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ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti


humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakulteti

semiotikis kvlevis centri

semiotika
samecniero Jurnali

IV SEMIOTICS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL

Tbilisi Tbilisi 2008

2 UDC 8122

saredaqcio kolegia mTavari redaqtori cira barbaqaZe redaqtorebi Tamar berekaSvili Tamar lomiZe izabela qobalava recenzentebi guCa kvaracxelia zaal kikviZe manana kvaWantiraZe

Editorial Board Editor-in-Chief Tsira Barbakadze Editors Tamar Berekashvili Tamar Lomidze Izabela Kobalava References Gucha Kvaratskhelia Zaal Kikvidze Manana Kvachantiradze

misamarTi: saqarTvelo 0179 Tbilisi ColoyaSvilis q. #3 semiotikis kvlevis centri

Address: Georgia 0179 Tbilisi Cholokashvili st. #3 Researching Centure of Semiotics E-mail: tsira_barbakadze@iliauni.edu.ge

ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti 2008

ISSN 1512-2409

Sinaarsi
semiotikis Teoria da istoria manana kvaWantiraZe semiologiuri kvlevebis meTodologiisaTvis

enisa da literaturis semiotika cira barbaqaZe niSnis gazomileba poetur diskursSi vinfrid boederi fiqrebi `erTi~ da `yvela~ sityvebze qeTevan bezaraSvili, Tamar lomiZe struqtura da semiotika: galaktionis erTi leqsis analizi zaal kikviZe kidev erTxel sociolingvisturi opoziciebis Sesaxeb

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Tamaz koWlamazaSvili terminebi _ `brZaneba~ da `moxseneba~ socialur da situaciur konteqstebSi 60 salome omiaZe bunebrivi ena da kultura _ eris cocxali mexsiereba

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kulturis semiotika SoTa bostanaSvili, daviT bostanaSvili niSani da naSeni (arqiteqturis semiotika) levan dalaqiSvili bibliuri teqstis karl iaspersiseuli gagebisaTvis

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xaTuna TavdgiriZe `miTiuri dro~, `miTiuri sivrce~ da `sawyisTan dabruneba~ irakli mWedliSvili abelur-kaenuri simbolizmi da kulturaTa dapirispireba

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Tamar oTxmezuri Sua saukuneebis qarTuli azrovnebis istoriidan: efrem mciris erTi sqolios interpretaciisTvis 126 gia joxaZe sxeulis Tavgadasavali: qarTuli versia

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semiotika da kritika daviT andriaZe `samSoblo~ `dedis ZuZui~ da `sxva~ diana anfimiadi `axali esperanto~ anu `sicilakebis~ semiotika gaga lomiZe aRmniSvnelTa mineraluri amboxi malxaz xarbedia kritikis dabadeba

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Targmanebi xose ortega i gaseti ena. Sesavali axal lingvistikaSi (Targmani g. joxaZis)

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iubile leo kvaWaZe 100 wlisaa! 222

reziume inglisur enaze

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CONTENTS
History and Theory of Semiotics Manana Kvachantiradze On the Methodology of Semiologic Investigations

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Semiotics of Language and Literature Tsira Barbakadze Sign Phenomenon in the Poetry Discourse Winfried Boeder Reflections on the words erti (one) and qvela (all) Ketevan Bezarashvili, Tamar Lomidze Structure and Semantics (The Analysis of Galaktion Tabidze"s One Poem) Zaal Kikvidze Sociolinguistic Oppositions Revisited Tamaz Kochlamazashvili Terms "brdzaneba" ("to order") and "mokhseneba" ("to report") in Social and Situational Contexts Salome Omiadze Natural language and culture _ collective memory of a nation Semiotics of Culture ShoTa Bostanashvili, Davit Bostanashvili The Sign and the Built Levan Dalakishvili On Karl Jaspers Approach to the Text of the Bible

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Khatuna Tavdgiridze "Mythical Age," "Mythical Space," and "Returin to the Origins of the Universe" Irakli Mchedlishvili Abelo-Cainian Symbolism and Opposition of Cultures Thamar Otkhmezuri From the History of Medieval Georgian Thinking: Ephrem Mtsires Scholion on the Geocentric Vision of the Universe Gia Joxadze The Body Adventure: Georgian Version

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s e m i o t i k i s T e o r i a d a i s t o r i a
manana kvaWantiraZe

semiologiuri kvlevebis meTodologiisaTvis*


niSnobriv movlenebs, rogorc aRsaniSnisa da aRmniSvnelis urTierTobis Sedegs, jer kidev stoikosebma miaqcies yuradReba. filosofiur, logikur da lingvistur mecnierebaTa ganviTarebis kvaldakval es yuradReba momdevno saukuneebSi kidev ufro gaZlierda da me-19 saukunis bolo ocwleulisaTvis damoukidebeli mecnierebis SeqmniT dasrulda. semiotika, rogorc niSnebisa da niSanTa sistemebis Semswavleli disci plina, aerTianebs codnis yvela mimarTulebas signifikatorul movlenebze. Teoriul midgomaTa garkveuli sxvadasxvaobis miuxedavad, niSnis klasikur gansazRvrebad aRiarebulia amerikeli filosofosisa da logikosis Carlz pirsis definicia: `niSani axdens sagnis reprezentacias da enacvleba mas cnobierebaSi~. Carlz pirssave xvda wilad semiotikis, rogorc axali samecniero disci plinis, fuZemdeblis pativi, Zveli berZnebis wvlili ki terminis warmoSobaSi aRibeWda: seemion niSani. niSanTa sistemebis Semswavlel mecnierebaTa aRmniSvnel terminad `semiotikasTan~ erTad gamoiyeneba `semiologiac~. am ukanasknels, upiratesad, frangul struqturalizms da poststruqturalistur
* naSromi dawerilia 2006 wels.

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis literaturis institutis qarTuli literaturis ganyofilebis gamge, Jurnal `kritikis~ mTavari redaqtori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: ,,me Cems sakuTar Senobas vageb, ,,oTar WilaZis mxatvruli sistemis semiologiuri aspeqtebi, `werilebi literaturaze, ,,gameoreba. interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, kritika, semiotika.

manana kvaWantiraZe

Teoriebs ukavSireben da sakuTriv lingvisturi meTodis aRmniSvnel terminad moiazreben, `semiotika~ ki inglisur-amerikuli samecniero skolebis gamokvlevebTan da formalur logikur-maTematikur mimarTulebasTan asocirdeba. semiotikis ganviTareba uSualod ukavSirdeba me-19 me-20 saukuneebis did mecnierul aRmoCenebs sabunebismetyvelo, zust Tu humanitarul sferoebSi da maT filosofiur-Teoriul ganzogadebebs. am droidan logikosebTan da maTematikosebTan erTad kvlevebSi Caebnen lingvistebi, literaturaTmcodneebi, fsiqologebi, biologebi da kulturologebi. gamovlinda gansxvavebuli meTodologiebi da midgomebi. magaliTad, pirsis semiotikisagan gansxvavebiT, lui elmslevis Teoria struqturalisturi iyo, mogvianebiT ki enisa da literaturis semiologiaSi gansxvavebuli modgomebi Camoyalibda hermenevtikosebsa da porstmodernistebs Sorisac. kvlevebis areali gansakuTrebiT gafarTovda ukanasknel aTwleulebSi, roca sxvadasxva ti pis sakomunikacio enis warmoqmnam dRis wesrigSi maTi regularuli Seswavlisa da sistematizaciis aucilebloba daayena. am etapidan semiotikis yuradRebis areSi eqceva ara mxolod bunebrivi, aramed xelovnuri enebic, signalizaciis mravalferovani sistemebi bunebasa da sazogadoebaSi: sagzao niSnebidan futkrebis niSnobriv qcevebamde; logikur-maTematikuridan _ ferwerul xatebamde; sametyvelo enebidan metaenebamde. gansakuTrebiT intensiurad mimdinareobs semiotikuri kvlevebi xelovnebisa da sociokulturul sferoebSi: dRes semiotika Seiswavlis arqiteqturis, modis, reklamis, ritualis enas. ganuwyvetliv iqmneba axali metaenebi, romlebic miznad isaxaven saxelovnebo Tu kulturuli ena-oieqtebis aRweras, miRebuli informaciis Senaxvasa da gadacemas. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom enis, xelovnebisa da kulturis movlenebze simbolur-niSnobrivi koncefciis gavrceleba dRes erTgvar drois niSnadaa miCneuli. Tavisi interesis obieqtebs semiotika sam did jgufSi aerTianebs: pirveli enisa da literaturis semiologia, romelic Seiswavlis da aRwers sametyvelo enasTan dakavSirebul niSnobriv movlenebs; meore xelovnebisa da socialur- kulturuli sistemebis semiotika (ferwera, musika, arqiteqtura, kino, moda, ritualebi, wes-Cveulebebi da sxva); mesame cxovelTa komunikaciebi da biologiur kavSirTa sistemebi adamianis organizmSi. niSanTa yvelaze srulyofilsa da gavrcelebul sistemas warmoadgens ena. emil benvenistis mosazrebiT, `igi aris yvela sxva sistemis interpretatori~. amdenad, niSnobriv movlenaTa SeswavlaSi

