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VCE English Notes

Vincent Chiang and Joshua Yuvaraj


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7" " realisations." " Hence,+ without+ its+ central+ figure,+ A+ Farewell+ to+ Arms+ achieves+nothing+in+attempting+to+elaborate+upon+the+subtler+aspects+ of+humanity;+it+is+only+in+appreciating+Frederic+that+an+appreciation+ for+the+resplendence+and+the+darkness+of+life+emerges.""" In"both"examples,"the"concluding"sentence"has"been"bolded."" Notice"that"in"both"examples,"the"writer"is"actively"building"their"essay"towards"a"close."" Although" the" entire" essays" have" not" been" included" here" (example" #2" is" actually" in" the" samples" given" at" the" end" of" these" notes)," it" is" also" obvious" that" a" broad," but" also" brief" overview"of"the"essays"contents"have"been"elucidated"within"the"conclusion." Again,"it"is"also"important"to"consider"the"lexicon"of"the"conclusion.""Both"writers"utilise" the"word"hence,"signposting"the"fact"that"the"essay"is"about"to"conclude"in"the"very"last" sentence.""There"is"also"an"alarming,"but"also"intentional"verbosity"in"both"examples"in" the"essays"final"phrases,"as"phrases"such"as"the"expansive"cosmos"of"the"universe"and" the"resplendence"and"the"darkness"of"life"are"obviously"not"standard"essay"fare"at"all."" The" reason" for" writing" in" such" a" fashion," within" the" VCE" context," is" for" pragmatic" reasons:" again" an" ending" sentence" which" leaves" a" positive" and" powerful" impression" is" likely"to"put"the"student"in"good"stead"with"an"overworked"marker,"who"will"often"have" been"marking"a"paper"every"five"minutes."
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Construction+and+Language+Devices:+
One" thing" which" differentiates" the" Year" 12" Text" Response" assessment" from" all" that" precedes" it" is" the" level" of" analysis" expected." " Part" of" the" reason" for" this" is" that" in" the" higher"scoring"essays,"markers"are"instructed"to"look"for"an"understanding"of"authorial" construction.""Essentially,"this"means"that"to"achieve"the"top"marks"in"text"response,"it" is" imperative" to" address" to" at" least" some" degree" something" which" fits" in" with" such" a" criterion.""There"are"two"ways"to"go"about"doing"so." The" first" is" to" literally" engage" with" the" authors" construction" of" the" text." " Consider" the" authors" intent" in" terms" of" how" they" put" together" their" narrative." " What" is" the" form?"" What"is"the"style?""How"is"the"dialogue"distributed,"and"why"is"one"character"specifically" made"to"say"something?""As"an"example,"Hemingways"A!Farewell!to!Arms!is"written"in"a" plain,"journalistic"style,"which"in"turn"often"emphasises"the"cold"and"alienating"nature"of" the"world"envisioned"within"the"text.""" In"action,"such"an"approach"can"be"utilised"in"an"essay"as"follows:"
That$ Shakespeare$ chooses$ to$ have$ even$ Buckingham,$ Richards$ most$ fervent$ supporter,$ utter$ Give$ me$ some$ little$ breath,$ some$ pause$ reflects$ to$ the$ audience$ that$this$is$a$man$who$must$be$feared,$or$even$detested$in$his$tyrannical$reign.$

What" is" emphasised" in" this" instance" is" the" manner" in" which" the" author" has" chosen" to" position"his"dialogue.""

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9" " when$examining$the$character$of$Lady$Anne$in$Richard!III,$the$writer$should$be$able$ to$discuss$both$her$introductory$scenes$and$her$death$later$on$within$the$play.$$$ Finally,$ALWAYS$REMEMBER$BOTH$SIDES$OF$THE$ARGUMENT.$$The$best$essays$will$ not$ be$ oneOtrack$ minded$ $ they$ will$ engage$ with$ both$ the$ aspects$ of$ the$ text$ supporting$their$argument,$as$well$as$the$aspects$against$it.$$Sophistication$comes$in$ then$ evaluating$ all$ of$ these$ aspects,$ and$ ultimately$ declaring$ that$ the$ aspects$ supporting$ your$ argument$ are$ more$ substantial$ than$ those$ aspects$ against$ your$ argument.$

