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VCE Physical Education Notes

Lex Ituarte & Lisa Tran


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Guidelines%for%inactivity% There!are!also!guidelines!for!sedentary!behaviour,!that!is,!inactivity!behaviour,!which!could! be!anything!from!reading!a!book!to!watching!TV.!Sedentary!behaviour!is!defined!as!activities! that! do! not! raise! energy! expenditure! substantially! above! resting! levels.! Why! is! it! also! important!to!set!these!guidelines?!Because!sedentary!behaviour!displaces!active!behaviour,! directing!the!amount!and!type!of!inactivity!helps!give!people!more!healthy!opportunities.!If! an! individual! is! recommended! not! to! watch! too! much! TV,! then! they! are! more! likely! to! be! physically!active!as!a!replacement.!! It! is! really! important! to! understand! that! the! guidelines! for! sedentary! behaviour! are! only! in! relation! to! use! of! electronic! media! (with! one! exception).!That!is,!how!much!each!age!group!is!allowed!to!watch!TV,! use!the!computer,!and!so!on!!screen!time.!There!is!no!restriction!for! other! types! of! sedentary! behaviour.! This! means! that! a! tool! that! can! measure!sedentary!behaviour!in!general!will!be!of!little!use!for!telling! you!whether!someone!is!meeting!the!guidelines!or!not.!You!also!need! to!know!what!type%of%sedentary%behaviour!occurred.! The!guidelines!are!detailed!below.! ! 0J5%Year%Olds% Children!from!0T1!should!engage!in!floorTbased!play!for!a!sufficient!amount!of!time! Children!from!1T5!should!engage!in!a!variety!of!activities!daily,!3!hours!+! No!electronic!media!for!children!under!the!age!of!2! No!more!than!1!hour!of!electronic!media!per!day!for!2T5!year!olds! 0T5!year!olds!should!not!be!kept!inactive!for!more!than!an!hour!at!a!time!! ! Children%(5J12)%and%Youth%(12J18)% Frequency:!everyday! Intensity:!moderate!T!vigorous! Duration:!60!minutes!+!(and!up!to!several!hours!a!day!for!children)! Type:! variety! including! weight! bearing! activities! and! those! incorporating! fundamental!motor!skills!for!children! No! more! than! two! hours! per! day! of! electronic! media! used! for! nonTeducational! purposes! ! Precise!phrasing!of!answers!is!important!here.!For!example:! Two!hours!of!sedentary!behaviour!per!day! No#more!than!two!hours!of!electronic#media#for#entertainment!per!day! In! the! latter! response,! the! wording! is! much! more! precise! (see! the! bolding),! showing! the! examiner! that! you! understand! two! hours! is! the! maximum,!and!that!some!types!of!sedentary!behaviour!are!okay.!

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Measurement tools
You!will!come!across!a!variety!of!tools!in!textbooks,!just!remember!that!only!some!of!these! are!listed!in!the!study!design.!Also!be!aware!that!not!all!tools!are!automatically!bad!or!good.! The! most! basic! division! of! the! measures! is! whether! they! are! subjective,! or! objective,! and! this!is!often!the!first!trap!in!the!way!students!think!about!these.!No!measure!is!bad;!each!has! its!use!in!certain!situations.!For!example,!a!pedometer!is!fantastic!for!a!promotion!program! that!tries!to!change!walking!behaviour,!but!horrible!for!assessing!an!individuals!compliance! with!the!Guidelines.!! ! Subjective%measures% Rely! on! subjects% opinions! of! their! own! physical! activity! levels! OR! rely! on! another! biased! view!of!a!subjects!physical!activity!(e.g.!one!from!a!parent!or!guardian!of!a!child).! ! Objective%measures% Do! not! rely! on! a! subjects! opinion! of! her! or! his! own! physical! activity.! They! are! either! measurements! conducted! by! machines,! or! measurements! conducted! by! impartial! professionals.!! ! The!first!two!measures!in!this!table!are!subjective,!while!the!next!three!are!objective.!! ! Recall%surveys% Advantages! Disadvantages!
Include!selfTadministered!and! interviewerTadministered! recalls!that!collect! information!about!various! aspects!of!physical!activity.!! ! Proxy!reports!involve! someone!else!such!as!a! parent!or!carer!reporting!on! behalf!on!another!individual!! e.g.!a!child!or!elderly!person.!! No! reactivity! (in! most! cases)! Can!assess!physical! activity!across!multiple! domains! Can!capture!both! qualitative!and! quantitative! information! Quick!and!easy!for! large!groups!(low! burden)! CostTeffective!for!large! studies! Disadvantages! Accuracy!problems!due! to!social!desirability!bias! Not!suitable!for!children! under!10!or!old!adults! due!to!cognitive! limitations! Advantages! High!participant!burden! Medium!T!high!reactivity! Accuracy!problems!due! to!social!desirability!bias! Not!suitable!for!children! under!10!or!old!adults! due!to!cognitive! limitations! Interviewer!may!be! needed!to!collect!data! Not!very!accurate!due!to! memory!limitations!

