burke. c. Beginning of Local Government. Hegel. powerlooms. Act of Union with Ireland. Lamarck. Keats. 1795and Fall of Napoleon. Gibbon. 16001700 16001700 16501789 Advance and Mathematics Descartes. Schiller. : : : 0. Fichte. Reynolds. Self-Government in Canada. Romanticism and Realism in England Burns. Handel. German Philosophy and Literature Kant. Hume. Mozart. Christopher English Literature and Art Wren. Newton. Goethe. Russia under Peter the Great. Leibnitz. Thinkers and Reformers Berkeley. Pascal. Gainsborough. Congreve.D. Volta. Goldsmith. Johnson. 345 MODERN A.CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE IV. Beethoven. Wordsworth. Rousseau. c. 1870 . Factory Acts. in Science Rise of Modern Philosophy: Descartes. : Blake. Rise 1815 German music Bach. Boyle. c. John Howard. 16891789 17401786 c. Carlyle (For painting see below. steam-engines. 1689-1725 1 729-1 796 Russia under Catherine the Great. 17001832 1 7501832 17501832 c. Co-operative Pioneers. Dissolution of East India Co. 1 7 131789 Pre-Revolutionary Criticism in France: Montesquieu. Diderot. John Wesley. 17601832 Coleridge. Reform Bill (1832). : c. 1786 First Partition of Poland. Gluck. Chatham. and the Encyclopaedists. Richardson. Expansion in India. Poor Law. De Foe. Settlement in Australia. Dalton. Prussia under Frederick the Great. new smelting processes. Declaration 1776 The French Revolution. Industrial Revolution. Lessing.jennies. Repeal of Corn Laws. Shelley. Walter Scott. " changes in agriculture. Washington and the 1763of Independence. Malthus. Robert Owen's Before Peterloo.

Colonial experiments. Third Republic. Overthrow of the monarchy and establishment of a Republic. Movement for reform. Renewed reform movements. France Reaction. population. Renewed war (1858). 1827). King of Prussia German 18001870 Emperor. The Great War. 18001918 and Second Balkan Wars (1912. The Great War. Alliance with France. Entry into the Great War. 1870191 8 Colonial expansion. Building of navy. Labour Party. " Industrial Revolution." Parliament at 1848. The Great War." Crimean War. Expansion of industry. Utopian speculations. Forster's Education Act. c. : : c. Work foreducation (Humboldt. and population. Movements " for unity and liberation. Year of Revolutions. Women's Irish c. Advance of TradesUnionism. The " Dictatorship of the Proletariat. Civil war and abolition of negro slavery. Triple Alliance. c. : Victor Emmanuel. Frankfort. Germany Revival during Napoleonic war. The Peace of Versailles and the League of Nations. First Serbia. 1870191 8 Movement. of German indemnity. Alexander II Russia emancipates the serfs.D. Froebel). First and Second Revolutions (191 7). 1878). Expansion in Far and Near East. 18001918 1919 . Cavour. wealth. : 1870191 8 c. The Great War. Great expansion of wealth. Boulanger episode. The short-lived Roman Republic (1848). Dreyfus Affair. Monroe doctrine. 18001918 c. 18001918 c.D. THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND A. Louis Napoleon. Second Republic. Franco-Prussian War. Entry into the Great War. Advance of Socialist Party. War with Prussia. Prussia's Austro-Prussian War. Italy united under the Piedmontese monarchy. Return of the Bourbons and their final expulsion. America Peace with England and disarmament. Rise of Bulgaria. Great tectorates) : . revolt and reform." Greece and the Balkans Greece freed from Turkey (Navarino. Italy Impulse towards unity given by Napoleon. : Alliance with Russia. expansion Rule. opposition. The Duma and reaction. Extensions of Franchise.846 A. War of Liberation under Mazzini and Garibaldi. industry. Commune. 18151870 Payment c. Bismarck. 1913). Roumania (San Stefano. Reaction and Nihilism. War with Turkey. overseas (Colonies and Pro- Home The Great War.

