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# C O M P U TE R S & S TR U C TU R ES IN C .

Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 0

EXAMPLE 2-010
SHELL CYLINDER WITH INTERNAL PRESSURE PROBLEM DESCRIPTION In this example a cylinder is analyzed for an internal pressure load. The resulting radial outward displacement, vertical displacement at the top of the cylinder and 11 stress are compared with hand calculated results based on formulas presented in Roark and Young 1975. The cylinder is 200 inches tall and has a 60 inch radius. The wall thickness is 1 inch. The applied load is a uniform radial pressure of 1 k/in2 on the inside face of the entire cylinder. The local axes of all joints are oriented such that axis 1 points radially outward and axis 3 points upward. The joints at the base of the cylinder are restrained against translation in the local 2 and 3 directions. All other joints are restrained against translation in the local 2 direction. The local axes of all area objects (shells) are oriented such that axis 3 points radially outward and axis 2 points upward. Two different models are created for the analysis. The models are identical except for the shell element mesh. Model A uses an 8x16 mesh (height x circumference) and Model B used a 24x48 mesh.

EXAMPLE 2-010 - 1

C O M P U TE R S & S TR U C TU R ES IN C .

Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 0

GEOMETRY, PROPERTIES AND LOADING Shape of Cylinder height = 200 in radius = 60 in thickness = 1 in Material Properties E = 29,000 k/in2 = 0.3 G = 11,154 k/in2 200" Loading Uniform radial pressure on inside of cylinder p = 1k/in2 Z Base Y 3 2 3 Typical joint local axes are oriented with axis 1 point radially outward and axis 3 pointing up 1 X 2 1 Restraints Base joints: U2, U3 All other joints: U2 Typical area object local axes are oriented with axis 3 pointing radially outward and axis 2 pointing up

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TECHNICAL FEATURES OF SAP2000 TESTED Three-dimensional analysis using shell elements Surface pressure load applied to shell elements Joint local axes

EXAMPLE 2-010 - 2

C O M P U TE R S & S TR U C TU R ES IN C .

Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 0

RESULTS COMPARISON The independent results are calculated using formulas presented in Item 1b in Table 29 on page 448 of Roark and Young 1975. The SAP2000 results are presented separately for the thin plate option and the thick plate option.

Thin Plate Option Output Parameter U1 (at any jt) in U3 (at top jt) in 11 (anywhere) k/in2 Model and Mesh A 8 x 16 B 24 x 48 A 8 x 16 B 24 x 48 A 8 x 16 B 24 x 48 Percent Difference -1.9% -0.2% -1.9% -0.2% -1.9% -0.2%

## Independent 0.12414 -0.12414 60

Thick Plate Option Output Parameter U1 (at any jt) in U3 (at top jt) in 11 (anywhere) k/in2 Model and Mesh A 8 x 16 B 24 x 48 A 8 x 16 B 24 x 48 A 8 x 16 B 24 x 48 Percent Difference -1.9% -0.2% -1.9% -0.2% -1.9% -0.2%

## Independent 0.12414 -0.12414 60

EXAMPLE 2-010 - 3

C O M P U TE R S & S TR U C TU R ES IN C .

Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 0

COMPUTER FILES: Example 2-010a-thick, Example 2-010a-thin, Example 2-010b-thick, Example 2-010b-thin CONCLUSIONS The SAP2000 results show an acceptable comparison with the independent results for both the thin plate and thick plate options. Increasing the meshing improves the comparison. The percentage difference for the 8x16 mesh is consistently 1.9% and for the 24x48 mesh is consistently 0.2%. It can be shown that the difference between the SAP2000 results and the independent results is related to how well the SAP2000 model approximates a true circular cylinder. For Theoretical shell element example, with an 8x16 mesh, a cross section location following circular through the cylinder is an octagon rather than a curve shown dashed true circle. 0" =6 Center of R Consider the sketch shown to the right that cylinder shows a plan view of a single shell element. The a sketch shows the radius of the cylinder, R, and / 2 /2 the distance from the center of the cylinder to the actual center of the shell element, a. The distance from the center of the cylinder to the theoretical Actual shell element center of the shell element (located on the dashed location shown solid circular arc) is equal to the radius, R. Thus the Plan View percent error in the location of the center of the shell element can be determined from the following equations. a = R cos = 60 cos 2 2 60 60 cos Ra 2 * 100 = 100 1 cos Percent error = * 100 = R 60 2 The calculated percent error using the preceding formula for Models A and B is shown in the following table.

EXAMPLE 2-010 - 4

C O M P U TE R S & S TR U C TU R ES IN C .

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PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 0

## Percent Error 1.9% 0.2%

The percent error shown for the location of the center of the shell element in the preceding table is the same as the percent error found in the analysis results.

EXAMPLE 2-010 - 5

C O M P U TE R S & S TR U C TU R ES IN C .

Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 0

HAND CALCULATION

EXAMPLE 2-010 - 6