Logs%and%Diaries%
Record!detailed!information! about!several!dimensions! (e.g.!type,!frequency,! intensity!and!duration)!and! require!participants!to! document!their!activity!level! daily.!

Advantages! Can!capture!both! qualitative!and! quantitative! information! Good!for!small!groups! Easy!to!complete!!

Direct%Observation%

Disadvantages!

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Pulmonary%diffusion%increases% More! oxygen! and! carbon! dioxide! are! exchanged! at! the! alveolarTcapillary! interface.! This! is! where! the! air! sacs! of! the! lungs! and! the! tiny! blood! vessels! meet!! where! oxygen! is! loaded! onto!the!haemoglobin!of!red!blood!cells.!Reasons!for!increased!diffusion:! More!blood!flow!to!the!lungs!(means!that!the!surface!area!of!the!membranes!of!the! capillaries!and!alveoli!increases!allowing!more!places!for!diffusion!to!occur)! More!oxygen!consumption!by!active!muscles!means!that!blood!returns!to!the!lungs! with!a!high!amount!of!carbon!dioxide.!! ! % % Acute%Responses%at%the%Cardiovascular%Level% % Increased%cardiac%output% The!volume!of!blood!pumped!around!the!body!by!the!heart!in!a!minute!increases!!this!is! the!cardiac!output.!This!is!essential!to!increase!oxygen!delivery!to!muscles.!! ! Cardiac!Output!(Q)!=!heart!rate!(HR)!x!stroke!volume!(SV)! Heart!rate,!the!number!of!beats!per!minute,!rises!due!to:! an!anticipatory!response!to!exercise,!due!to!a!preTexercise!hormonal!increase! neural! and! hormonal! factors! as! exercise! begins! and! becomes! more! intense! ! the! hormones!include!both!adrenaline!and!noradrenaline!! ! HR! increases! linearly! with! exercise! intensity.! In! other! words,! as! the! exercise! intensity! increases,!so!does!the!heart!rate!proportionately.!This!occurs!until!the!maximum!heart!rate! is!reached,!where!intensity!increases!but!the!heart!rate!cannot!increase!further.!The!same! relationship!can!also!be!seen!with!intensity!and!oxygen!consumption!(VO).!! ! Stroke!volume,!the!volume!of!blood!ejected!from!the!left!ventricle!per!beat,!rises!due!to:! Increased!venous!return!(blood!flow!back!to!the!heart):!there!is!a!greater!filling!and! then!elastic!recoil!of!the!heart!due!to!this,!ejecting!more!blood! Increased!cardiac!contractility:!due!to!greater!neural!stimulation,!the!heart!contracts! more!forcefully!and!pushes!more!blood!out!of!the!ventricle! Reduced! peripheral! resistance! (the! pressure! that! the! heart! needs! to! contract! against):!it!becomes!easier!to!eject!blood!due!to!increased!vasodilation! ! At! high! intensities,! untrained! individuals! can! attribute! their! Q! increase! primarily! to! HR! increases,!and!trained!individuals!can!attribute!their!Q!increase!mainly!to!SV!rises.!!! ! Redistribution%of%blood%flow% Blood!flow!is!redirected!from!some!of!the!vital!organs!such!as!the!liver!and!is!diverted!to!the! muscles!when!exercise!begins.!There!is!a!significant!increase!in!the!amount!of!blood!flowing! to! the! muscles! (and! hence! oxygen).! This! occurs! because! of! vasodilation! (blood! vessel! expansion)!in!this!area,!which!allows!more!blood!through.!Areas!that!have!blood!taken!away! from!them!experience!vasoconstriction!(blood!vessel!narrowing).!It!is!important!to!note!that! the! brain! receives! a! steady! supply! of! blood,! and! that! the! heart! receives! even! more! blood! because!it!of!course!is!responsible!for!pumping!it!and!needs!increased!oxygen!supply!of!its! own.! Copyright!!2012!Connect!Education!! 26!

Fuel%contributions%% At! rest,! the! body! uses! approximately! twoTthirds! fat! and! oneTthird! CHO! ! this! is! because!fats!can!liberate!more!energy!than!CHO!and!because!there!is!an!abundance! of!oxygen!at!rest,!this!is!the!most!efficient!energy!pathway! It!follows!that!fat!predominates!during!lowTintensity!exercise! During!highTintensity!exercise,!CHO!and!phosphocreatine!(for!short!bursts!only)!are! predominantly!used!! During!moderate!intensity!exercise,!a!mixture!of!fat!and!CHO!is!used!depending!on! duration!!extended!duration!efforts!eventually!see!glycogen!depletion!and!it!is!here! where! fats! become! the! dominant! provider! of! energy,! which! causes! a! decrease! in! intensity!as!more!oxygen!is!required!for!their!breakdown!! LowTGI!meals!are!supposedly!important!for!long!events!as!this!may!assist!in!delaying! glycogen! depletion! ! ingesting! highTGI! foods! prior! to! an! event! potentially! accelerates! the! reliance! on! glycogen! during! early! stages! of! competition! and! this! results!in!quicker!depletion!and!greater!fat!reliance!later!on!(this!is!negative!because! fats!require!much!more!oxygen!to!be!broken!down).!! ! !