Literature. Science. France Balzac. Kingsley and the Christian Socialists. America Emerson. Renoir. Wagner. cism). Borodin. Turner. Delacroix. Virchow. Art. Tennyson. : 18001918 Painting Goya. Discovery of malaria bacUlus. Ruskin. Bradley. J. Morris.) . Tchehov. aeroplanes. Treitschke. Moussorgsky. Lobachevsky. T. Ingres. Physics of Mendeleeff Clerk-Maxwell. Whistler. Pre-Raphaelites. Chopin. Dostoievsky. Brahms. c. Comte. Vincent van : c. : Ibsen.D. Leopardi. Mendel. Mazzini. Zola. 18321918 (Note. H. Verlaine. Gogh. S. Turgenev. Dickens. submarines. Lister. Scriabin. the brothers Grimm : (fairy-tales criti- and philology). H. torpedoes. Flaubert. Lotze. Thackeray. : Carlyle. Browning. 1832191 8 Increased Invention and Industry Railroads. d'Annunzio. Cezanne. Tolstoy. c. Strauss. Nietzsche. Henry James. Newman. Huxley. Kelvin. Millet. telegraphs. c. Florence Nightingale. 18321918 18001918 Philosophy : Schopenhauer. Russia Pushkin. Claude Bernard. George Eliot. steamships. Music Schumann. Whitman. Ranke. Faraday.D. Bergson. Germany Heine. Italy : : : Norway c. Koch. c.CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE A. Karl Marx. Constable. W. Helmholtz. Gauguin. J. Degas. Swinburne. Renan. Discovery Rontgen rays and of radium. Baur. Huxley. the Rossettis. Corot. William James. Lyell. 180019 1 8 M. Victor Hugo. George Sand. Medicine Discovery of anaesthetics. Tschaikovsky. Einstein. 847 A. Poe. Darwin. Arnold. Manet. Thomas Hardy. the Brontes. Pasteur. Geology and Biology Gauss. the English Monet. Mill. poison-gas. : Herbert Spencer. Meredith. : Guy de Maupassant. telephones. and General Thought England Macaulay. : : : Riemann. —As a rule the names of living men have been omitted. Strauss (Biblical Mommsen. Green. Croce. Rousseau. Mathematics : 1832191 8 — : . c. MetchnikoS. Baudelaire.

345 Bible. 298. 201 Caesar. 43 Athanasius. Julius. 10. 339 Alfred. Thomas. 325. the Heretics of {Albigensians). Hugh. 185. 205 128. 269. 277. 37. 33. 17. 14. 65. 36. 341 Bergson. 156. 330 Ataulf. 330. Cabot. 297. 120. 12. 293 345 Bunyan. 147. 331. 24. 106. 43. 258. 342 Balzac. 141. 24 Attila. 292. 256. Francis. 2. 11. 307. Thomas. Jane. 220. Roger. 8-10. 45. 231 Bradley (the Scientist). 342 iEschylus. 120. 337 Anaxagoras. Martianus. 196. 342 Archimedes. 106. 24-26. 344 Blake. 347 Brueghel. 106. 343 Beowulf {Saga of). 344 Bruno. 175. Matthew. 203. 117. 297. 61 Borgia (Pope Alexander VI). 50. 43 Ariosto. the. see Caesar Austen. 128 Augustus. 57-63. 109. 105. 342 Amos. 152. 339 Aristophanes. 49. 55 Beaumarchais. 345 Belisarius. 339 Caesar. 139. 61. 342 Boethius. 345 Bacon. 338 Arnold. 54. 189 (note). 104. 345 Byron. 341 Aucassin et Nicolette. 138. 97. 228. 180. 176. 244. 176. 267. Thomas. 43. 146 Botticelli. 258. 260. 102. 147 Carlyle. 102-106. 267. 277. 270. 107. 130. 204. 339 Calderon. 344 Capet. 266 Beaumont. 84. 134. 347 194- 338 k Kempis. 113. 189. 42. 342 Alcuin. 102 (the Venerable). Augustus. 232 Brahms. 343 Boyle. 149. 216. 25. 344 Calvin. 99-102. Abelard. 277. 322 348 . 108. 44. 191-193. 6. 296. 147. 344 Beccaria. 240. 42. 153. 301 Carnot. 266. 104. 163. 258. Giordano. 342 Albi. 268. 343 Capella. Giovanni. 204. 252 Bede Alexander (the Great). 19. 345 Boccaccio. 345 Averroes. 191. 103. 104-106. 2. 198 B Bach. 294. 41. 342 Carlo Dolci. 17. 11 4-1 17. 342 Avicenna. 198 Aristotle. 347 Berkeley. 344 Aristarchus (the Astronomer). 13. 338. 340 Attalus (of Pergamus). 208. 338 Aquinas. Pieter.INDEX Bacon. 291. 178. 200. 333. 347 299. 33. 197. 295. 30. 43 Bellini. 347 Arnold. 264-266. 37. 155-157. 17-19. 345 Burns. 341 Albertus Magnus. 344 Burke. 165. 345. 37. 173. 339 Arian. 6. 57 Beethoven. 342 Alaric.

