Introduction

When in 2003 I had to choose a topic for my thesis, what I knew about George Orwell was originated from my memories of the studies for our literature exam. Since ‘George Orwell’ was one of the twenty topics, my factual knowledge was not so thorough. However, what I knew well, due to the media, it was the 100th anniversary of his birth in 2003. With the exception of the two most famous novels, Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four, I was rather unfamiliar with his writings. By analysing the topic of the thesis, I hoped that I would reveal Orwell’s new face. After becoming familiar with Orwell’s early writings, I faced the difficulty of which writing(s) to analyse. Since several of the early writings deal with some kind of social problems, finally, I have decided to examine Down and Out ... and A Clergyman’s Daughter because there is a link between them, namely the social layer of the tramps that Orwell describes in both books. In this analysis, my aim is to outline the signs of Orwell’s good critical sense and to prove Orwell’s sensitivity to social problems. I will examine how Orwell characterizes the average English people’s attitudes towards the marginalized people in the two books, which, in the present case, means the investigation of the attitudes towards the tramps and the unmarried women at that time. I will also point out the aim that guides Orwell when he reveals the faults of English society. In Chapter One, I will sketch the author’s life relying on the Orwell-biographies and define the place of Down and Out ... and A Clergyman’s Daughter in the Orwellian corpus. In the next chapter, I will focus on the situation of the English society during the short period of Orwell’s life. With omitting the examination of the historical events and their consequences in the international politics, I will concentrate on the effects of these events on everyday people’s life. Chapter Three includes the social questions that Orwell poses in the two books. I will examine the parallels that can be drawn between Down and Out ... and A Clergyman’s Daughter and what the main difference is. Because sources in this subject field are not to be found, I relied on my own interpretation. After this examination, I will deal with the writer’s technique and I try to identify the genre of the two books.

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Since I will be an English teacher, in the last chapter I suggest a lesson plan recommended to students of intermediate or upper-intermediate level. This sequence of three lessons has been based on the extracts of A Clergyman’s Daughter, hoping that they may arouse students’ interest in a girl’s life from the years of 1920s.

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Chapter One 1.1. George Orwell’s life and literary activity
George Orwell was born as Eric Arthur Blair in 1903 in the Indian village of Motahari, which lies near the Nepalian border. India was the part of the British Empire at that time. His father, Richard Blair, was a civil servant in the Opium Department of the Government of India. His mother, Ida Mabel Limouzin, was the daughter of a French tradesman and she was eighteen years younger than her husband. The Blairs had two other children in addition to Eric: Marjorie, five years older than Eric, and Avril, five years younger than him. Not having a university education the father, Richard Blair could neither gain a well-paid position in ‘the Service’, nor was promoted fast to the highest posts at the ranks of the Opium Department. In spite of the fact that the father’s post had changed nearly every year until his retirement, the family were able to have a quite comfortable lifestyle in India. In 19041 Richard Blair decided to send back his family to England to give their children a more traditional Christian education. So the mother with the two children, Marjorie and Eric, returned to England, settled down in Henley, while the father continued to work in India until he retired. In England they led the same life as the other families of the lower-middle class did. But here the family had to face also the fact that, working in the British administration and belonging to the middle-class, they did not own a range of properties; besides, their subsistence totally depended on the Empire. The common strategy for attempting to change a middle-class family’s social and economic position was to get a better position in the British administration. So the young Eric was sent to excellent schools with upper class children. From 1908 Eric studied at an Anglican convent school in Henley and three years later he went to a private preparatory school in Sussex. At the age of thirteen he won a scholarship to Wellington, and in 1917,

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In his George Orwell Biography Bernard Crick puts forth a now accepted theory pointing out that Ida Blair went back with Eric and his sister to England in 1904. Crick supports this argument with the notes of one of Ida Blair’s diaries from 1905 and a photograph of the three-year-old Eric in England. At the same time, there is another date of their return mentioned by Robert Welch, Raymond Williams and others, which is said to be 1907. Crick does not agree with them and reveals that ‘They were all misled by Avril Blair, reminiscing confidently of a time before she was born’ (2).

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2 After finishing his studies. Paris was regarded as a cultural centre of Europe and many ex-patriot intellectuals like Ernest Miller Hemingway. On the other hand. Orwell settled down in London and decided to study how to write. At Eton he was considered as a not extremely gifted student. ‘he was the 138th from the 167 student. in his other novel. k-1. 4 . James Joyce and Samuel Beckett made their home in this city.he was admitted to Eton College.com/Orwell/index. 2 According to the unnamed author of an Orwell-biography at http://www. For example. which can be found out from his references in his writings. the protagonist’s wife comes from an Anglo-Indian officer family. He made lots of references to his memories not only in Burmese Days (1934). he considered his job at the British Imperial Police as a distraction from his real aim. which was to be a writer. to the penniless middle-class families. he lived among the poor to discover their life in the East End of London. instead of the further studies in Oxford or Cambridge he was drawn to a life of travel and action’ (5). and later he moved to Paris. Orwell. not following their path worked in a working-class quarter and earned his living from different. In 1927 Orwell resigned his post. From 1928. His family’s past in the service of the British Empire and his own experiences as a policeman in Burma highly inspired his writings. which fact is proved by his final examination result.html. casual jobs. William Faulkner. which meant that the well-off foreign artists could lead a bohemian life fairly cheaply in Paris (Welch 6). in 1922 he started working for the Indian Imperial Police. 138. which is the best-known Orwell-book on this theme. the French franc depreciated in comparison to foreign currencies. and to the officer-rentier-clergyman-class’. Orwell gives a colourful description of the atmosphere of these Anglo-Indians’ homes and their naive or biased attitude to life. he was convinced that he was not able to support a political system in which he could not believe. who did not belong to the well-off. Going back to England. He hired a low-priced room in London where he trained himself for writing for a year. At that time. He had two main reasons for this. Coming up for Air (1939).as Orwell describes this social layer3. 139. He served in Burma for five years. According to Robert Welch ‘he was already breaking away from the path many of his school-fellows would take …. but also in a series of other essays and novels.’ 3 Attributes used by George Orwell in Coming Up for Air on the pages 137. On the one hand.cgi/ about/biography. which belongs to ‘the poverty-stricken officer class. In the late 1920s. Unlike them. Gertrude Stein.

He spent the Christmas of 1929 with his family. We owe the rescue of Down and Out. Instead she took the manuscript and brought it to . In this period he was making a living as a tutor and was writing a book which was inspired by his Parisian adventures.. Soon it was accepted . to Mabel Firez: he was asked to destroy the script. Orwell wished to break away from the British imperialism. which is to awake the English society to its faults. he destroyed these writings. which shock the nowadays readers. Furthermore. he also wrote a lot but.. Burmese Days. The publishing of the novel was due to Victor Gollancz. reading Orwell’s book readers can form an idea of Orwell’s view. According to the unnamed author at the http://www. the writer tries to point out a way of betterment in these conditions by proposing. but save the paper clips. the renovation and modernisation of the lodging-houses.. even today. thus he became from Eric A.on condition that all swearwords were deleted ... As Dervla Murphy notes in his Introduction to Down and Out. After two rejections from publishers Orwell [began to write] Burmese Days . as well. for instance.000 words for Orwell had used only a part of his material. At that time he changed his identity by taking a new name.. Next year he returned poor to England: because of a theft he lost all his money... and to overcome his instilled ‘physical disgust against working people’ (6)..cgi/about /biography. reports on the plods’ exceedingly abhorrent living conditions. published in 1934. Here we see Orwell’s aim.. 5 . his next book was the previously mentioned.k-1.com/Orwell/index.According to Robert Welch’s view. a literary agent at the house of Gollancz.html: ‘The original version of Down and Out in Paris and London entitled A Scullion’s Diary was completed in October 1930 and came to only 35.’ Down and Out in Paris and London4. which is that the 4 This title will henceforth be used as Down and Out. because of his literary agent’s criticism and refusal. Down and Out. and bullied him to read it.. In a chronological order. Blair to George Orwell which name was inspired by the Orwell River. was printed under a pseudonym in 1933.. who became the editor of Orwell’s other writings. In Paris. from ‘his own inherited values’ (6).

earnings. Barnesley and Sheffield and he was tremendously shocked by what he experienced there. in this writing he lists factually the miners’ costs of living. On the one hand. on the other hand.) Nevertheless. titled The Road to Wigan Pier. which is due to the numerous statistical data in the first half of the volume and to the critique of English socialism in the second half. this work cannot be counted among his most enjoyable works. this tendency developed a false image of the socialists in the other members of the society.British Empire mercilessly exploited colonial Burma (ví. this socialism was based on an unrealistic ground. 6 . most of the people who called themselves socialists wanted to be associated with the members of the middleclass. Regarding its literal merits. his marriage and the most important one was that he was commissioned by the Left Book Club to make an examination by visiting the poor and the unemployed Yorkshire and Lancashire. In the second part of The Road to Wigan Pier. In the first part. However. and pensions in the mid-thirties. which was published in 1937. Robert Welch. draws our attention to Orwell’s confession in his essay ‘Why I Write’. The Road to Wigan Pier might be more useful for making sociological studies of English society in the 1930s than for literary analysis. Orwell traces the faults of English socialism back to two main reasons. in which Orwell expresses the same when he says ‘Good prose is like a window-pane’ (Orwell quoted in Robert Welch’s Orwell-biography to Animal Farm 8. which is rather an essay. In The Road to Wigan Pier the author pointed out that these hypocritical socialists could not protect the interests of the working class and the poor because their interests did not coincide with those of others’. For instance. Orwell’s point of view evokes the publisher’s displeasure and Orwell’s first published books were complemented with a preface by Victor Gollancz. readers can notice an Orwellian characteristic: his accurate representation of details and facts. Orwell spent two months in Wigan. His inquiry about the conditions of these socially problematic areas provided the theme for his next volume. which can be regarded as a typical report.) The year of 1936 contained three moments influencing Orwell’s life: his employment in a shop in Wallington. 1989). The writer aims to reveal and show the objective truth about the situation of this underdeveloped region. The next two years were highly fruitful in view of the fact that Orwell wrote two novels: A Clergyman’s Daughter (published in 1935) and Keep the Aspidistra Flying (printed in 1936.

In April 1937. (Woodcock 70) Orwell received a basic military training and he was sent to the front in Aragon. (Woodcock 71-72) 7 . According to Woodcock. Therefore.. and equality. as he saw them. (Williams 55) His other reason for the travelling was to tell the truth for his readers through his newspaper articles on the events of the Spanish Civil War. Orwell went to the Independent Labour Party. which.. he participated in the fights brought out between the Communists and the POUM but by this time. such as anti-imperialism. where he got the necessary support. Therefore. which was affiliated to the British Independent Labour party and consisted of excommunists and former anarchists. George Woodcock in his book titled Orwell’s Message . it was due to ‘a series of quite unexpected events [that] changed his attitude and perhaps saved his life’ (71) from the political commissars of the Brigades. by this means.. he became aware of the fact that here his conceptions about the ideal socialism were achieved: there was no class distinction but equality. Woodcock draws our attention that Orwell knew ‘nothing about the political factionalism’ (70) in Spain and ‘he was still naive enough’ (71) when he thought that his participation in fights in a Communist unit could preserve his neutrality from political sects.’ (70). which was a rival revolutionary socialist group.Before the publication of The Road to Wigan Pier at the end of 1936 Orwell went to Spain with two aims in mind: to fight for his idea of socialism. he met a leader of the Communist Party of Great Britain in order to ask his help but he was refused because Orwell was unwilling to join the International Brigades without any experience about it. Arriving in Barcelona. Raymond Williams’s opinion is about Orwell’s intention that simply wanted to fight against the fascists and at the beginning he was not interested in ‘the doctrinal differences’(55) of the socialist sects. Orwell decided to discharge from the POUM and to join the International Brigades. to destroy those who wanted to ‘carry out a social revolution’ and to fight against Franco.. he had already realized the Communists’ real aim to ‘take control of vital points’ of Barcelona. known as the POUM (it is the acronym of Partido Obrero de Unificacion Marxista). consisted of three parts. says in order to achieve his goal Orwell ‘needed some kind of credentials to cross the Spanish frontier and make contact with the appropriate group on the loyalist side . In May. for him. He joined the militia of the Spanish party. anti-fascism.

and ‘Boys Weeklies’. the government banned the POUM.In 1937.) Here readers can experience an average lower-middle-class salesman’s feelings. which becomes a nightmare for the lower layers of the animal society who did not gain power. Although Orwell wanted to fight against Fascism. From the protagonist’s anxiety we get a picture of the real world of the late 1930s. In 1943 he left the BBC and joined the Tribune as a literary editor and regular contributor. From these ‘adventures’ Orwell produced a new book Homage to Catalonia (1938. he served in the Home Guard during the war and worked for the British Broadcasting Corporation as a producer in the Indian section.) 8 . He wrote political and literary commentaries. he could not do that as he was declared physically unfit because of his illness. 1939 was the year when the Second World War broke out in Europe and England did not avoid participating in it. Several critics regard Animal Farm as Orwell’s masterpiece. He also had to escape from Spain because the members of the POUM were persecuted. Following his recovery. he was wounded in the throat. Coote summarizes it ‘Orwell came to the conclusion that all revolutions … are betrayed from within.’(78. Orwell returned to Barcelona but he had to face the reality that during the few weeks which he spent in a sanatorium an important change happened in his ‘ideal city’. H. But their intention results in tyranny. namely ‘normal life’ came back. The novel is reminiscent of the Russian Revolution and Orwell’s experiences in the Spanish Civil War. In this year Orwell went to Morocco for six months where he wrote another novel titled Coming Up for Air (1939. At that time he began to write Animal Farm which was finished by 1944 but appeared only in 1945 because of the rejection of many publishers. S. Moreover. In the year of the publication of Coming Up for Air Orwell also drafted numerous essays such as ‘Marrakech’. The problems and fears of the people of that time appear on the pages of the book. However. he and his comrades were accused of being servants of the Fascist militia. ‘Charles Dickens’. which were collected in Inside the Whale in 1940. his fear of the modern world where he lives and the war to come.) In 1938 he fell ill with tuberculosis and spent many weeks in a sanatorium but he never recovered from this illness. in which he allegorically tells the story of a group of farm animals who take over the power from the humans and try to create their ideal state.