semiologiuri kvlevebis meTodologiisaTvis

swored lingvistur semiologias xvda wilad samagaliTo disci plinaTaSorisi mecnierebis pativi. Carlz pirsis ganmartebiT, elementaruli niSnobrivi urTierTobisaTvis, anu imisaTvis, rom niSani niSnad CaiTvalos, aucilebelia, rom : 1. igi iyos gamosaxvis saSualeba (reprezentanti); 2. miekuTvnebodes raime obieqts (referents) da 3. axdendes im damokidebulebis realizacias, romelsac interpretaciuls vuwodebT (interpretanti). es ukanaskneli auvilebeli pirobaa imisTvis, rom sityva niSnad vaRiaroT. interpretacia warmoadgens ganmartebas, `Targmanebas~, konceptualizacias damokidebulebisa niSani obieqti momdevno niSanSi, anu adamianis reaqcias pirvelad niSanze. yoveli niSani badebs interpretacias da es procesi usasruloa. ase rom, semiozisi, romelic rogorc pirsis, ise poststruqturalisturi Teoriebis erT-erTi fundamenturi cnebaa, niSnis interpretaciis dinamiur process warmoadgens. semiotika samyarosa da obieqtebis Semecnebis SesaZleblobas mxolod maT mier warmoqmnili niSnebis SemecnebaSi xedavs da niSanTa qceva_moqmedebis sam ZiriTad sferos Seiswavlis: sintaqtika ikvlevs niSanTa urTierTobas TviT sistemis SigniT; semantika niSnebsa da obieqtebs Soris damokidebulebas; pragmatika niSanTa urTierTobas imaTTan, vinc am niSnebiT sargeblobs. amasTan dakavSirebiT aucilebelia im ori ZiriTadi midgomis daxasiaTeba, romlebic TviT semiotikis, rogorc niSanTa Semswavleli mecnierebis, SigniT Camoyalibda: pirvels logikur semiotikas, metalogikas, romelic Carlz pirsis saxels ukavSirdeba, ainteresebs niSani TavisTavad, niSani logikaSi, niSanTa klasifikacia da semiozisi, rogorc araniSnis gardaqmna niSnad. meore midgoma, romlis mesafuZvledac Fferdinand de sosiuri iTvleba, amkvidrebs sakuTriv lingvistur xazs. semiologias igi ganixilavs rogorc mecnierebas, romelic Seiswavlis `niSanTa sicocxles sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi~, lingvistikas ki rogorc mis erT-erT Semadgenel nawils. sosiuris azriT, `niSani warmoadgens mTlianobas, romelic gvevlineba aRmniSvnelis (akustikuri xati) da aRsaniSnis (azri, warmodgena) asociaciis nayofad~. yuradReba mivaqcioT, rom sosiurisaTvis aRsaniSni sagani ki ar aris, aramed am sagnis warmodgena, idea gonebaSi. aRmniSvneli ki bgeraTa garkveuli rigis warmosaxviTi xatia da ara is bgeraTa jaWvi, romelsac fonetika Seiswavlis. sosiuris kvaldakval, emil benvenistma da struqturalistebma ganaviTares mosazreba, rom aRmniSvnelsa da aRsaniSns Soris kavSiri

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nebismieria da ara determinirebuli. niSani akustikuri xatisa (aRmniSvneli) da konceptis (aRsaniSni) Tavisufali asociaciuri kavSiris nayofia da ara aucilebloba. am koncefciis Tanaxmad, niSnis specifikas gansazRvravs mxolod misi funqcia metyvelebis aqtSi. droTa ganmavlobaSi am or alternatiul pozicias Soris (pirsi-sosiuri) gaCnda gadaulaxavi winaaRmdegoba, romelic xangamoSvebiT filosofiisa da semiologiis seriozuli kamaTis sagnad iqceoda da `sazRvrebis gadasinjvis~ problemas ayenebda. pirsis xazs aviTarebda hermenevtika, receptiuli esTetika da sxv. struqturalizmis formalisturma Sexedulebebma ki poststruqturalistur da postmodernistul TeoriebSi hpova gamoZaxili. marTalia, samyaros lingvisturobas orive midgoma aRiarebs, magram sxvadasxvagvarad: hermenevtikisaTvis ena warmoadgens substancias da amitom interpretacia ontologiuri mniSvnelobis Ziebis, yofierebis ontologiuri ganmartebis, anu misi kodis amoxsnis operaciaa. igi sxva araferia, Tu ara yofierebis Semecnebis ganuwyveteli procesi, `ganuwyveteli svla aSkara azridan faruli azrisken~(pol rikiori). struqturalizmisTvis ena warmoadgens niSanTa formalur sistemas, sadac sxvadasxva kategoriebi gramatikuli, fonetikuri da a.S. calk-calke sistemebs qmnian. sistemis mTlianobas uzrunvelyofs misi nawilebis wonasworoba da urTierT Sesabamisoba. enis TiToeuli done met-naklebad mowesrigebuli sistemaa da, imavdroulad, sxva doneebTanaa dakavSirebuli. swored aseTi organizacia qmnis enis, rogorc zesistemis, statuss. fonetikuri donis faqtebic ki, romlebic meqanikuri rigis wminda akustikurfiziologiur movlenad ganixileba, sinamdvileSi ganuyreladaa dakavSirebuli enis ufro Rrma doneebTan, maTTan struqturul mTlianobas qmnis da maT gavlenas ganicdis. struqturalizmis `pirveli talRisaTvis~ (Jenevis, kopenhagenis, praRis skolebi) amosavalia realoba. niSnis saSualebiT ena zepiric da werilobiTic iswrafvis asaxos realoba, moaxdinos masze gavlena pirdapir an iribad. gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom struqturalizmi pragmatizmisa da pozitivizmis lingvistur gamoZaxils warmoadgens da masSi bevri ram aRniSnuli meTodologiebis gavleniT aixsneba. am etapze struqturalizmisaTvis meTodologiur WrilSi yvelaze mniSvnelovania sosiuris postulati, rom ena warmoadgens formas da ara substancias, da rom igi mxolod