Frequently+Asked+Questions:++
Question:+How"many"words"should"a"text"response"be?" As! long! as! it! needs! to! be.! ! With! that! said,! a! response! under! the! length! of! 800! words! is! unlikely! to! contain! enough! textual! analysis! and! discussion! to! warrant! an! A/A+! grade.!! Always!bear!this!in!mind.! Furthermore,!you!should!never!actively!pad!out!an!essay!for!the!sake!of!it!!an!800!word! essay!which!is!succinct,!clear!and!well<formulated!is!going!to!do!much!better!than!a!1500! word! essay! which! has! simply! been! padded! out! by! the! writer! solely! for! length.! ! With! that! said,!there!is!certainly!no!harm!at!all!in!writing!a!longer!essay,!as!by!default,!an!essay!with! more! words! will! potentially! hold! more! content! than! an! essay! with! less! words,! assuming! that!the!quality!of!words!in!both!essays!are!equal.! Question:+How"do"I"study"for"text"response?" As! with! any! essay! form,! the! best! approach! at! a! certain! point! is! to! just! write,! write! and! write!!!If!youre!ever!feeling!burnt!out,!however,!its!probably!a!good!idea!to!stop,!sit!back,! and! relax! ! maybe! write! a! couple! of! plans! so! that! youre! still! churning! out! ideas,! but! always! remember! that! its! no! good! going! into! the! exam! tired! and! unmotivated.! ! Another! useful!tool!is!to!write!up!quote!sheets!and!study!guides!for!yourself,!as!this!ensures!that!you! are! actively! learning! material,! as! opposed! to! passively! reading! it! from! somebody! elses! work.!

Text%Response%SAC%Preparation%Guide%
" The"Unit"4"Reading"and"Responding"SAC"is"worth"50%"of"the"total"Unit"4"mark,"the"other" half"being"made"up"by"the"Writing"in"Context"SAC.""It"is"therefore"important"that"this"SAC" is" treated" with" importance," as" it" can" be" significant" in" determining" whether" students" achieve" high" marks" in" VCE" English." This" SAC" will" also" serve" as" a" good" marker" of" how" effective"your"text"response"essayFwriting"skills"are"in"relation"to"the"exam,"when"in"all" probability"you"will"have"less"time"to"write"an"essay"of"even"better"quality"than"you"have" produced" all" year." " The" Unit" 4" SAC" will" enable" you" to" assess" not" just" your" writing" and" analytical" skills," but" your" ability" to" write" clearly" and" well" under" stressed," timed" conditions."""

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24" "

Discussion"about"the" main,"broader"points" of"the"article"

Discussion"about"the" main,"broader"points" of"the"article"


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Specific"Reference"to" an"item,"character," event,"occurrence"etc."""

Framing"involves"starting"any"written"piece"or"oral"presentation"with"an"exposition"or" reference"to"a"specific!character,"occurrence"or"some"other"event.""This"usually"takes"the" form" of" storytelling," where" it" is" not" immediately" apparent" that" the" writer" is" talking" about"the"pieces"main"issue.""This"specific"item"is"used"as"the"catalyst"for"moving"into" the"discussion"on"the"main"idea,"and"when"the"piece"is"ended,"the"writer"reverts"back"to" referring"to"it"in"order"to"create"a"sense"of"closure"and"circularity.""" For"example,"compare"these"two"introductions"to"an"opinion"article"on"climate"change:"" Introduction+#1:+
Climate$change$is$one$of$the$most$damaging$phenomena$of$our$times,$worse$than$ the$ nuclear$ bombs$ that$ hit$ Nagasaki$ and$ Hiroshima,$ and$ certainly$ worse$ than$ Hitlers$insane$ethnic$cleansing$policy.$$No$,$we$should$not$be$concerned$with$global$ poverty$as$much$as$we$should$be$concerned$with$climate$change,$because$if$we$do$ not$act$soon,$this$planet$will$consume$itself$and$there$will$be$no$intelligent$life$left$ on$the$planet.$

