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term silica fume has been generally accepted The addition of ultra fine particles in concrete improves strength of concrete The optimum proportion of silica fume is found in between 20% and 25% by weight of concrete Silica Fume when react with calcium hydroxide on hydration of cement produces calcium siicate hydrate which has good binding properties. CHARACTERISTICS OF SILICA FUME
1 Physical Properties Diameter is about 0.1 Ã‚Âµ to 0.2 Ã‚Âµ Surface area about 30,000 mÃ‚Â²/kg Density varies from 150 to 700 kg/mÃ‚Â³ When its density is about 550 kg/mÃ‚Â³ it is the best suited as concrete additive
2 Chemical Composition Contains more than 90 percent silicon dioxide Other constituents are carbon, sulphur and oxides of aluminium, iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium
PROPERTIES OF SILICA FUME CONCRETE
1 Properties of Fresh Concrete Too much silica fumes cause the concrete to become sticky and thus reduces the workability Silica fume addition up to 15% by weight of cement does not result in any loss of workability Silica fume concrete, due to larger surface area of fine particle requires higher water content for same workability than ordinary concrete
DURABILITY OF SILICA FUME CONCRETE
Resistance to Chemical Attack Silica fume checks sulphate attack by Being very fine, it reduces permeability and the entry of sulphate ions. By consuming the calcium hydroxide in course of pozzolanic action, it checks conversion of mono-
It was recognized long time age. Reference: http://seminarprojects. that the suitable pozzolona used in appropriate amount. such as: • • • Lower the heat of hydration and thermal shrinkage . Increase the water tightness.sulphoaluminate into ettringite. modify certain properties of fresh and hardened mortars and concretes.aggregate reaction. ADVANTAGES Silica fume improves the properties of fresh and hardened concrete Fresh concrete made with silica fume is more cohesive Silica fume reduces segregation and bleeding Silica fume improves the durability of concrete Lack of bleeding allows a more efficient finishing process CONCLUSION The use of silica fume give rise to an increase in the fresh as well as hardened properties of concrete. with less cement and a concrete having better resistance for freezing and thawing than ordinary concrete Durability is improved through significant improvement in resistance to chemical attack. It has been amply demonstrated that the best pozzolona in optimum proportions mixed with Portland cement improves many qualities of concrete.com/Thread-silica-fume-full-report#ixzz24oh93hv7 INTRODUCTION The use of pozzolanic materials is an old as that of the art of concrete construction. Reduce the alkali. The chief reasons for this are reduced permeability and reduced levels of calcium hydroxide Reinforcement corrosion is vastly reduced due to improved permeability. . increased resistivity and improved tensile strength.
in finely divided form and in the presence of moisture. Add the Portland cement and any other cementitious material such as fly ash or Slag cement. mix longer. For the silica fume to be effective. at ordinary temperature. the agglomerations that make up the densified silica must be broken down. The CSH gel is known to be the source of strength in concrete. The benefit of this reaction is twofold. Add the fine aggregate and use the remaining water to wash in any chemical admixtures.• • • Improve resistance to attack by sulphate soils and sea water. to form compounds. increased compressive strength and chemical resistance. When silica fume is added to fresh concrete it chemically reacts with the CH to produces additional CSH. The material. including calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) and calcium hydroxide (CH). WORKING OF SILICA FUME Silica fume works on chemical reaction called the "pozzolanic" reaction. The bond between the . Actual time of mixing may vary. The exact addition rate depends on the specific performance characteristic to be improved. Improve workability. BACKGROUND OF SILICA FUME Silica fume is a by-product from electric arc furnaces used in the manufacture of silicon metal of silicon alloys. Mix for 5 minutes. Lower costs. and mix for 5 minutes. When used to produce high-performance concrete. chemically react with calcium hydroxide liberated on hydration. Mix for an additional 11/2 minutes. Compared to the other ingredients in concrete. Never batch the silica fume alone or first into the mixer. which contains more than 80% silica in the form of extremely fine particles (0. The hydration (mixing with water) of Portland cement produces many compounds. Second the silica fume must be distributed uniformly throughout the concrete. the amount of silica used is small. depending upon the characteristics of mixer. If full dispersion and efficient mixing has been accomplished. silica fume is typically 4-15% of the cement weight. possessing cementitious properties. Mix these materials for 11/2 minutes. which in themselves possess little or no cementitious value. there are two issues that must be known: • • First. Pozzolanic materials are siliceous or siliceous and aluminous materials.1 µm average diameter). rest for 3 minutes. but will. MAKING SILICA FUME CONCRETE IN THE LABORATORY Silica fume must always be added with the coarse aggregate and some of the Water.