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gansxvavebebze dafuZnebuli wminda formaluri sistemaa. enis substanciurobis uaryofa meTodologiurad exmianeboda transcedentaluri subieqtisa da istoriuli apriorulobis uaryofas. swored am xazis ukiduresma ganviTarebam moitana poststruqturalistur da postmodernistul etapebze avtoris, nawarmoebis, Semoqmedis tradiciuli cnebebis gadafaseba da sabolood, maTze uaris Tqmac (magaliTad, e.w. `avtoris sikvdili~, romelic mogvianebiT TviT am azris pioneris, Jerar Jenetis mierve iqna Sefasebuli `gadaWarbebad~). kopenhagenis skolis warmomadgenlebma l. elmslevma da h.uldalma neopozitivizmis meTodologiis safuZvelze SeimuSaves e.w. glosematikuri modeli, romelmac enaTmecnierebas SesaZlebloba misca, mieRwia meti sizustisTvis aRniSvnis meqanizmisa da struqturis Camoyalibebis procesis aRwerisas. am modelis mixedviT, teqsti orplaniania: Sinaarsi warmoadgens aRsaniSns, gamosaxva ki - aRmniSvnelis plans. orive plans TavTavisi forma da substancia aqvs da orives funqcia yalibdeba, erTi mxriv, gamosaxvis, meore mxriv ki Sinaarsis formis doneTa urTierTobiT. Sinaarsis forma (aRsaniSnis plani) is gramatikuli wesrigia, romelsac aRsaniSni emorCileba, Sinaarsis substanciad ki mniSvneloba gvevlineba. Tavis mxriv, aRmniSvnelSi (gamosaxvis done) gamosaxvis forma aris TiToeuli is forma, romelsac esa Tu is bgera sxvadasxva enaSi iZens, gamosaxvis substancia ki bgeris materia. miuxedavad imisa, rom glosematikuri modeli ar iTvaliswinebs enis socialur aspeqtebs da metismetad formalizebuli da abstraqtulia, TavisTavad, Sinaarsisa da gamosaxvis planebis (Sesabamisad, aRsaniSnisa da aRmniSvnelis) es oTxfenovani struqtura Zalze mosaxerxebeli aRmoCnda im ti pis enobrivi movlenebis zusti da mecnierulad sando analizisaTvis, romelTac humanitaruli mecniereba teqstebs uwodebs. inglisur_amerikuli semiotikisagan gansxvavebiT, romelic upiratesad, sakuTriv referenciis problemebsa da niSanTa klasifikaciaze amaxvilebs yuradRebas, struqturalizmi niSnis Sinagan agebulebas da aRniSvnis meqanizmebs Seiswavlis. amis gamo sul ufro da ufro aqtualuri xdeba sakuTriv poeturi enisa da mxatvruli teqstis kvleva. teqstis sistemuri struqturuli analizis pirvel nimuSad miCneulia propis naSromi `zRapris morfologia~ (1928 w.). `praRis skolis~ warmomadgenelTa dakvirvebiT, xelovneba, poezia da sxva saukeTeso masalaa, raTa

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SeviswavloT niSnis Sinagani agebuleba, davinaxoT kavSiri simbolosa da mis mniSvnelobas Soris, anu SeviswavloT `mniSvnelobis sruli stratifikacia~. enis sistemis yvela is done, romelic sasaubro enaSi mxolod damxmare rols asrulebs, poetur enaSi metnaklebad damoukidebel azrs iZens. `eqspresiuli saSualebebi, romlebic sxvadasxva dones ganekuTvnebian, aseve, maT Soris urTierTkavSirebi, komunikaciur enaSi avtomaturobisaken miiltvian, poeturSi ki aqtualizaciisken~. struqturalizmis axali talRa 50-iani wlebidan klod levistrosis saxels ukavSirdeba. misi struqturuli anTropologia kidev ufro afarToebs semiologiis sazRvrebs da lingvistur meTods kulturologiis obieqtebs miusadagebs. miTosur struqturebze dakvirvebiT, igi agebs princi pulad axal, mecnierulad uaRresad sarwmuno Teorias arqauli adamianis cnobierebis ti pze, aRwers e.w. mediaciis da brikolaJis meqanizmebs (mediacia Suamavloba; brikolaJi _ inteleqtualuri amocanis amoxsna rikoSetiT), rogorc arqauli adamianis inteleqtualuri da socialuri problemebis gadasaWrelad mimarTul aracnobier logikur operaciebs. amieridan mTeli kulturuli fenomenebi ganixileba enis, rogorc formaTwarmomqmneli princi pis prizmaSi. semiologiis gansakuTrebuli interesi niSanTa konotaciuri (faruli, asociaciuri) donisa da saerTod teqstis, rogorc integrirebuli niSnis, mimarT ganpirobebulia myar struqturebs miRma dafaruli sociokulturuli Sinaarsis amokiTxvis moTxovnilebiT. am moTxovnilebam aracnobier niSanTa kerZo sistemebis kvleva mWidrod daukavSira kulturis zogad semiotikas, romelic kulturas ganixilavs, rogorc zesistemas, niSanTa kodificirebul ierarqias, teqsts, kulturis niSnebs ki rogorc adeptebs sazogadoebis ganviTarebis sxvadasxva istoriul etaps Soris. Sesabamisad, gafarTovda semiologiuri kvlevis areali. misi nayofiereba gansakuTrebiT TvalSisacemia humanitarul sferoSi, roca igi gadalaxavs sakuTriv lingvisturi meTodis sazRvrebs da samyaros xedvis zogad princi pad, erTgvar disci plinaTaSoris meTodologiur sayrdenad gvevlineba. `samyaros lingvisturobis universalurobas~(gadameri) aRiareben rogorc e.w. postklasikuri, ise postmodernistuli Teoriebi, rogorc sturqturalistebi, ise poststruqturalistebi. mas Semdeg, rac Jak lakanma enisa da aracnobieris struqturaTa msgavseba gamoavlina (`aracnobieri

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agebulia, rogorc ena~), semiologiuri kvlevebis areali kidev ufro gafarTovda fsiqolingvistikis, fsiqologiis, kulturis fsiqologiis da sociologiis, sxvadasxva komunikaciuri Teoriebis mimarTulebiT. lingvisturma imperializmma semiotikas kvlevis axali sferoebi Semoumata modis, arqiteqturis, TamaSis, politikisa da sxv. niSanTa sistemebis Seswavla farTo SesaZleblobebs Slis rogorc niSanTa calkeul sistemaTa ierarqiis, ise calkeuli kulturebis socialuri da istoriuli fesvebis wvdomis TvalsazrisiT. meTodologiuri midgoma aseTia: ena, rogorc erovnuli `yofierebis saxli~, simbolurad asaxavs nacionaluri da individualuri mentalitetis gaucnobierebel intenciebs. amdenad, semiologia kvlevis arealSi aqcevs cnobierebisa da kulturis im yvelaze farul da siRrmiseul konteqstebsac, romelSic niSanTa esa Tu is sistema Camoyalibda da ganviTarda, magaliTad, droisa da sivrcis dakavSirebis xerxebs, binarul opoziciaTa gadalaxvis gzebs, Txrobis modelebis sxvadasxvaobebsa da a.S. am gziT SesaZlebeli xdeba kulturis ti pis gansazRvra, ramdenadac igi dgindeba ara mxolod mis zogad struqturaSi Semavali saerTo elementebiT, aramed imiTac, rac TavisTavadi da individualuria calkeuli kulturebis yovel `enaSi~. kulturis enis mimarT ZalaSi rCeba sosiuris debuleba sametyvelo enis Sesaxeb, romlis Tanaxmadac, `erTeulTa is sistema, romelic enobriv niSanTa sistemad gvevlineba, imavdroulad faseulobaTa sistemas warmoadgens~. yovel kulturaSi, rogorc enaSi, aRniSvnis specifikuri procesebi mimdinareobs. nacionaluri kulturebi gansxvavdebian swored kodirebis xerxebis TaviseburebebiT, magaliTad, obieqtebis SerCeviT, ierarqiiT da sxva da ara TviT kodirebis funqciiT, romelic saerToa. Eernest kasireris azriT, `sulieri kulturis nebismieri saxe sxva araferia, Tu ara niSnebi, kodebi. garkveul momentebSi, konkretuli istoriul-kulturuli epoqis moTxovnilebaTa Sesabamisad, kultura axdens ara mxolod kodis gaxsnas, aramed ukve gaxsnilis xelaxlad daSifvras, gasaidumloebas misi Senaxvis mizniT. swored amis magaliTia miTi, klod levi_strosis gansazRvrebiT `zeena~, rolan bartis azriT ki axal-axal mniSvnelobaTa misaRebad miwyiv mzadmyofi niSani. yvelaze faseulia niSnis `amoxsna~ axal sistemaSi gadatanis gziT, radgan esTetikuri TvalsazrisiT, gacilebiT mniSvnelovania