Since the climate of the island badly affected his tuberculosis he returned for a medical treatment to London. In 1945 his wife died during an operation and after this tragedy he moved to the island of Jura with his younger sister. In the same year he married Sonia Brownell but their marriage lasted for three months only because of Orwell’s death in London in 1950. Though his health was gradually deteriorating. he became a regular contributor to the Observer. Nineteen Eighty-Four. His work sent him to France. he succeeded in finishing this utopian political satire by 1949. Here he commenced writing the first draft of his other masterpiece. 9 . Germany and Austria to send back reports from there.In 1944 he and his wife adopted a son. in 1947.

if one takes the fact into consideration that Orwell began to write in the early 1930s . in 2001. which was the first version of Down and Out . The Lion and the Unicorn in 2000.novels6. while the third way of grouping can originate from the different degrees of realism in the writings. There are three ways of grouping: one of them is according to the chronological order of the writings. (262) 10 . reports and some poems.. as there is a tendency for the Hungarian book-market to translate and publish the other Orwell. Before starting the analysis of Down and Out in Paris and London and of A Clergyman’s Daughter. This situation seems to being solved nowadays. Orwell’s first three novels were published in the USA and Down and Out .2. several volumes of essays.his first book was published in 1933.. and Nineteen Eighty-Four5. It means that during sixteen years he produced nine novels. The topic of the thesis specializes on two earlier writings of the Orwellian corpus. firstly Burmese Days was published in 1948 and it was the only available one of Orwell’s books for many years. 6 In Hungary.. As for the first way of categorization.1. in Hungary.. but he comments that these books were unsuccessful. What has been said above foreshadows that each of the other novels are usually regarded as his first attempts. The classification of Orwell’s works For many decades George Orwell was mentioned as a so-called “homo unius libri” in Hungary. are proclaimed by several critics to be his masterpieces.and that Orwell’s last work was printed in 1949. Since the chronological order of their publication coincides with the fact that the last two books brought international reputation for Orwell7. was published even in France. for instance. 7 It is vital that we should remark. However. 5 Notwithstanding. Cartaphilus Publishing House edited some of Orwell’s books such as Homage to Catalonia (2nd edition) in 1999. according to Béla Nóvé in his epilogue of the Hungarian edition of The Road to Wigan Pier. it is necessary to discuss the categorization of the works.. In Orwell’s case. these two books. with a negative connotation. Down and Out . and The Road to Wigan Pier in 2001. it had no an overwhelming success. it meant that not one but two books of the Orwellian corpus were available in the easiest way to Hungarian readers: Animal Farm. the second way can be according to their theme.. Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four. that the publication of The Road to Wigan Pier brought the first considerable literary success for Orwell in England. he or she will be able to realize that it was fairly short period. The fact that Orwell wrote many other books was almost unknown or forgotten. which was even a compulsory reading in many secondary schools.. (260) As Nóvé says.

he or she will find that the realism in the content decreases in his latest works. On the contrary. He says that Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four belong to the writer’s third period. Notwithstanding. For example.Notwithstanding this statement. the third group consists of the writings. or Burmese Days with its colonial relations. to Keep the Aspidistra Flying. Coming 11 . plot and structure. which contains four novels. So. from Down and Out. these seven other novels are literarily perfect creations since they can be distinguished by their length. This category includes the novel Burmese Days and many shorter writings such as ‘A Hanging’ and ‘Shooting an Elephant’. the classification according theme of writings can be the second way of grouping. In many scholars’ opinion. It is worth remembering that there are some other novels that do not belong to any of these groups such as Keep the Aspidistra Flying. and The Road to Wigan Pier. Down and Out. they are not a beginner’s attempts. there is another kind of chronological grouping. the works with the characteristics of journalism.. such as the social reports Down and Out. The simple and direct style. The second period begins.. this novel contains biographical elements.. according to Nóvé. the other group of novels deals with social issues of the contemporary England. (261) He regards the period between 1933-36 as the writer’s first period. deals with political issues showing their readers different political systems in an allegorical or distopian way. One group of the novels. If one examines the degree of realism in Orwell’s writing. and The Road to Wigan Pier can be ranked among the most important of this group. A Clergyman’s Daughter... the interesting themes of the books make them remarkably enjoyable for the public. stand the nearest to reality. despite the fact that these writings were created prior to the two masterpieces. moreover. with the passing of years these seven novels occupied their merited place in English and world literature. or Homage to Catalonia with its historical relations. with the publication of Road to Wigan Pier and contains the next two novels in the chronological order. setting. Homage to Catalonia and Coming Up for Air.. As for A Clergyman’s Daughter. As it was pointed out above. kinds of character. According to their theme. Therefore. dealing with the writer’s experiences in colonial relations. and which was signed by the formation of the ‘Orwell-image’ (262). containing Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four.. Béla Nóvé divides Orwell’s books into three groups.

references to political events of Orwell’s time. who themselves personally experienced the events of that bloody times and therefore they were reluctant to read again the negative memories of their life.Up for Air. writing about the truth meant that his duty was to show his readers the facts simply as he saw them without any distortion. In spite of the reminiscences of certain political events. 12 . Orwell wrote about the truth in all of his novels because he wanted to create a shocking effect on the readers.. For him. In conclusion. For the readers of the present these books are surely interesting and entertaining pieces providing information of the past through the eyes of a man who experienced numerous ways of living. Maybe. such as the picture of the Russian Revolution in Animal Farm. the fictive theme and characters even bring these novels farther from realism. such as setting. The reason why the analysis of Down and Out. or these days. the political allegory in Animal Farm and distopian world of Nineteen Eighty-Four can be regarded to be the most unrealistic writings of Orwell’s. although they contain several lifelike elements. and A Clergyman’s Daughter could fill a gap is that they were not given a widespread reception either at the time of their publication.. two of the novels published before Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four will be analysed in the following parts of the thesis as the early works of the Orwellian-corpus.

and to describe the society of the British Empire during this half-century. Australasia and Africa got more emphasis than the one to Europe and North America. the tendencies of the post-war period till 1950. which was caused by the economic growth of Germany and the United States. for instance. the development in the shipping techniques. Similarly. the Great War. As for the positive shift in the standard of living. on the one hand.2.1. to the other countries that felt the consequences of these troubled decades. The five main divisions between 1903 and 1950 automatically seem to be: ‘the Great Peace’(Thomson 24) in the early 1910s. on the one hand. it was due to the prosperous economy of the Empire. The economy was affected by the world trade. The trade within the British Empire meant that the exports went to the countries of the Empire. on the other. the net income rose. The reason for it is that. Introduction to historical background The approximately fifty years covering George Orwell’s life historically cannot be said to be an uneventful period at all. Both the consequence and the prerequisite of the extensive commerce was. the period of the Great Depression in the 1930s. which made the Empire a naval 13 .as the people named World War I. the social services showed an accelerated growth. The chapter aims to point out the international changes and their effects on the economy. It is mainly true for people on average incomes who reached a higher standard of living.Chapter Two Historical background 2. Wartime alternated with peacetime that caused radical changes in the balance of power and the face of the world. 2. the British Empire was not able to avoid the difficulties coming to the surface. to analyse the internal and international politics. to India and the British Isles. The British Empire in the years of the ‘Great Peace’ The main characteristic of the British society before 1914 was that most of the citizens of the British Empire enjoyed the benefits of development of the Welfare State. where a transposition could be noticed as trade to Asia. This chapter of the thesis is based on David Thomson’s book titled England in the Twentieth Century. World War II.

(It happened in 1904. her financial power came from the overseas investments. credit and insurance services that meant that the English money market had an important influence on stability throughout the world. Regarding the national income. 14 . According to other scientists. the government should distribute the national income in another way by using a larger amount for wages rather than profits and rents. there was a slowliness in the rate of the growth compared to its late Victorian speed. In addition. new universities were founded all over the country. for example.) What was also a sign of the Welfare State was the advancement of popular education. Mainly the lowest but smaller sized layer of the society suffered from it. banking. there were different views as to the elimination of poverty. In 1902.power of the world. mainly in literature. therefore. In these days. which was considered to be a narrow range of commodities exported and could have easily become a harmful factor for the economy. which reveals again the old-fashioned way of thinking of the Empire. Many scientists tried to explore the reasons for poverty. when a trade depression occurred. which was unnecessary. a new act was enacted for better secondary education with the help of the creation of local education committees. the necessity of a growing industrial production. The flourishing scientific life resulted in many practical inventions but the application of the new inventions was more restricted in Britain than in the rival countries. quite many people felt it seeing the imminent greater poverty. especially in the drama and the novel. on the other. This era brought a remarkable achievement in the arts. however. and in the 1910s. for instance. The society considered poverty as a social evil. In spite of the fact that the emphasis of the production was on the textile industry and coalmining. the British Empire was judged as a significant commercial power in the world. a remarkable social change in behaviour towards the poor can be noticed. The very poor lived on an excessively flat standard of living because of the fact that almost all their income was spent on the basic necessities. This is the reason why numerous studies investigating poverty were written in those years. In addition. and. it was officially measured and was treated as a remediable social disorder and a political question. the cause of poverty was unemployment and underemployment although the phenomenon was an occasional one.

In the international relationships a recognizable shift of mood happened in the early 1910s. a form of government was created which was based on the constitutional framework of parliamentary institutions in order to preserve the rule of law and the code of justice. became friends since they were regarded as a helpful ally and supporter in the defence of Britain’s position in the Channel and the Mediterranean. Whether it became true or not. several tendencies can be found which affected everyday life differently. These movements in numerous cases ended in violent acts. Second. the previous image of the Germans changed negatively. When Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914 the British nation stood firm and was hopeful that a victorious war would end in six months (Thomson 35). or the strikes. since the German sea-power was imminently getting stronger. in 1906 the Labour Party was formed. free libraries and schools. Britain in World War I (1914-1918) 15 . which had twenty-nine representatives in the House of Commons and whose main supporter was the growing trade-union movement. 2. and in turn. the former enemies of the British. the next chapter will show. which were responsible for many aspects of urban life: for the cleaner and better-lit streets. Third. Despite these facts the ‘Great Peace’ was disturbed occasionally by revolutionary movements such as the struggles of the suffragettes for women’s rights to vote in parliamentary elections. of dock and transport workers caused by rising prices. (Thomson 31) Therefore. Britain became the symbol of individual and national freedom for the subjects of despotic empires. Besides this fact. This type of government worked with the help of the introduction of the civil service in the public administration and the local governments. At first. in 1911-1912. better water supply.3. the French. the Empire formed a new style of relationship with her colonies as many of them were given the rights to ‘independent self-government’. or the problematic question of Home Rule for Ireland.Regarding the internal policy of the British Empire. as well. which showed the darker side of the ‘Great Peace’. Britain made efforts to enter into an alliance with Russia and Japan.

from 1916 the compulsory military service was introduced. Although people believed that the war would be finished quickly. It means that by the end of the war 8 million men and nearly one million women served either on the fronts or in munitions factories (Thomson 40). Due to the geographical location of the British Isles. the real success of the victory can be questioned. the civilian populationdid not feel the effects of the war at a high degree as long as the Royal Navy was able to defend the Isles from the German attacks. Adding the financial cost of the war and post-war period to this. According to David Thomson. Therefore. six million tons of lost shipping (42). The Empire relied on her resources of men and materials from the Dominions. while the supporters of Serbia were Russia. thinking of the amount of the pensions and benefits paid to war-widows and veterans. it brought immense suffering for millions of people during its four years. had not been sufficient for the war. France and Britain. While in the first two years of the war Britain used voluntary enlistment to form new armies. The consequence of this murder was that in July 1914 AustriaHungary went to war with Serbia. The war disrupted the international relations in trade. moreover. by the end of the war Britain had almost one million dead. the country lacked the needed arrangements for producing new supplies. which were believed to be immense and inexhaustible. three million people maimed with shrapnel or bullets (39). 16 .) So Britain had to organize war-factories and armed forces if the country wanted to win. It was also evident that it meant Britain’s vulnerable point as she was in need of imports for food and many essential raw materials. Soon it turned out that Britain’s resources. On the side of Austria-Hungary stood Germany and Italy.The fact that on 28 June 1914 the crown prince of the Habsburg Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary and his wife were murdered in Sarajevo is considered as the ‘casus belli’ by historians. the threatening danger could be averted only with American help. (Her naval army can be considered as the only exception because it was well prepared. when in January 1917 Germany proclaimed an unrestricted submarine warfare for the second time in the hope of ‘bringing Britain to her knees by starvation and shortage’ (Thomson 40). The official reason why Britain entered the war in August 1914 was the German intrusion in the neutral Belgium.