Energy Systems
Energy! systems! are! pathways! in! which! energy! is! transferred! from! fuels! to! ATP! ! energy! systems! resynthesise! ATP.! Anaerobic% metabolism! refers! to! ATP! regeneration! without! the! use! of! oxygen.! The! two! energy! systems! are! the! ATPTCP! and! lactic! acid! systems.! Aerobic% metabolism! refers! to! oxygenTrequiring! chemical! pathways,! which! release! energy! for! the! resynthesis!of!ATP.!There!is!only!one!aerobic!system,!however!it!is!capable!of!breaking!down! proteins,!lipids!(lipolysis)!and!carbohydrates!(glycolysis).!! ! At!any!one!moment,!all!energy!systems!are!producing!ATP!within!a!muscle,!even!if!it!within! very!small!quantities.!The!relative!contribution!of!each!system!to!energy!supply!is!known!as! the!energy% system% interplay.!After!a!period!of!rest,!the!aerobic!system!will!take!a!while!to! increase! its! output,! so! the! anaerobic! systems! generally! predominate! during! this! period.! However,!the!anaerobic!systems!have!a!finite%capacity!and!this!means!that!they!are!quickly! exhausted! and! henceforth! have! little! contribution! to! ATP! resynthesis.! The! only! way! to! replenish!the!anaerobic!systems!is!through!the!aerobic!pathway!!this!requires!a!decrease!in! intensity!or!rest.!Energy!system!interplay!is!dependent!on!many!factors,!particularly!exercise! intensity!and!duration;!fuel!availability;!type!of!exercise;!and!rest!periods.!! ! A!few!important!trends:! If!exercise!is!continuous,!the!aerobic!system!sustains!dominance!once!obtained!with! the!relative!contributions!of!other!systems!changing!depending!on!intensity!!there! are!few!exceptions!to!this! Anaerobic!contribution,!especially!ATPTCP!output!is!very!small!during!events!of!long! duration!!anaerobic!systems!have!a!finite!capacity! Anaerobic! systems! usually! only! regain! dominance! after! a! period! of! rest! or! low! intensity!activity!

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Slower!increase!in!heart!rate!during!exercise!and!quicker!return!to!resting!heart!rate! after!exercise:!this!is!due!to!a!number!of!factors!increasing!efficiency.! Maximal! cardiac! output! increases:! cardiac! output! remains! similar! at! rest! and! subT maximally! between! trained! and! untrained! individuals,! however,! it! increases! significantly! in! trained! people! at! maximal! levels! because! of! their! higher! stroke! volumes.! This! means! that! the! trained! individual! can! deliver! more! oxygen! to! their! muscles!at!higher!intensities!where!an!untrained!person!may!have!to!stop.!! Increased! capillary! density! in! the! heart:! blood! supply! to! the! heart! increases.! The! heart,!like!any!muscle,!requires!a!healthy!blood!supply!of!its!own!in!order!to!perform! its!function;!to!contract.!More!capillaries!within!the!cardiac!muscle!itself!allow!for!a! greater!oxygen!supply!and!this!assists!efficiency!of!the!heart.!!

! It! should! be! noted! that! it! is! not! advisable! to! mention! stroke! volume! increases! and! cardiac! output! increases! as! the! same! point! for! an! exam! question,! as! these! are! two! heavily! interrelated! chronic! adaptations.! Stroke! volume! and! cardiac! output! are! the! same! and! students! could! not!list!these!as!two!different!adaptations.!(VCAA,!2007)! Changes!relating!to!the!blood:! Blood! plasma! volume! and! red! blood! cell! count! increases:! this! means! more! oxygen! can! be! carried! and! other! functions! such! as! temperature! regulation! can! also! be! better! performed.! Red! blood! cells! contain! an! oxygenTcarrying! pigment! called! haemoglobin!and!this!increases!in!amount,!meaning!more!oxygen!can!travel!in!the! blood!by!binding!to!it.!! ! Changes!relating!to!blood!vessels:! Increased! capillarisation! (capillary! density):! there! are! more! capillaries! surrounding! muscle! cells,! which! result! in! greater! oxygen! delivery! (and! blood! flow)! to! working! skeletal! muscles! during! exercise.! This! can! also! be! mentioned! as! a! muscular! adaptation,! however! strictly! it! is! cardiovascular.! It! is! also! important! to! note! that! because! of! this! change! there! is! an! increased! surface! area! at! the! tissueTcapillary! interface!!this!allow!for!an!increased!rate!of!diffusion.! Increased!elasticity!of!blood!vessels:!this,!along!with!the!increased!capillary!density! results! in! a! decreased! blood! pressure.! This! happens! because! there! is! a! reduced! resistance!to!blood!flow,!which!reduces!strain!on!the!heart.!

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