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ara gaxsnili, gaSifruli simbolo, aramed iseTi niSani, romelic warmosaxvas amocnobis axal-axali aqtebis stimuls aZlevs. roca mniSvneloba amowurulia da sabolood dadgenilia, sityva (gamonaTqvami) konvenciur niSnad iqceva da sasaubro enaSi ikavebs adgils. Tuki niSan_simbolo zogadkulturuli kodis aucilebeli elementia, faseulobaTa ierarqiis dacvis mizniT, koleqtiuri aracnobieri `avtomaturad~ axdens mis xelaxla daSifvras. aseTi zogadi niSnebi garkveuli saxecvlilebebiT kulturaTa kodebis mudmiv binadrebad gvevlinebian, magaliTad, miToidebi, bibliuri simboloebi, arqeti pebi, binaruli opoziciebi da sxva. xelaxali kodireba aris axali stilebis, axali ti pis analitikuri mdgomareobisa da interpretaciebis safuZveli. literaturis semiologia ikvlevs mxatvruli enis im aspeqtebs, romlebic ganuyofelia enobrivi komunikaciebis zogadi problematikisagan, magram, amave dros, mas interesTa da obieqtTa sakuTari sferoc gaaCnia. mxatvruli ena iseve, rogorc adamianis sulieri moRvaweobis sxva formebi, simboluri saxisaa. igi warmoadgens msoflmxedvelobriv da kulturul-esTetikur SexedulebaTa, intenciaTa, survilTa da ltolvaTa kodirebul niSanTa sistemas, romelic masSi daleqili mravalSriani sociokulturuli Sinaarsis gamo, axsnasa da interpretacias moiTxovs. literaturasa da xelovnebaSi mxatvrul-esTetikuri niSnebis ganxilvisas, Tanamedrove semiologia Carlz pirsis klasifikacias eyrdnoba. aRmniSvnelisa da aRsaniSnis kavSiris mixedviT, pirsi niSanTa sam tips ganasxvavebs: 1. ikonuri niSnebi aRsaniSnTan msgavsebas amJRavneben da masze grZnobad warmodgenas iZlevian; 2. niSan-indeqsebi aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels Soris mizez-Sedegobriv kavSirs asaxaven; 3. niSan_simboloebi asociaciuri kavSiris Sedegad aRmocendebian da konceptualurad datvirTul informacias Seicaven. mxatvruli niSani sagnis (movlenis, azris) grZnobadi aRqmis substitutia da langvisturi niSnisagan gansxvavebiT, swored am grZnobadi struqturis gaZlierebasa da obieqtivacias axdens. mxatvruli niSnis, rogorc kodirebuli mxatvruli informaciis gadacemis SeqmnaSi monawileobs rogorc aRsaniSnis materialur-sagnobrivi, vizualuri da smeniTi, ise aRmniSvnelis azrobriv-semantikuri komponentebi. aRniSvna xdeba rogorc aSkara vizualuri msgavsebis, ise faruli asociaciuri da funqciuri msgavsebis gaTvaliswinebiT. bartis mosazrebiT, mxatvruli teqstis SemTxvevaSi semiologiuri kvlevis obieqtad niSan-indeqsebi unda ganixilebodnen, radgan

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swored isini warmoadgenen im gaucnobierebel aRmniSvnelebs, romlebic enis TviTreferenciisas spontanurad aRmocendebian semiozisis uwyvet procesSi. mxatvruli enis semiologiuri kvlevisas unda gaviTvaliswinoT sakiTxis ori mxare: filosofiuri da filologiuri. pirveli ukavSirdeba Tanamedrove hermenevtikuli da postmodernistuli filosofiis zemonaxseneb fundamenturi mosazrebas samyaros universalur lingvisturobaze. haidegeris mosazrebiT, yofiereba CvenTan enis meSveobiT saubrobs, yofierebis ideas Cven mxolod enis gziT vukavSirdebiT. es imasac niSnavs, rom igi ar warmoadgens `bgeraTa akustikur jaWvs~. samyaros, rogorc teqstis, gageba jer kidev neoplatonikosebTan gvxvdeba. gvian Sua saukuneebSi sakmaod gavrcelebulia samyarosa da adamianis, rogorc RvTaebrivi azrebis Semcveli wignis, modeli. alan lilskis mixedviT, `yoveli arseba samyaroSi mxolod wignia da naxati~ (sityva `wignis~ etimologias korneli kekeliZe berZnul sityvas signum niSans ukavSirebs. sxvaTa Soris, lilskis es fraza sayuradReboa ikonuri da simboluri niSnebis naxatisa da wignis dapirispirebis TvalsazrisiTac). miuxedavad imisa, rom ena `yvela sxva sistemis interpretatoria~, igi mainc mxolod `kerZo SemTxvevaa semiotikuri funqciisa~ (piaJe). Tavs nebas mivcemT, am midgomebis Suqze mxatvruli enis mimarT pirdapir CamovayaliboT Cveni pozicia: mxatvruli ena warmoadgens universalur enas aracnobieris im uRrmesi Sreebis gamosavlenad, romlebic uSualod esazRvrebian da reagireben yofierebis dafarul formebze, anu imaze, rac realobisa da aRqmis miRmaa. mxatvruli ena am reagirebis meqanizmia. igi am azriT martooden semiotikuri funqciis kerZo SemTxveva an marto `yvela sxva sistemis interpretatori~ ki araa, aramed enis muSaobis gansakuTrebuli, afeqturi reJimi, uRrmesi Sinagani funqciiT aRZras yofierebisa da arsebobis mTlianobis gancda, gaaZlieros sicocxlis xilul da uxilav formaTa kavSiris SegrZneba zogadad da, gansakuTrebiT, cnobierebis krizisul etapebze, iqces kreaciul lokusad sicocxlis formaTa moZraoba-ganviTarebis Seferxebisa da Segubebis momentebSi. sityvisa da frazis opoziciur struqturaSi vlindeba yofierebis es cimcimi, es malva da TavisCena, es Suq-Crdili erTdroulad. niSnis referenciuli funqcia masSi imTaviTve nagulisxmev orerTianobas avlens, romelic sxva araferia, Tu ara yofierebis orbunebovnebis dasaxeleba erT struqturaSi.

