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Unit-2 Construction Practices

Topic Specification Details and sequence of activities and construction co-ordination Site clearance Marking Earthwork Masonry-Stone masonry-Bond in masonry Concrete hollow masonry Flooring Damp proof courses Construction joints -Movement and expansion joints Precast pavements Building foundations Basements Temporary sheds Centering and Shuttering Slip forms Scaffoldings Arora-Pg10.3 Arora-Pg24.39 Notes Notes Page no

De shuttering forms Fabrication and erection of steel trusses-braced domes Laying bricks Weathering and water proofing Roof finishes Acoustic Fire protection


Arora 20.2 Arora-10.15 BC Punmia-645

Reference books 1.Building construction, Planning Techniques and Method of Construction Arora SP and Bindra 2.Concrete Technology MS Shetty


MARKING: Setting out or ground tracing is a term applied to the process of laying down certain lines and marks on the ground before the excavation of foundation trenches actually started. There are mainly two purpose of these purposes. i. ii. The excavation of foundation trenches can be started immediately after this process is completed. The lines and marks established by this process serves as a guide and provide checks in the construction of the foundation works.

The procedure for setting out foundation trench are as follows i. From the site plan of the building, one line which can easily be established on the ground is selected. This line will be the base line and from this base line, the entire building can be traced out on the ground. Center-line wooden pegs are driven in the ground and they project about 25mm to 50mm above the ground level. Nail are provided on the top of the pegs. Two other pegs are driven at equal distance on either side of the center line peg such that the distance between them becomes equal to the width of the foundation trench. With the help of these pegs, the foundation plan can be completely traced on the ground. For this purpose, strings are tied to respective peg and lines are marked along these strings with the help of the pickaxe. Lime powder is spread along these lines to make them prominently seen.




v. vi.

Along the center line pegs, masonary pillars are constructed. The height is kept at plinth level. The masonary pillars are plastered and extreme care is taken to preserve them.

SERIES OF ACTIVITIES TO BE DONE IN CONSTRUCTION: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii. xiii. xiv. xv. Excavation Concrete in Foundation Soiling Damp Proof Course (DPC) Masonry Work Lintel Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) Flooring and Roofing Plastering and pointing Doors and windows Wood work Iron work White washing Colour washing Painting

ORDER AND METHOD OF REMOVAL OF FORMWORK (DESHUTTERING OF FORMS) The formwork should be planned and constructed in such a manner that it is possible to remove the different component in the following order of sequence. i. Shuttering forming vertical faces of walls, beams and column sides (which bear no load but are used only to retain the concrete) should be removed first. Shuttering forming soffit to slab should be removed next. Shuttering forming soffit of beams, girders or other heavily loaded shuttering should be removed in the end.

ii. iii.

Duration of time