2.4. The years between the two World Wars8 The years of transition from war to peace brought many difficulties in the countries that participated in the war. Due to her geographical location, Britain’s loss of equipment in factories and mines was smaller than that of the other participants on the Continent. As David Thomson shows, ‘the sinking of about 40 per cent of the merchant fleet was her largest single loss of capital equipment’ (58). Despite these facts Britain was not able to escape numerous problems in the 1920s: she went through a great influenza epidemic in 19199, and there were several governmental and economic crises, and many strikes in the country. The war being finished; four million men were released from the military service, which caused an increase in unemployment. It was made even worse by a great number of women who were discharged from industries to ensure jobs for men. By the late 1920s the rate of unemployment was at a high but constant level: at 9 or 10 per cent of the rate of the employees. (Thomson 124) In the first years of peace the acclaimed slogan of the government was ‘to return to normalcy.’ (Thomson 67) However, it proved to be difficult: speculation flourished; the rise of prices was much faster than that of the wages. Faced with the threaten of strikes, the government set up several acts to resolve or lessen the problematic questions. Nevertheless, the range of new acts could not bring radical improvement, and as a consequence, different groups of workers - miners, policemen, railwaymen, and transport workers - went on strikes and stoppages demanding higher wages in the early 1920s. In conclusion, the violence of the war and its harmful effects were reflected in every aspect of public life in the first years after it ended. Apparently, there was a negative change in social manners and moral standards. During the war millions of people were trained to kill other men; furthermore, after the armistice lots of war-veterans faced unemployment and poverty, so the process of returning these men to normalcy did not proved to be easy. The strictness of the pre-war morals lightened with the appearance of
8

Historians divide the period between 1919 and 1939 into four major stages: the years of recovery (191923), the J.R.Macdonald - era (1924-29), the economic crisis of 1930-35 and the period of 1936-39. Each of them had their own characteristics in terms of internal and international policy, economic life and home affairs. This sub-chapter deals mainly with the economic and internal developments because these two show well the public mood of Britain in these twenty years. The rivalry between political parties, the elections, the changes in the relations of the Empire to India and the Dominions are not discussed here. 9 This epidemic caused 150,000 people’s death. (Thomson 66)

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more social freedom in these post-war years, which was shown in, for instance, the emancipation of women, the easier facilities for divorce; moreover, in women’s and men’s fashion. David Thomson points out that since the United States stood in a leading position in the scientific and technical field, it was in the first half of the 1920s that ‘the process of Americanisation of English life and culture’ (90) began. Because there was a serious housing shortage in the country after the war, in 1924 the government, setting up a new act, prepared a longer-term solution by building 2.5 million houses by 1939. As for the other urgent social evil, they extended unemployment benefits, rose both women’s and men’s payments, and doubled the children’s allowance. This added to a gradual betterment of British economy, so the society felt a sense of recovery in the early 1920s. In 1926 this process of recovery was halted, when the so-called ‘General Strike’ broke out. The roots of this strike originated in the miners’ dissatisfaction, who claimed higher wages, shorter workdays. To support the miners’ demands, the strike extended to the workers of transport, the heavy industries, the building and printing trades, and the workers in gas and electricity services. The ‘General Strike’ lasted nine days; nonetheless, its effects were felt more heavily by the citizens of the big towns, who tried to carry on their life in spite of the difficulties caused by public transport or the shortage of newspapers. As it turned out, several people thought that this strike was too late since the new technologies (the widespread use of cars and radios) had eased the strains caused by the strike. In countless ways the society was transformed in the 1920s; the place of practicing religious life was transferred from churches to homes; simultaneously, with the widespread use of radios which broadcast religious programmes, there was a decline in churchgoing. At the same time the population of the United Kingdom grew, but its distribution was uneven with a large number of inhabitants in the suburbs around London and in the south-eastern part of England. The growing problem of housing shortage made the councils of the big cities build the so-called ‘council houses’. David Thomson says these houses were built with ‘minimum standards of density, size, and amenities’ and without any ‘ideas of elegance, attractiveness, or even community life’ (121). As it has been shown, these houses were built satisfy the needs of the masses. Even massproduction, hire-purchase, mass-consumption, community singing, popular sports, and

18

mass-produced cheap volumes of classic writers appeared in these years. As David Thomson concludes people felt the imminent economic crisis; therefore, they wanted to exploit ‘this brief time of relaxation’ (124). Because during World WarI the financial centre of the world was transferred into the United States and after the war her leading position grew with the American loans to Europe, when on 24 October 1929 the crash in Wall Street happened it resulted in the crisis of the whole European economic system. cent.11 This uncertain situation helped the radical right-wing groups to gain popularity for their propaganda, which was especially true for Germany where Adolf Hitler came to power. By the early 1930s the international circumstances were totally transformed, as Britain, the Soviet Union and France became almost passive participants in the events, while Germany, Italy and Japan got into leading positions. As the United States considered Europe to be responsible for the breakdown of the stock market, she did not interfere in the European affairs at that time. The British government tried to overcome the difficulties of the economic crisis from 1932; and with the devaluation of the pound, the reduction of the dole positive changes began to appear. The economic recovery lasted from 1933 to 1935. It brought about the decrease of unemployment to less than two million. Furthermore, in certain depressed areas there was a sensible betterment in many areas of life. The appearance of new industrial products, such as cars, radios, chemicals, and rayon, meant more jobs. As for the foreign affairs, Britain aimed both to save the balance of powers on the Continent and to transform the system of the Dominions.12 The importance of the Dominions grew after World War I because of their help given for the Empire. When the Nazi power became stronger, the British government started modernizing the Army; but their policy was appeasement instead of opposition.
10 10

This meant that the production, the

prices, the world trade were reduced, and that unemployment increased by 35-45 per

After the crash the United States reduced the loans to Europe by one third and introduced a fifty-per cent customs tariff ( Attila Herber et al 78). 11 According to David Thomson, in Great Britain the number of the actual unemployed was 3¾ million by the autumn of 1932. Thereupon the number of the people who lived on the dole was between 6 and 7 million (131). 12 Since 1922 the relationship between Britain and the Dominions was named to be the British Commonwealth of Nations. In 1926 Britain accepted the independence of Canada, New-Zeeland and South-Africa. In 1931 the Westminster Statute was passed which recognized that the Dominions could freely pass legislation, they had their own sovereignity in foreign policy and their own parliaments.

19

After World War II (1946-1950) 20 . the balance of power in the world and has made the United States the governor of world-policy. There was a hope at that time for a better society in which social justice could be realized. in order to attain these governmental aims. ‘some 60. He even points out that one of the war-time effects was the stability in morals. unemployment. the rationing of supplies. or to provide better schooling or social insurance. In spite of the difficulties of war-time. the economy was replanned and reconstructed. 2. The new acts aimed to bring economic development and greater social security. and public education.. the citizens of Britain showed willingness in giving essential services and solidarity towards the others being in need (202). poverty. What did the government do for the social reorganization in the early 1940s? It set out the concept of comprehensive public protection for all individuals .000 civilians were killed in air-raids. which lasts nowadays. World War II (1939-1945) World War II can be named as the most severe conflict in the history of humankind. during World War II Britain and the members of the Commonwealth lost 412. improved housing.000 members of the Merchant Navy lost their lives’ (201).2. 30. pensions and family allowances. and ignorance. Each of the belligerent countries suffered from the effects of the war. Several reports were written to explore the situation of agriculture and industry. evacuations and air-raids. Many war-time scholars confessed that the face of their society was transformed as the distinctions of wealth or birth seemed less crucial in these collectively hard times. (Thomson 207) So. furthermore. which has redrawn the map of Europe. various acts were introduced to ensure full employment. by provision of minimal social services of public health and free medical aid.5..000 soldiers. insurance against unemployment.6. squalor. too. no real victor can be identified. According to David Thomson. against sickness. and considering the losses of either side. such as the increased taxation.

it was not an easy and short-termed process to neutralize the negative effects of the war. and the National Health Service Act (1946) provided free medical service for all. the ceasing of the mandate for administering Palestine given by the Union of the Nations in 1922. thirdly. The United States gave financial and material aid for restoration and recovery but this meant that the conditions of the loans destroyed the British economy. which process had already started in the nineteenth century. Summarizing the years of the late 1940s. This war differed from World War I. This programme consisted of two main parts: one of them dealt with the nationalization of credit. the Labour Government started to fulfil its programme for reconstruction. In spite of the measures which were introduced by the Conservatives. the loss of her influence in Greece. World War II accelerated her decline and intensified England’s suppression in connection with the balance of international powers. three important events happened in her foreign affairs: firstly. here. simultaneously. the recurrent unbalance of payments. while the British Isles were sheltered from the battles in the previous war. In conclusion. This change in the national mood explains that the Labour Party came to power in 1945. the former powers collapsed. As for the national mood at that time. (Thomson 222) 21 . secondly. Many people said that the Conservatives’ most concrete achievement was the Butler Education Act of 1944. 213) However. Therefore. (Thomson 221) 14 The Housing Acts (1946 and 1949) supported council-house building. the independence of India. In addition to this. new superpowers were born to. (Herber et al. During the election campaigne of 1945 the two chief parties presented their strategies for the reconstruction. on the other hand. such as the shortage of food and houses. Britain lost a considerable part of her exports and. the first reform to construct a full national system of education was introduced in 1947. and transport. her imports increased. it was against Churchill and the Conservatives since the people felt that Churchill had not kept his former promises. and the other part consisted of the reforms in education13.Despite the fact that Great Britain belonged to the victors. power. on the one hand. with this 13 In connection with education. and in social services14. After World War II Britain lost her former leading position because the Soviet Union and the United States became the most powerful countries in the world. the government’s working was questioned. and the problem of unemployment. in this war the civilian population was not able to escape from the sufferings of the bloody fighting.

22 . I will omit to argue the years of the 1950s.policy. Since Goerge Orwell died in 1950. Britain started on her way to recover to the ‘Welfare State’.

we find that George Orwell wrote the two books. He demonstrates it from two viewpoints that have different and similar characteristics simultaneously. One of the two groups is the special class of the unmarried women and the other group consists of the tramp. In both Down and Out. it is the consequence of the Orwellian choice of the protagonists. to express also his disenchantment with the treatment of two groups of marginalized people on the part of the English society. Orwell illustrates life in the late 1920s and the early 1930s to his reader. I will omit the analysis of the French part. On the one hand. the development or backwardness of any country.. which predominantly made the lower classes’ life harder in the society. provides a mirror about the unmarried women’s facilities for life by showing a short period of a ’spinsterish girl’s’ 15 This title will henceforth be used as Down and Out. A Clergyman’s Daughter. General remarks In the case of any literary work. I will concentrate on the facts which differentiate the two books. The differences of the two books In the first part of this chapter. Evidently. A Clergyman’s Daughter and Down and Out in Paris and London15.. on the other hand. 3. Since the thesis is about the social criticism of the English society. written in 1935.1. and A Clergyman’s Daughter. not all the problems of the two sexes are the same. The first book. a writer can disclose it with describing what and how men-in-the-street think about the functioning of the government. 23 .2.. Orwell follows this method by giving a sort of social history in his readers’ hand when he shows us the atmosphere of these years. the question is posed what the author’s aim was with the writing of his work. Investigating this question. national mood can be revealed officially with public opinion polls... These years were generally known as the years of the Great Depression. It is necessary to mention that Orwell deals with the poor and tramp of the French society in the first half of Down and Out.Chapter Three Social questions in England in the late 1920s as George Orwell saw them 3. As for the main difference.. It is said that the mood of a society can indicate the situation.

his or her gender would not prevent him or her searching. The reason why he leaves out this question may be the impossibility for a male tramp to enter a female ‘spike’. This statement will be analysed in connection with the genre of the book in more details in Chapter Four..life. The theme here is the life of the tramps and it reflects Orwell’s own experiences he gained by spending a few months among these people.. However. we can call the protagonist rather the reporter of the exploration than the protagonist of the events in the traditional sense of its meaning. Orwell does not deal with the question of women. In A Clergyman’s Daughter. not an immediate 24 . written in 1933.’ Beside a short description of this woman’s behaviour. on the results of this examination.. The second book. a respectable widow woman.. The author demonstrates the difference originating from the protagonists’ sexes in many cases mainly in A Clergyman’s Daughter. which were due to the suffragette-movement. the figure of the author as the protagonist disappears because in this book the importance is on the exploration of the faults of the society and the situation of the chosen layer.. Orwell studies a chosen social layer and he examines how the English society does harm to this layer. furthermore. and resulted in many acts and laws for women and in theory brought spectacular improvement in the women’s situation.. We know the historical changes. During the examination.. one could easily face up the fact that the exploration of social problems does not include the thorough account of women’s problems on the level of tramps. become a tramp through some grotesque accident. In Down and Out. Therefore. Here. The only example Orwell gives is on page 196 where he describes a woman tramp. This defectiveness also proves the fact that men were in the centre in Orwell’s society. In Down and Out. who ‘was. Orwell makes his readers see a female portrait that is similar to the nineteenth-century women’s model in many ways rather than to the twentieth-century-model. In my opinion. Orwell chooses a female character that means that we receive impressions about the English society from a woman’s adventures. Down and Out. also contains the Orwellian disillusionment with the English society. we can see the events from a man’s view and it is the author himself who portrays the society.. if one’s aim is to reveal the situation and the problems of a social layer thoroughly. However. otherwise his or her examination would not be complete. no doubt. the examination of female problems can be a rightful claim from the readers’ side..

