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SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
ELECTONIC AND INSTRUMENTION DEPT.
Compiled & Submitted By:-
(Roll No.:- 0902932001 B.Tech (EIE)- VI semester
We are highly thankful to B.H.E.L. engineers and technical staff for providing us vital and valuable information about the different of an industrial facts management system. We express our gratitude to Human Resource department for giving us a chance to feel the and Development industrial and its working in B.H.E.L. and we are thankful to environment Mr. M.K.Nagaich, Giving his precious time and help us in on CNC under whose kind Supervision we accomplished our project we are thankful to Mr VIJAY VERMA for his kind support.
ABHAS GUPTA (B.Tech (EIE), KIET, GHAZIABAD)
At very outset of the prologue it becomes imperative training is an integral part of engineering curriculum. vocational to insist that Training allows us to gain an insight into the various aspects of the practical topics, with which we come across while pursuing our B.Tech i.e. vocational training gives us practical topics we already have implementation of various learned and will Vocational future. learn in neartraining always emphasizes on logic instead of theoretical and commonsense aspects of subject. On my part, I pursued four weeks training at training B.H.E.L. Jhansi. The involved a study of various departments of as organization the per the time logically scheduled and well planned given to us. The rotation in various departments was necessary in order to get working of an overall idea about the the organization. A (B.Tech (EIE), B GHAZIABAD)H A S G U P T A
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED
In the post independence era when India was moving towards industrialization, the thrust by the government was in the core sector. W BHARAT HEAVY i ELECTRICALS LIMITED tin Bhopal in August 1956, with a view to reach self sufficiency in h industrial products and power equipments. This plan was setup under tcollaboratio n h of M/s. iAEJ, U.K. plants were setup at Tiruchy, Now more sHyderabad and Haridwar with Czechoslovakian and Soviet Union assistance in May 1956, Dec. o 1965, and Jan. 1967 respectively. Today b B.H.E.L. has become the jlargest engineering plant employing eapproximately 72000 employees. Its headquarters c are located at Delhi. t iB.H.E.L. is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise v India in the energy/infrastructure sector, in etoday. B.H.E.L. was established more than forty years ago ushering in the indigenous heavy electrical equipments industry in India a dream that has been more than realized with a wellrecognized track record of performance. It has been earning profits since 1971-72 and paying divid ends since B.H.E.L. manufactures over 180 1976- under thirty major products product groups and caters to core sectors of the 77. Indian Economy viz., Power Generation and Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable Energy, etc. The wide network of B.H.E.L.’s fourteen manufacturing divisions, four power sector
regional centers, over hundred project sites, eight service centers and eighteen regional offices, enables the company to promptly serve its customers and provide them with suitable products efficiently and at competitive prices. The quality and reliability of its products is due to the emphasis on design, engineering and manufacturing to international standards by acquiring and adapting some of the best technologies from leading companies in the world, together with technologies developed in its o w nB.H.E.L. has acquired certifications to Quality Management Systems- ISO 9001, Environmental Management R Systems-ISO 14001 & and Occupational Health and Safety D Management Systems-OHSAS 18001 and has also adopted the cconcepts of Total Quality Mana e geme n nt. t B.H.E.L. has installed equipment for over of e90,000 MW forpower generationUtilities, Captive, and Industrial rusers. It supplied over s2,25,000 MVA transformer capacity and . sustained equipment operating in transmission and distribution network up to 400 KV- AC It supplied over 25,000 motors with Drive Control System to power projects, petrochemicals, refineries, steel, aluminum, fertilizer, cement plants, etc. It also supplied traction electrics and AC/DC locos to power over 12,000 Km railway network. Supplied over one million valves to power plants and other industries. B.H.E.L.’s operations are organized around three business sectors, namely Power Industry including Transmission,
Transportation, Telecommunication and Renewable Energy and Overseas Business. This enables B.H.E.L. to have a strong customer orientation, to be sensitive to his needs and respond quickly to the ch an ge B.H.E.L.’s vision is to become a s world class engineering enterprise, committed to enhance stakeholder in value. company is the The give shape to its aspirations and fulfill striving to ma expectations as a the N rke a t. v greatest strength of B.H.E.L. is The r highly skilled and its committed 44,000 employees. Every a employee is given an equal t opportunity to develop himself and improve his n position. Continuous training and retaining, career planning, a a positive work culture and C participative style of management have o engendered development of mcommitted and motivated work force a p leading to enhanced productivity and a higher levels of n quality. y .
VISION, MISSION AND VALUES OF B.H.E.L.
A world class engineering enterprise s committed to enhancing t a k e h Mission o : l To be an Indian Multinational Engineering dEnterprise providing total e business solution through quality products, fields and services in the r system of energy, industry, transportation, v poteinfrastructure and other a ntial l area s. u e . VALU ES: Zeal to Excel Zest Integrity and for fairness in all change. Respect matters. for dignity and potential of every individual. Strict adherence to Ensur commitments. e Faster learning, speed teamwork and of Loyalty creativity. and respon Pride in the se. Company.
BHARAT HEAVY LIMITED, JHANSI
for rail wayThis unit of Jhansi was established around 14 etc. Km from the city on the NH no. 26 on Jhansi Lalitpur Road. It was called second generation plant of B.H.E.L. set up in 1974 at an estimated cost of Rs. 16.22 crores inclusive of Rs. 2.1 crores for township. Its foundation was laid by Late th Mrs. Indira Gandhi, the prime minister on 9 commercial production of the unit began in 197677 with an output of Rs. 53 lakhs since then there has been no looking back for B.H.E.L.
A Bri ef Intr By the end of five year plan it was odu envisaged by the planning ctio commission that the demand for power n transformer would raise in the coming years. Anticipating the country’s requirement B.H.E.L. decided to set up a plant which would manufacture power and other type of transformer in addition to the capacity available at B.H.E.L. Bhopal. The Bhopal plant was engaged in manufacturing of transformer of large rating and Jhansi unit would concentrate on power transformer like instrument transformer, traction transformer
Jan. 197 4. The
MANUFACTURING UNITS OF B.H.E.L.
First Gene BHOPAL ration Heavy Electrical Plant Units HARDWAR Electrical Equipment Plant HYDERABAD Power Equipment Plant TIRUCHY Pressure Boiler Plant Second Generat ion JHANSI Units and Locomotive Plant HARDIWAR Foundry and Forge Plant TIRUCHY Seamless Steel Tube Plant Unit Through Acquisition and Merger BANGALORE Electronic Division Electr o Porcel ain New Divisi Manufac on turing RANIPAT Units Auxiliaries Plant Boiler JAGDISHPUR Insulator Plant RUDRAPUR and Fabrication Plant BANGALORE Industrial System Group
Heavy Heavy Electrical High
To build a high degree of customer confidence by providing increased value for his money through international standards of product performance superior customer service.
Pe op le To enable each employee to achieve his Or potential, improve his capabilities, perceive his role and ie responsibilities and participate nt and contribute to the growth and success of the ati company, to invest in human resources continuously and be on alive to their needs.
Tech nolo gy To achieve technological excellence in operations by development of indigenous technologies and efficient absorption and provide competitive advantage to the company.
To fulfill the expectations which stakeholders like government as owner, employees, customers and the country at large have from
THE PRODUCT PROFILE OF B.H.E.L., JHANSI
S.No. Products 1. Power Transformer Up to 220 Specifications KVA class 250 MVA 2. Special Transformer Up to 3. ESP 110 KVA transformer 4. Fright Loco Transformer 3900-5400 1000 KVA KVA & 6500 KVA (3 Phase) 5. ACEMU Transformer Up to 1000 KVA 25 KV (single phase) 6. Dry Type Transformer Up to 3150 7. KVABus Duct Up to 15.75 KVA (Generating
9. Up D Loco to ie motive 260 se10. AC/DC Locomotive Up to 5000 HP 0 l (25 KV AC/1500v HP DC) E n 11. Well gi Wagon ne200 12. Over cum Tones Head Equipm Test Car ent 13. Dynamic 14. Track Ballast Stabilizer Cleaning Machine
8. Instrument Transformer VT and CT up to 220 KVA
GROWTH OF PRODUCTION AND MILESTONES
S.No. Year Milesto 1. 1976-77 Start of Instrument nes’ Transformer Production
2. 1977-78 Start of Traction Transformer and Power Transform er (Up To132 1978-79 Start of HFTT type KV) freight Locomotive 4. Commissioning of 19792,500 KV DG Set 80 (Due to sever 5. Start power 1980of cuts) 81 ESP of 220 KV 6. Start Trans 1981Power forme 82 Transformers 7. A r 1982c 83 8. St h 1983ar i 84 t e 9. Start of Dry of v 1984Type Be 85 Transforme of Diesel 10. Repowering usB r 1985r duLocomotive Started 86 11. Start of Diesel ct e a 1986Locomotive k 87 Started 12. Manufacturing Facilities 1987for AC Locomotive E 88 13. C v 1988ro e 89 ss n ed C or e T ar ge t
14. 199091 15. 199192 16. 199293 17. 199394 18. 199495 19. 199596 20. 199697 21. 199798 22. 199899 23. 199900
A xe l Manufacture of First 2600 DiHP Diesel for NTPC es Successful Design el and Development C of CI5000 HP Thruster Control Locomotive Unit has been Awarded ISO19001 Certificate for Quality Systems 240 MVA Power Transformer Produced First Time AC/DC Locomotives first time in India Hundredth Locomotive ManufacturedMVA 250 Transformer Produced First Over Developed Head Equipment cum Test Car Diesel Hydra ulic Shunti ng
Successful Design and Manufacturing of 400 HP 3
ROTA TION REP OR T
FABRICATION (BAY-0, 1, 2)
Fabrication shop is the shop which deals with the manufacturing of transformer and locomotive components such as Tanks, Plates, and Nuts and Bolts. Fabrication shop is divided into three partsBAY-0 BAY-1 BAY-2
This is the preparation shop, in this shop; we cut the different components of the different materials as per the drawing requirements. Different BAY processing m/s in this CUT TIN G CNC FLAME MAC CUTTING MACHINE By theHIN of this machine any shape can be use E up to 2.5m to obtained Maker – ESAB Flame Germany – Oxymade Feeding Language – ESSI Acetylene Format, ESC Format Flame Capacity – 3.15mm to 300mm
is as follo ws –
c) d) e)
A c Cutt c ing u Material Too r s – a l to cut – Mild Cop Pc steel A per y N P T U – O G SHE G ARI 0 NG R . This C machine is used for metal sheet. Cutting A 1 rangeU 2mm to 6 mm. is Pm T Suitable materials for use are Al, H Tm Standard steel and Cu. I N G BEN DIN G – Principl MAC e Hydr HIN aulica Pressure Gauge is used to read out the E lly pressure applied. Stopping mechanism opera is used by screw to prevent the collapsing the ram blade ted with bending grooves (Die). ROL LING MAC This machine is used for decreasing the roll HINE thickness. The roller material used is High Carbon Steel.having the two rollers and one bending It is roller. In this machine, gears are used for speed reduction of the rollers to give uniform and better thickness and good surface finish. Wedge type metal piece is used (Manually operated) for changing the gap b/w rollers for the r e q u i r e d t h i c k n e s s .
