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# GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

## GRT MAJALAKSHMI NAGAR, TIRUTTANI 631209

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Subject code : EC2204 Subject Name: Signals & Systmes : ECE (SET-A) ANSWER KEY PART A (2 * 9 = 18 Marks) 1) Signal is a physical quantity that varies with respect to time , spaceor any other independent variable.OrIt is a mathematical representation of the systemEg y(t) = t. and x(t)= sin t. 2) x(-t)= x(t) ,x[-n]=x[n]. even signal eg., Cosn is an even signal When x[-n]= -x[n] x(-t)= -x(t) odd signal 3) 4) linear system it should obey superposition theorem and principle of homogeneity AX1(t)+BX1(t) If it does not obey superposition theorem and principle of homogeneity it is nonlinear 5)causal system if it depends on present and past signal Non-causal system if it depends on present past and future also 6) bounded signal is one for every bounded input it gives bounded output |x(t)<= 7)periodic is one which repeats itself after every interval Nonperiodic is one which does not repeat at all 8) x(t+T0)=x(t) 9)it is periodic PART B (2 * 16 = 32 Marks) 10)a) classification of system i) Linear and nonlinear system ii)causal and noncausal system iii)Time variant and time invariant system iv)stable and unstable system UNIT TEST I Year/Sem: II/III Branch

## GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

GRT MAJALAKSHMI NAGAR, TIRUTTANI 631209
10)b) operations performed on signal i) addition ii)subtraction iii)Multiplication iv)time scaling v) folding 11)a)elementary signals are i)Unit step ii)unit ramp iii)Dc iv)signum function v) sinc function vi) sine and cosine signal b)i)a) periodic b)periodic ii) unit step response : u(t) = 1 for t>=0 unit impulse function : del(t) =1 for t=0

## GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

GRT MAJALAKSHMI NAGAR, TIRUTTANI 631209

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Subject code : EC2311 Subject Name: Communication engineering : EEE UNIT TEST I (SET-B) ANSWER KEY PART A (2 * 9 = 18 Marks) 1) Modulation is defined as the process by which some parameter(amplitude, frequency or phase) of a high frequency signal termed as carrier is varied in accordance with the information signal 2) i) Excessively large antenna heights ii) short range of communication 3) i) easy of radiation ii) adjustment of bandwidth iii) increases range of communication 4) ma=1 when Vm=vc 5) % efficiency = Power in sideband/Total power * 100 6) Low level modulator is also known as emitter modulator 7) BW=fm 8) Dotted line LSB, dotted line carrier, straight line USB 9) Process by which changing the phase of the carrier signal in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the message signal PART B (2 * 16 = 32 Marks) 10)a) i)VAM(t)=Vc(1+macoswmt)coswct (10) ii)write the comparison of wideband FM and narrow band FM based on modulation index(1) maximum deviation(1) bandwidth(1) application(1) sidebands(1) expression(1) 10)b) i)power saving = (4+ma2)/( 4+2ma2) Year/Sem: III/V Branch

## GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

GRT MAJALAKSHMI NAGAR, TIRUTTANI 631209
ii) Diagram of ring modulator, Graphical representation of DSB-SC signal, operation

11)a) Super heterodyne receiver the performance of the receiver is improved by a technique known as heterodyning(mixer) i)heterodyning (4) ii)RF selection and characteristics (4) iii)Diagram (4) iv)Mixer/converter section(3) v)Image frequency(2) 11)b)i) Block diagram of a method for generating a narrow-band FM signal(4) Principle of operation along with mathematical expression(4) The carrier wave is split into two paths in the modulator. One is direct and other -90 degree phase-shifting network and a product modulator combination of which generates a DSB-SC modulated signal the difference between these two signals produces narrow-band FM signal, but with some distortion. ii)Average power of angle modulated wave (8)