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roca sityvam, RvTiuri nebis niSanma, romelic `pirvelTaganve iyo~- ganaRo, gaapo yofiereba orad aRsaniSnad da aRmniSvnelad, manve imav wams gaaCina ganxeTqilebis aRmkveTi struqturac mniSvneloba. samyaros dasaxeleba jerac ar niSnavda imas, rom adamianma igi Seimecna, magram uTuod niSnavda am gzis dasawyiss. nagulisxmevi saxiT sityvaSi yofierebis paradoqsuli mTlianoba, mTeli sisavse, opoziciis orive sazRvari airekla, anu isic, rac sinaTleSia da isic, rac sibneleSi Zevs da mxolod xandaxan ixilveba naTelSi (`naTelxilvaSi~). niSnis mTeli gamocdileba moqceulia mniSvnelobaSi, interpretacia ki mniSvnelobis gziT samyaros Semecnebis usasrulo procesia. miuxedavad imisa, rom mecnierTa nawili eWvqveS ayenebs binarulobis universalurobas, Tanamedrove semiologia rogorc struqturalistur, ise poststruqturalistur etapze - binaruli modelidan amodis. umberto ekos azriT, `opoziciaTa meqanizmSi sabolood yvelaze mniSvnelovani is aris, rom igi sistematur SesaZleblobas iZleva vicnoT is, rac ar aris, imis mixedviT, rac aris~ (anu ararsebuli arsebulis mixedviT da piriqiT m.k.) binaruloba, rogorc gansxvavebaTa kerZo da radikaluri SemTxveva, mxatvrul enaSi gadailaxeba rogorc TandaTan, mniSvnelobaTa daaxloebis, ise erTbaSad semantikuri urTierTSeWris gziT (magaliTad, metafora, oqsimoroni). sakiTxis meore, filologiuri aspeqti ukavSirdeba teqstis, rogorc sxvadasxva ti pis lingvistur niSanTa integraciis procesis kvlevas; mxatvruli sistemis elementTa dakavSirebis xerxebis SerCevaSi mwerlis enobrivi unaris daxasiaTebas; frazis (gamonaTqvamis) Sinagani struqturuli wesrigis, asociaciur mniSvnelobaTa badis, enis aqtualizaciis vels diskursis, naratiuli figurebis aRweras da a.S. ena ganixileba, rogorc cnobierebis zogadsimboluri unaris gamovlineba da, imavdroulad rogorc sametyvelo funqcia. dRes ukve aRar davoben imaze, rom zusti meTodebis gamoyeneba mxatvruli Semoqmedebis sferoebis mimarT, TavisTavad, jer kidev ar niSnavs miRebuli Sedegebis sizustes. romanis enis struqturis kvlevisas a. prieto aRiarebs, rom `literaturaTmcodneobiTi analizis dros sustdeba aRweris lingvisturi sizuste. es niSnavs, rom kvlevis sazRvrebi gafarTovda~. ai, am gafarTovebul sazRvrebSi semiologia angariSs uwevs mxatvruli enis sistemaSi Semaval im struqturebsac, romlebic warmoadgnen ara referenciul niSnebs pirdapiri gagebiT, aramed fsiqologiur,

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socialur, kulturul, eTnikur, istoriul, Janrul niSnebs. isini, garkveulwilad, inarCuneben Tavdapirvel (denotaciur) mniSvnelobasac, magram teqstSi ukve axal mniSvnelobaTa aRmniSvnelebadac gvevlinebian. cxadia, filologiuri kvlevis arealSi Semodis logikuri semiologiis is problemebic, romlebic ukavSirdebian metyvelebaSi saganTa predikatebis gadmotanas, maT zepir Tu werilobiT gamoxatvas da a.S. literaturis semiologiisaTvis kvlav problemad rCeba aRsaniSni da referencia, anu is, Tu ras miemarTeba niSani, ra saxis transformaciebi mimdinareobs TviT niSnis struqturis SigniT `pirveladidan~ `meorad referenciaze~, anu sasaubrodan mxatvrul enaze gadasvlisas. aRniSvnis procesSi emil benvenisti or dones gamoyofs: pirvelad aRmniSvnelebs, anu sityvebs, romlebic identificirdebian aRsaniSn sagnebTan da meorad aRmniSvnelebs winadadebebs, gamoTqmebs, romelTa gagebac SesaZlebelia mxolod sxva azrebTan SesabamisobaSi. pirvelebi, martivi niSnebi, anu leqsikuri morfemebia, meoreni ki semantikuri interpretaciis niSnebi, anu e.w. diskursuli niSan-gamoTqmebi. swored am ukanasknelT aRiarebs benvenisti im umcires erTeulebad, romlebTanac saqme aqvT mxatvruli teqstis mkvlevrebs. iulia kristevasaTvis teqstis aseT umcires struqturas warmoadgens e.w. aRmniSvneli diferenciali, anu wertili, sadac mniSvnelobaTa simravle aRmocendeba. mniSvnelobaTa es simravle, romelsac mxatvruli teqsti aCens, ontologiuri movlenaa da misi amowurva SeuZlebelia. yovel gamonaTqvamSi arsebobs avtomatizmis elementi, magram imavdroulad arsebobs Tavisuflebis garkveuli xarisxic. am TavisuflebiT sargeblobs rogorc avtori, ise mkiTxveli. mkiTxvelis Tavisufleba ukavSirdeba warmosaxvis gaaqtiurebas, misi zonebis gafarToebas; mwerlis SemTxvevaSi ki sityvaTa seleqcias sinonimTa didi rigidan, formis arCevans, frazis konstruqcias da a.S... amdenad, literaturis semiologia upiratesad teqstis konotaciuri aRsaniSniT interesdeba da ara denotaciuriT. semiologiis ganviTarebam daadastura, rom enis gavrcelebis iseT sferoebSi, rogoricaa miTi, mxatvruli proza, poezia, folklori da a.S. araviTari sagangebo niSnebi ar arsebobs. roman iakobsonis azriT, `gansxvaveba SetyobinebaTa Soris gamoixateba ara erTi romelime funqciis monopoliaSi, aramed funqciaTa gansxvavebul ierarqiaSi. Setyobinebis sityvieri struqtura swored imazea

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damokidebuli, Tu romel funqcias eniWeba upiratesoba... emociur funqciaSi vlindeba eqspresiuli da emociuri informacia ufro mniSvnelovani mxatvruli enisaTvis, vidre referenciuli(kognitiuri)~. cvetan todorovi kidev ufro Sors midis da, rogorc TviTonve uwodebs, `enis meore struqturul ganmartebas~ ayalibebs: literatura warmoadgens `sistemurad organizebul enas, romelic orientirebulia sakuTar Tavze, enas, romelic TviTmiznur bunebas iZens~. rogorc vxedavT, aq ukve `ufro mniSvnelovan funqciaze~ ki ar aris saubari, aramed sakuTar Tavze orientirebul, TviTmiznur enaze, romelic semiologiis winaSe axleburad ayenebs referenciis problemas. sasaubro da samecniero enis niSnisagan gansxvavebiT, romelsac denotaciuri gamWvirvaleba axasiaTebs, mxatvruli enis niSani bundovania da asociaciur mniSvnelobaTa `Sleifs~ moiyolebs. igi uSualod ki ar gvgzavnis aRsaniSnebTan, aramed arapirdapir. am bunebis gamo mxatvruli ena axdens yvela im simboluri SesaZleblobis gaaqtiurebas, romelic sityvaSia Cadebuli. semiotikis ganviTarebis am etapze (50-iani wlebi) funqciuri lingvistika ukve uars ambobs ena-metyvelebis sosiuriseul mkveTr dapirispirebaze da aRiarebs `enis~ kvlevaSi miRweuli Sedegebis upiratesobas. ~metyvelebis~ sferosTan SedarebiT. gansakuTrebiT sagulisxmoa, rom `metyvelebis~ kvleva swored mxatvruli teqstebis magaliTze xdeba. 60-iani wlebidan ukve aSkaraa, rom struqturalisturi meTodi sakmarisi aRaraa enisadmi im axali midgomebis fonze, romlebic mas ganixilaven rogorc heterogenul arss. amieridan literaturis semiotika aRar moiazreba lingvistikis ubralo gagrZelebad, romelic lingvisturi modelebiT aRwers mxatvrul enas, aramed meTodologiad, romelic Seiswavlis imas, rac ar emorCileba struqturul kanons da warmoadgens `gadacdenas~ enis sistematuri reJimidan. poststruqturalisturma gamokvlevebma gaaSiSvla transcendentaluri subieqtis problemac cnobierebis gaxleCa da masTan erTad semiotikis struqturalisturi xazis uunaroba, gadaeWra referenciis problema, aexsna warmosaxvisa da SemoqmedebiTi procesis mTeli siRrme da mravalferovneba, romelic man formaluri da abstraqtuli struqturebis kvlevas daumorCila. adamianuri arsebobis mTeli rigi segmentebis arastruqturuloba, ukiduresi scientizmi da pozitivizmi uamrav kiTxvas badebda struqturalizmis mimarT da gzas aZlevda axal midgomebsa da Teoriebs missave wiaRSi.