FLATE ENNG This machine is used to straightening the job. MACHI This isNE hydraulically operated. In it, flattening load is applied by hydraulic method; hydraulic oil of suitable grade is used. The capacity of this machine is 100 tons. The shape of ram is cylindrical.
RADIAL DRILLING In this MACHINE can move radically. In it machine, tool cutting oil mixed with water is used to cool the drill tool as used as the material to be drilled. Different drill tools are used from 2mm to 100mm dia. PLANO MILLING MACHINE
these bays, different operating is to be Fitting performe In this section, as the name d. – suggests, we fit different components as the . drawing requirements Welding – In this section, we weld the different components of different drawing by permanent joints. Testing – When our tank for the transformer is completed, then we check the leakage tests on the tanks. There are two types of leakage tests, which we have to perform on the transformer tank.
B A Y (1, These BAYS are known as assembly bays. In 2)
1. AT (Air In this leakag test, first we fill the tank by compressed air and dip the tank in e test) the soap solution for bubble test. 2. VT Sh (Defl o tectio Bl n we check the leakage by satisfying When ast test) we use SHOT result then BLASTING for removing the carbon layer from ing the surface of the tank. Plathe SHOT BLASTING, we use the small rings In nt- the high pressure with
of 7kg. Paintin g–
After shot blasting, we paint the tank for corrosion resistant.
below. 1. 2.
It is split in two parts, half is consist of machine shop and the other half is consist of winding of dry type transformer. There is different type machines used in section. These are listed To ol Cu Hydrauli tte surface c Cooling r grinder oils gri is used as ndcoolant. er – Used for cutting tool also grinding them. – It is consist of magnetic platform.
Dr – It is used for ill sharp the drill means sh bits by of ar grindi Vertical – It is used . p ng grinder for grinding ma wheel machine chi Hydr – purpose Used for . ne aulic straightening the capacity of this power material machine is 25 press tones. Resistance – Used for brazing overlap machine connectio B – It is used for e cutting ns. circular this machine blade width is inch n object. In and thickness is ¾ inch. d E – Used s la for e heating w Hydraulic – Used for c the object. m punching making tof material for desire purpose. a machine small pieces Range of this machine is r c 1 ih 2 c i m Hydraulic – Used for n m shearing cutting the fe in machine range material u tbetween 12mm r 25mm. to There are mainly o L– na three type of lathes a there 2 t these are c are 5 h listed e as Turretbelow. – Used for heavy duty. 0 e lathe Range of this machine is mm 2 ma 5 . c Capstone lathe – Used for light work, 0 rangeh this machine is of m 2 i m 0 n Center lathe – It is used for light work and m rangeeof this machine t m is o 2 t0 3 o m 0 m 0 1 to m 5 2 m 0 0 . m 0 m m .m .
CO PP This ER part is only concern with copper cutting, bending, tinning etc. SE Machine used CT as listed are IO below.S : Range 4mm to 6mm and N h length of the blade is 830mm. e ar Hydr : Used for in aulic straightening g power : the product. m Tube This machine is press ac slitti developed here used for cutting the tube along its hi ng and is length and across its n mac diameter. Its e hine thickness is blade F : It is fully mechanical and 3 mm. l is used to press the job. It is operated mechanically by a y wheel, which is top on the machine. p r Lin : It e cing creates s belt a s mac smooth m hine surface. a c h i BAY n –4 e
a) b) c) d)
Here winding work of the power transformer is carried out. The coil of transformer is of four types. L o H w i v Tap coil ol g h ta Tertiar v g y coil o e lt c a oi lg e c o il
a) b) c) d)
All the winding performed by the paper insulation copper conductor or by continuously transposed conductor it also made of copper. They can arrange by Reve different ways. He rse secti lic I on al n H wind wi t al ing ndie f ng r s l e i ct n i k o e n d w i w n i d n i d n i g n g
F igure showing Cast Resin Dry Type transformer find industutilization in main power of rial plants
Arrangement and type of coil depends upon job requirements. Also the width and thickness of the conductors are designeddesign department. Conductors used decided by and are for winding is in the spiral wound on a spool, form of very long conductor is covered by cellulose paper for insulation .
a) b) c)
For winding first the winding mould of diameter equal to inner of required coil is made. The specification of coil isthat interlocks with each the drawing section given in other. This interlockingdecreased to adjust the can be increased and innermoulds are coil. The diameter of of following Belly types. types Link types Cone types
It is core Core and is the basic requirements of transformer in this bay various type punch of lamination of core section. they are – is made, Side leg: This lamination is at the extreme ends of are which stand vertical. They the core isosceles trapezium in sha pe Cenwit This as the name tral h suggests is portion of the core. It is diamond central leg: ang vertical shapedlonger. At the narrower edges with vertical - le edge one side isother for making a longer than the kept of well fixed joint, the a 45. n Yoke: The horizontal lamination g of are also isosceles lyoke. They the core is called trapezium in shape with angle e s s of 45. a r e k e p t 4 5 .
S to cut CRGO sheets used in different width. It li has a circular cutter whose position can tt changed as per the be i uire n CNC It contains only ment g cropping line one blade which . rotate 90º pneumatic: about the sheet. It iscan m operated pneumatically. It is also used to a CNC cropping line cut the CRGO sheet c contains two blades, one is fixed and other hydraulic: it h rotates 90º above the i sheet. It is operated hydraulically. M4 quality sheet 0.23-0.33 mm n e h i: c k n e s Y-6 s This shop is divided into two parts one is traction transformer one consist of assembly of and other winding i traction transformer. s These transformers are used in locomotive used in theuAC locomotive called freight locomotive transformer. These are s mainly of two types: KVA) and Three Single phase (5400 e phase (6500 KVA). d For local train EMV (Electrical multiple unit . transformers) isare be two type: Single phase used. These to also (1000 KVA) and Three p h a The major difference is that it has various output terminals. The s various outputs are required to supply the e mounted on the loco. A tape changer is also machine of different rating ( provided and is used to obtain supply of 1 different rating 5 power. 0 0 K V A ).
F igure showing Transformer to be installed in Shatabdi Express Train.
The traction machine (DC Motor). Which providechanging tapsloco the electrical panel etc by torque to the from on the driver desk the the speed of locomotive can be changed.
In this bay various types of insulation are prepared which is to be u s e M d A in T tr E a RI n A sf L o US r E m D: er s.
Per Si ma ze wo P 10 Siz b) od:r me m e c) G Size1.5 to m c re 1.5m 50 m o d) Bakelite y S m. m to m pr : iz m. p 25 e e S e) Fibe r m ss 4 i r e m. bo mx glasss f) Epo ar Si me : xy s ze d: t glase 10 g) N.B.C. sheets (Naporeniom o s: d bonded cork 1m sheet): 2 m :3mm, 6mm, m 5 m 10mm, and to m 25Size h) S 12mm. mt m 1mm il . o m., ic i) N S o 3mm it iz 3 , n ri e PVA (poly vinyl alcohol) m 6mm cr 3 is used as additive. m . u r m M . b u m A b b t C 1. eR b o It is used to H the ro e 1 roll I press board.is :l 2. It r: Har 2 N l d m thickness plate. By used E i pres m and to heating plates press U n s build . hardly ed S g mac up It is 3. Circle on E hine cutting objects and also anyused this D circular m : machin for mac for machining : used a e : 4. S It is cutti hine. c ng c used h the a for i rf taper n i cutting e BAY n . : –8 g m a c h i n e:
It is involved in manufacturing of instrument transformer of 132KV and 220 KV. Voltage Transformer, Current Transformer and ESP transfo rmer.
• • •
INSTRUMENT The TRANSFORME se Current R: are transfo of Voltage rmer two transfor (C.T.) typ mer es (V.T.) CURRENT TRANSFO It is step down transformer. High current is not RMER directly measured but by the current transformer is step down to lower measurable values, whi Bodych is The main body is a bushing, it also act gen as eral w insulator in which ly i The CT has a low nbottom and top The top chamber is the cylindrical . dchamber. tank of mild steel. It has i terminals for connection of HV coils. It i nhas a glass window to gn Below the top chamber there is i d has several folds and “rain sheds” bushing made of porcelain. It si provide a specific to c pelectrical field distribution and long bushings are of a l leakage path. Some cylindrical while modern oneoil conical as used is at amount of is porcelain ce ureduced without any et n dBottom chamber house the dh also connection box to is e .esecondary winding. There which the (LV)connection low voltage so is i il madrl e. ae Windin bv gs le el. e f f e c t .
The primary winding consists of hollow copper/aluminum pipe bent for low rating. For from of ‘U’ aluminum, used higher rating a set of the pipe. For still higher wire is passed through rating, copperhighest rating copper pipe with used and for pipe is copper wire passing through it is used. This arrangement depends on the current The bent portion of capacity. carrying primary as infree bottomthe top chamber. The where as the the end is istraight portion lies n s The primary is wound with crepe paper i insulation goes in increasing the bottom as we go downwards in d chamber. The free ends are which are small provides with ‘ferrules’, e hollow cylinder through which wires can pass connection to the primary are made through t these ferrules. The secondary is divided in a different coils for h number of set of tapings. Connections are e different taping are made in has an annular connection box. Each coil core of CRGO (silicon b u VOLTAGE s TRANSFOR h This is also step-down transformer the out of MER construction is It same ias that of C.T. thehas also a top chamber, n bushing and a bottom chamber. The difference g only in windings. is .