312. 50. 210. 317. 175. 343 Charires Cathedral. 24. 27. 35. 48. 117. 130. 345 Dante. 137. 296. 272.INDEX Catherine the Great. 341 Democritus. 180 Fraunhofer. 20. 338 Ezekiel. 2. 324. 162. 347 Epictetus. 23. 221. 156. 126. George. 212. 297. 343 Edda. 51. 339 Cicero. 44. 207. 323 . 344 Dostoievsky. 337 349 David. 347 Conde. 70 Constable. 18 Degas. 135-137. 82. 343 Fermat. 344 Cortez. 242. 341 Copernicus. 176. 95. 35. 113-117. 289. 341 of CharleCharles (grandson magne). 338 Descartes. 268. 199. 18. 211. 341 Edward Edward Edward I. 18S. 332. 341 Charles. 161-164. 40. 347 Dryden. 46 Euclid. 156 Columbus. 218. Anatole. 344 Cathedral. 6. 311. 339 Euripides. 347 Deirdre {Saga of). 342 Cleanthes (the Stoic). 338 Ezra. 297. Oliver. 332. 99-106. 275. 163. 294. 244. 339 Eckhard. 38. 344 Cezanne. 219-221. 146. 340 Cavour. 153. 178. Agrippa. 154. 347 Ferdinand (of Aragon). 347 Charlemagne. 23 D Dalton. 316. 343 Esdras. Bartolommeo. 10. 344 Cyrus (the Great). 340 Ethelbert the Saxon. 37. 192. 347 Fletcher. 25. 23. 189. 258 Croce. 53-55 Einstein. 340 Epicurus. 135. 343 Diophantus. 197 Corneille. John. 163. 90 Durham Durkheim. 273. 151. 33. 172. 227. 322. 120. 258. 343 Chopin. 202. 62. 180 Faraday. 345 Colet. 131 Einhard (Eginhard). 245. 143. 339 Erasmus. 346 Caxton. 347 Coleridge. 343 Crashaw. 347 El Greco. 25. 236. 194. 333. 344 Eliot. 234 Fielding. 153. 95. 210. 15. 347 Christ. 108-114. 14. 333. 25. the Confessor. 161. 166. 345 Chaucer. 68-72. 340 Cimabue. 342 Darwin. 176. 5356. 44. 347 Constantine (the Great). 345 Flaubert. 134. 48. 260. 181. 345 Catullus. 220 Congreve. 35. 188. 225. 212. 336. 252. 28. 347 d'Aubigne. 333 Ecclesiastes. 57. 163. 57. 345 Diirer. 343 France. 67. 93-95 Chatham. 91. 33. 345 Conrad (of Franconia). 343 Donne. 235. 291. 234 Donatello. 7. 22. 343 Commines. 31. 344 Ford. 180. 25. 79. 164. 45. 339 Clerk-Maxwell. 323. 46. 232-234. 127. 258. 152. 66. 148. 276. 347 Cromwell. 151. 93. 345 Diaz. 95. 189 Era Angelico. 343 Comte. 344 Charles V (Emperor). 138. 47. 258. 259. 342 III. 125 Cervantes. 68 Charles I (of England). 201. 84 87. 237-239. 113. 26. 29. 165. 322. 27. 176. 204. Martel. 169. 35.

