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Laboratory scouring measurements

lessons learned regarding classic methods and recent or new methods


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Pierre JEHANNO / Laurent MARCELLIN / Claude GUILBAUD

Colloque ICSE6 27-31 July 2012

Jons model (1930-1935)

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Fields of Application
FIELDS OF APPLICATION FOR RIVERS AND DAMS
Scouring downstream of a hydraulic structure, which often creates a fall, weirs, road culverts, dam flow release structures (dissipation pool, basin, return current) River banks, bed narrowings, groynes, River cut-off, river bed lowering, Bridge pier and abutment scouring

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SCOURING MODELLING
SIMILITUDE CRITERIA
No geometric distortion (three-dimensional type flow), Froude geometric scale Similitude of threshold (or critical) velocities

HYDRAULIC SCALES
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Geometric scale: , Velocity scale: 0.5 Discharge scale:2.5. Sediment scale: Threshold velocity
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Threshold velocity estimation


Uniform flow distribution: Isbach Formula Developed boundary: Shields diagram

ISBACH

SHIELDS

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Scourable material: uniform flow distribution

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Scourable material: boundary layer developed

H: depth i: friction slope : submerged weigth D:diameter ,g: gravity acceleration ,:viscosity

D= 6 mm

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General remarks
LIMITS According to Shields, the minimum threshold velocity is # 0.25 m/s, Dunes form for sediment diameter < 0.6 mm. REPRESENTATION OF IN-SITU ROCK By cubic blocks (size of fracturation of the rock) By cohesive material (to represent erosion trenches with steep angle of repose)

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REPRESENTATION OF COHESIF MATERIAL Difficult / generally involves using a mixture

MATERIAL USED
If prototype sediment diameter > 0.006 / , scale material represented at geometric scale; Example: 0.1 m gravel is represented by 2 mm sand on a 1:50 scale model (=1:50).

If prototype material diameter < 0.006 / , threshold velocity of scale material will be at Froude scale Example, if the threshold velocity of the prototype material is 0.5 m/s, the scale model material will have a threshold velocity of 0.07 m/s (0.5 m/s x 1/50) 9 In this case, it is not possible to use sand. A distorted density material has to be used. EXAMPLES OF DISTORTED DENSITY MATERIAL Bakelite, Artificial mother-of-pearl, Sawdust, Coal dust, Plastics and similar materials: PMMA, PA, PS, ABS/PC, PSDCI

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Threshold velocities

Material Sawdust D60/80 PSDCI Mother-ofpearl Bakelite Sand

Specific gravity 1.05 1.05 1.22 1.4 1.65

Water D50 (mm) depth (m) 0.07 0.2 0.25 0.10 0.12 0.10 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.2

V (m/s) 0.07 0.08 0.12 0.14 0.25

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Scour measurements

Simple measurements made with a rake, Contour line measurements, materialised using wool yarn Observation through a viewing window
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Observation of layers after tests (painted layers) 3D Scanning


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3D technics

Time of flight scanning

Optical triangulation

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Photogrammetric scanning

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Examples

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Chah Abbas Kebir/ Iran (1967): contour lines

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Examples

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Turkwell dam /Kenya (1:70): side windows

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Examples

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Katse dam/ Lesotho (1:30):Observation through a side window

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Examples

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Katse dam (Lesotho): Painted layers

Examples

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Chashma intake on Indus river (1:90): time of flight scanning

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Examples

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Bordeaux bridge: Time of flight scanning


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Examples

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Jirau model (Brazil): Time of flight scanning


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Examples

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Luzieres dam: Stereoscopy

Examples

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Luzieres dam: final results

The end

LGV bridge Dordogne river 1:32 Coal and sand

Thank you for your attention


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Thank you for your attention


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