The primary winding is of thick wire having a few turns. The winding paper insulation. It is heavily insulated with has a hollow cylinder passing centrally through it, which houses the secondary and painted with either enamel The clean winding. or epoxy paint. Thechoice of paint. Epoxy paint costumer gives the is generally plant in and seashore installation. chemical used Terminals and then mark and are rating diagram is sent The job plate to shipping department is fixed. bycare of its which takes packing dispatch in the wooden boxes. In current transformer, primary has less turns then
D I secon F dary F and E vice Rversa. E N C E industry. :
ESP The Electro static TRANS precipitator transformer is used for environmental FORM rectifier application. It is used to filter the suspended charged in the waste ER: uses an of particular use in thermal Theyofare industry. power station and cement The ESP is a single ø phase transformer. It has windings. The primary and secondary core isup of CRGO sheet. It is a step up made laminated and is transformer. An AC reactor is connected in series with primary coil. The output of DC which is the transformer must be obtained by rectifying AC using a bridge rectifier (bridge rectifier is a combination diodes). A radio frequency several hundred of chock (RF in series with the DC output connected chock) is for the protection of secondary circuit and filter circuit. The output chosen the negative because the particles of carbon are positively charged. the secondary is The dc output from given to a set of platethe others. Impurity arrange one after particles stick to these plates, which charged being positively can be jerked this bynetwork of plant has to hammer. For off a be set up all across
the plants .This is very costly process in comparison with the relevant is also transformer cost. A provided to from bursting it higher pressure transformer prevent the develops, inside it. point in the It is the weakest transformer body. An oil the secondary temperature indicator and supply spark detector One side of the are also provided. transformer outputhastaken and the other side is a “marshalling box” which is the control box of the tra nsf or BAY me –9 r. Three types of transformer are fabricated in this bay: P o Dr w y e Rectifi ty r type er pe transfo tra t rmer. ns r POWER fo a TRANSF r n Power ORMER transformer find their wide use in m s electrical power system. transformer, Actually these are the er. f which have made A.C. These are step up or transmission very easy. o down transformer. The voltage of power r primary and secondary m transformer comprises circuit terminals, tanning material for magnetic e switches, tank oil as well r as . cool ing devi ces.
1. 2. 3.
A power transformer undergoing testing in BAY-9 is shown in above figur e.
CAST RESIN DRY TYPE TRANSFORMER The cast resin dry type transformer consists of high voltage and low of Cu conductors voltage winding made which are completely under vacuum. The glass impregnated and cast fiber epoxy insulation and mechanical quality is of very good electrical used. Both HV and LV windings are separately as one solid coil, the iron coil is made CRGOS. Bushing of cables from lamination of boxes are provided for HT and These transformers are used in under LT substation, high building roof and conn hotels under the ectio installation power plant etc. RECTIFIER ns. TRANSFOR MER In some industries electrical energy is supplied in theRectifierthe direct current. form of transformer along with other to convert AC to DC. The advantages used equipments is of using the rectifier
transformer along with rectifier unit efficiency are the supplybe connected to that it can lines. This being static unit efficiency is high. It may appear to be power transformer, but it differs in many respects, power transformer is used to step up or down the voltage secondary of which where rectifier, corresponds to the output DC
The quality that makes a rectifier transformer unique is: The LV of a rectifier transformer carry very high current busher the to be used for has connection winding and terminals. Other associated equipment of rectifier transformer tank. A rectifier transformer is the same is also housed in basically a constant current transformer and consequently KVA rating voltages. changes with output The rating of a transformer is in watts greateroutput is rated DC to provide for the power than the required dis harmonic current of tor ted wa TEST ves ING .
TRANSFO RMER TESTING testing on the transformer is In this shop carried out in oneother section. In transformer and for loco in section testing sectionThe electrical specification of the for MG. sets. there are entire test is already are done on demand of given. These tests customer on transformer there manufactured, in this unit are basically of test. T This test is done in a YP single unit of that type. E R Bach and every TEO unit has to be individu U ST tested al. – TI N E T E S T –
For power transformer – routine test Ratio Special test: equipment routi transformer from ne R Special mete es equipments – r. W is Kelvin and tah Insulati Special ne on equipme Separate source ca resistan nt voltage e t test: withstand test: ce megger. equipments – HV transformers tes with associated control st t and measuring desk, standard : o capacitance potential divider. n e Iron loss S measureme p b El • nt test : e r ect c • iRMro i S d dy • A a volt g na v l emetPrecision • m e e .er o rclass q • Variable frequency measuring m a u sine wave generator VT ete g i TEST OF CURRENT r e p TRANSFORMER m P v e O o n L INST Polarity meter l t A RUM analog t : RI ENT multimeter One of the winding ismsupplied with 1.5V USET D.C supply and other is e connected to ammeter. If the direction of the D: Y t T deflection is correct implies the E connections e correct else it is are r wrongly connected. S AC T CU : RA It is the test for CY checking the turn ratio TE steps: ST :
A standard transformer primary is connected across the pri As the no. of turns of the ma secondary transformer is ry known the no. of turns of of secondary of job is calculat the ed. job ratio is taken and the The . max permissible error should be not more than that specified by the design. Even the phase angle is checked for this max p e r INTER TURN m INSULATION TEST : the Checks for is insulation of si the b transformer leCurrent is given to primary li and secondary is open circuited. m it Either of the rated primary . current or the 4.5KV peak secondary voltages whichever appears first is allowed to withstand Then min. the insulation can for 1 if withstand then it is said to
WINDIN G RESISTA Error in winding resistance appears if the conductors NCE : of different length are used if the conductors are joined in between to check this winding resistance is checked and if it appears then the internal points of connections is changed. TRANSFORMER COMMERCIAL (TRC)
The objective of this department is to interact with the customers. It brings out tenders arid notices and also responds to them. It is department that places the contracts of building the transformer and after delivery further interacts with the customer regarding faults, failure and maintenance is done by this department. All such snags are reported to them and they forward the information to the con cern ing The works of the dep commercial department art are: T men e t. n Interaction d with design e Plac department r e of s workApproxima a te cost of n Ear the work d nest monn Place and time where contract ey o document can be seen. t Amount if any to be paid i for such document c e s TENDERS AND NOTICES: The department response to the tenders calls of companies or organization which requires transformer. Contracts are bagged th ro u The department also invites tenders and g notices. Before inviting tenders it must be sure that BHEL is ready to h undertake n beforethe contract and full knowledge of scope e work is essential. of g ot ia ti o n s.
Gen erati S on y Atran s utsfor t o mer. e tr m a Freig nt ht E sfr loco SP oa transf traInst rn ormer ns ru ms D . fo me erry f rmnt ty o er tra cooled except dry type, All above types are poil r nsf e which are air-cooled. m or The generation voltage stations are 6.9KV, 11KV tr e and 13.8KV but due me a r to certain advantages like economical ns . generation 11KV is the most fo widely used. For this voltage needs to be stepped up. Transmission at r high voltage is desirable because it results in m lesser losses, needs er thinn economical. If the er current kept high copper losses become very high the iron but wire losses are practically constant. and henc Inis e certain cases the required voltage may be less than the output voltage, so in order to obtain it were required a tapping circuit. The output may have a certain percentage variation, which may be tapped
in this uni Po t we are:r - tra nsf or me r Spe cial tra nsf or me r
TRANSFORMER ENGINEERING (TRE) The transformer manufactured in BHEL Jhansi range from the 10MVA to 240MVA and up to 200 KV. The various transformers manufactured
in 4 or 6 equal steps. The type of tap changer depends on the application of the transformer. Where a continuous power supply is not required an Off Circuit Tap Changer (OCTC) may be used. Where a continuous power supply is must e.g. at substation in cities etc. On Load Tap Changer (OLTC) is used.
T E C H This department analyses the N changes taking O place in the world and suggest changes accordingly. L This is very important because the O product must not get obsolete in the market G otherwise they will be Y rej ec Functio te Technology function d n: can be classified as: by Pro : The cu cess sequenc st manufacturing is decided for ing e of o timely and economic seq process co m of m uen er. Operati : I ce ple on time t tio sc estimat n he e : Ii of Allowe m d tn e amount. the operat c jo m l It i b. ion an Facili : u time n ag tie s plant or tools to include d equipment, c s e identi e increase productivity. lS looking Special m ficatio s u for new process ce pe en n the rtification: expertise for once required d ci t. i example identifying e al errors, cracks, air sn pr bubble in c oc winding. e ies n n se t c s i e ar v n e te i v e
Special Speci al tool re if possible. When required else tools quiremen the design has to be are reconsi t: allott der. Productivity ed projects initial analysis of the problem compilation: and their appropriate solution to enhance productivity.
It inclu des the
The “IF YOU DON’T principle of MAKE CHANGES IN YOUR COMPANY, THE COUSTMER WILL working is CHANGE YOU”. that
BUS DU CT Bus duct is used as connection between generators and transformer. Bus duct are used in power connection over 150 M V. The question now arise that why are bus duct preferred over normal conductors. In high power application, insulations are the major problems and frequent insulation breakdown occurs. If this does happens then possibility of shorting of conductor’s and hence serious damage may occur to both transformer and generators. Bus duct are hollow pipes made of aluminum the cross section of these ducts depends on requirements of the customer and is done by the des ign cross section may have different The dep shapes, circular, square hexagon, octagon. The casing is also made art of mealuminum sheets. Althou a good conductor as nt. gh copper still is preferred alumin um is not
over it because it is lighter than copper. Moreover, it is cheaper than Bus duct are of two types:
Segregate d Bus Isolat Duct(SBD ed ) Bus In segregated bus duct one casing is Duct( divided into three separate chambers for the three phases. In isolated bus IBD) duct is provided into separate casing. The conductors i.e. duct is separated from the casing by proclaim or epoxies (chemical) insulators. Bus duct assembly contains three cubicles P. T. N.G. an cubic d les L . S. AP. These cubicles have the circuit and the . cu controls of the bus duct assembly. The connection may be star or Vbi delta. The lines enter . cl from the top of the chamber. The top chamber Tes has the neutral side and the line side. The aluminum conductor in . bus duct is not solid c because of ac has skin effect i.e. it flows u only on outer surface of b conductor then why to waste money on the i remaining conductor, socwe simply remove that part so it is lhollow conductor. e s
L O A locomotive is a rail vehicle that provides C the motive power for a O “Loco” M means “Motive” from a O means place A locomotive has no payload capacity of its own. TI causing It is used to move a motion. VE
The trains which have self propelled pay load carrying vehicles are called Multiple Units (MU) or rail cares.
CLASSIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE
By thei r use:
Pass enge F r r Loc Shunting i omo (switcher) g tive Locomotive h t By their sourceLof energyo S c t o D e m i a diese o e l m t s die electr i e sel icL v E l hy o e l dra c M e L uli o a c o H c m g tr c y o n i o b t e c m r i t L o i v i o t d e c c i L o v L e m e o v o c i ti o t v m a e o t t i i o v n e
Ste am Lo co mo tiv e diesel fuel.
Less efficiency in comparison to electric and diesel locomotive Requires more manpower to Use in countries where coal is much more operate. abundant source than Use at mountains and high attitudes rail lines as they are less affected by reduced air pressure.
D ie s el Powered by internal L combustion engine. Power Transmission-output of prime o mover to driving wheels. c By coupling Alternator/Generator to o prime mover. (Diesel Electric) m o By coupling torque converter to ti prime mover. (Diesel vHydraul eic) Requires less maintenance as compared to steam locomotives. Ele ctri c Loc om otiv e
Electric power supplied extremely through an overhead pickup (centenary) or through a High performance and third rail. low operation cost. Capital cost of electrifying track is Spe high. ed Can also up operate on to battery power. 575 km/ hr.
Battery locomotives which are used in mines and underground
Mag netic Loco New moti techn ve It floats the train above the olog rail without wheels. Re y in du train. C ce o fric st Hy tio bri n.is d v Used on board rechargeable Lo e energy storage system. co r mo y Locomotives tiv h i manufactured at e g BHELEl h.ec WAG-5 tri c W L C W oc A C o M WCAG- A -m 1 M Main customer: ot 2 -iv INDIAN 3 RAILWAYS es A Diesel C A Shunting / Die C Locomotive sel D C 350 / Ecle HP D ctic 450 C DES HP L 700 DES L HP 1150 SPP/ DESL 1350 TPP DESL DES 1400 L DESL
Main customer: Power plants, Steel Plants, Cement Plants, Coal Mine, Port trust and Fertilizer plants.
F igure showing a 25 KV AC/1500V DC AC/DC locomotive type WCAM-3
Diesel Hydraulic Locomotive 800 HP Custome DH r: SL Bat IFFCO, ter Kandala y 450 HP Lo Customer: co mo DMRC, New Delhi Ne tiv w e Pr OH od E 2 uct reco 0 s rdin Rail cum 0 g Road Util M test Vehicle ity T car. (RRV). Veh icle.w e ll w a g o n .
Diesel Electric Tower Car Battery Powered (DETC). Road Vehicle Synchrol (BPRV). ift Hoist Dynamic Assembl Track y. Ballast Stabilizer Cleaning (DTS). Machine (BCM).
F igure demonstrating 700 hp twin power-pack DESL.
• • • •
Main Parts of Diesel Locomotives Frame: The one on which a Under locomotive is built. Super Structure: The body of locomotive is called superstructure is made of sheet of Bogie: The wheel arrangement of loco is mild steel. called bogie. A bogie e s Bogie s frame e Wh n eel Tra ti and ctio a axl Ge n l ear mot c an or o d n pin t ion a i n s.
• • • • •
Brake shoe Pull rod Sand box Springs Bra ke cyli nder
Main Equipme nt of Traction DESL Alternator/ TraGenerator. cti Blower.on MoCompr tor.essor Swit or chge Drive Expres ar Desk. ser. Equi Fuel Tank. pme Batteries nts Radiator
Br ak e Sy ste m stock.
Simple Air Air Brake System Brake with MU Syste Air Brake System with MU Operation and operation m. break on trailing air Dual Break System-Air and Vacuum. Ene rgy Tra nsm issio n
In DESL In DHSL Mechanical Energy Mechanical Energy Electrical Energy Hydraulic Energy Mechanical Energy Mechanical Energy Tracti It is fixed on under frame on and gets supply from an overhead line by equipment called Transf pantograph. The type of ormer pantograph depends on supply. This transformer : steps down voltage and is fitted Different taps with a tap are taken from operating different equipment. One tapit is changer. for taken rectified into DC using MSR and is fed to the DC motor.
There are three sections in store : Contro l C Receiv us ing to Scr Sectio dy ap n SeDis pos ctiA list of material coming in store is Functi al onprepared and Quality ons: Sec Control people are called for inspection. If tion material is found as par standard SRV (Store Receipt Voucher) is issued for each material. A total of 08 SVR’s are prepared. Some materials such as Silicon oil, Transformer oil, insulating material etc are directly stored in the Bays.
CENTRAL QUALITY SERVICE
First we get acquainted with a few terms concerning this department. It is the extent to which product and service satisfy the
cu sto meQ : All those plants and systematic r u action necessary to ne provide adequate confidence that the a service will ed product or thegiven requirement is l satisfy the s. i called quality assurance. t Q Activity such as measuring uy testing, gauging one or more characteristics of product or service and aa comparing these with ls specified requirement to determine is conformity are termed quality section. t u yr a cn oc WORK ENGINEERING ne
SERVICES (WE&S) t r o l : As the name suggest this section maint deals with services and enanc It has e. follo This has electronics and wing P electrical/mechanical Secti l maint a ons: enanc n e. t
E q u i p m e n t :
Service s: equip ments.
This section deals with air, steam and power
Telep ho ne Exch ange: Township Electrical Maintenance: W E & This section deals with stores and new machines S procurement and others general things. There are three maintenance centersP Bay 2, Substation and LOCO. at l This section is also responsible for power a distribution is of two types: n n i n POWER : HT This is at 11 g DISTRIBUT KV, OCB are protection. There are four substations for ION used for this distribution. LT This is for the auxiliary in DIS each shop and other section of BHEL. It uses OCB/OVB/ BHEL TR (Bhopal), 800 KVA, 11 IB 45 V transformer and ACB (English KVA UT Electro).Transformer Supplied with enclosure of IP 23 class of IO protection. Bushing of N: cables boxes are provided for HT and LT connections. These transformers are used in underground substation, high building and hotels, under the roof installation, power plant etc.
PROJECT REPORT ON CNC ” “ MACHINES
INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL WORKING OF CNC MACHINE
CNC machine tools have been widely accepted as time technique all over the manufacturing proven globe. In have picked up momentum and Indian machine India too, CNC Industries are going for more and more CNC Numerical machine. control turns machine tools into a flexible production unit possible application. with a multitude of Although at first manufacture of geometrically mainly used for they were complicated parts, were later used for added numerical control enhanced efficiencyproduction of turned and the medium batch in milled parts. The next step is the introduction of numerical controls in all The aimofin all the cases is to productions. sections combine high productivity with flexible possibilities of NC Other machine processes are being added to technology. turning and millingalready described as which may be classical NC applications. being replaced by Conventional methods are NC for sheet metal-of punching, nibbling and working processes cutting. Productivity increases multifold using numerical control with grinder, gear hobber s and spark erosion REVOLUTION AND .ELECTRONIC COMPUTER GROWTH Modern day computerized numerical control system (CNC) is the result of advancement and sky rocketing microelectronics with every grow by leaps and day breaks its own record and bounds. Initially NC machines had as many as 280 printed circuit board (PCB) and quite extensive wiring which consequently made maintenance very difficultFirst generation NC and reliability was poor. elements. system had transistor
With advent of integrated circuits only 40 PCBs were used with the system. Further reduced wiring for integration called ‘Medium Scale Integration’ (MSI) replaced nearly 10 ICs and system 10 PCBs. With arrival of only 5 to involved what is known as ageand Very Large Scale of “Microprocessors Integration (VLSI) technique” use only 2 to 4 ,modern day CNC machines PCBs. The trend with in lowering cost of microprocessors helps jobs and increment in reliability to Flexibility appreciabl as inherent feature of minicomputer and microcomputer technology e label. gave new –“Software Oriented System”. Unlike rigid hardwire system which had been used hitherto, this new system COMPUTER comes NUMERICAL (CNC) system. to CONTROL market With this latest technology, hardware cost of as system lowered CNC considerably whereas flexibility increased capabilmultifold due to software ities.
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF NC MACHINES Electronic industries association defines numerical control action is controlled by direct system in which as “A insertion of numerical automatically interpret at data. The system must least some potion of
In simple word numerical control means control by numbers. Inthe main function is to control machine tools NC the displacement and spindle, speed, feed rate, positioning of slides, selection of tool and functions. NC directs the many other auxiliary machine tool to achieve very controlled and all these function in a systematic manner .The major elements that comprises NC machine tools are :Con trol T syst h Seem e rv – m oa CN dr C c iv h ei un n its e t o o l
F e O e pe d E rat b le or a ct co c ri nt ck ro d lal ce av i bi c n e et s
Schem atic diagram representation of NC m achine tool
In CNC system, tape instructions are read by tape reader. These electronic processing and instructions undergo system gives output in the form of electrical signal to servo drive of the machine tool to of movement and feed rates. determine the length System also to various relays, solenoids etc to commands directs initiate operation of the spindle motor starting machine tools such as and stopping , coolantchange and other supply , auto tool miscellaneous functions. Once the machine tool has commenced its operation and operative it become necessary to element and moving , ensure that required lengths of movements have taken place or a particular function has This is done by been accomplished. feedback devices. Position scales, encoder, feedback devices like linear resolvers, status of actual position of slides feedback inductosyn to control system. A
velocity feedback transducer known as ‘Tachogenertor’ is used for velocity control as warranted during contouring operation . Feed back of auto tool change function etc are taken from proximity sensors or limit switches. Thus all operations of machine are monitored continuously with appropriate feedback devices. feedback received by system , failure or adverse In case of machine stops and ‘Fault message’ system displays in clear English text. T Y PBased on feedback, NC system can be broadly classified in two types E ‘Open loop’ and ‘closed loop’. The open as Sloop system has no closed loop system utilizes feedback, whereas O feedback transducersmonitor the position which continuously Fof slides. This enable machine to achieve a very high degree displaof accuracy in slide N ceme C nt
F igure above showing open loop system .