347 Hume. Victor. 343 Jesuits. 228230. 96. 199. 340 Galileo. 79. 35. 135. 346 Hohenzollern. see Gregory VII (the Astronomer). 127. 264. see Christ Joh. 236. 77. 293. 102. 345 Goethe. 342 2. 86. 322. 232. 273-275. 227. 197. 147 Justinian. 345 Galen. Iliad. 74-76. 258. 70. 269-272. 344 Joule. 252. 344 Giotto. 342 Heracleitus. 316. 152 John Julius. 36. 345 Gainsborough. 35. 181. 341 Gregory VII 77. 224 Jesus. 199. 331. 52 Harrington. 266. 76 Hugo. 21. 345 Kepler. 298. 265. 295. 347 Gregory I (the Great). 177. 86 Henry IV (Emperor). 147. 190. 78-81. 269. Frederick I (Barbarossa). 345 Froissart. 39. 344 Hegel. 298. 194. 109. 344 Gustavus Adolphus. 322 Juliana (of Norwich). 22 Jonson. 345 Jonah. 185. 338 Grotius. 343 Hippocrates. 297. 202-204. 172. 13. 223. 337 Isaiah^the Second. Huss. 35. 342 (Hildebrand). 310. 345 Giorgione. 177 Henri IV. 337 Innocent III. 230. 296. 102. 340 Hugh (Abbot of Cluny). 283 Jeanne d'Arc. 337 Honorius. 22. see Csesar Julius II (Pope). 13. 283 Herodotus. 259. 258. 277. 344 Jacobi. 259. 35. 259. 38. 34. 45-47. 51. 259. 277. (of Castile). 74- Isaiah of Jerusalem. 196. 338 Johannes Erigena (John the Scot). 209 H Hadrian. 333. 254. 168. 287. 151. 71 Holbein. 345 Helmholtz. 342 Frederick II (Emperor). 215-217. 343 54. 338 Herrick. 95. 344 Homer. 212 Harvey. 258 Gibbon. 72. 155 Huygens. 133. 20. 297. 42 Horace. 345 Goya. 78. 333. 340 Handel. 344 Henry the Fowler (Germany). 169. 144. 342 162- Innocent X. 271-274. 5. 18. 242. 323 . 129. 131. 337 Herder. 203. 161. 257. 176. 338 Hobbes. 344 Henry II (of England). 163. Ben. 103 (of England). 106. 9. 87 Johnson. 154. 72 (note). 277-284. 323. 85. 130. 42. 66. 82. 209. 131 Henry VIII (of England). 288. 243. 180. 345 Hardy. 192.350 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Hipparchus 25. 166 Isabella . 289. 20S. 146. 6. 259. 24. 228-231. 16. 347 Henri II. 53. 344 Hogarth. 344 Kirchhoff. 105. 295. 327. 345 Gay. 257. 47. 339 Hildebrand. 265. 341 K Kant. 42 Garibaldi. 331. 177. 347 Haroun al Raschid. 342 Frederick the Great. 342 Galla Placidia. 217. 164. 234. 201-207. 342 Henry V (of England). the. 345 Keats. 128. 38. 75. 92. 104. 182.