Orwell gives his observation into the protagonist’s mouth explaining that ‘the men of all description’ want ‘a little casual amusement’ with women. in the evening. Orwell’s descriptions reflect this slow process. He excellently recognizes that average girls are rather exposed to male roughness. In the English society of the late 1920s. women still did not only meet discrimination in many areas of their life but they suffered from the rigid social conventions. They react differrently to Dorothy’s refusal. breaking the rules of it resulted in serious troubles. the ‘proper old rascal’ (37) of the village. If it had not been for her shame.betterment happened with the introduction of new acts. in the beginning and the end of the story. 16 Mr Warburton tries to make love twice. which comes from his happy temperament. It was a long-time process when the new female rights were gradually built in the common knowledge and were put in use. as well. The consequence of her mistake is her ‘popularity’ in the newspapers that believe the local scandalmonger’s theory and give an unfavourable account of Dorothy’s nature. nobody of the ‘not too pretty’ can escape their pursuit (76). it is all but impossible to make friends’ (219). As for the other man. He points out that ‘For anyone so situated. it is also her defencelessness that causes troubles and differentiates her life from the men’s life. One sign of this rigidity is reflected in A Clergyman’s Daughter when the author explains the reason for Dorothy’s loneliness during her schoolmistressing. she could have avoided suffering. at this time women were guided by the etiquette. Nevertheless. the reason for this impossibility is that a woman like this has no money. He is incapable of understanding the girl’s behaviour because he is used to getting women easily. no family and no home of her own so she is not able to invite guests (227). Focusing on it. 25 . he is at a loss to know why Dorothy refused him. Orwell’s talent is revealed in the description in which he brings out the male behaviour towards the plain girls. Besides. she acts against the rules of conduct. Later this false image depicted by the journalists becomes the source of her shame and prevents her asking her father’s help and her returning home. and Nobby’s trying occurs in the middle of the story. According to Orwell. Evidently. The existence of a fixed etiquette is visible in the chemistry lesson of the girls’school when Dorothy has ‘to stay in the classroom during the chemistry lectures’ because it is improper ‘to leave the girls alone with a man’ (216). Nobby accepts his defeat happily. and particularly for a woman. we find three examples16 when single men try to make love with Dorothy against her wish. Dorothy’s case proves it: when she visits Mr Warburton. it was a much stronger characteristic in the nineteenth century. For a woman.

ignores the achievements of the end of the nineteen-century and the betterment that was introduced with the enactment of new laws in the early twentieth century. In each of the first four chapters of the book. which made more jobs for women. Besides. and maintains relations with the community while her father immerses himself in his past with nostalgia. a hop-picker. her position is highly uncertain since the wages. So Dorothy runs the household. she plays the role of the curate. furthermore. 26 . and in their eyes Dorothy and Nobby’s relationship cannot be considered to be sinful. Going through these possibilities. Despite World War I. are limited in number and remind us of those that existed in the nineteenth century or even in the earlier centuries. by the description of Dorothy and her companion. she lives under the same roof with her father. The other workers form their opinion on the basis of what they saw during those few days that Dorothy and Nobby spent together. When she earns her living as a daylabourer. in A Clergyman’s Daughter Orwell reveals almost all possible types of jobs for an unmarried woman in the late 1920s. Dorothy. her life is made even harder by her father’s inability to fulfil ‘the dirty work of the parish’ and his duties ‘outside the four walls of the church’ (20). there is one job which is presented by the protagonist. she suffers from his old-fashioned way of thinking. at first the author informs us about the life of a woman if she lives at her family’s mercy. These possibilities. She depends on her father’s money given to cover the costs of their household. In addition. The life. and which always run out. which is outlined here.The nineteenth-century female image is also illustrated by the question of employment in the book. her future heritage is ‘going down the sink’ (248) because of her father’s investment in gambling. In the case of Dorothy Hare. Nobby’s wandering to find a farm where they get work Orwell makes us feel the difficulties of the time of economic crisis. while in the fifth one some kind of summary is given into Mr Warburton’s mouth about these jobs. the length of the time of her employment depend on the quantity and quality of the hop. it results in the common opinion about her that she is Nobby’s ‘tart’. sinks down to the level of the agricultural workers. As for the fact that Dorothy lives in an open relationship with a man without marriage. however. making Dorothy feel ashamed. In the next chapter. She has not got her own property. who originally belongs to the lower middle-class.

until they get their first wages.Orwell characterizes the community of hop-pickers with the presence of ‘huge communism’17. and they rather help each other. Beggary proves to be an equal ‘profession’ both for men and for women. As Orwell points out.. The last possibility that Orwell suggests as a usual job for an unmarried ‘lady born and bred’ is school-mistressing. on this level. he depicts the nature of this ‘communism’ in such a way that it always originates from female benignity. every distinction disappears.. when he says ‘. They know that it is the solidarity what alleviates suffering.. everybody is ready to help. after Nobby’s arrest ‘everyone in the set came across with a hatful of hops and dropped it into her bin’ (119). mutual help. Evidently. or of a nursery governess (126) is a more acceptable because any of them could open up a possibility to help her ‘to keep her past history secret’ easier (126). In her eyes the job of a housemaid or a parlourmaid (173). The difficulties join these marginalized people.everyone was extraordinarily kind’(109). when one of them is in need. while they create a community where nobody is insulted because of his or her strangeness. and team spirit. who leave you ten thousand quid and care of the parrot’ (173) which are acceptable for girls of good upbringing but not for Dorothy. Orwell describes these people. the private secretary and ‘to be companion to an old lady . Orwell tries to counterbalance the predominance of the nineteenth-century features with this way of characterization which reminds the readers rather to the twentieth century where World War I taught the human race solidarity in a higher degree. The writer introduces by several examples of the tramps’ communism and mutual help to his readers. Everybody has a bee in his or her bonnet. as it is manifested in several cases. people do not exploit their mates. when. Orwell shows their strangeness with the disorder in the characters’ dialogues. but. Orwell portrays school-mistressing and the conditions of lower-rate private schools in the darkest 17 Orwell also uses the word ‘communism’ later for the community of tramps in the meaning of solidarity.. For instance. It is the women who give help to those in need. Dorothy’s descent continues in the third chapter reaching the deepest point when Dorothy is reduced to begging for her food in the streets. Dorothy and Nobby have to work in the first few days without money to buy food so they would starve to death without Mrs Turle’s help. Alternatively. The writer enumerates few other jobs like that of the manicurist. 27 .. However. who struggle against starvation and the cold weather day by day. When I use this expression I think of this meaning.

In spite of his weakness. which means that ‘they have ultimately no purpose except to make money’ (212). by her employer. has been teaching for many years in Ringwood House despite his constant drunkenness.colours. either. for the badly selected subjects with which the students are not given the knowledge useful in everyday life. . . which prevents him from teaching more than the same two sentences lesson by lesson. Mr Booth. as they are only interested in making money. not only is he allowed to teach but he receives no punishment. these ill-paid teachers are dependent on the parents’ want since the schools are alive with the parents’ money. she is seriously punished by the parents. there is another proof of the female discrimination against men. the owner of the school. avarice. and finally by the children. when Dorothy makes an effort to modernize the teaching by using her own money and to give something from ‘the Facts of Life’ (205) to her pupils. even a teacher’s drunkenness is acceptable like in the case of the teacher of chemistry. second. poses another question. teachers depend on their employers whose aim is the reduction of the wages as much as it is possible.The problems originate from the teachers’ inaptitude and their lack of methodological knowledge. thirdly. For instance. which can be divided into the following groups: . With a good critical sense. he points out the deficiencies of these schools. 28 . the teacher’s defencelessness. Although the author himself does not declare it directly this statement is still proved in the book. On the contrary. In this part about private schools. This widespread notion negatively affects the quality of teaching. the teachers are at the mercy of the pupils. As the owners of the private schools do not teach themselves. they do not pay money to develop teaching aids and create appropriate circumstances for learning (fundamental things such as heating. Furthermore.The above-mentioned problem. they do not have experience in teaching. which is a well-known fact both for the children and for Mrs Creevy. At first. in the schools there is no need for any qualification on the teacher’s part (174). Orwell shows their tragic situation through remarkable examples pointing out the helplessness and powerlessness of thousands of teachers.The troubles whose source is the owners’ avarice. the teacher of chemistry. Orwell criticizes these types of schools for the usage of old-fashioned books. lighting).

‘The plot’ of the former book. he succeeds in asking two poundworth sums from the unnamed Mr B. Later that year he went to Paris where he earnt his living from casual jobs. 3. (181) In contrast. which was hardened by a theft of his money.3. when he runs out of money.3.Undoubtedly. in 1928 lived in the East End among the poor. nevertheless this short period of their life is still suitable for the portrayal of the marginalized people’s hard life. due to ill fortune. Based on the experiences in France where life was cheap at that time he hopes to succeed in spending the next month with the little money that is in his pocket. Therefore. the social class that can only afford to send their children to these lowerrate private schools rather excuses male imperfection than a female mistake. three other similarities can be pointed out. and towards the Church. or in A Clergyman’s Daughter. which occur in both books. The next year he returned to London where he continued the poorish life. I will collect the similar features in the treatment of social problems in the two books. to the care of the old. with some money left in his pocket he chooses the streets instead of making any serious effort19 to find some work. which. Orwell talks about Dorothy Hare’s struggle for finding a job in London and he attributes her fruitless attempts to such circumstances as her educated accent. comes from the protagonist’s (who is the author) deliberate choice to be a tramp.1 On the periphery of the society Undoubtedly. 3. The commonest feature of the two books is the situation of the main characters when they spent several days on the streets of London. which are outlined in the treatment of three social features: the average people’s attitude to growing unemployment. the few days. We know that the protagonist has some kind of job18 but he could not ask for any money since his employers went abroad. Their condition is not a constant one either in Down and Out…. it cannot be regarded as her deliberate choice that she becomes a bum. Furthermore. in the other book. which can be rather called an account of experiences. can be regarded as a short episode in the plot as a whole. 29 . the events of the two books join on the point when the two main characters get to the periphery of society. In the manifestations of the social problems. her ragged 18 According to the autobiographical data Orwell. the protagonist is forced to spend in the streets of London. and then later. The similarities of the two books In the second part of this chapter. 19 Except that case when he and his fellow ’tried for a job as a sandwich man’ (181).