From metal removal point of view, the classification canstraight cut and contouring point to point, be made as system. In point to point system, the machine performs machining operationsand specific affect work piece while positions at does not moving from one point of this type is to another. An example NC drilling machine.
F igure showing Straight cut or straight line closed loop system. movement at controlled feed rate in one axis direction
system provides at one time. The
examples of this are face milling, pocket milling etc.
F igure demonstrating NC system’s some of different paths and cut.
The continuous path control system calls for coordinate movement of the tool and work piece along different axes. This enables machining of complex profiles, contours and curved surfaces.
MACHINE TOOL REQUIREMENT In a NC machine certain design features are desirable on machine tool. Simultaneous movement of 2 or more axes and high removalmachines demand high capability of NC dynamic stiffness in drives and also stiff structural elements. The structure of NCvery rigid should be machines to withstand heavy cuts and it must be maintained for long time to obtain high High positioning accuracy needed in NC machine accuracies. makebacklash free screw and nut and slides with have it essential to a very low friction of achieved by ground re co-efficient. This is circulating ball screw and hardened and ground nut, tachoway bearings, guideways and friction reducing linears such as Turcite and PTFE. Electronic spindle drives on NC machines facilitate step less speed over a wide All axes range ofare driven by powerful DC Servo drives controlled by PWM RPMs. controllers through preloaded or SCR ball screw and nuts. Automatic tool changer, centralized lubrication system, index table or fourth axis is common features on NC machines. A C CNC machines ensure better and C consistent accuracies on job U compared to conventional machines. R Positioning accuracies to be and repeatability of extent of +10 or -10 microns A or-5 microns NC machines depending +5 achieved in can be C the elements used. on I E S Parts Suitable For CNC Machines:To utilize the CNC machine effectively and economically the suitable pats selection is very important, the following guidelines s h High number of o operation per u Comp component. l lexity d of operat b ion. e
o b s e r v e d :
Size of Repetitions batch of batches Labor cost of are often. es component is medi Requires high. substanti um. Requir al es tooling. and Setup 100% inspection inspecti Ration high. time is of cutting time to nonon. cutting time is high. Varieties of components produced are more. Skilled required by operator is high.
GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF CNC MACHINES When a company or organization first decides to buy CNC machine, Orientation at all material level is required to get maximum return out made. It is not of huge investment sufficient that management machine and decided understands the benefit of to buy one, instead a technology is must and will deep insight of CNC quite obviously helps and keeping its idle time in buying suitable one minimum. Following for effective Are few point utilization of CNC machine. It is vital that time taken for machine to become productive is The key to good as short as possible. CNC machine lies in should start prior planning, which the day management decides to buy CNC Programmers, maintenance people and machine. operators and trained selected should be before CNC arrives. Foundation and electric supply requirement should ready bef ore mac hine arri ves.
For small organizations where experts and maintenance staffs are generally not available, proper ssupport from supplier h It should be ensured that suppliers of NC o machines provide with all u relevant technical l documents for the While dNC can be out product its manual machine. counterpart 3 toeasily loose this multi you can just 4 times, b machine capacity keep downtime minimum, breakdown. To during e sufficient recommended by suppliers of spare are quantities of machine shouldit is always make sure that maintain. Also be e supplier of machine stocksn critical parts s and Sufficient u accessories. thought should be given to tooling, accessories and all other rperipherals that e surround CNC d machines must be placed at CNC. . convenient places in the shop and material considering work flow handling.waiting while we are searching for machine We can’t keep NC tools or waiting for availabili ty of raw Future expandability should always be in materials decision making while . buyi ng a Clean CNC and dust free environment should be ensured minimize mach to in shop in breakdown efficient order ine. working and consequently longer life of CNC machine. GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO MECHANICAL AND HYD
RAU LIC ITE MECH MS ANIC AL ITEM linear S Re-circulating bearing (Tychoways)
Good performance, high precision and high efficiency are quite obvious requirements which CNC machines are required toare basically good performance; Preconditions fulfill. high precision and minimum wear rigidity and high efficiency are low friction. These conditions are fulfilled by re circulating linear roller bearings. The main characteristics of these bearing are continuous roller circulation which follows unlimited linear movement and elimination of the stick-slip effect which makes accurate positioning of machine, Tychoways possible. consists of hardened, high precision machined, head pieces which supporting elements, are screwed on to the number of cylindrical front face, and a rollers. bearings,cylindrical roller As with the rollers are guided between the shoulders of with a very close the supporting elements tolerance. Therefore and resulting the skewing the roller additional friction as well right angle to the the forces acting at the as rolling direction can be avoided to a large extent. The retaining element material and situated between the plastic made from the rollers not onlyfalling out and sliding against the roller from prevents each other but also return of rolling results in smooth element to the return zone. Elastic strippers which are built into head pieces provide the protection bearing with effective from foreign matters. Tychoways are suitable for grease and oil lubrication and can berange from – 30 used in temperature degree to 90 degree.
Torsion ally stiff These flexible coupling without backlash couplin are servo or variable g specially designed speed drives. They for guarantee an accurate of rotation even in transmission for angle presence of alignment
errors e.g. between motor shafts and ball screw of machine tools. metal body allows a The special design for high torsional stiffness which frequently exceeds the motor shaft itself. The bearingto low lateral spring load is kept low due load stiffness.aThe conical hubs provide positive detachable connection between coupling and additional elements. shaft, without use of Since there are no parts subject to wear, couplings are maintenance free.
Angular contact ball bearings for spindle Ball bearings for machine tools must support radial loads combined with thrust loads in either direction. For this reason preloaded, angular contact ball bearing are generally used.available with high (25 bearings are These degree) and (15 degree) contact angles. In selecting the proper sizes and type bearing, consideration is given to size and construction of spindle and the latter relates kind of mounting, since the directly to the contactsand spindle rigidity deflection characteristics. In general where the operating load is principally bearings are selected, but where the angle type radial, low contact loading is chiefly in thr of axial rigidity is ust type of bearings required, higher angle an recommended. contact are d hig h de gre e
i) ii) iii)
Also three bearings are preloaded to reduce axial andmay be mounted in three deflection and radial different arrangements Back -toFaceback to Tamdem face In back-to –back (D3) mounting, the most commonly used the bearing outer ring stamped faces of the projectring andthe inner beyond about each other. The angular line of contact of in direction of these bearing diverges rotationaxial andresulting in both of axis, radial rigidity of the shaft and providing to the deflection. maximum rigidity Upontogether by tightening the inner ring clamping the inner ring locknut, a loadaisball and the outer imposed through rings. This takes up the internal clearance and places these members in amount of offset or clearance The initial compression. between the inner ring faces, therefore, determines the amount of preload. When bearings are mounted face-to face (DF) that is faces the four rings together, unstamped with of the angular bearing converge in direction contact of lines of of rotational axis and the inner rings project beyond the narrow faces of the outer rings. When the outer ring is clamped together, thethe outer rings is clearance between initial taken up, preloading the
Different mounting arr angement for angular contact ball bearing
Duplex preloaded bearings mounted in the tandem (DT) divide the bearings. So arranged, work load between the with the angular lines parallel and in tandem, of contact of bearing theyanother bearing or a pair of bearings, to by must be opposed the provide axial stability to mou nting B a . In ball screw, a screw runs on bearing ll balls, theascrew thread israce. The nut consists a actually hardened ball n series of bearing similar race and carried from of circulating in balls d end of the nut to one end by return tubes. The balls provide the other s only physical contact nut, replacing the sliding between screw and c friction of conventional r screw e with a FEATURES OF PRECISION w rolling BALL n friction.SCREWS u High efficiency t and Thereversibility high mechanical efficiency (over 90%) of ball screws results fromprecision bearing balls rolling contact of and precisely ground As compared to threads of screws. relatively low speed sliding friction of conventional Acme screw, the power
r e q u i r e m e n t f o r b a l l
screw is low because of high efficiency of ball screws makes it possible to back drives the unit which are reversible by applying the axialor screw then force to either nut rotating member is not be used to convert a this way, the unit can axial force into a rotator No Stic Substituting rolling contact for sliding k metal to metal contact Slip minimizes starting friction, eliminates the static slip tendency where a slow speed linear motion is W required. ea The r balls rolling in the hardened grooves reduce wearan minimum, to eliminating any need for frequent d compensating arrangementtherefore, for years adjustment. Ball screws and Li without any detectable change in fe accuracy High Stiffness of system. and Little Axial When play is minimized in conventional nut axial screw assemblies, the actuating torque becomes excessive and operation is not play in ball screws may be reduced to axial smooth. This zero preloading and a is still possible. Therefore light smooth operation both low torque and be high stiffness can . achieved simultaneously
restrai ned. In
L U In view of life and efficiency, ball screws require B adequate lubrication R which may be I either greasing or For greasing, grease based on lithium soap is C oiling. usually recommended A and for oiling, turbine oils with viscosity from 38 cst to 90 cst are rec T om I me O nde N d.
HY DR UL IC IT SINGLE SOLENOID SPRING OFFSET DIRECTIONAL E CONTROL VALVE This valve is used to control the direction of flow MS with the help of valve spool. A cylindrical spool moves back and forth in machine bore and in valve body. Cored or machined passages from in port valve body are connections the the interconnected through annularspool or grooves (undercuts) in the blocked by spool lands. The valve spool is shifted by energizing a solenoid at one end of the is de-energized the spool. When the solenoid spring at the opposite end of the spool returns the spool to its original position. valveis a two position This and a spring returns the valve to one extremethe valve is That’s why position. called spring offset. These direct operated solenoids are kept in DC4 series by Vickers. Ports connections are made by means of sulphate permittingof valve body for service and removal any easy replacement. The solenoid is self contained and self controlled push type unit which bolts to the These valves are rated in end of the valve body. the 10-20 gpm range.