344 Louis Philippe. 344 Lamarck. 235. 344 Marsiglio (of Padua).INDEX La Bruyere. 68 Charle- N Napoleon (the Great). 156. 343 Louis XIV. 120. 343 Mazzini. 343 Manet. 178-182. 204. 129. 181. 259. 344 Mohammed. 345 142. 335 Maldon {Poem of). the. 258. (note). 128 Langland (or Langley). 201. 44 Leo IIL 53 Leo X. 344 Montesquieu. 316. 236 222. 244. 319 222. William. 228. 342 Nicholas (of Cues). 31. 333. 347 Medici. 218. 301. 72. 308 Matilda of Tuscany. 236. 3. 293. Marlowe. 177 Melancthon. Robert. 163. 346 Nathan (the Prophet). 35. 344 Luca della Robbia. I49. 218. 139 Lucretius. Ignatius. La Rochefoucauld. 148. 120. 225. 154-161. 343 Morris. 236. 120. 122-124. 347 Meredith. Parthenon. 43 Odyssey. 340 Locke. 183. Karl. 138. 334. 33. 135. 143. 308. 347 Milton. 62 Malor>'. 337 Origen. 149. 98. 134. 32. 345 Leo I. 200 Mendeleeff. 176. 61. 252. 343 290. 297. 301. 341. 142-145. 144. 345 Monteverde. 258. 182. 342 344 Maistre. 175. 27. 345 Lancelot and Guinevere. 125. 35. 143. 275 John Stuart. 274. 323 351 Mayer. 344 344 Mill. 228. 269. 35. 311. 313. 27 Mariotte. Las Casas. Joseph de. Lavoisier. 177. 185. 347 O Odoacer. Louis). 35. 74 79 78. 345 Leibnitz. 235. 227. 26. 196 Marcus Aurelius. 183. 323. 266. 344 Montaigne. 158. 347 Michael Angelo. 239. 345 Lollards. 71. 72. 76 Owen. 48. 44. 5. 236. 177. 199. 332. 340 Otto the Great Marcel. 245. 316 Loyola. 149. 275. 344 339 . 304. 231 (Emperor). 116. 138 Livy. 222. Catherine de. 186. 172. 347 Mozart. 203. 315. 342 Otto of Freising. 264. 340 Newcomen. 146 Medici. M Machiavelli. 157. i97' Lippo Lippi. 284- Louis IX (St. 173. 147 Leonardo da Vinci. 243248. 34^ Moliere. 197. 132 Marco Polo. 322. 138 Luca Signorelli. 223 La Fontaine. 35. loi. 315. 68 Louis the German. 49-53. 344 Leverrier. 134 Marx. 121 Louis XI. 130. 212215. 228-232. Lagrange. 234. 264 More. 68. 231 Newton. 345 Napoleon III (Louis). 223. 176. 222. 346. 19 Nero. 345 Nihelungenlicd. 198. 40. 345 Palestrina. 310. 146. 176. 154 Lothair (grandson of magne). 7. Etienne. 205. 250. 221. 58. 187 Marot. 6. 343 Njal {Saga of). 200. 340 Luther. 184. Sir Thomas. 220-223. 97. 127. 322 Mayo.

338 Spencer. 138 Schiller. 344. Mme. 342 Catherine (of Siena). 344 Sforza. 275. 139 Pisano. 268. 173-177. 261. Peter. 283. 6. 92. 31. Ludovico. 115. 170. 333. 152. 345 Smollett. St. 29. 126. 170. 344 Ruskin. 338 Pinturicchio. 236 Procopius. 347 Schubert. 6. 289. 138. 163. 181. 252 Pericles. 179. 91. 340 R Rabelais. 62-65. 34. de. 251. 98. 51. 201 Plato. 347 Reynolds. Picard. 107. 304. Phihp II (of Spain). 339 Pope. 296. 136. 54. 186. Lord. 340 41. 185. St. 33S Plotinus. 152. St. 342 Ambrose. 29.352 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN MIND Ronsard. 31. 344 Richter. 344 Priestley. 155 Augustine (the Benedictine Monk). 9. 152 Columba. 36. Adam. 347 Seneca. Pascal. 103. 136. 31 Mark's Church. 39 Anthony. 142. 11. 17. 209. 196 Ptolemy (King). 222. 146 Pisanello. St. 343 Piers Plowman. 30. St. 8. St. St. 342 Phihp (of Macedon). 1 88. 220 Sevigne. 341 Benedict. 97. 259. 344 Schumann. 38. 42 Saint-Simon. St. Teresa. St. 232 Piero della Francesca. 176. 268. 