. 3.3. which can be found in the historical events. that she had ‘been in trouble’ ... He shows us that the high rate of unemployment appears not only in urban areas.. which is in September. most of the others were respectable East Enders. Orwell points out that the unemployment in the case of the agricultural areas is worsened because of the migration of the townspeople. I have pointed out the changes in the number of unemployed people during the years of the Great Depression. costermongers and small shopkeepers and the like. and ‘her lack of references were against her’ (134). but also in the agricultural parts of England. as it turns out from the above about Dorothy’s efforts.2 The unemployment In the historical review given in the second chapter.. there are three reasons for the lack of work. 124).that is. began to meet discouraged people. However. Despite the government’s efforts to lower the number of the unemployed. the first observation is in connection with being out of work with which he makes the readers face unemployment as a widespread feature all over England. had an illegitimate baby ..and after probing her with their questions they got rid of her as quickly as possible’ (135). quoting David Thomson’s words ‘the official rate at best 9-10 per cent was alarmingly large’ (Thomson. he says that half of the casual workers in the agriculture are gypsies and ‘. Although Orwell does not mention openly the real reason for her lack of success.clothes.’ (94). the bad quality of the 20 Orwell refers to the workers’ practice to go out on Saturday evenings when ’fifty or sixty of the pickers used to get drunk in the pub and then march down the village street roaring bawdy songs’ (107). they ‘.. This proportion meant at least one million men out of work permanently. If we examine the question of unemployment in the two Orwellian writings. He depicts the suburban housewives whom Dorothy visits hunting for a job as prying and suspicious women who ‘reacted to her in precisely the same way’ (134) and who ‘sniffed . 30 . According to Orwell. who came hop-picking for a holiday and were satisfied if they earned enough for their fare both ways and a bit of fun on Saturday nights20’ (108-109). trailing back to London with the news that there was nothing doing .. As a matter of fact. by the time Dorothy and her mates arrive at the hop-fields. mostly tramps. he still refers to it when he clarifies Dorothy’s ‘chances of finding work unaided were practically nil’ (134).

towards the unemployed.. and that ‘the gypsies and ‘home pickers21’ had collared all the jobs’ (94). knowing that the tramps could not go elsewhere . In addition.. on the other hand.crops.. Their behaviour is manifested in several ways such as abuses and contempt.. The law. Thirdly. home pickers are those people who have got homes of their own. which is noticeable in both books.. He arrives at that opinion that the working men consider the beggars and the other people out of work as ‘parasites’ (174) since they do not work and do not produce anything profitable. permanently hired. made both the farmers’ and the workers’ situation harder since.. 31 . the low of wages. how difficult it is for the members of the lower middle-class to find a job in the years of economic crisis. which was brought in by the Labour Government. The author gives an explanation for this attitude in Down and Out . however..’ always cheat them by giving less food than the real value of the tickets (187).. Orwell says that ‘The local shopkeepers . Orwell still wants to get them recognise that this lack of success is not the poor devils’ fault. the homeless people’s prospects decreased. since. Dorothy Hare tries to find work becoming to her rank in 21 In A Clergyman’s Daughter.a normal one. Orwell states that their biggest fault is their ‘choosing a trade at which it is impossible to grow rich’ (175). As for the working people’s contempt.. stated that the farmers have to give ‘proper accommodation’ for their workers (95). In Down and Out . when he analyses the roots of it. giving money instead of tickets to the tramp would prevent their ‘victimisation’ (187).. made more during the hop season than all the rest of the year put together .according to their notion . on the one hand. Orwell suggests a disputable way to solve the problem. This law. according to him. there is the author’s tendency in the two books to make the members of the English society who are actually employed understand that most of the unemployed and the beggars at that time are unable to find such work which is called . In A Clergyman’s Daughter. is the negative behaviour of the people.. The situation is the same with the merchants who are depicted in A Clergyman’s Daughter to be the people whose main aim is to profit from the casual workers’ everlasting hunger.. As for the beggars.. She treats Dorothy with bitter contempt when she takes no notice of the picker-girl (124). on the one hand. Orwell complains about the usage of meal-tickets because the proprietors of the eating-houses ‘. Orwell demonstrates it with the characterization of the postmistress of the village in A Clergyman’s Daughter.’ (110). He emphasizes. they deceive the charitable people who give these tickets to the tramps. the ensuring of ‘proper accommodation’ increased the farmers’ expenses. The second evidence.

He tries again to draw the society’s attention to the fact that many people. though in an illegal way. All of the marginalized people whom the writer talks about suffer from malnutrition.. When comparing the two writings. In A Clergyman’s Daughter. it turns out that the situation of those who live in towns is worse than that of the casual workers in the countryside. On the other hand.. he uses stronger words in order to make the starvation of the masses more perceptible for the readers.. the screever ‘who had studied in Paris and submitted pictures to the Salon in his days’ (172). but at that time.3. The writer proves to be well informed on this problem and he depicts a remarkably distressing view for the readers. with stolen fruits and vegetables. in Down and Out .. Evidently. starve in England at that time. both in Down and Out . Later on this page he mentions that in the countryside there were vast orchards full of piles of rotting fruits because ‘the farmers could not sell them’. It seems Orwell attempts to change the English society’s attitude towards the class of the poor by showing a range of examples: men who do their best to earn their living while they brave the society’s contempt.. Orwell comes up with another problem that is the consequence of the high unemployment. 3. visits eighteen places in four days and ‘sent written application for four others’ (134) without success.. overcome their sense of shame and struggle with the elements on the street day by day in order to look after their family. Or in Down and Out . and in A Clergyman’s Daughter we meet many men who were originally clerks. they are out of work. It was by no means unusual that educated men were sacked.. including women and children. priests such as Mr Tallboys in A Clergyman’s Daughter or ‘real artists’ such as.. who have the possibility to supplement their meals. lower class-people. The care for the old 32 .3. He characterizes the meals of these people as ‘a filthy diet’ and the hawkers’ groceries from London as ‘horrifyingly cheap’ (111).. shopkeepers and even ‘one of them was a doctor’ (Down and Out . the fault of the state afflicts the poor. he calls the tramps’ meal ‘bread and margarine diet’ (151). 170). He states in A Clergyman’s Daughter that ‘Probably it was only the abundance of stolen apples that prevented the camp from being ravaged by scurvy’ (111)..London.

The writer chooses such old people who have no family to take care of them. Just when the woman does not see her she has to exhort herself why ‘. Orwell draws a very saddening picture about it and there is no doubt that the question of the care of the old was unsolved in England in Orwell’s time. which. He concentrates on those who stand alone in the world. consoling and praying together with the aged housewives but of nursing the invalid. Although the writer does not express it directly but reading between the lines it is evident that these tasks should belong not to the priest’s daughter but the state should find some kind of solution for the problem. on the other hand. Their illnesses are not treated properly. not inquiring whether any man was well or ill’ (149). although he and his wife are over seventy in the story. In A Clergyman’s Daughter one of the protagonist’s duties when she lives her ‘normal life’ as a clergyman’s daughter is to visit the old of the parish..... Day by day she makes ‘visitings’ which consist not only of chatting.. the next criticized social feature worth discussing in connection with Down and Out .. ‘was designed merely to detect smallpox . The Pithers above can be considered lucky because they have their own home and they are members of a community that takes care of them to some extent.. Orwell describes an episode when Dorothy is asked to give an old woman ‘a bit of rub-down’ (52). homeless old people suffer much more because of undernourishment and they are exposed more to the harshness of the weather. But the white-haired people. which means that in some cases Dorothy needs to overcome her disgust. Besides. It is worth remembering that this Mrs Pither’s husband.she really [does] not enjoy rubbing Mrs Pither down’ (52) because of the bad smell of the house. she has to do anything that these old people ask for. and A Clergyman’s Daughter is the care for the old or rather the lack of it. are in a worse situation than the old of a community.. who have no home and who live among the tramps. Here we see again Orwell’s sympathy for the marginalized people.After unemployment. is away at the time of this episode since he is digging in the doctor’s garden (49). was a humiliating procedure for the tramps. In spite of the mutual help that the members of the class of the tramps and of the beggars give each other. Orwell mentions a man who is an ‘old mummy- 33 . Orwell also refers to the medical inspection in the ‘spike’ in Down and Out . on the one hand. The examples of the aged men whose lives are described in both books mirror how far the taking care of the old are unsolved in England..

At first. The Rector’s ‘High Anglicanism’ proved out of date that is why it could not keep up with the average people’s requirements. With the description of the trendy religious movements and the people’s changeable nature Orwell makes the readers see the value of Dorothy’s struggles to maintain the people’s feeling towards their Church. These very old men often have to work hard for their living . The readers can see Orwell’s criticism of the institution of the Church of England. there is Mrs Pither who ‘was always ready for a ‘little prayer’ at any hour of the night or day’ and whose only consolation is the thesis that ‘the principal inhabitants of Heaven’ are the ‘poor working folks’ (51). The other examples are not necessary to mention since the others above can make the readers understand how far Orwell was shocked by the critical situation of the homeless. namely the one that the religious interest decreased at that time and this fact was independent from the social class a person belonged to. Orwell describes a few of people who represent the opposite attitude with irony. Or. that the congregation of his parish is reduced but it is the fault of the cogregation’s members.3. Dorothy is the only person who holds together the congregation instead of its appointed leader. which are going to be mentioned on the next pages. there are more than five very old men introduced in Down and Out ... there 34 . Orwell explains his use of the word ‘paradisiac’ which means in Deafie’s case sleeping in bed (129). On the one side. which needs elaborating. I would like to emphasize that Orwell turns his readers’ attention to a twentieth-century characteristic of the English society. Change in the religious attitude As I mentioned above the author introduces the attitude of the marginalized people to the different Churches. during the narration.4. as well. in A Clergyman’s Daughter.like creature of seventy-five’ and in his case it is a wonder ‘how he could possibly make his daily march’ (149). 3. Perhaps it is not only the fault of Dorothy’s father. Mr Tallboys is an unfrocked priest who is not able to undress the habits coming from his education.as Orwell describes their life. Orwell gives a thorough explanation (21) stating that the people’s religious needs had changed by that time. the paupers. however. Nevertheless. For instance. and old people. In A Clergyman’s Daughter Orwell talks about a deaf old man who goes to work every year as a picker to Kent for the hop-season and the only happy and comfortable period of his life is when he spends his salary for ‘a paradisiac week’ staying in a lodging-house.

They felt that they had to pay for the free cups of tea. he leaves his readers in uncertainty why these people are not grateful for the charity towards them. what shows Mrs Creevy’s hypocrisy is that she chooses the church where to send Dorothy according to the parents’ taste. 35 . Nevertheless. The innocent and well-intentioned lady’s case prepares the better expression of the humiliation in the second episode on the pages 183-185. he says that the tramps hate the religious subjects (142) or during the prayers they ‘grinned and winked at one another’ (143). Orwell. that the tramps’ behaviour here is more low-key than in the other place. which proves that the Church of England is unable to keep its congregation.. Mrs Creevy tends to adjust to those from whom she gets the money and therefore she is ready for anything. The lady filled with religious zeal was not able to recognize how far her attention was offending for these poor devils.. participates in a service made for the tramps which is linked with their getting free cups of tea. Despite the lady’s politeness and good intention. which shows that the church made a mistake somewhere during the religious education of these zealous people. there is the tiny group of zealous people. is similar to the firstly mentioned one and it contains the writer’s summary (183). The first one. in the company of other bums. On the other side. The author. Behind her hunger for money is her aim. serves for the readers to take a sample of the tramps’ feeling. they behave ungratefully. there are four episodes connected with the religion. how far will the charity that originates 22 In Down and Out. on pages 141-143.. it is omitted from the arguing above. She sizes up the future situation when she says that ‘the Church connexion’ might ‘be worked up a bit’ (219). Examining their attitude. As for the most marginalized people’s attitude.which is in the second place if we consider the order of time of the four episodes. there are three important episodes22 that enlighten it in Down and Out. we can state. her employer insists on Dorothy’s going to church regularly. gained experiences also about their feeling toward the Church. As a schoolmistress. however. Having compared this episode with the next one. there is the question: ‘Why?’ The key word will be humiliation which is mentioned in the end of the episode. for instance. If a lady’s charity with good intention can humiliate those for whom it is given. having lived among the tramps. Since the fourth one (on the pages 182-183). Nevertheless.. Although the way how Orwell depicts this episode is detailed. During the narration of the episode he mentions many times how far the tramps feel uncomfortable during the service.are huge numbers of people who leave their religion for the sake of a more modern one.

they were ‘shepherded’ into the church like the sheep or the tramps were separated from ‘the regular congregation’ and sat on the gallery (184). self-satisfied Hallelujahs versus silence). In the beginning of the practicing charity Orwell uses such expressions that make the tramps’ degradation evident.. which reaches its highest point when the author indicates his criticism with a short exclamation ‘But much we cared!’ (185) answering the priest’s loudly-said discrimination as the tramp will be unsaved. who practices charity. Orwell. or in the two ideas about helping (the congregation’s attitude waiting to be thanked for their goodness and the second clergyman’s unselfishness. the writer wants the readers to learn from the case and he contrasts it with another way of charity putting it immediately after the previously mentioned one on pages 186-187. As an ending..5.. 3.. his aim is to make the readers compare the two stories. (184) 36 . Although the writer in A Clergyman’s Daughter does not describe any similar situation to these three above from Down and Out . by the third case.’ (184).from hypocrisy be humiliating? In the second episode. The writer draws a parallel between the minister’s and an old tramp’s acts to make the readers see the tramps’ behaviour with the help of comic elements. in spite of the fact that the charity is the biggest one according to its size23. In the second one they show ‘genuine gratitude’ (187) and praise the clergyman since they feel that the priest treated them in an altruistic way. Here.. Nonetheless. Orwell sharpens the situation during the next sentences. Other common features 23 In this church the tramp get six slices of bread instead of the usual two slices. expects the tramps to show visible gratitude. Orwell expresses that the charity takes an opposite turn since the priest. shows the readers the proper way of charity. or in the mood of the two events (noisy. for example. There are striking differences between the two episodes such as the clergymen’s behaviour (one priest’s thundering behaviour versus the other’s shyness and embarrassment). in the third story.treated the service as a purely comic spectacle.3. Orwell concludes the episode with his thoughts about the reason why the tramp behaved in this unthankful way. Orwell details the tramps’ reaction to this discrimination saying that they ‘.. we can consider the existence of the references to the Church as another connection between the two books after the previously mentioned problems of unemployment and care of the old..) We can find another difference if we examine the tramps’ attitudes in the two episodes.