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struqturalizmis `meore talRa~ adrindeli barti, fuko, eko, derida teqsts ganixilavs rogorc kulturuli, socialuri, politikuri konteqstis Semcvel Ria sistemas da mza mniSvnelobidan aqcenti mTlianad gadaaqvs mniSvnelobaTa Camoyalibebis procesze, niSanTa gaucnobierebel sistemebze da maTi integraciis xerxebze. am etapidan Teoriul-meTodologiuri da praqtikuli kvlevebi ZiriTadad ori mimarTulebiT viTardeba: hermenevtikisaTvis, romelic postklasikur (yofierebis filosofia, fenomenologia, egsistencializmi) filosofias efuZneba, amosavalia metafizikuri aRsaniSni, romlis gamovlenac ganuwyvetel interpretaciul procedurebs gulisxmobs. poststruqturalizmisaTvis ki, romelic mogvianebiT postmodernistul filosofiur paradigmaSi aisaxa, aRsaniSni sxva araferia, Tu ara referenciuli iluzia. SexadulebaTa rogorc erTi, ise meore sistemisaTvis samyaros lingvisturi universalizmi ueWvoa, magram hermenevtika klasikuri da postklasikuri paradigmis kvaldakval, aRiarebs mniSvnelobis ontologiur gansazRvrulobas, romelic garantad udgas rogorc transcendentalur subieqts, ise realobis Tundac SefardebiT konstanturobas. postmodernizmisaTvis ki mniSvneloba piroba ki araa, aramed procesualuri fenomeni (`mniSvnelobis qveS me yovelTvis vgulisxmobdi azris gamomuSavebis process da ara TviT am azrs~_ barti). teqstis interpretaciisas postmodernizmi uars ambobs yvela tradiciul meTodologiaze da TviT semiologias moiazrebs `werilobis~ gansakuTrebuli ti pis rangSi, rogorc yovelgvari gareSe aRsaniSnisgan ganupirobebel SemoqmedebiT-refleqsur aqts, romelic martooden `TamaSisa~ da `siamovnebis~ operaciebs ukavSirdeba. bartisTvis semiozisi warmoadgens sistemis (= Zalaufleba, Zaladoba) daSlis, dangrevis process, maSin, roca hermenevtika saubrobs sistemis ganuwyvetel saxecvlilebaze rogorc gare, ise Sida ganzomilebaSi: enis, cnobierebisa da kulturis konfiguraciebis saxecvlilebaze istoriis dinamiur procesSi da maT ganixilavs, rogorc yofierebis TviTgamovlenis formebs. am winaaRmdegobaTa fonze, cxadia, simbolos mravalmniSvnelovneba hermenevtikaSi `interpretaciaTa konfliqts~ aRmoacenebs (pol rikori), postmodernizmSi ki interpretaciaTa ukonfliqtobas, nebismieri ti pis interpretaciis (sociologiuris, fsiqoanalitikuris, lingvisturis da a.S.) uflebamosilebas, Tuki igi teqstTan validurobis princi ps daakmayofilebs (rolan barti).

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postmodernizmis mier warmodgenil samyaros suraTSi saerTod ar moiazreba Tundac raime saxis araenobrivi yofiereba. semiozisi, rogorc aRniSvnis uwyveti, mizanmiumarTavi procesi da rogorc enobrivi cxovreba, yofierebis erTaderT formad cxaddeba. es meTodologiuri strategia eyrdnoba lakanis struqturalistur fsiqologias, romlis mixedviTac aracnobieris nebismieri forma verbalur artikulacias emorCileba: aracnobierSi araferia iseTi, rac enobriv xorcSesxmas ar eqvemdebareba. subieqti mTlianad `gaxsnilia~, gabneulia enobrivi ti pis formebSi. kidev erTxel: postmodernizmma uari Tqva rogorc klasikuri filosofiis pirovnebis koncefciaze (`pirovneba warmoadgens depersonificirebul instruments enis kulturuli mniSvnelobis gamosavlenad~), ise niSnis (enis) referenciul Teoriaze da maTTan erTad ukuagdo mniSvnelobis yovelgvari stabilurobis gageba. es ki imas niSnavs, rom klasikuri tradiciisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli aRsaniSnaRmniSvnelis opozicia Tundac asimetriuli gagebis CarCoebSi daiSala. amrigad, denotatTa mniSvnelobis mkacri Sesabamisobis nacvlad, miviReT damokidebuleba, romlis mixedviTac mniSvneloba Riaa Dda usasrulo interpretacias eqvemdebareba. anu sxvagvarad: aRmniSvnelis ganpirobebuloba aRsaniSniT Seicvala aRsaniSnis RiaobiT. es Riaoba ki, Tavis mxriv, determinirebulia misi kulturuli interpretaciebis usasrulobiT. semantikuri gansazRvrulobis ontologiuri safuZveli, rogorc saxel-wodebis, saxeldebis garanti, absoluturi fardobiTobis sferoSi gadainacvlebs da, Sesabamisad, SeuZlebeli xdeba teqstis utyuarobis an raimesTan Sesabamisobis mtkiceba, rogorc werilobis, ise kiTxvis doneze. sityva, rogorc niSani, mxolod mimTiTebelia da ara raime Sinaarsis gamomxatveli. rogorc ukve vTqviT, referenciuli enis gageba adgils uTmobs teqstis, rogorc `referenciuli iluziis~ gagebas. Ees ki, gansxvavebuli, usubieqto TamaSebrivi Semoqmedebaa da `avtoris sikvdilis~ paradigmul sivrceSi ganixileba. am TamaSebis ena qmnis kvazisubieqtur sivrces, ara avtoris, aramed TviT `enis simarTles~. postmodernizmis mier aRiarebuli es postulati warmoadgens haidegeris im mosazrebis gadamuSavebul variants, romlis Tanaxmadac, `laparakobs ena. adamiani laparakobs imdenad, ramdenadac srulyofilad flobs am enas~. postmodernizmi subieqts ganixilavs, rogorc ontologiur gansazRvrulobas moklebuls, romlis fundamentur unarebadac rCeba martooden `TamaSi da moraluri pasuxismgebloba~. aRmniSvnel

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aRsaniSnis asimetriulobis Temas, romelsac jer kidev struqturalizmi amuSavebda, barti usazRvrod ganavrcobs da ayenebs opoziciis sruli daSilis mosazrebas, sadac aRsaniSni da aRmniSvneli marto asimetriulni ki ar arian, aramed srulad Caenacvlebian erTmaneTs. postmodernizmis Semdgomi versia aRadgens subieqturobasac da aRsaniSnsac, rogorc teqstis semantikur determinantebs (apeli, uardi). am gziT igi cdilobs, gadalaxos identifikaciis krizisi, romelic, Tavis mxriv, mniSvnelobisa da obieqtis krizisma ganapiroba. igi ukve saubrobs subieqtze, rogorc komunikaciis aucilebel figuraze (apeli), mniSvnelobis reanimaciaze (uardi) am sityvebis rogorc denotaciuri, ise aqsiologiuri mniSvnelobiT. apeli komunikacias ganixilavs aratradiciulad: ara rogorc subieqtis da obieqtis, aramed rogorc subieqtisa da subieqtis urTierTobas, sadac informaciis mimRebica da gadamcemic Tanabaruflebiani teqstebia verbaluri da araverbaluri. am konteqstSi ena moiazreba ara rogorc informaciis gadacemis saSualeba, aramed rogorc urTierTgagebis aucilebeli piroba. enobrivi TamaSebis mimarT, sadac monawileebi Tanabaruflebian teqstebs warmoadgenen, es versia uSvebs wakiTxvis pluralizms, interpretaciebis ara absolutur, aramed SefardebiT Tavisuflebas. Tavisuflebis xarisxs ki gansazRvravs subieqtis azris rekonstruqciis SesaZlebloba, romelic urTierTgagebis aucilebel da udavo pirobad miiCneva. amrigad, identifikaciis krizisi gadailaxeba. komunikaciis Tanamonawile meore subieqti, rogorc `Cemiani~ (ara ucxos, ucnobis, aramed `Cemis~, `Cemianis~ statusiT), gvevlineba aucilebel pirobad da gzad imisaTvis, rom `me~-m daZlios identobis problema. hermenevtikasTan postmodernizmis axali veqtoris es princi puli daaxloeba uTuod dadebiT movlenad unda CaiTvalos, radgan identifikaciis krizisi aris TviTobis damSleli faqtori rogorc pirovnul, ise kulturul da erovnul doneebze. semiologiuri problematikis gafarToeba TviT literaturis semiologiis winaSe dRes gacilebiT farTo da seriozul problemebs ayenebs, vidre Tundac aTiode wlis win. mniSvnelobis krizisi, rogorc realobisagan gaucxoebisa da subieqturobis rRvevis xelSemwyobi, TviT `teqstis~ axali versiiT unda Seicvalos. teqstis semiologiis axali versiebi ki sadReisod aqtualuri problemuri velebis aRdgenis pirobad unda iqcnen. axleburad unda daisvas rogorc ikonuri niSnebis, aracnobieri niSan-indeqsebisa da signalebis problema,