Introduction+#2+
Johnny$ Fitzgerald$ was$ just$ an$ average$ 19$ year$ old$ university$ student$ a$ year$ ago;$ studying$a$Bachelor$of$Arts$at$the$University$of$Melbourne,$he$loved$the$beach,$his$ God,$his$family$and$his$girlfriend.$$Johnny$contributed$to$the$Salvation$Army$through$ volunteer$work$on$numerous$occasions,$and$went$to$Cambodia$to$teach$English$for$ free.$ $ He$ even$ set$ up$ the$ organisation$ DontSlip,$ which$ reaches$ out$ to$ disadvantaged$youths$in$Melbournes$western$suburbs;$all$this$while$becoming$one$ of$ the$ youngest$ people$ to$ be$ awarded$ the$ Melbourne$ University$ Honorary$ Arts$ Scholarship.$ $ Yet$ today,$ Johnny$ Fitzgerald$ is$ weak,$ bald$ and$ pale$ from$ all$ the$ chemotherapy$he$has$undergone.$$Cancer,$which$begun$as$an$innocent$melanoma,$ has$ravaged$his$body$and$forced$his$legs$to$be$amputated$at$the$hips.$$It$is$painful$ for$him$to$even$speak,$let$alone$eat.$$$

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26" " Locating"Practice"Prompts" Most" schools" will" have" lists" of" practice" Writing" In" Context" prompts" available" on" the" school" portal" or" upon" request" from" either" the" English" coordinator" or" your" English" teacher;" make" the" most" of" the" resources" that" are" available" to" you." " If" they" are" not" available"from"either"of"these"locations,"feel"free"to"eFmail"Connect"Education"at"(insert" address)"and"we"will"do"our"best"to"send"a"list"of"prompts"to"you.""We"will"be"putting"up" lists"of"prompts"and"practice"essays"up"later"in"the"year,"but"the"eager"ones"among"you" are"welcome"to"contact"us"before"we"do"so.""" Adapting"to"Practice"Prompts" Now"that"you"have"practice"prompts,"you"want"to"be"able"to"make"your"pieces"fit"each" and" every" one" of" them," so" as" to" leave" no" stone" unturned." " To" do" this," you" must" break" down" the" prompt" to" its" core" elements." " Annotate" the" following" prompt" with" what" you" think"are"its"key"elements"and"what"the"prompts"is"asking"in"the"context"of"these"specific" aspects:" There" is" but" one" truth," one" objectivity," one" reality." " All" claims" to" subjectivity" fall" at" the" first" hurdle;" they" inherently" posit" an" objective" theory"of"fact."" " Have" a" go" at" breaking" down" its" core" elements," and" then" see" how" Ive" done" it" below:" There" is" but" one" truth," one" objectivity," one" reality." " All" claims" to" subjectivity" fall" at" the" first" hurdle;" they" inherently" posit" an" objective" theory"of"fact."""
Joshua Yuvaraj 8/7/11 3:37 PM
Comment [1]: Direct"argument"against" subjectivity."""

Written%Explanation%
For"many"of"you,"the"written"explanation"may"be"the"bane"of"your"existence.""You"may"be" able"to"write"a"brilliant"Context"piece,"but"when"it"comes"to"explaining"the"decisions"you" made"as"the"writer"of"that"piece,"you"begin"to"question"the"mental"capacity"of"the"VCAA" examiners" in" setting" such" a" task" for" the" Unit" 4" VCE" English" Writing" in" Context" SAC."" However," a" change" of" perspective" is" fundamental" to" your" success;" view" the" written" explanation"not"as"a"waste"of"time,"but"as"a"necessary"element"to"your"piece"that"clarifies" and"broadens"the"ideas"that"you"wished"to"portray"through"the"piece."""

Joshua Yuvaraj 8/7/11 3:39 PM


Comment [2]: Indicates"that"subjectivity"hasnt" been"proved"as"a"viable"way"of"existence,"its"just" a"claim/theory/proposition."""

Joshua Yuvaraj 8/7/11 3:45 PM


Comment [3]: Implies"that"they"have"been" believed"by"people"because!they!had!previously! been!standing."""

Joshua Yuvaraj 8/7/11 3:38 PM


Comment [4]: The"prompt"doesnt"consider" how"subjectivity"could"at"all"affect"human"life;" substantively,"subjectivity"has"no"meaning" because"it"fails"when"it"is"proposed."""