A Clergyman’s. 35) and the normally sleepy village becomes ‘a sort of triumphal procession’ . A Clergyman’s. In A Clergyman’s Daughter..... when their votes are important.as the author depicts the atmosphere of the village (Orwell. made to win a seat in Parliament. When a change of government comes. The hypocrisy of the candidate is marked not only by the Orwellian remark about the ‘carefully graded’ smiles (36) but also by showing the opinion of a man-in-the-street about this campaign... get attention. One sign of this endeavour is that he omits the high political events.. 37 . who are normally ignored. 35). 174). Furthermore. In both writings Orwell criticizes the English laws about beggary for their absurdity and not being enforceable24. 33)... gets a smile ‘so warm that it [is] almost amorous (Orwell. He expresses public opinion when he introduces these laws as ridiculous whereby anybody who does not directly beg the passers-by for money but makes some kind of work for the thrown down pennies is considered as a person ‘following a legitimate trade’ (Down and Out . 35)... who ‘had been deigned to recognize’ for several years by any of Blifil-Gordon’s company. Undoubtedly. They themselves participate in the ‘terrific din of cheering’ (Orwell.. As for the elections.. Dorothy Hare. Orwell gives the view of the average people into Proggett’s mouth. A Clergyman’s... he describes what efforts Mr Blifil-Gordon. and on page 165 in A Clergyman’s Daughter..There are also some less important similarities between Down and Out . Orwell is interested in the change on such a level that affects the men-in-thestreet. now. A Clergyman’s. from which I will highlight two common features. The inhabitants of the village of Knype Hill hear and read the slogans like ‘Blifil-Gordon and the Empire’ or ‘Who’ll put the Beer into your Pot? Blifil-Gordon! Blifil-Gordon for ever!’ (Orwell. puts emphasis on what the average people perceive from the election. a proprietor of a sugar-beet refinery.. what can be regarded as another similar aspect of the two books is that Orwell concentrates on the situation of the men-in-the-street. he thinks of them only in localterms. when the churchman comments on the election with the following words: ‘All honey and butter they are till they’ve made sure as 24 The critical remark can be found on page 174 in Down and Out . it is impossible to imprison all of the beggars in London who are denounced to the police. The protagonist.. he prompts his readers to realize that the enforcement of the laws is beyond the capacity of the state. and A Clergyman’s Daughter. On the other hand. Orwell.. People. with his good critical sense.

According to Orwell. such as his poverty. In this episode Orwell mentions some political events or characters but in such a way as a marginalized man sees and makes fun of them. 26 Orwell says about his future that ’His damaged leg . [and] there was .. everybody who stay on the periphery of the society I consider as an‘outsider’. I mean that all of us. should be aware of the fact that at any time we 25 Many times in Down and Out . He makes only one exception in connection with the high politics when he characterizes a ‘pavement artist’ called Bozo (163). his damaged leg. would probably have to be amputated . It is felt from Orwell’s descriptions that he accuses the ‘insiders’ of their blindness why they are not able to realize their fortune. when people ‘inside the society27’ humiliate the ‘outsiders’. and against the lack of rules about comfort or cleanliness in the ‘spikes’ (213). On the contrary. He mentions the defects of the Vagrancy Act many times when he experiences something working badly. In my opinion. 34). In the last chapter Orwell gives the readers a conclusion of his experiences and he suggests many changes.. A Clergyman’s. are waiting to be solved.. This self-educated man is up-to-date as for the politics and has his own opinion about the events of that time. 27 When I use this expression I think of the people who are ordinary members of the society. no future for him but beggary and a death in the workhouse’ (168). Orwell places him before the readers as a model inspiring them that here is a man with several problems but he is able to appreciate his freedom and to see the world optimistically.. This man proves to be exceptionally interesting in the Orwellian description. and then they’ve forgot your very face the day afterwards’ (Orwell... their own home... that the writer deals with events only from the average people’s viewpoint... Orwell also ignores the high politics and he is interested in the events or the laws that affect the characters of the book. Therefore. For instance. these social problems. it is true also for this example. 38 . the so-called insiders. etc. who have job. which was pointed out in the third paragraph above.. and family. His disillusionment is shown when he experiences many examples for unfairness within the English society. which have been examined on the pages above. for instance. he is able to remain brimful of life.you’ll vote for them. Despite his bad circumstances of life. he is especially fond of protesting against the unreasonable prosecutions in the ‘spikes25’ such as smoking (155) or having money more than eightpence (145). It clearly turns out from his drawings.. In Down and Out... the writer suggests that we should follow this man’s philosophy and recognize the good in the things around us. Orwell uses the word ’spike’ referring to the ‘casual wards’ in England. and the dark future26.

can be in a similar situation either by a war. Orwell expresses his hope that if he shows his readers who the ‘insiders’ of the society are. he will be able to make them correct their way of thinking. and by this means their mistakes. 39 . their errors. rid themselves of their prejudices. The ‘outsiders’ are often only the victims. or by accident.

40 . the answer can be found in the part of the book when the protagonist gets to London (from her village) under mysterious circumstances. Forster’s famous study on the novel. The statement above about the fact that this book belongs to the category of fiction poses a question. or later during the story. In my opinion. dynamic’ one28. As if the ‘deus-ex-machina’ from the classic dramas suddenly appeared but here this ‘god’ is the creator of the further events not the one solving the problems.. 1990.Chapter Four Orwell’s technique and the identification of the genre Orwell uses a large number of literary devices in order to help his readers notice the social criticism that can be heard in Down and Out . What also supports that this writing can be regarded as a piece of fiction is the analysis of the characters. Why can this writing be considered as a fictional one? In my opinion. M.. The definition of the genre of the two writings will be the third part of this subchapter. making an analysis of the writer’s technique is essential for the identification of the genre of the two books supposing that each of them might contain such distinctive features by which each of them can be put into a category.. titled Aspects of the Novel (1927). there are many subsidiary characters by whose lives Orwell makes the readers recognize the social problems. The writer leaves his readers in doubt because he cannot give any credible explanation for the protagonist’s disappearance and the strange gap in her memory either immediately after her disappearance. and in A Clergyman’s Daughter. At first. Beside the protagonist.1. 4. unchanging’ type and a ‘round. Since E.. then I will examine it in Down and Out . we have distinguished two types of characters. 28 I have used the Baldwick’ varients for the characterization from this: Chris Baldwick ’s Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. a ‘flat. I will examine the characters of Orwell’s writing according to this distinction. Orwell’s technique in A Clergyman’s Daughter In A Clergyman’s Daughter the writer tells the readers a fictional story in which there is an exciting story-line built on the events of a girl’s life. I will focus on the examination of A Clergyman’s Daughter as for Orwell’s technique.

it can be determined that it is a ’round’ type of characters using the Forsterian naming. The losing of her faith means that a deep change happens in the protagonist’s behaviour. This quality does not change during the story. nonetheless her terror of sex precludes her from this possibility. There is no doubt that Orwell employs a large number of minor characters in the story. 41 . but Orwell makes us recognize later in the story that she has some special qualities. such as in the case of Mr Darcy and Elizabeth Bennet in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice or in several of Thomas Hardy’s main characters. therefore the only way of life is to remain with her father and to continue the former life pretending to have faith. and the religion considerably defined her days. because of her sufferings during the eight months. the protagonist seems to be an everyday girl at first sight. and unbelieving slavery are my creations. because the protagonist’s character is changeable and complex. The next period. which is mainly due to the lack of sexual education combined with her childhood shock because of those ‘certain dreadful scenes’ (77) between her parents. she has lost her faith and she is not able to feel the ‘power of the worship’ (220) any longer. To answer this query. In my opinion. when she can try enjoying freedom whose cost is the loss of her faith. Nevertheless. but there is another one that can be defined as a changing characteristic. It poses the question what it serves. I identify the part of the protagonist’s life spent under her father’s control as the stage of “believing slavery”29. However. I mean that a loving husband and her own family can be a way out from her situation.In A Clergyman’s Daughter. it is worth investigating 29 The expressions of believing slavery. Due to her family background she got religious education. one of her specialities is her spinsterish attitude. can be called the stage of “unbelieving freedom”. and I name it as the inter-stage of “unbelieving slavery”. The final period is between the first two. For her there is no possibility for a better future. Her sexual coldness makes her a spinster and defines her relationships to men. if I consider the change of the character and her choice for her life. The fact that the protagonist’s character remains between the two stages at the end of the story obviously does not mean a dynamic change which was usual in many nineteen-century novels. unbelieving freedom. At the beginning of the story the protagonist’s strong love of God is expressed when the beauty of the summer nature evokes a prayer from her and she praises the ‘maker of the earth and all created things’ (53) in such a powerful way that some moments later she will be ashamed of the realization of the joyful worship.

he is unable to realize the protagonist’s situation and to understand her way of thinking and feelings.at first how Orwell distinguishes the minor characters and then how he distributes them in the five chapters. in a short period. the schoolgirls and their parents. Moreover. for instance. Mr Boulger. it is used to relieve the readers’ shock that was caused by the characters’ terrible circumstances. or in a long lifetime. All the characters in the first group somehow determine the protagonist’s life. Beside the ‘flat’ characters’ strong influence on the main character.. Therefore. Hereby. either in Nobby’s case. the tramps. Nobby. for example Miss Mayfill. the measurer. Mr Warburton’s narrowmindedness brings about our critical remark about so-called freethinkers. These characters of the first group have one or two constant features and do not change during the story. Nobby with his neverending ‘inner radiance that warms . Victor. the Forsterian category of the ‘flat’ character is applicable to them. Mr Warburton. Nobby’s happy temperament makes his companion take the difficulties of their vagrancy easier. In the other one are the people who have only indirect roles during the plot. The first group consists of those who are in an effective contact with the protagonist such as the Rector. Several of the people belonging to the first group pop up repeatedly during the story and their appearances predict changes in the protagonist’s life. his letter in the fifth chapter is the herald of the saving. Orwell uses them even to evoke other effects. Mrs Semprill. tyrannical. I mean. that Mr Warburton’s appearance in the first chapter finally causes the protagonist’s troubles. The Rector’s old-fashioned thinking makes him ridiculous for the readers of the Orwellian age. What is true for both of them and for the other minor characters in the first group is their incapacity for any metamorphosis. At the end of the story. we can differentiate two groups of minor characters. and Mrs Creevy. by this means they become the active participants of the plot.. the elderly bachelor and freethinker is incapable to break away from his narrow-minded way of thinking and he can see the world from his own viewpoint. In each of the five chapters. and mean father of the protagonist goes through do not influence him at all. he remains in his dream world filled with old-fashioned ideas and he is unable to believe her daughter’s explanation about her disappearance. The events that the selfish. the gypsies. Mr Warburton. the surrounding air’ (91) and his happy temperament even keeps these positive qualities when he gets into trouble. for example. Victor. 42 .

the number of people who are represented as individuals is between 11-14. the second-typed characters occur rather in descriptions. the process of hop-picking. The descriptions of the gypsies’ custom. the number of the characters is approximately the same. it is interesting how the author distributes the characters in the chapters. so these two chapters create the frame of the story. thus. There is another reason why the author uses these minor characters in the second group. As it has turned out from the analysis of the minor characters. appear only on a descriptive level. According to the count of the minor characters. The characters in the first and the fifth chapters are the same. As I mentioned above. On the one hand the proportion of the dialogues and the descriptions and on the other hand the question of narration need elaborating. Its characters. In each of the five chapters. and it is the simple desire to entertain and to teach his readers. he has to use the right characters to the right plot. the writer uses them to describe several groups of the society. Other two points will help us to define the genre of the book and are useful for the presentation of Orwell’s technique. and the pickers’ life serve this aim. their presenting often expresses the writer’s criticism for the society’s or the government’s faults. Since Orwell depicts such female jobs each of those are made in some kind of community. The fifth chapter can be considered as a point of interest. mainly from the lower class. but with the exception of two men. Obviously. even if they speak. with whom Orwell has already made the readers acquainted in the first chapter. These people are usually the sufferers of the events and do not have important roles in the development of the plot. Orwell is able to show us 43 . it will be often to a mob or in the centre of a community and not to only the protagonist. It is noticeable that the proportion of the dialogues and descriptions shifts towards the latter but not in a high degree. This is the obvious reason why they are in conversational contacts with the protagonist. The other three chapters have their own special characters according to their settings and their plots.The members of the second group often occur in short episodes or in descriptive parts and they remain mute. it explains the usage of a large number of characters. The two perspectives that they offer for the protagonist will differently determine her future no matter what perspective she chooses. We can add to this amount those who appear in the crowd scenes. Since Orwell wants to characterize the possibilities of an unmarried woman at that time. it turns out that Orwell distributes them equally in all the chapters. Since many of them appear in descriptive parts of the story.