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ise teqstis pragmatikis, recefciisa da mxatvruli enis referenciis problemebic. literatura vainStaini 2002: o. vainSteini. leopardebi taZarSi. dekonstruqtivizmi da kulturuli tradicia // sjani, 3, 2002; 4, 2003. barti 1989: . . . . , 1989. benvenisti 1974: . . . . 1974. beli 1996: ., a . c. , . IX, 2, 1996. vaxeki 1964: . . . . 1964. sosiuri 1933: . .. 1933. lakani 1998: . . 1, 2. . , 1998. levi_strosi 1983: - . . , 1983. lotmani 1999: .. . . 1999. rikiori 1995: . . . ,1995; eko 1998: . . . . , 1998.

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e n i s a

d a l i t e r a t u r i s s e m i o t i k a

cira barbaqaZe

niSnis ganzomileba poetur diskursSi


adamianis cnobiereba warmoadgens `sufTa dafas, romelzec buneba, samyaro aRbeWdavs Tavis niSnebs...~ merab mamardaSvili

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: qarTuli mWevrmetyvelebis lingvopragmatika, folkloruli ritorika, Tanamedrove politikuri diskursis ritorikuli Taviseburebani, qarTuli sakanonmdeblo stili... interesTa sfero: semiotika, ritorika, stilistika, kritika.

semiotikaSi mniSvnelovania niSnis problema, xolo niSnis kvlevisas sityvis semantikis gansazRvra umTavresia. Lleqsemis mniSvneloba SeiZleba gamovikvlioT enis (rogorc sistemis) farglebSi da metyvelebis farglebSi. Ppirvel SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs saleqsikono mniSvnelobasTan, xolo meore SemTxveva sityvis semantikis dasadgenad ufro rTulia, radgan mniSvnelobas SeviswavliT enis gamoyenebisas sxvadasxva diskursis farglebSi(oficialur_saqmiani, sagazeTopublicisturi, samecniero, sasaubro, mxatvruli da sxva). Sesabamisad, sityvis mniSvneloba SeiZleba romelime metyvelebaSi amave sityvis saleqsikono mniSvnelobis asimetriulic ki iyos, an gauCndes uamravi konotaciuri mniSvneloba. Ppoeturi diskursi am mxriv yvelaze ufro rTuli da mravalganzomilebiani sivrcea, ramdenadac ena Tavis SesaZleblobebs yvelaze metad poeziaSi avlens. radgan ena azris gaformebis saSualebaa, nebismieri enobrivi erTeuli (sityva, fraza, gamonaTqvami...) ganxiluli unda iyos konteqstSi. Cveni kvlevis mizania, gamo-

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vavlinoT aqtualizebuli enobrivi erTeulebi (romlebsac amave dros aqvT universaluri xasiaTi) poetur metyvelebaSi da davadginoT maTi semantikuri sazRvrebi. aseT SemTxvevaSi konceptis `birTvi~ iqneba saleqsikono mniSvneloba da Semdeg yvela is konotaciuri, maT Soris, gadataniTi mniSvnelobebi, romelsac aCens esa Tu is leqsema garkveul konteqstSi. Aam meTodiT enis aRwera gamoavlens qarTuli enis potencialsa da siRrmeebs da, amave dros, sxva enebis Sesabamis masalasTan Sedareba saSualebas mogvcems gamovavlinoT universaluri da specifikuri saxe_simboloebi poetur metyvelebaSi. kiTxvaze: ra aris semiotika? tradiciuli pasuxi, rom es aris mecniereba niSnebze da niSanTa sistemebze, _ axals aRarafers gveubneba, radgan `niSnebi~, rogorc aseTi, samyaros gaCenidan arsebobs da iarsebebs yovelTvis, vidre sicocxle iqneba dedamiwaze, maTi axsnis mcdelobac mudam eqneba adamians. `pirvelad iyo sityva... ~, logosi da mere danawevrda samyaro, yvelafers Tavisi saxeli daerqva, azri iqca materiad, funqcia SeiZines sagnebma, xolo Tavad azri ki gaxda dafaruli, Sefaruli, gadafaruli...anu SeiniRba sxvadasxva SinaarsiT. ra unda hqnas mkvlevarma, romelic ar yofila qmnadobis mowme? Ddaiwyo svla piriqiT _ materiidan (anu sagnis funqciidan, daniSnulebidan, Sinaarsidan) ideisken, azris amocnobisken. iq, sadac Cndeba moTxovna, rom gaiSifros niSani, aqtiurdeba semiotika, rogorc erTgvari universaluri metamecniereba niSanTa Sesaxeb. samyaro iqca ara mxolod teqstad, aramed Zalian rTul teqstad, saWiro gaxda am teqstis `wakiTxva, interpretacia. Aaq ki saSiSroeba yovelTvis iarsebebs, radgan `gageba~ arc ise ioli aRmoCnda, rogorc es erTi SexedviT SeiZleba Candes. Aar arsebobs erTi anbani, romliTac yvela teqsts wavikiTxavdiT, radgan yvelafers Tavisi `ena~ aqvs, yvela struqtura gansakuTrebuli warmonaqmnia... cxovelebs da frinvelebs warmodgenac ara aqvT semiotikaze, magram mSvenivrad urTierToben da agebineben erTmaneTs. Aadamians ki ufro meti unda, vidre Cveulebrivi gagebinebaa, mas surs, gaaRwios saganTa miRma da amoicnos maTi arsebobis idumali azri, gaarkvios samyaro da sakuTari Tavi am samyaroSi. semiotika swored am perspeqtivas gvTavazobs... is eZebs kanonzomierebebs niSnur sistemebSi, ikvlevs niSnis bunebas da am yvelafers erT xedvaSi aerTianebs imis gamo, rom niSani yvelgan pirobiTia. swored amitom sosiuri semiologiis sagnad Tvlida

niSnis ganzomileba poetur diskursSi

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sistemaTa erTobliobas, dafuZnebuls niSnis pirobiTobaze (sosiuri 1997). imis miuxedavad, rom niSani motivirebulia (romlis kvali zogjer Cans da zogjer _ ara niSanSi), es xels ar uSlis mas, rom moqmedebisas iyos pirobiTi. MmagaliTad: roca vambob, rom _ vRelav... me ar vfiqrob, rom es sityva enobrivi metaforaa da Cems cnobierebaSi am sityvis gamoyenebisas ar Cndeba `zRvis Relva~. roca saqme poezias exeba da gansakuTrebiT Mmxatvrul metaforebs, ufro rTuladaa saqme. Aam SemTxvevaSi ena masalaa `axali enis~ asaSeneblad. rogor da ratom iqmneba da ibadeba metafora? Aamaze pasuxi poetebsac ara aqvT, albaT gamouTqmelis gamosaTqmelad, gancdaTa zRvarze... erTxel galaktions gadaekidnen Turme: ras gulisxmobT ama da am metaforaSio? Ppoeti ki gulwrfelad Cioda: ise mekiTxebian, TiTqos marTla vicode da ar veubnebodeo. ras niSnavs: `ivlisisferi yinvis Tasebi?... ra Sinaarsia am metaforaSi da poetis romeli gancdis niSania? rTulia individualuri saxeebis kvleva, magram imgvari saxeebic arsebobs, universalur, poetur saxe_simboloebad rom SeiZleba CaiTvalos... Tovlismetyveleba ras aRniSnaven poeziaSi bunebis movlenebi? da rogori gancdis metaforebi arian? am mxriv, mdidar masalas iZleva. mirza gelovanis leqsSi Tovli mravalgvar konteqstSia warmodgenili mravalferovnebiT gamoirCeva. Tovli
Tovli movida, o, ara TeTri, sul sxvanairi Tovli movida. mgonia moxval, Sen moxval erTi da Tovlis spetak kubos momitan. dammarxe TovlSi, dammarxe qarSi, Torem mombezrda miwa boroti, iCqare, vidre TovliviT wavSli Senze fiqrebs da Senze molodins. waxvedi rodis, hbrundebi rodis _ damwvari Tovlis msubuqi boli, Cemken, o, Cqara, gzac aqeT modis,