Language+
This"is"often"where"students"fail"to"gain"what"should"not"be"difficult"marks.""Analyse"the" actual"language"of"your"piece"with"specific!references"to"specific!instances"of"language"in" the" piece." " What" did" you" mean" when" you" used" phrase" A" and" word" B?" " What" of" the" placement"of"colloquialism"C"before"colloquialism"D?"""
Ashley$ Cole$ is$ depicted$ as$ having$ a$ ravenous$ sexual$ appetite,$ and$ I$ intended$ to$ paint$him$as$animalistic$in$being$unable$to$control$his$urges;$this$also$emphasizes$the$ despicable$nature$of$John$Terrys$infidelity,$as$it$is$much$worse$than$Coles$due$to$the$

Joshua Yuvaraj 8/7/11 3:40 PM


Comment [5]: Objectivity"is"in"everything,"even" statements"about"subjectivity."""

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39" " $The$Independent,2010$ Joshua$Yuvaraj,$6ENK$ Written&Explanation& 'It$is$easier$to$remain$happy$in$a$world$of$illusion$than$it$is$to$face$reality.'& This$ piece$ is$ written$ as$ an$ opinion$ article$ in$ The! Independent! newspaper$ in$ the$ U.K.$ $ The$ writer$ is$ a$ fictional$ freelance$ writer$ named$ Lewis$ Holtby,$ and$ adopts$ a$ casual$ but$ nonetheless$ condemnatory$ tone$ whilst$ deriding$ the$ supposed$ celebrity$ culture$ that$ has$ infiltrated$English$football.$$$Given$the$generally$fervent$support$for$football$in$the$U.K.,$I$felt$ that$penning$a$piece$related$to$infidelity$in$the$sport$would$broadly$appeal$to$the$majority$of$ readers;$moreover,$the$fact$that$Holtby$blames$society$for$idolizing$footballers$is$intended$to$ provoke$a$strong$reaction,$as$is$the$description$of$the$moral$irresponsibility$of$the$sport$in$ general.$ $ It$ addresses$ the$ tendency$ of$ the$ English$ public$ to$ hold$ footballers$ up$ because$ of$ their$ skills$ and$ celebrity$ status,$ thus$ remaining$ content$ in$ a$ world$ of$ illusion$ when$ their$ heroes$ are$ in$ fact$ little$ more$ than$ disrespectful$ cowards,$ according$ to$ Holtby.$ $ I$ chose$ to$ introduce$ the$ piece$ by$ immediately$ delving$ into$ the$ issue;$ So$ Wayne$ Rooneys$ a$ sham,$ then$ implies$ that$ the$ readers$ are$ aware$ of$ the$ situation$ involving$ Rooney,$ as$ it$ would$ be$ ludicrous$ to$ assume$ that$ a$ mediaOsaturated$ England$ would$ still$ be$ ignorant$ of$ it.$ $ Likening$ the$problem$to$a$disease$insinuates$that$it$is$not$something$that$football$is$built$for$nor$is$it$ something$ that$ can$ be$ sustained$ by$ the$ sport,$ and$ Holtby$ very$ clearly$ expresses$ his$ condemnation$ of$ the$ idolization$ of$ footballers$ through$ this$ withering$ description.$ $ Ashley$ Cole$ is$ depicted$ as$ having$ a$ ravenous$ sexual$ appetite,$ and$ I$ intended$ to$ paint$ him$ as$ animalistic$in$being$unable$to$control$his$urges;$this$also$emphasizes$the$despicable$nature$ of$ John$ Terrys$ infidelity,$ as$ it$ is$ much$ worse$ than$ Coles$ due$ to$ the$ fact$ that$ it$ was$ committed$with$the$exOgirlfriend$of$a$teammate.$$$Casual$use$of$words$such$as$snogged$are$ intended$ to$ display$ an$ affinity$ between$ Holtby$ and$ the$ reader,$ whilst$ directly$ posing$ the$ question$ why$ do$ the$ English$ public$ stop$ at$ Rooney?$ attempts$ to$ engage$ the$ reader$ and$ make$ them$ question$ the$ wider$ problem.$ $ In$ returning$ to$ Wayne$ Rooney$ to$ conclude$ the$ piece,$I$utilized$the$convention$of$circularity$in$attempting$to$offer$some$form$of$closure$to$ the$reader.$$The$conclusion$invites$the$reader$to$act$in$response$to$the$propositions$offered,$ and$to$stop$idolizing$footballers$and$effectively$promoting$chauvinism$in$sport.$$$ The$ article$ is$ intended$ to$ support$ the$ ideas$ brought$ out$ in$ A! Streetcar! Named! Desire,$ because$ it$ deals$ with$ the$ issue$ of$ male$ dominance$ which$ is$ brought$ up$ significantly$ in$ the$ play.$ $ Stanleys$ animalistic$ sexuality$ rubs$ off$ on$ Stella$ and$ she$ is$ clearly$ dominated$ by$ his$ physicality;$I$wished$to$link$this$to$the$power$exerted$by$footballers$over$women$as$a$result$ of$ idolization$ by$ the$ public,$ and$ the$ Marlon$ King$ anecdote$ introduces$ this$ because$ he$ physically$ assaults$ a$ woman.$ $ Moreover,$ Kings$ sexual$ assault$ mirrors$ Stanleys$ rape$ of$ Blanche;$like$Stanley,$though,$King$eventually$is$able$to$live$free$of$guilt$because$he$is$back$in$ the$professional$football$circuit.$$The$clear$injustice$that$Tennessee$Williams$opines$to$have$ occurred$ in$ Stanleys$ freedom$ is$ highlighted$ in$ Holtbys$ poignant$ rhetorical$ query:$ What$ about$the$woman$in$question?$$As$Blanche$is$overlooked$after$being$raped,$so$too$is$this$ woman,$ and$ I$ wished$ to$ display$ a$ connection$ between$ male$ brutality$ and$ the$ like.$$ Moreover,$ players$ such$ as$ John$ Terry$ are$ decried$ for$ their$ lack$ of$ moral$ virtue,$ and$ this$ is$ Copyright""2012"Connect"Education" " " "
Joshua Yuvaraj 8/7/11 3:04 PM
Comment [46]: Type"of"article"