How well Orwell knows the people of the lower levels turns out from the richness of the regional dialects used by the characters. Everything is visible in the story. 4. the writer stands outside the events and he is only the story-teller. In the case of attributes. Summarizing. and does not entrust the finding out of those questions to the readers. Notwithstanding. Orwell’s technique in Down and Out in Paris and London In this part of the subchapter I will focus on Orwell’s Down and Out .2. it is also obvious that this technique is closer to the genre of the report. He is similar to the nineteenth-century omniscient narrator because he knows all the details of the events and all about the characters. and free from the repetition of words..many types of the different social layers. while the use of several descriptions and regional dialects serves to inform the readers and improve their knowledge. in a similar way as in the case of A Clergyman’s Daughter. Therefore. The other important question raised in the previous paragraph is the narration whose examination will also promote the definition of the genre. he is still critical of their faults. As for Orwell’s use of words. his descriptive parts of the story are long and full of attributes. He expresses everything directly and clearly. it is imbued with deep humanism and at the same time. The dialogues mostly occur between the protagonist and the firsttyped minor characters. We cannot speak about plot in the 44 . which I will examine later. the writer works out the characterization in great detail. and the same is true for the description of the settings. It reminds me of James Joyce’s stream-of-consciousness technique since Orwell also presents the tramps’ rapidly changing thoughts. the dialogues make the story more dynamic and realistic. Being written in thirdperson narrative. I intentionally named the third chapter a stream of dialogue. The writer rarely interrupts it with shorter descriptive parts used for giving explanations for the ignorant readers. it is remarkably varied. colourful.. On the other hand. the third chapter can be regarded as an exception because a large part of it is a stream of dialogue. the use of adjectives is more dominant than that of the participles. It is obvious from the ‘plot’ that this writing belongs to the category of non-fiction. When he characterizes the ousted people from the society.

traditional sense of its meaning. his character can be placed in the ‘round’ category of characters. I will start the analysis of the peculiarities of the Orwellian style with the examination of the largest units: the dialogues and descriptions. The narrator is able to depict the events happening one after the other and the readers see the events through the narrator’s eyes. Therefore. which would be suitable for independent studies. and finally the words. for example in Bozo’s case his astronomical interest and view of freedom. into the chronicle of events. the writer does not have any essential purpose with the description of these qualities. Hereby they do not produce any effects on the story. which might be invisible for the average society. In my opinion. The reason why this book has no traditional plot on the one hand is that the writer tells his readers the events in the form of a loose chain. Although each of them has some kind of special qualities. This practice becomes even more frequent in the end of the book. Another proof can be acquired for our non-fiction theory by an investigation of Orwell’s style. His way of thinking has changed positively towards the marginalized people. he inserts them in order to inform the readers and those who have the power to make changes in connection with the problems raised. so this first-person narrative makes an inside and limited point of view possible. Progressing from the top to the bottom. They can be described rather as the subjects of a report. The narrator is the only person who develops by the end of the book. these 45 . On the other hand what explains that the story of the book is not regarded as a traditional plot of fiction is the fact that the author is both the protagonist and the narrator of the events. It is obvious that the proportion of the descriptive parts is higher than that of the dialogues. even the author himself compares his work to ‘a travel diary’ (215). He suggests solutions for them after he has accurately explored the facts and their relations. Notwithstanding. Since the author gives his readers a simple account of his experiences. Then I will turn to the smaller units such as the sentences. he adjusts his style to this kind of content. These events are connected with each other according to the chronological order that is determined by the writer’s money running out. Orwell inserts complete explicative chapters. We cannot consider either the characters of the writing in the traditional sense real characters. What is another characteristic of the personae of the book is that they do not show any development in their personality during the story.

one part of them belongs to the category of simple sentence and the other one to the category of coordinated sentences.. The dialogues are varied in length. which is in contrast with the nominal style of A Clergyman’s Daughter.. In order to carry out this purpose not only does he use some slang instead of ordinary language but also he devotes a whole chapter to ‘. Orwell’s vocabulary proves to be less decorated than it is in the other book. it is still Orwell’s intention to introduce his readers into the peculiarities of the tramp’s slang. The descriptions between the dialogues are factual because Orwell prefers objectivity. Orwell’s formation of sentences adjusts to his aim when he writes something similar to a travel diary. which is a characteristic of journalism and is the opposite of the comments in A Clergyman’s Daughter. Orwell prefers using shorter sentences. As for the lowest level. putting 46 . it can be stated that Orwell writes in the verbal style Down and Out . The use of verbs is on a very high level. He uses more repetitions and fewer synonyms.. to the level of sentences. Orwell supplies a larger number of people and makes them speak if the setting is in a ‘spike’ since it is a useful device for the expression of the marginalized people’s opinion. and many of them are written in one of the regional dialects. the descriptions contain concrete data when he depicts either a room in a ‘spike’. It still explains that emotions are missing here since they might be at the expense of the credibility of the events. If we look at the comments introducing or finishing the dialogues. All these mostly depend on the settings and the participants. In Down and Out . Therefore.. The rate of subordinated clauses is lower than in A Clergyman’s Daughter. For instance.. In spite of his restricted use of tenses and nominal phrases. it will turn out that they are short and uncomplicated. an important trait must be emphasized. which are complemented with subclauses. which goes with the decrease in the number of adjectives and participles. The former statement brings the investigation with one-step more foreward. Syntactically. The simple past in active voice is used most frequently for the verbs since the writer tells his readers a story from his past.. Although it was stated above that his vocabulary was poorer in general. According to these features.theoretical chapters make his style much drier and less enjoyable for the everyday readers.. in occurrence within each of the chapters. This technique keeps the writer’s account of events as factual as possible. or an interesting person.

. he introduces to his readers many typical members of different social levels. E. that its story and the characters. Since the author is interested also in the faults of English society. the strongest argument for it is the author’s remark on his aims. It has been stated previously. On the other hand. Orwell says his critical remarks on the basis of his correct knowledge and with his aim of betterment.. with a mystery in it. The third sign is that Orwell uses longer descriptive parts. to write something similar to a travel diary.. Hereby the reader will hold in his hand a kind of social history. The analysis of form and of the writer’s technique raises the question of clarifying their genre.M. By so doing. when one focuses on clarifying the genre of Down and Out. one could assert that the genre of A Clergyman’s Daughter can be called a social novel because it not only satisfies the requirements of the novel but it examines social problems. What still gives another proof in favour of the novel is the writer’s vocabulary. a form capable of high development’ (87). Does this book satisfy Forster’aspects mentioned before? Based on the features related to the writer’s 47 .3. amongst which one can find ‘flat’ and ‘round’ characters. he or she will arrive at the evident fact that this writing cannot be put into the same genre as A Clergyman’s Daughter.Forster’s statement could give one possible starting-point. which are richly decorated. Second.. at first.. which was mentioned before. there are further arguments for another genre.. In the case of A Clergyman’s Daughter numerous signs point towards the direction of novel. but there is no so high shift towards the descriptions in the rate of dialogues and descriptions. For making any decision. The identification of the genre It can be stated from the comparative examination of the two books that they show differences rather in consideration of form. In Aspects of the Novel (1927). In contrast. Thus. One could come nearer to the response as for the question of the genre on the basis of making a comparison between the results of the analysis before and the Forsterian requirements. its actors (54) and its plot ‘which is a narrative of events . summarizing the arguments. are fictional. 4. though they possess some connecting points for their content. On the one hand. there is a third-person narration here. on London slang and swearing’ (176). His criticism expressed in the book is also evident. he presumes that ‘the fundamental aspects of the novel are its story-telling aspect’ (40)..in some notes . Orwell makes the otherwise dry and factual narration more coloured and credible..

and it puts emphasis on the revelation of casual relations. and its style reminds the readers of what characterizes journalistic writings more. Thus these are the proofs that this writing does not belong to the novels. regarding its genre. According to Szerdahelyi. these qualities are in it. our answer will be a ‘no’ to the question. other characteristics of this genre are its narrative-dissertative style and the lessened use of dialogues. The Hungarian scholar. its important criterion is its authenticity.. 48 .technique. so this writing can be placed among the literary reports. its characters do not develop during the story. It poses another question. titled Műfajelmélet mindenkinek (1997. It is apparent that this writing does not have a plot like the novels. Istvan Szerdahelyi’s statement can be viewed as the decisive step in clarifying the genre. that is a species of report. Regarding Down and Out. According to him in Irodalomelmélet mindenkinek (1996. He makes his explanation of ‘literary report’ more complete in another book.. 141-142). but the two greatest differences between it and the journalistic report are its artistic traits and its experience-like representation. 174). saying that the literary report like the journalistic report ‘portrays an event or a social process. there is a literary genre. he calls ‘literary report’..

The historical events of that time made several people’s lives difficult. the age of the 1920s in the previous lesson as homework. Reading original English texts is a great opportunity for students to enlarge their knowledge about a foreign culture. the teacher is able to develop their language skills especially vocabulary and grammar. Introduction In my opinion.Chapter Five Pedagogical Implications 5. the tramp. In order to introduce students to the age of the novel and to make them familiar with George Orwell. furthermore. I 49 . mainly a woman’s. This fact is a truth forever. to bring literature into an English class. in the social problems of Orwell’s and our own time. I gave them. By this means. I have selecred extracts from George Orwell’s novel. which is regarded to be really valid for George Orwell’s age. or ‘the suffragette movement’. at an intermediate or upper-intermediate level. Students can see a sort of lifestyle. students will be able to translate sources from one language to the other. mainly from English to Hungarian. and can make distinctions between their way of life and the protagonist’s.1. teaching the topic of the life of people in socially disadvantageous circumstances in secondary schools would be very significant. While the teacher has the students read original texts or solve exercises based on these texts. Many of these people get in their hard situation through no fault of their own. I have already asked them to collect information about the author’s life and works. My aim would be to awaken interest with the topic of George Orwell’s book. for instance: ‘a woman’s life’ or ‘women’s jobs in the 1920s’. With the help of reading original literary texts and comparing them with what the students have learned in their previous lessons. One of the aims of teaching the English language is to make learners able to read in English. and the beggar is not the correct behaviour. some points with which they can start their search. on the other hand. he or she can draw his or her students’ attention to the fact that nowadays aversion to the poor. A Clergyman’s Daughter. the teacher can raise the students’ interest in reading whole book. and Orwell’s realistic writings inform their readers about the condition of those people thus completing the readers’ knowledge gained from history books. A Clergyman’s Daughter. This could be the material of three lessons and I recommend it to secondary school students. on the one hand.

containing some of the newly learnt words.) 2. Blue tack The description of the task: The teacher divides the blackboard into three parts. and the students have to decide whether the given card fits mainly the characteristics of women or of men or both of them. flashcards (on which adjectives are written for describing people). their vocabulary will be extended. Collecting the homework (2 min. to translate to English.): Aids: blackboard. The teacher shows flashcards one after the other. the teacher writes down the main pieces on the blackboard. Warming up exercise (5 min. writing ‘FOR WOMEN’ at the top of the first part of the blackboard. for homework the teacher dictates seven Hungarian sentences.) It is about what the students found about Orwell and the society of that time. 5.) 1. expressions for some students. The aim would be that each of the students’ materials be heard. for this reason. 50 . The second lesson (45 min. Certainly. The students read their pieces of information. The students have to write their homework to sheets of paper so that the teacher will collect them in the next lesson. FOR MEN in the second part and BOTH FOR WOMEN & MEN in the third one. by this means. The lesson plan The first lesson (45 min. meanwhile the class together produce a new biography of George Orwell’s and a sketch of the society of that age. there will be new words. after some students have made the main pieces of information known. The teacher puts the cards in the right place and fixes them with Blue tack on the board.2. As a finish.mentioned them titles of books or websites where they could find something about the topics. the teacher asks the other students about those data that have not mentioned yet.