Gra phic al sym bol Since there are for connections this known as valv e 2/4
two operating position and 4 is also
A directional schematic representation is shown valve. below:
DOUBLE SOLENOID SPRING CENTERED DIRECTIONAL CO NT In this type of valve there are three positions of RO valve spool. Control both ends of the spool L spring acting on the keeps it to the central VA position when both solenoids are energized. LV To hold on extreme position one solenoid should be E continuously energized. These valves are also kept in DG4 series by Vickers. The schematic valve is representation by this shown in figure below:
And its graphical symbol is:
The valve in the figure shown above is in central position. In this is closed and port A position the central port and B are open to tank. Since there are 3 positions and four di connections it is also called ¾ re ctiIn all solenoid electric energy supplied to the oncoil create magnetic field by virtue phenomena of al electromagnetic induction, which the coil. The consequently draws armature into vaarmature motion in turns push rod or can be seen as transmitted lv via push rod which in e. tur ns mo ves PRESSURE OPERATED the CHECK MODULE sp These modules contain a check valve in both ool cylinder portion check of oil in one direction. valve allows free flow . Theyflowarranged for free are out of the directional For return flow one check can be unseated valve. by a common striker piston, mounted co-axially between two checks. This happens whenon one side is sufficient to internal pressure cause the striker piston to the other open the check valve on side. At neutral position, seat the check and compression spring will hel machine actuator will be d statiWithin each poppet piston, is a small ona decompression poppet which opens before ry. the main check valve.
a) b) c)
NON PRESSURE COMPENSATED FLOW CONTROL VALVE (WITH CHECK Flow control valves are used to regulate the VALVE) speed of actuator by of oil from the pump. controlling the flow There are three applying volume methods of basic control valve in a circuit Meter-in
Meterout Bleed-off In meter-in operation, the flow control valve is placed between the pump and the actuator. In meter-out it is located inarrangement the flow control valve is bleed-off the tank line. In kept and diverts excess flow to the tank, thus line in the pressure permitting only require flow pass Meter-out control finds advantage over through the others If the load actuator in the NC turns to “run away” machines. . will it will regulate it restricts exhaust flow it actuator speed because from actuator. Other in a low pressure advantage is that being line losses are less. A check valve is incorporated for free flow in reverse direction.
The figure above demo nstrate s the me ter -out flow control……
Graphical symbol along with the internal constr uction control of non-compe nsated flow valve.
NON-COMPENSATED CONSTRUCTION FLOW CO
NT RO L It regulates flow rate between DG 4 (4 way VA actuator. valve) and hydraulic LV E
Graphical repr esentation of this valve is shown in figur e….
Dual valve construction permits free flow to both actuator port and flow regulation in adjustable independent actuator. each return line from
PRESSURE AND TEMP. COMPENSATED VALVE FLOW CONTROL
Since the flow through an orifice is essentially proportional to the p across it. square root of the appreciable change in the work load This means that any pressure would affect the speed. drop To overcome this problem one is made of pressureA hydrostatic is utilized to maintain a device. compensation constant pressure drop across an Since flow adjustabl through a pressure compensated flow control valve is with variation in oil e subject to change throttle. temperature, so a temperature compensating rod which lengthens when hot and contracts when cold is incorporated in valve. The throttle is simpler plunger that is moved control port. The in and out of the compensating rod is and its adjuster. Viscosity between the throttle installed of oil decreases with to flow freely, but the temperature tending throttle opening is also reduced with the help of compensating rod. A reverse free-flow check valve is also included in the valve. A schematic representation and internal givconstruction is shown in the en fig ure …. .
PRESSURE RELIEF The pressure relief valve limits pressure in VALVE the system by a preset some or all of the pump’s maximum to diverting output to tanksetting is reached. It is a infinite the pressure when positioningassume various position between valve can valve i.e. the fully closed and fully flow rate and open, depending on pressure differential. It consists of a ball held seated in the valve body by pressure spring. When a heavy of inlet is insufficient to overcome the force of closed. Then the preset the valve remaining spring, pressure is reached, seat and allows throw out the ball is forced off its the outletas pressure is maintained. An adjusting long to tank for as screw is provided to Thus the valve can vary the spring force. be set to open at its specified range. The valve pressure within any figure… is shown in the given
PRESSURE REDUCING Pressure reducing valves are normally open VALVE pressure controls used to maintain reduced pressure in certain application. pressure sensed in the branch circuit actuated by They are andreaches close as it tend to the valve setting, thus preventing further build up. It is self operated type valve. The spring force on oneaside is opposed other side. Rising system by pressure on the pressure acts againstthe flow path. The leakage the spring to close oil tank with all valves. If the valve closes to is internally vented completely, leakage past build up in the branch could cause pressure to circuit,to a continuous bleed so tank is permitted to keep it slightly open,pressure from rising above the downstream and prevent valve setting. A drainto return this passage is provided leakage flow to tank.
A direct acting pressur e reducing valve is shown in the above figur e...
1. 2. 3. 4.
HYD RAU Hydraulic motor converts hydraulic energy LIC (pressure energy into MOT * oil flow) (torque * speed). Hydraulic mechanical OR are of type is gear motor. This consists motors designs. One various comp of following main onents Gea : r whe Commuta el tor valve Drive set with shaft Housing The gear wheel set has an outer ring which is built together with the internal teeth and an housing with (n+1) internalThe teeth external ring and rotor are teeth. rotor with of the meshingtooth less The rotorring, and this result has one together. then the in the so-called gear
wheel spaces between the ring and rotor. One halfconnected to the delivery side of motor. A are of these spaces simpler rotary guides the liquid in such a way divider valve flow that the delivery andsynchronously with the rotor. return spaces rotate The drive forms connection the mechanical between the commutator valve and the rotor. The rotor movement is the combination of rotation andhave splines at either end The drives translation. movem and allow only rotary ent. Pressure required in hydraulic motor depends on the torque loadA large displacement motor displacement. and will developless pressure torque with a given than a smaller unit. CY CL IN Cylinder is a linear actuator i.e. output of a DEcylinder It is classified as single or double motion. is straight line R acting. Single acting fluid chamber and exerts cylinder has only one pressure in only one direction. It is mounted vertically and retracts by the force of gravity. Head counterbalanced cylinders are of this type.
A cylinder consists of a barrel, a piston and rod, end cops and seals. steel tubing and piston is Barrel is seamless made of cylinders also have provision for These C.I. or steel. adjustable smooth beginning ends for cushioning at both and end of the stroke. PRE SSU Pressure switches are used to make or break RE electrical circuits at to actuate solenoid SWI selected pressures TCH They can other to provide ON/OFF operated valves or be used devices. signal which can be fed into an . electronic Movement of control system piston under pressure against a spring operates a micro corrugated diaphragm switch. The spring is of type. A restrictor the pressure inlet to reduce the usually fitted in is effecthydraulic shock any on the switch of loading in the system. The pressure setting of the switch can be adjusted bynut. A an adjusting turning switching differential is provided in pressure switch. operate at certain It means that switch will pressure and above when but when pressure falls pressure is being raised, it will not operate at than operating pressure. certain pressure lower Differencedifferential and is essential to avoid switching is called frequenttripping of machine ly.
GENERAL INTRODUCTION ELECTRICAL AND ELECT
RONIC 1. S Prox ITEMS Proximity switches are solid state switching imit device which required no y physical contact to actuate them. These Swit for control and are use positioning signals because of long life, high ches switching speed, no touch, zero operation force, wear and maintenancesignal and reliable switching under bounce free free operation, extreme conditions. It comprises of three principle Oscillato parts r
T r iii) Ai mp g To obtain a switching signal at given lifi g voltage and temperature, the main factor. er e sensing distance (Sn) is sta Sensing distance is the r maximum distance between the target and the ges Sensing sensing face. surface from which the face is the t electromagnetic field radiates. a Sn depends upon material, thicknessgand area of target. Target e diameter = a Oscillator Unit 2.Diametern L d Limit switches are used to make or break i mcontrol circuit when mechanically actuated by a moving member. it Moving member might moving component, as be a dog mounted on the S in the case of travel or over travel limit switches, or may be of plunger w actuated type as in it case of filter clogged limit switch. The limit c switch type may be of normally open type (NO) which will close when h switch is actuated or (NC) normally close type which will actuated. 3. C A ir device designed to open and close by non automatic means andautomatically on the c open the circuit to u predetermined properly, of current, when overload applied within its rating. it types are there: Two B 1) Thermal r e 2) Hydrauli a c Thermal circuit breakers responds only to k temperature change in the is generated in the e bimetallic element. Heat r elementThe element bends or deformed to losses. because of i open the contacts and unlatch the mechanism. Mainly used MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker) offer dual protection i.e., protection against overload and short circuit. MCBs are preferred over fuses as it disconnects supply instantaneously, and requires seldom replacement.
Some of the technical features of Circuit Breakers are: Long mechanical and electrical operational life Hig h Overload tripping brea through king cali accurately cap brat Short circuit tripping acit ed through magnetic coil. y bim Circuit breakers gives etal protection to the equipments such as motors,strip transformers, air conditioners, refrigerators, geysers, mixers etc. and . cables/wires in electrical distribution system. 4. O It can be defined as the device which is ve operative byof one electrical circuit to affect rl conditions variation in the another device in same or ano o circuit. Relays provides a thercontrol circuits when overload protection over used in conjugation with elecd contactors andequipments, they provide accurate other motor control tric R and reliable control el protection under and a overload condition. 5. ys Co nta Device used for repeatedly establishing and cto interrupting an The contactors are suitable for power circuit. electric rs controlling all kinds e.g. capacitor, lighting, circuit of electrical heating,as well D.C. circuits Also suitable for circuit switching A.C. use in control panel for control centers and machine tools, motor other applications where high frequency requirement is Contactors should have must. following design features: Long Life: Bounce free contact system contact contributes to long life. Modern techniques of arc quenching: In case of breaking contact divide the arc into double A.C. contactor, two. For contactors deionization of higher size, chamber split the arcs into n u m e r o u s s h o rt a r c s.
Com pact Size Installation: Some contactors can be mount in any position and inclination, from some with maximum degrees. vertical surface, of 22 ½ Auxiliary Contact: For control a interlocking purposes, contactors can be provided with a number of auxiliary contacts.