142 Shakespeare. 284. 25. 216. 118 Simonides. 345 Petrarch. St. 338 Sophocles. 187. 341. 8. 344 Raphael. 338 22 Ruysbroeck. 347 Ruth. 217-219. 260 Pizarro. 177 Smith. 105. Walter. 340 Pythagoras. 103. 31. 171. 92. 221. 238. 31. 179. loi. 16. 165. 344 Rousseau. 7. Racine. 165. 252. 345 Richelieu. 25. 163 Salisbury Cathedral. 27. 313. 339 Pestalozzi. 12. 104. 25. 277. Jean Paul. 297. 177. 7. 257 Roomer. Niccolo. 17. St. 177. 347 Scriabin. 2. 344 St. 301-303. 337 Pompey. Alexander. 228. Renan. 168 Phihp IV (of Spain). 12. 342 John (of the Cross). 344 Rembrandt. 173. 148. 92 Paul. 32. St. 95-98. no. 4. 43 Ptolemy (Astronomer). 47. 253. 340 Augustine (the Bishop of 39-141. 344 Shelley. 319 Sappho. 345 Richardson. 25. 345 Socrates. 258. 14. 136. 347 . 337 Savonarola. 231. 147. Book of. 127 Pindar. 343 166St. 267. 117. 225. 177. 27. 178. 37. 14. 180. 99. 166 PhiHppe IV (of France). 344 102. 163 Plutarch. 222-224. 45 Dominic. 267. 342 Roman de la Rose. 342 Francis. 342 Pitt. 187190. St. 104. 347 Scott. 345 Rubens. 345 Penn. 332. 46. 253-259. 257 Peter the Great. 259. 340 Hippo). 246. 345 268. 297. 345 Schopenhauer. 152. 90 Salisbury. Herbert. 340 Polybius. 222. 224. 230. 42. 283. 164. John (the Divine). 232 Roland {Chanson de). 345 Poussin. 259. 29. 176. 341 Bernard. 293-296. 345 St. 45.

277. 191. 344 Spinoza. 345 William (the Conqueror). 301. 39. 172. 183. David. Hubert. B. 27 Strauss. 148. 89. 257. 295. 347 Thackeray. 172. 345 Sterne. 212 Theologia Germanica. W 40. 221 Tasso. 347 Turner. 165. 347 Thales. 97. 268. 338 Tilly. 182 Zeno Zeno (the Metaphysician). 62. 291. translator of Rabelais. 298. 127. 341 Theodosius (the Great). 148. 58. Wagner. 203. 33. 258. loi. 10-12. 144. 155. 210 Turgenev. 202. 189 Wesley. 338 U Ulfilas. 124 343 Turenne. 124. 333 Wycliffe. 77. 34. 267. Walther von der. 258. 331. 202. 169. 347 272. 194. 18. 347 Tycho Brahe. 268. 259. 344 Velazquez. 239243. 136. 347 Veronese. 114. 345 Stoicism. 34. 149. 45 Theodoric. 252. 103. 297. 296. Christopher. Jan. 82. 343 Villon. 289. 344 Verlaine. 334. 96. 85. 342 William of Orange (William the Silent). 343 Vasco da Gama. 343 Thucydides. 167-169 Wordsworth.INDEX Spenser. 43. 347 Sully. 231 Watteau. 220. Richard (the Musician). 267. 259. 345 Wundt. 343 Thomas k Kempis. 292. 39 Urquhart. 259. 136 Van Eyck. 22. 344 Titian. Wallenstein. 40. 58. 83. 180 Swift. 36. 231 Wren. 136. 209 Warren Hastings. 136 Webster. Toscanelli. 327 llrquhart. 147. 340 Vittorino da Feltre. 341 Theodosius (the Younger). 337 Theocritus. 163. 155. 137. 155. 340 Talleyrand. 152. 109. 68.. 26. 228 Xenophon. 183-187. 166. 234 (the Stoic). 344 Vesahus. 260 Watt. 130. 345 353 Van Dyck. 248-253. 152 Voltaire. 147. 343 Van Eyck. 25. 180. 139 Vogelweide. 168. 345 347 Torricelli. W. 108. 153. Yeats. 25. 147. 247. 209 Tintoretto. 289. 2. 332. John. 343 Vaughan. 154. 347 Tacitus. 25. 84. 327. 344 Tennyson. 305. 297. 197 Treviranus. 332. 65. 345 Swinburne. 258. 288. 322 Tristan and Isolde. 7. 58. 343 Virgil. 170. 66 42 Ulpian. 125. 289. 344 Tolstoy. 339 . 339 Theodolinda.

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