50 0. the surface area by Blaine’s air permeability method ranged from about 3. is greatly increased. in the crucial interfacial zone. the composition is also influenced by the furnace design. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SILICA FUME Chemical composition of silica fume will mostly depend upon composition of the principle product being made by furnace additionally.30 0. The increase in water demand of concrete containing silica fume is about 1% for every 1% cement substituted Workability is the ease with which a concrete mix can be handled. Unlike other by product pozzolona such as fly ash.concrete paste and the coarse aggregate. generally a furnace with a heat recovery system produces silica fume with lower ignition loss. Generally.2 The amorphous silica structure and the fine particle size are the principle reasons for the excellent pozzolanic activity of CSF.3 to 7. The additional CSH produced by silica fume is more resistant to attack from aggressive chemicals then the weaker CH. resulting in compressive strengths that can exceed 1046Kg/cm2.7 m2 / g.28 CaO MgO K2O 0. Scanning Electron Micrograph of silica fume particles. the particles exist in the form of agglomerates.70 Fe2O3 0. PROPERTIES OF FRESH CONCRETE USING SILICA FUME Workability Water demand increases in proportion to the amt of silica fume added.80 Na2O 0. Item SiO2 Requirement (%) 97. silica fume from a single source is little or no variation in chemical composition from one day to another.6 Al2O3 0. The spherical shape of CSF can be confirmed by scanning electron microscopy of welldispersed particles. The sio2 content of silica fume varies with the silica content of alloy being producer.26 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTIC The specific gravity of calcium silicate fluoride (CSF) from silicon metal of ferrosilicon alloy industries is close to that of amorphous silica that is approximately 2. Water measures can be taken to avoid this increase by adjusting .
Properties of hardened silica fume concrete Creep Creep of concrete is inversely proportional to strength. This precaution is a part of the standard concrete curing practice in hot weather.curing period 30 when most of the pozzolanic reaction takes place. Since concrete containing CSF shows little or no bleeding. it is expected that the creep of concrete containing CSF will be lower than the corresponding Portland cement concrete a reference concrete made of a calcareous aggregate and normal Portland cement. there is no deleterious effect on early strengths (i. and a concrete made of the same amount of the aggregate but with 25% (by weight) cement replaced by CSF.e. The ratio between water to cementations material was 0. Due to increase in the number of solid-to-solid contact. I.shrinkage. there are several reports confirming the sensitivity of this concrete to plastic. Strength characteristic If CSF is used as an addition. This reduces bleeding and segregation. the relative strength increase during the 28 to 90 . The addition of silica fume will lead to a cohesive mix due to more solid-to-solid contact and will have a lower slump.day period is relatively low. and a noticeable strength increase is recorded during the 3 to 28 days moist.435 Examination of the 1. Since CSF is a highly pozzolanic material. This makes the concrete highly attractive for pumping. In order to overcome this problem. the cohesiveness of the concrete mix is greatly improved when silica fume is added. due to which cracks may appear at the surface. shotcreting as it reduces segregation. When very fine particles of silica fume are added to concrete the size of flow channel is greatly reduced because these particle are able to find their way into empty spaces between 2 cement grains causing drastic segmentation of bleed water flow and reduce bleeding. Consequently. From the results of the investigation reported the addition of 24 kg/m3 CSF to the concrete mixture containing 297 kg/m3 ASTM Type I Portland cement . cracking when exposed to drying conditions at early age. Plastic Shrinkage Loss of water by evaporation from the surface of concrete or by absorption by aggregate or sub grade is believed to be the reasons of plastic shrinkage. the drying creep strain was about 370 X 10-6 for the reference concrete compared to 300 X 10-6 for the CSF concrete.aggregate grading and use of super plasticizer. Bleeding and segregation The effect of silica fume on the rheology of fresh concrete is considered a stabilizing affect in the sense that addition of fine particle to a concrete mix tends to reduce segregation and bleeding. the surface of concrete must be protected against evaporation as soon as possible after placement.year creep data showed that basic creep strains were similar in both the cases: however.day and 3 day strengths).
air entrained concrete Reference: http://seminarprojects.. 0. and 0. Portland cement + CSF).5 ratio between water to cementations materials.4 ratio of water / (cement + CSF).4 ratios between water to cementations materials. both with and without: CSF. and 15 % cement replacement replacement by weight with CSF (94 % SiO2. The third contained 431 kg /m3 Portland cement. 20 m2/g surface area) The second contained 340kg/m3 Portland cement 0.entrained and air.5.entrained concrete mixtures were designed.entrained concretes. and similar levels of cement replacement with CSF as the first series. showed increase in strength with increasing amount of the fume used in the test (i.caused a strength increase of about 10% and 20% at 7 and 28 days.5 ratio of water/ (cement+ CSF).e.concrete at the test ages I and 2 days.6 ratio between water to cementations materials (i. Three series of both non air. All air. however.6 and 0.e.com/Thread-silica-fume-full-report#ixzz24oh93hv7 . the concrete with 0. The first contained 284kg / m3 of ASTM Type I Portland cement 0. 10. respectively. The incorporation of CSF did not result in a significant change in compressive strength at 3 days with concretes of 0. 5 to 15 % cement replacement) Regardless of water / (cement + CSF) ratio at 7 days and 28 days the compressive strength of concrete were increased. there were no differences in the strength of reference concrete and the CSF . showed strength loss when compared with the corresponding non.
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