Contactors are designs for very high frequency operation
A device used for protection of equipments. A wide range of fuses is available for protection of transformer, cables, capacitors and motors for applicati HRC fuses are used for the interruption of fault on in current in indoor and Air orhigh voltage system and also protection outdoor of distribution power equipm Oil. ent. 7. Pr The es function of pressure switch is to break or make su the control circuitactuates the switch whenever the pressure re contacts. may switch contacts The be normally open type which S closes onor of normally close type which pressure increasing w open on increasing switches use single pole pressure. Pressure itc doubleswitches as h micro throw (SPDT) switching These switches are use with water, oil, air, element. nitrogen, inert gases, steam, mineral oil and natural gas 8. etc. Intr Automation has been associated with oduc advancement of automation tion problem in technology. of small lot The to production by numerical control (NC) machine overcome have been NC have great extent. tools NUMERICAL is defines as CONTROLcontrolled by direct insertion system in “A of actions are (NC) which numerical data at some
this data.” CNC
point. The system must automatically interpret at least some portion of
In CNC system, a dedicated computer is used to perform all theas per the control program NC functions basis also called stored in the memory of the program executive computer.which makes it flexible/soft wired. program, It is this executive Unlike NC systems, comes directly from the machine control data computerof the memory availability user can store Because memory. part programs The capability to edit this in computer. also part program is a real programmer right at advantage to the part the machine features such as tape punching Additional station. option, user oriented etc are routine programs sub also possible on CNC. 9. Fe CNC system requires a measuring device and ed measurement can be ba done with feedback system. Basically ck feedbackto comparecontrolmachine’s actual system allows the the de position with command comparison provides valve. The result of this vi the ability of velocity Encoders, resolver or and position control. ce f inductosyn are used as e Encod e e rs d b Incremental rotary encoder is most commonly The feedback device. a usedrotary encoder is a shaft-driven device c deliveringits output terminal. The pulse pulses at electrical k frequency is directly speed. Encoder consists proportional to shaft d of glass disc marked with a precise circular e pattern of alternate clear v on its periphery. The disc is mounted on the light A fixed source of i shaft.is on one side and a photo cell is placed on c other side of thelight is permitted to fall on photo As disc rotates, disc. e cell, to produce the output signal which is approximately s. sinusoidal. Internal or external photocell output amplifier is used to amplify the to a level suitable for Amplified signal is feeding logic circuits. fed to a circuit which a proper square wave with converts the signal to suitable rise and fall
an d op aq ue se g m en ts
times. To sense direction of rotation a two 0 photocell system is used.so that Photocell is arranged output signals have 90 circuitry is used to other. External logic rotation. determine the direction of 10. Drives
shifts to each
Drives refer to the system package compared to servo servo amplifier and motor. 10 .1 The S spindle drives on modern NC machines is DC/AC drive. is used pi combinationItwith three or four step gear boxes in n get full power in speed range. These to entire cutting the dl drives are controlled by SCR/Tr e ansistor 1 dr controll 0 iv ers. All . es axes are driven by DC/AC servo 2 drives controlled by SCR/transistors through pre-loaded balls Ascrew and nuts. Vertical equipped with slides are normally x hydraulic counter balance to provide smooth servo action. As cent percent e counter balance will not s always be possible, spring set disc brake is Dused on servo motor to vertical slide during hold the position of the rishut down of machine. 1 v 0 e . A D.C. motor can be thought of 3made up of two parts: A stationary field either of permanent D magnet or electromagnet . An armature which C is allowed to rotate. The armature consists of series of coils M which are connected to commutator and brushes. The omotor’s commutatorto successive coils as the armature serves to switch t the power orotates so that magnetic ar in the same position r ma the armature rotates in relative to the field poles. As the magnetic tur the motion of its fields conductor generates a voltage. This is e true whether motor is or driven by delivering the power pol some external means. es re ma in
1 0. 4 D.C. drive controls motor speed through control Dof armatureDC voltage applied to the motor. This by varying current . is accompanied by controlling the point on AC input sine wave at Cwhich an SCR begins to conduct. . D ri v e
Block Diagram description of DC drive From diagram,
speed, integrators regulator motor speed velocity reference and tachometer by summing both signals. An error signal between reference and feedback is then amplified and compensatedresponse. Current for optimum controller regulator current by outputting a voltage signal armature regulates the to both the forward and reverse three phase firing circuits. This is accomplished by reference signal from summing the current output of with the integratorthe speed current feedback signal from the resultant error Themotor armature. signal is amplified and compensated for the electrical parameters of Forward and the motor. reverse three phase firing circuit control SCR gating. is phase is pulse shifted and The SCR gate pulse synchronized relative
to the AC line so that gated SCR produces a variable output voltage fro m The regenerative power bridge converts three the phase pow AC power to a capable of powering the controlled DC voltage er isarmature. It’s motor fully controlled by forward and out brid three phase firing reverse ge. Forward and reverse three phase synchronizers controls the timethe forward and during the AC cycle when reverse three phase firing circuits can turn – Current an limiter restricts limits the level of ON armature current reference. SCR. level of restriction generally The depends upon motor speed.
1 0 . 5 A . C D r i v e s
Block Diagram description of AC drthyristor Leonard DC ive
control system driven by the DCto perform the high precisionessential motor is speed or torque control requiring quick response. Performance of AC variable drive systemto the Leonard system. could not be equal But, it is necessary to motors, because maintain the for DC they have brushes and commutator. AC variable speed drive system consists of squirrel cage inverters are induction motors and maintenance free and easy
operation. Recently high performance AC drive system whichon basis of vectrol was frequency control is developed in same to realize the order quick response and highL precision speed control as eo na rd PRINCIPLE OF TORQUE S GENERATION ysThe mechanism of torque generation is the te same in the D.C. motor and squirrel cage induction motors. Excellency of m performance of (separately-excited and shunt D.C. motor the . winding type) is due to the fact that magnetic flux and armature current are supplied armature current is held always in that the separately, such a relation to flux by a commutator and perpendicular as to be brushesand armature current are in proportion to torque and also that each other of constant magnetic condition under the flux at any moment. However, in squirrel cage motor, primary current is only supplied to from power supply. The the stator winding torque is produced by by this and torque magnetic flux caused current component armature current of D.C. (corresponding to motor). Although the generation is stable mechanism of torque under the steady state condition, the induction motor cannot quickly obtained themoment that load or response at the stable reference that is,are suddenly changed, value under the transient condition. 10.6 Advantages of brushless A.C. motor over D.C. motor No commutator, so maintenance easier, electronic inverter serves the purpose of Low inertia due to high flux commutator. permanent magnets. W e A.C. motor weights 35% to 65% less than a rD.C. motors are and 10% to 20% to 30% shorter 20% smaller in diameter. a n d t e a r l e s s .
Information is stored in digital form as drive is so better control based, micro-processor over tuning the drive. Inside fixed encoders for both feeposition as well as speed db ac Size of transformer is reduced as power line k supplied required is sig voltag e. nalHigh peak/continuous ratio. High . torque at full speed. High rate of speed and acceleration.
Di sa dv an tag es
A.C. induction motors generally are not suitable for precise motor cog at lower control. A tendency to speeds is limiting factor. Torque is not directly proportional to a current, a requirement for good dynamic performa nce.
1) 2) 3) 1.1 1)
VARIOUS FUNCTIOS OF Axes position CNC and velocity Spin control dle spee Misc ellan d Various eous function funct al Preparatory function: these are ions. codes commands which prepare the machine for different modes of movements like position countering , thread cutting etc.
the progr Function: am. Miscellaneous Some of the important which worth miscellaneous function to be considered here Spindle CW or are coolant on or off, CCW, program stop Speed Function(S): this function pertains to speed of
Dimensional Data: Movement of machine tool slidesis one or more axes in determined by dimensional data entered in
spindle. 5) 6)
Feed Function (F): It pertains to feed rates of the slides. Tool Function (T): this function pertains to the for the of required tool selection particular operation.
CODES USED IN CNC PROGRAMS G-code is the name of any word in a CNC program that beginsgenerally is a code telling the letter G and with machine tool what type of action to perform. Such as: Rapid Move etc. Controlled feed move in straight line or are series ofthat would feed in whole being moves controlled result bored, a workspecific dimension, or a decorative (routed) to a piece cut profile shape added to ed There are other codes; the type codes can be ge thought of registers in the of comp wo X uter rk pie Y ce. a b Z a s b o A a s l position b o u B (rotary s l t position around o u e C (rotary X) l t position around u e p (rotary Y) t o around e p s Z) o i p s t o i i s t o i i n t o i n o n
U Relative V parallel Relative axis to X W Relative parallel axis to Z parallel axis to Y M code (another “action” register or machine code (*)) (Otherwise refers to as miscellaneous function) F feed rate S spindle speed N line number R arc radius P dwell time T too lI arc sel J dat ecti ar a on J c X arc da axi dat ta sD aZ Yc u axiH ax s tt is (*)M codes control the overall machine, causing et o coolant, etc., whereas other code pertain to on r it to stop, start, turn the d o path tool may by same code to perform cutting traversed use il different functions;the machines that use even al same CNC control. me en tg COMMON et FANUE G Cod rh CODES e o G00 Des f Rapid crip G01 f positio tion Linear s ning interpol e ation t .
G02 CW circular G03 CCW interpolation circular G04 interpolation Dwe Data ll G10/G11 writing/Data write G17 cancel X-Y G18 plane X-Z selection G19 plane Y-Z selectio G20 plane n Programmin selectio G21 g n in inches Programm G28 ing in mm Return to G home 3 position G33 1 Constant S G34 pitch ki Variable threading p G40 Tool pitch fu radius threading nc G41 Tool compensation off ti radius o G42 Tool left compensation radius n compensation right G81 Simple G82 drilling Drilling cycle G83 cycle with Peck dwell G8 drilling 4 cycle G90 Ta Absolute ppi G91 programmin ng Incremental g cyc G94/G95 Inch per programming le minute/Inch per revolution feed G96/G97 Constant speed/Constant speed
BASIC ISO M0 CNC 0 CODES M0 Pro 1 gra M0 Opt m 2 ion stop M Pro al 0 gra sto M0 3 m p 4 S stop M Spi pi 05 ndl n M08 S e dl Coolant/L pi CC e M09 ubricant on nd W C Coolant/Lu le W M3 bricant off st 0 op M98 Pro Subpr gra M99 ogram m Subpro call en G96 gram d Constant end G97 surface Constant speed G50 spindle Maximum speed G95 Feed spindle speed mm per G94 revolution Fee G00 d Rapid mm G01 move /mi Linear ment n interpola tion S S p i n d l e s p e e d .