Joshua Yuvaraj 8/7/11 3:04 PM


Comment [47]: Publication"title.""This"type"of" extraneous"knowledge"is"useful"in"showing"that" you"actually"know"what"youre"talking"about."""

Joshua Yuvaraj 8/7/11 3:05 PM


Comment [48]: Analysis"of"specific"language."""

Joshua Yuvaraj 8/7/11 3:06 PM


Comment [49]: Analysis"of"specific"language" analysis.""

Joshua Yuvaraj 8/7/11 3:07 PM


Comment [50]: Explanation"of"my"intentions."" If"you"can"make"this"sound"plausible,"it"is"more" likely"to"be"accepted"because"the"teacher"can"see" that"you"have"actually"planned"the"part"of"the" piece"in"question."""

Joshua Yuvaraj 8/7/11 3:08 PM


Comment [51]: Analysis"of"specific"language."""

Joshua Yuvaraj 8/7/11 3:10 PM


Comment [52]: Link"to"the"text.""

71" " discussion" about" the" steps" the" government" takes" in" reconciliation" with" the" indigenous" Australians." OBrien" takes" a" logical," reasoned" response" to" the" issue," supporting" Dodsons" right" to" make"the"suggestion."The"writer"begins"by"including"the"reader"by"asking"them"how"did" you" spend" your" Australia" Day?" The" writer" then" contrasts" the" typical" activities" of" barbies"with"friends"and"a"picnic"on"the"beach"with"celebrating"the"annihilation"of"the" Australian" culture?" The" juxtaposition" of" these" rhetorical" questions" intends" to" make" claims" that" Australia" Day" is" racist" seem" absurd," and" highlight" that" the" day" is" spent" celebrating"the"country."Furthermore,"OBriens"succinct"answer"of"course"not"makes"it" appear"obvious"to"readers"that"nobody"spends"the"day"in"such"a"way."By"doing"so,"the" writer" aims" to" position" readers" so" they" feel" there" is" no" need" to" change" the" day," as" nobody"is"celebrating"the"invasion."OBrien"complements"this"with"the"use"of"statistics"to" explain"that"80%"of"Herald"Sun"readers"are"against"changing"the"day."The"use"of"facts" gives" OBrien" a" sense" of" credibility," intending" to" make" readers" less" likely" to" argue" against"her"point,"especially"if"80%"of"their"fellow"readers"agree."OBrien"also"appeals"to" patriotism," that" Australia" Day" is" a" chance" for" us" to" enjoy" our" countrys" freedom" and" natural" beauty." Readers" are" thus" invited" to" share" this" patriotic" love" for" Australia" and" this"intends"to"have"them"feel"changing"the"day"would"be"unpatriotic." The" writers" tone" changes" from" jingoistic" and" praising" to" morose" and" logical" as" she" explains"there"are"two"Australias""one"for"blacks"and"one"for"whites."OBrien"then"goes" on" to" use" the" grim" statistics" that" Aboriginal" Australians" die" an" average" of" 26" years" younger" than" whites" and" are" three" times" more" likely" to" die" at" birth." This" scaremongering"intends"to"have"readers"sympathise"with"the"Aboriginal"Australians"and" give" Dodsons" claim" some" credibility" as" the" use" of" facts" cannot" be" logically" argued" against." The" writer" intends" to" put" Dodsons" comments" in" perspective" and" that" he" was" right" as" the" majority" of" Aboriginal" people" dont" have" much" to" celebrate," and" the" day" does"not"mean"the"same"to"them"as"it"does"to"others.""" The" Australian" editorial" takes" a" similar" approach" to" the" issue" as" OBriens" article," also" believing" that" there" are" more" important" issues" to" focus" on." However," whilst" OBrien" supports"Dodsons"claims,"the"editorial"is"more"cynical"of"Dodson,"stating"that"he"would" have"done"better"to"rise"above"that."He"intends"to"have"readers"feel"that"this"is"a"shallow" suggestion"and"below"the"Australian"of"the"Year."The"editor"also"appeals"to"logic"in"the" piece,"highlighting"that"no"one"alive"today"was"there"during"the"British"invasion."This" aims" to" have" readers" feel" changing" the" date" to" ease" indigenous" sensitivities" over" an" issue"from"221"years"ago"would"be"far"from"beneficial,"as"those"who"truly"suffered"are" long" dead." Furthermore," the" editor" explains" that" Dodson" is" presumably" aware" that" some"of"his"fellow"Aboriginal"Australians"were"also"enjoying"the"day."The"editor"does" this"intending"to"have"readers"feel"that"Dodson"is"unjustified"in"his"claim"as"even"those" who"he"is"speaking"for"enjoyed"the"day."In"addition,"the"editor"aims"to"shift"the"focus"to"a" different" issue," just" as" OBrien" did" in" her" article." The" editor" highlights" prevalent" social" problems" of" lower" life" expectancy" and" poor" health" as" being" the" true" issues," and" that" moving"the"date"is"a"shallow"attempt"to"blame"present"problems"on"a"longFago"event." Through"this,"the"editor"encourages"readers"to"consider"if"a"change"in"date"will"have"any" real"impact"on"the"Aboriginal"Australians"true"problems.""
Joshua 1/5/12 8:44 AM
Comment [136]: Analysis"of"the"tone"is" evident"here.""The"entire"paragraph"of"analysis" will"be"placed"within"the"context"of"the"logical," reasoned"nature"of"this"response."""

Joshua 1/5/12 8:44 AM


Comment [137]: Metalanguage"of"the"unit"is" being"used""make"sure"your"essay"includes"these" types"of"terms"(although"not"forcefully)"because" use"of"such"terms"will"inevitably"lead"you"to" engage"in"the"kind"of"analysis"that"is"required"to" score"well."""

Joshua 1/5/12 8:44 AM


Comment [138]: Shows"a"wide"and"varied" vocabulary"without"being"pretentious.""Complex" words"are"only"effective"when"they"are"applied" properly,"and"not"simply"thrown"around"to"make" it"seem"like"the"writer"is"more"intelligent"than" they"actually"are."""

Joshua 1/5/12 8:44 AM


Comment [139]: The"student"preFempts"the" kind"of"response"likely"to"be"elicited"in"the" reader;"while"this"is"not"always"warranted,"in" scenarios"such"as"this,"where"further"analysis"of" the"reader"effect"is"completed"below,"it" complements"the"analysis."""

Joshua 1/5/12 8:44 AM


Comment [140]: The"reader"effect"statement" here"is"prominent,"and"is"the"centre"of"this" particular"piece"of"analysis."""

Joshua 1/5/12 8:44 AM


Comment [141]: Good"identification"and" subsequent"analysis"of"a"rhetorical"device"used" by"the"writer."""

Joshua 1/5/12 8:44 AM


Comment [142]: The"student"deals"with"the" substantive"material"of"the"analysis"before" moving"on"to"the"application"to"the"reader.""This" structure"generally"works"and"is"very"acceptable" to"use."""

Copyright""2012"Connect"Education" "

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