The teacher turns the conversation to George Orwell and his book based on the previously learnt information.) The description of the task: The teacher makes the students read and translate the text sentence by sentence. Pre-reading task (5+5 min. ‘What is she wearing?’ v. the teacher reveals the source of the picture by showing the cover of the book. (The aim of the task is a kind of repetition. They check the new vocabulary.) b. ‘Could you tell me what she looks like?’ ii. using a dictionary or the teacher’s explanations in English.) Aids: a picture The description of the task: a. After the questioning. and then the whole class check the 51 .The adjectives for the flashcards: FOR WOMEN beautiful skinny spinsterish anorexic shapely FOR MEN handsome bald well-built muscular receding-haired BOTH FOR WOMEN & MEN slim stout attractive overweight untidy-looking 3. The teacher shows a picture of an elderly woman (which is from the cover of the book A Clergyman’s Daughter) to the students.) 4. ‘Is she married or single?’ iii. Reading and vocabulary (25 min. ‘What does she do / what is her job?’ (The aim would be that the teacher makes the students tell free associations. ‘Is she young?’ iv. Having finished reading. the students answer the questions in Exercise A in writing. The teacher asks questions about the woman: i.

‘It was just half past five. from either side of the passage on the second floor she could hear the antiphonal snoring of her father and of Ellen. with heavy youthful snores. Dorothy went upstairs and turned on her bath. about a spinsterish girl of a priest who is treated badly and abused by her father. Knype Hill.the splashing always woke her father if she turned on the tap 52 . Exercises C. Having set the kettle to boil for her father’s shavingwater. 1.answers orally. but she was one of those girls whom the Devil and all his angels cannot get out of bed before seven in the morning. parts individually. and b. 3. With care . lighted the candle on the mantelpiece. and then the whole class check the answers. Dorothy filled the bath as slowly as possible . 2. A.. Finally. still aching with fatigue. Look quickly at the text below and answer these questions. Ellen was still snoring. Rector of St Athelstan’s. Dorothy (her name was Dorothy Hare. the maid of all work. . Later somehow she looses her memory and becomes a beggar. D and E will be written homework. Dorothy felt her way into the kitchen. She was a good hard-working servant once she was awake. A Clergyman’s Daughter.. she finds a job as a schoolmistress but she gets disappointed in teaching and returns home. and coldish for an August morning. and she was the only child of the Reverend Charles Hare. knelt down and raked the ashes out of the range.. 4. and. Suffolk) put on her aged flannelette dressing-gown and felt her way downstairs.. As for Exercise B the students can solve parts a. a) Has the Reverend Charles Hare got several children? b) How many people live in the Reverend’s house? c) Why does Dorothy have to do the morning duties herself? d) Is Dorothy an attractive girl? The note for the students: You are going to read extracts from George Orwell ’s novel.

. .and stood for a moment regarding the pale. Look at the text again and say if the following sentences are true or false.they could never afford decent-sized towels at the Rectory. e) Dorothy filled the bath with hot water. she was a girl of middle height. . Find the 11 words hidden in the square. b) Ellen’s duty is cleaning the cooker. c) Dorothy’s father prefers to have cold baths.too fast . B. mouth. awake. and the mouth. blonde. shade. d) Ellen usually gets up after seven o’clock.. but it certainly would be so in a few years’ time’ (Orwell 5-7). it was for that reason that she made it a rule to take all her baths cold from April to November. It was thin. Dorothy got out of her bath. (The following words are hidden: bath. C. Not definitely a spinsterish face as yet. gown. tap. eye. when it was in repose. rather thin. unremarkable kind of face. and her face was her weak point. bed. D. looked tired.. She detested cold baths. Read the text again and find these words: maid kettle dressing-gown b) Dorothy’s life. modern clothes. 5. but strong and shapely. crow (d). height. if you looked closely you could see crows’ feet round the eyes. a) Dorothy is a rich girl who dresses in brand-new. ashes. unappetizing pool of water. Her body had gone gooseflesh all over. and she dried herself with a towel hardly bigger than a table napkin .. f) Dorothy is a snub-nosed girl with an ugly face. with pale eyes and a nose just a shade too long. goose-flesh table napkin crows’ feet - a) Which paragraph is each one in? Explain each item and say what significance it has in 53 .

1 having a much whiter skin colour than usual. To push a stick backwards and forwards in a fire in order to remove ashes. (BrE) a large long container that you fill with water and sit in to wash yourself. Match the word with its definition. 2 this colour is much lighter than the standard colour (pale blue/pink/green etc. Pearson Education Limited 2000 54 . especially because you are ill. worried etc. A piece of equipment for controlling the flow of water. Very great tiredness. adjective. gas etc from a pipe or container. Some liquid hits or falls on something noisily or it moves noisily.) 1.) TO SNORE TAP RECTOR BATH2 TO RAKE PALE TO SPLASH FATIGUE BATH 1 The third lesson (45 min.) Aids: flashcards (Each of them contains one word . verb coming from the Reading task but on one half of the cards there are English 30 The definitions are based on the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. An act of washing your body in a bath. Warming up exercise (5 min.noun. 30 A priest in the Church of England or the Episcopal Church who is responsible for an area from which he receives his income directly. To breathe noisily through your mouth and nose while you are asleep.B A T H L C W E S A E R R T D H P I E O O A E B G O W N Q S S H A D E M O U T H C Y I X A W A K E E. where hot or cold water comes from.

one card per student. Underline the adjectives in the text. Suggested words for making cards: child. on the front of the house. 55 . gloomy house. A. ‘Ringwood House was a dark-looking.. candle. passage. to boil. A Clergyman’s Daughter. etc. Read the text about the school where Dorothy Hare was employed. The students individually do Exercise B. If it has been checked. ‘What are you doing?’. angel. they look at the Grammar Explanation. and then they check the meaning of the possibly unknown words from their dictionaries..words.) The description of the task: The teacher distributes the flashcards to the students. She had not been expecting anything magnificent or attractive. not one of whose windows was lighted. 175-6). three storeys high. was a board inscribed in faded gold letters: RINGWOOD HOUSE ACADEMY FOR GIRLS Ages 5 to 18 Music and Dancing Taught Apply Within for Prospectus …. Those who have found their pairs would sit down to their chairs. B.’?’ etc. but she had expected something a little better than this mean. ‘Have you got the word ‘. mantelpiece. There would be as many cards as the students in the group. to kneel. then they check the found adjectives and solve Exercise C together. Above the laurels. though it was after 8 o’ clock in the evening’ (Orwell. Presentation (15+15 min. Dorothy’s heart sank at the sight of Ringwood House. 2. ashes. maid. semidetached house of yellow brick. dressing-gown. and the other half contains the Hungarian equivalents.) Aids: monolingual (or bilingual) dictionary The description of the task: The whole class read the text in Exercise A. kettle. and its lower windows were hidden from the road by ragged and dusty laurels. range. The students are free to walk in the classroom and try to find their own pairs while they are asking each other: ‘Who/What are you?’.

FCE Use of English. e. a rolled-up carpet). foggy The suffix -able/-ible combined with verbs gives the meaning ‘something can be done’. deadly compulsory humorous windy. 56 . or past participles (e. which we call prefixes.. 75. The other type of formation is the compound adjectives when we use present participles (e. There are certain common endings for adjectives which we call suffixes in English. The suffix -ly can be confusing because -ly is most often used for forming adverbs. 75. friendly which cannot be used as an adverb.a jumper which can be washed. These are: -able/ -ible -al /-ial -ary -ant /-ent -ful remarkable flexible antiphonal (artificial) elementary important persistent youthful -ious -ish -ist -ive -less rebellious smallish socialist suggestive penniless -ly -ory -ous -y likely.g.g. These are: 31 32 For this part I used the book of Virginia Evans. The examples are from Virginia Evans. use your monolingual dictionary.. washable . e..C. The suffix -ish modifies the original meaning of the adjective.. ragged  rag (noun): a small piece of old cloth faded  to fade (verb): to lose colour and brightness dusty  dark-looking  semi-detached  attractive  gloomy  Grammar Explanation31 In the text of Exercise A you can find many examples for forming adjectives. What are the roots of the following adjectives? If you need. As you see. lovely. undercooked meat. oldoldish = ‘sort of old’ or ‘fairly old’. a long-playing record32). entitled FCE Use of English. we can form adjectives from nouns or verbs.g. But there is a small group of adjectives with -ly in English.g.g. E. There are also certain beginnings for making adjectives. lonely.

(fashion) among the young in towns..... B................ It is said that Peter is a happy man. ‘... .......... I don’t agree.. People always make legal acts in our country.... over.... A...................... I have read in National Geography that the Russian archeologists’ last travel was successful.. Tina loves wearing fashionable clothes................ with the use of the prefix -in/-il/-im/-ir the adjective can also have a negative meaning... Plazas are very .....g..... I always find Anne very sensitive.............................................. .. E... a............... B and C... ..(caution) when you put your head into the mouth of a crocodile......... Use the word in brackets to form an adjective that fits in the sentence... 57 .... The other ones would be their homework. then they and the teacher go over the sentences......antidisilimin- anticlerical distasteful illegal impolite intolerant irnonoversuper un- irrational nonfinite overweight supernatural unhappy The prefixes un........... I think he is very unhappy.............means ‘against’............... b.[there] was a board inscribed in faded gold letters.....................) The description of the task: The students individually do the first three sentences from Exercises A......... larger...........means ‘too much’.means ‘more.. The prefix anti.... Contradict the following statements in the same way as the example........... ............... It is said that the Chinese meal is possible to eat.. c.’ 3....... We can use present and past participles as adjectives.can form the opposite of the adjectives................ or more powerful than usual’... (poison)............................ and super..... You should be extremely .................... Don’t cook the mushrooms you picked on the picnic yesterday..and dis..... Grammar Practice (10 min.......... ..... They can be .

...... Make compound adjectives to describe the following: a....d......... d.. In many e... Johnny has got a muscular body. The students who have taken degree at this university will be well ... qualified scientists......................... c. The weather is ... The workers of the company are paid well. e. Having fallen yesterday........... It is ..... We bought some newly-designed gadgets for our kitchen that are not so much .......(weight)....... marathon.. Everybody says that he is a ............(success) businessman today....... a well-organised half- 58 .workers........ a white-skinned face with blue eyes and blond hair.... circuses trainers.... i.animals. (to change) in March........ Jane and John’ s love never ends....... ....... he wouldn’t be so ........leg.... pair of jeans.............. A pair of jeans that lasts a long time........ ..a ....... C........ a ..... A half-marathon that was well organised.... ........... h..... scientists. but today it is snowing heavily.............. my mother hurt her leg badly..... If Tom hadn’t given up running and didn’t eat so many sweets in these days....... a ........... love .... the animals are treated ill by their f... g..... (to act). guy.. ............. f. (to use) as nice..... g...................... At this time yesterday the sun was shining warmly.. My computer is not working at the moment. Bill Gates is considered to be the most .... b.... ...

It turned out from Orwell’s two books that even the average people had damaged those who belonged to a lower-level class than theirs. Being a member of the lower middle-class and being short of money. but the appearance of the marginalized layer of society.. is closer to reportage. So having considered the criteria of the novel according to E. Forster. and A Clergyman’s Daughter Orwell’s sensitivity to social problems has been proved by several examples... Considering the historical events of ‘Orwell’s time. Due to his political views. since A Clergyman’s Daughter belongs to the category of the novel. Having analysed Down and Out . Not only did he criticize the faults of the English society but he also made suggestions how to the correct the errors.M. His sensitivity originated from his family background and his political views. I would like to report that during the examination of Down and Out . and A Clergyman’s Daughter. I found other similarities. Beside this link. marginalized poor people suffered even more.. to tramps. and the decreasing tendency in practising religion. while Down and Out . In my opinion. As a conclusion. so reading literature is the quintessence of learning 59 . it became obvious that the two books are different in their genre.. he was very critical of the faults of the society which are directly expressed in both books.. the care of the old. it is evident that although men-in the-street were affected by these events heavily. he knew the problems of the poor in more details. I hope that in the pedagogical chapter I have been able to present useful ideas for bringing the English literature closer to the classroom. I have determined the genre of the two books on the basis of an examination of the writer’s technique. literature is one part of the culture of any civilization. I drew the attention to the fact that by describing his disillusionment Orwell’s aim was to teach his readers and to make them better and more sympathetic to the poor. I pointed out that the main difference between the two books came from the protagonists’ gender. such as the question of unemployment. Orwell’s criticism can be traced in these areas.Conclusion I hope that I have been able to fulfil my aims successfully in my thesis. and to beggars. was regarded to be the connection between the two writings. which was the tramps’ class.

nor expect a beggar to be grateful when I give him a penny..a foreign language because literature brings its readers closer to becoming acquainted with the custom and history of a given civilization.: ‘I shall never again think that all tramps are drunken scoundrels. nor be surprised if men out of work lack energy.... 60 .. He summarizes his experiences in Down and Out . Finally. I would like to point to a number of things that today’s readers might learn from Orwell’s experiences. That is a beginning’ (216).

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