PROGRAM OF B.C.M. AXILE Roughi ng is D already ep done. .%001 th of N4 cu 35 t N G5 is 444 (I 1 N4450 SE m M25 G T m 92N UP . S34 ) 5 00N455 T0707 0 N4 (FINISH G 60 TOOL) 0 N465 G9 X M46 6 7 N S1 0 4 60 0 N47 7 M Z 5 0 1 N04 G01 40 X15 NG 8 5 Z2 480 0 N4 X 5XF9 90 1 Z1 X1 N495 G02 X179.1 247 4 44. Z-276.75 I38. F.15 4. 0 N500 555 G01 89 . N505Z 91 ZX1781 N510 F287.07 .6 0 G02 . 5 F.3 N515 3 G01 N520 Z-496 N 5 N 2 55 3 0G G 0 02 1 Z X -1 78 44 0. 1
N 5 N5454 X2150 N G 5 0 N 5 1 5 0 Z N5 5 Z 605 9 X1 N565 G02 X179.1 Z1 5 44. Z-276.75 I38. F.15 2 4 N570 3 556 4 4. G01 0 N575Z8 F X178287.07 9 N580 9 5 F.3 .6 G02 9 N585 G01 N590 Z-496 N 5 N 9 65 N605 0 G02 0G N G 0 6 02 N615 1 1 M24 0 Z X N620 G -1 M30 0 78 %002 1 44 Z 0 (2nd Set up). 1 N305 9 G54 5 N310 3 M25 N311 T1212(FIN N3 ISH 15 TOOL) G9 6 S2 00 M 04
N32 0 N G01 3 X14 N 2 6 Z5 3 5 N3F9 3 X 35 0 1 NX X14 31 35 2. 44 F.4N3 5 0 45 4. Z G9 Z N35 5 0 6 - 0 ZF. G01 S2 2N 1 3 X14 4 00 2. N 5 M 5. 6 Z5 7 3 F9 04 25 N36 9X 65 0 21 NX X14 3 35 1 2. N 7 F.44 5 3 0 4. Z 75 Z N380 G03 0 5 Z- X185.15 ZF. X297 I16 2 N385 1 3 - 2. 4 G01 N3 X186. 2 5. 908 7 Z27 N X1 302 7. 9 3 86. 0 2 N4 759 7 5 00 5 G9 Z N40 6 - 5 G01 S2 2N 4 00 4 X14 N 1 M 5. 6 Z5 4 F9 04 20 N41 9X 20 1 5 2 NX X14 4 35 1 2. N 2 F.44 5 4 5 4. Z 35 Z N435 G03 0 0 Z- X185.15 ZF. X1 2 297 I16 3 4 2. 2 5. 7 8 2 7. 9 0 2 7 5
N440 G01 N X186. 4 N450 4 7 ZZ50 5 302 N455 G M24 0 N460 1 M30 X 6 0 CNC MACHINES 0 IN JHANSI UNIT There are different CNC machines in Jhansi s unit, which serve some p e ci al p CNC OXY-ACETYLENE ur FLAME CUTTING p This machine is in bat-0 & is used for M.S sheet. o This machine can cut seup to 300mm thick sheet. It has four simburners, which can work s. ult Control system : ESAB ane German (NCE-510) ous Axes: There are two axes in machine X and ly. Y axis. In upaxis tool can move X to 7 meters and in Y axis tool can move up to 3.5 meters Drive: D.C.
Feedb ack CNC rotary CROPencod There ers PING are two cropping line CNC machine in bay5. These are used to construction of LINE cut CRZO sheets for core of transformer. First machine has been made by George German with control system This machine mainly consists from Siemens 810D. of two tools: punch cutting lamination as and swing shear for required by program.
The other machine has been manufactured by Sooner Company. It One fixed shear and one has two punches. movable shear, which can45 degree. It consists of shear straight as well as cut also. one tip cut and one V (a) Control Axis System : 810D ( One c axis Fe ) ed D ba ri ck v ASQUITH CNC BOGIE lin e MACHINE CENTRE ea W This machine is in boogie shop. it is used for all r a operation in boogie manufacturing like milling, drilling and boring. Sc y All done in operation can be theale the single CONTROL machine. SYSTEM : GE Axis: It 15M FANUCworks three axis X, Y and Z axis. It can travel up to4000 mm in Y-axis and mm in X-axis. 8000 800 mm in Z-axis. Fe ed It has auto tool changer, which can change ba tools automatically. ck According to program its spindle diameter is 180 mm and 40 KW power lin required to is ear spindle. operate the sc ale . (A)HMT SB CNC This is used LATHE for turning the Control job. system: Axis: It works in two axis X and Z axis. Tool Sinumeric can traverse up to 1000 3T in X-axis and mm 300 mm in ZDrive axis. D.C.
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Feedba ck: (B)Rotary HMT CNC VERTICLE MILLING MACHINE Encode This machine is used r. for milling purpose. Control system : Sinumeric Axis: it works in three axes X, Y and Z axis. 800 M Toolin X-axis, 600 mm in Y-axis, mm can travel 1200 400 mm in Z-axis. Drive D.C. Feedb ack (C)rotary COOPER CNC VERTICLE BORING MACHINE encod This machine is used er. for boring purpose. Contro l Axis: Tool can move in two axes: X and Z- axis. System It X- move 600 : can axis and mm in Cruced in Z400 mm Drive er axis. D.C. Fee dba ck : Lin ear Sal ADVANTAGES OF e CNC MACHINES 1 . Since cutting tool is brought to its machining P rposition much more efficiently than it was done manually by the o machine operator, NC machine is spending much more time per shift d cutting than inmachines very seldom remove metal Conventional past. u for more than 15% cof total available time under normal batch Whereas CNC machine tproduction conditions. tools should be capable of iremoving50% and 75% of available time. When between metal for v working on medium machining has around batch production, CNC i4 to 1 productivity tadvantage over conventional machine. The actual productivity y
advantage may vary from batch to batch depending upon the complexity of components to be produced andto the number of conventional proportional is normally operation required to produ ce the 2. comp Flexibility in design and onent Machine can switch over to different job as set production s. up times are low in sales requirement are much sudden changes and more This catered the formulation of more for. easily enables aggressive marketing plans. The use of CNC machines also give designers freedom to design by conventional means, are components which, often impossible to of design can also be produce. Change easily incorporated as it me ans Inspec ch tion an High position accuracies and repeatability are ge inherent features of and CNC machines reduce of inspection time considerably. tap Normally a 100% inspection of the first e. component produced by a new tape is all that is necessary to prove the tape and tooling. Subsequently it is required to have only sample inspection. In process gauging and inspection is also provided on modern CNC machines Floor space One CNC machine can replace five to six conventional machines. Thus manufacturing activities of a company can be expanded without increasing the floor area proportionately. Invent ory By using CNC machine, procurement sizes and batch sizes can be reduced because of shorter lead time’s .This results in substantial time taken to progress a saving. Lead time is batch of component production shop and is through a batch of proportional to number of conventional operation required by methods. Forwhich requires 112 set ups by component example a conventional methods may in CNC machining requires only 1 or 2 set ups center reducing total p r o d u c t f l o w t i m e s .
M a Handling of component from machine to t machine which ismachine is significantly reduced e conventional necessary on r CNC operations are performed on one on the machine, as all i rmachine. This obviously a e l d H u a 7. c Toon e d lings This ability to complete machine part in a li single setup simplerthat fewer and means fixtures are required, n which in turns requires l less storage space and maintenance. The g a simpler a fixture is, the less expensive b is to o manufacture it. O r p Dependence on skilled labor can be e c dispensed with. The with CNC machines r of part produced accuracy o machine depend uponof machine and tape – a accuracy and ability s and t on individual not operator. t o . Sc r ra ’ Drastic reduction in scrap is achieved p s because of the inherent an accuracy and d S repeatability of CNC 10. R k machine. Cos e i Time ting w l required to produce a component is a function ofCNC machines and is not or l of machining cycle k influenced or variation in labor’s rate, a great efficiency by operator’s stability of prices can often be achieved throughout the life cycle of the respective accounting product. Also cost becomes very precise. 11. Better Management Information and Control With various advantages of CNC machines, decisions effecting unit cost, delivery and quality are firmly placed in the hands not of management and of the machine operator.
situation will clearly bring out that unit cost of production is definitely less tools with that of so called conventional To conclude numeric control is the most machines. sophisticated form of machine tool. It has high automatic control of degree of precision control system has reliability. The and devel undergone several stage of opme nt. Some of the special features offered by CNC machine manufacture T h Ax er is m caliLost al bra machine above qualities of CNC machine st With the various tio compens there are numerous a n a ation bi d v Hig li a h z Hig nt accuat h a racyio Les g reli n s es abil Better scra . ity machi p Computer control of manufacture ne T and capability of integration into distribution numeric utiliza h net control (DNC) etc. tion e wor The programs written for CNC are easy to y write and understand. either G-cod or M-code These k programs use ar that codes are The e runs the program. simple to No wonder understand. CNC machines tools are becoming more and more modern industries. In popular day by day in longer runitself with such pays for CNC machine outstanding qualities.
CO NC It is true that CNC machine costs more to install LU initially. But higher by the direct and indirect initial cost is set off gains resulting from of CNC machines. In most SIO various advantages cases, careful techno- of a given manufacturing economic evaluation NS
B i b l i o g r a p h y
1. Smid. 2. 3.
CNC Programming handbook by Mr. Peter
Managing CNC operations by Mike WikipedLynch ia. www. wikipe.org/ wiki /Main dia B.H. E.L. http://www. offici bhel.com/h al CNC ome.php websi information Daviand easy CNC by te d Mr. Ben http://www.c son. nccncmachin es.com
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