Ppoetis romeli qarTuli poezia `Tovli~ sityva da semantikuri

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Tovli, Tovli, Tovli. maTovda wuxel, avad var axla da Tvalzec bindi Camorxeula, amdeni vneba, amdeni daRla, sad daitios Cvilma sxeulma. Tovli mosula, romel mxareSi, sad giRamdeba dRe Tovlnarevi, davrCi mzisa da Tovlis gareSe, am Tovlze ufro namtiralevi. waxvedi rodis, hbrundebi rodis _ damwvari Tovlis msubuqi boli, wamodi CemTan, gzac aqeT modis, Tovli, Tovli, Tovli. mirza gelovani, 1944 weli, fronti

pirvel strofSi gvaqvs aseTi opozicia: TeTri Tovli _ sxvanairi Tovli. sxvanairi Tovli miTiTebaa ara ferze, aramed raRac garkveul Sinaarsze. Semdeg striqonSi ki gvaqvs amgvari sintagma: Tovlis spetaki kubo, romelic satrfom unda miutanos poets, es metafora erTdroulad aRniSnavs sicivisa da sispetakis gancdas. meore strofSi aris poetis mowodeba: `dammarxe TovlSi, dammarxe qarSi...~, avtori aqve ganmartavs, ratom TovlSi? `radgan mombezrda miwa boroti~. am konteqstidan gamomdinare: miwa _ borotia, Tovli _ keTili... esec poeturi Tovlis kidev erTi semantikuri niuansi. amave strofSia sintagma: `TovliviT wavSli~... poeti satrfos mimarTavs: `iCqare, Torem TovliviT wavSli Senze fiqrebs da Senze molodins~ (Tovli roca dneba, ukvalod midis). mesame strofSi satrfo Sedarebulia `damwvari Tovlis msubuq bolTan~, radgan satrfo aris Sors, radgan poeti frontzea (sadac yvelaferi iwvis, maT Soris, Tovlic...), xolo boli sinazis da umweobis simboloa. Semdegi saxe TovlTan dakavSirebuli aris gza, romelic iseve midis poetisken, rogorc Tovli, amitom satrfos am gzisken mianiSnebs. meoTxe strofSi striqoni: `maTovda wuxel, avad var axla~ unda gaviazroT pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT. xolo momdevno strofSi gamoTqmuli gancda: `davrCi mzisa da Tovlis gareSe, am Tovlze ufro namtiralevi im realobis aRniSvnaa, rom poetisTvis ucxo mxareSi mze da Tovli igive ar aris, rac mSobliur mxareSi... miTumetes, rom is omSia da yoveldRe sikvdils elodeba... swored

niSnis ganzomileba poetur diskursSi

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amitom is `Tovlze ufro namtiralevia~ (anu Tovli tiris, roca dneba...). GgancdaTa zRvarze Tovlis kidev erTi mSvenieri metafora daibada. rodesac Tovlis saxe_simboloebze da semantikur niuansebze vsaubrobT, SeuZlebelia galaktionis `iisferi Tovli~ ar gavixsenoT. rogorc zemoganxilul leqsSi, aqac Tovli satrfos saxes ukavSirdeba. TovlTan iisferis dakavSireba ufro mistiurs xdis narativs. Tova Sedarebulia qalwulebis `xididan fenasTan~ (rac siwmindis asociacias aCens). Tovlis saxes ukavSirdeba agreTve `mwuxare grZnoba civi sisovlis~ da, rac mTavaria, am striqonebiT metaforizebulia poetis Sinagani gancda _ `siyvarulis moTmena~. avtoris sevdiani gancdis gamoxatulebaa `Zvirfaso, suli mevseba TovliT~. sevdas Tan erTvis sispetakis, sinazis da dinamiurobis gancdac. galaktionisTvis satrfos xelebic `TovliviT mkrTalia~, romelic uRonod daxrila `TovlTa dafnaSi~. Tova, poetis TqmiT, es aris `mwuxare grZnoba qrolvis, mimovlis~ (anu isev dinamikasTan, moZraobasTan dakavSireba). Tovli `lurji da daRaluli sizmaricaa~:
`Tovs! Aamnair dRis xarebam lurji da daRaluli sizmriT damTova, rogorme zamTars Tu gadavurCi, rogorme qarma Tu mimatova...~

aseTia galaktionis erTi leqsis `Tovlismetyveleba~. Aamave paTosis gagrZelebaa da satrfo TovlTanaa dakavSirebuli irakli abaSiZis leqsSi: `pirveli Tovlis simRera~, aseTivea oTar WilaZis `marinas Tovli~:
marinas Tovli `Tovli movida, marina, Tovli. arc ise mkacri yofila RmerTi. dedofaliviT sufTas da movlils, CemTvis agzavnis da mxolod CemTvis. me Tovls velodi Zalian didxans, cisken garboda Tvali TavisiT. da ai, isic, mova da mkiTxavs... Tumca, ras mkiTxavs Tovli, ra vici.

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marina, Tovli Seni sulia! da gangebaa gamogzavnili, rom amirios gzebi sruliad da gzis napiras damsvas mgzavriviT. viTom mivdivar, Torem namdvilad ki ar mivdivar, Sen gelodebi. da TeTri sivrce fiqrs miadvilebs, morTuli naZvis mwvane totebiT. da Tovli, civi qurqiT SefuTvnils, Tavze mevleba qaluri TrTolviT, magram me vici, rom Sen gekuTvni, garemoculic amxela TovliT.

warmodgenili konteqstebi ar aris sruli, magram SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom umTavresad, qarTul poeziaSi Tovli (Tova) dakavSirebulia satrfos saxesTan. Tovli aris: satrfo, dedofali, suli, qali, gangeba, bediswera... TovlTan dakavSirebulia msazRvrelebi: Soreuli, idumali, monatrebuli, TeTri, sufTa, spetaki, keTili... Tovli qmnis sintagmebs: TovliviT waSla, iisferi Tovli, TovlSi damarxva, sxvanairi Tovli, Tovlis spetaki kubo, damwvari Tovli, Tovlnarevi dRe, Tovlze ufro namtiralevi, sulis TovliT avseba... da sxva.

ca da miwa _ sulisa da xorcis metafora adamianis Seqmnis bibliuri faqti, rom ufalma igi Seqmna Tixisgan da Cahbera suli, anu simbolurad miwa da ca, miwieri da zeciuri gaaerTiana masSi, es `faqti~ poeziaSi Sesabamisad aRiniSna da bevri Zebna ar damWirvebia, rom am azris Semcveli `sinonimuri srtiqonebi~ amomekiTxa qarTul poeziaSi sxvadasxva avtorTan...
ilia WavWavaZe `me ca mniSnavs da eri mzrdis, miwieri zeciersa..~

niSnis ganzomileba poetur diskursSi

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akaki wereTeli `Tqven rom ggoniaT, is ar var, sxvebs rom hgoniaT, arc isa! Suakaci var ubralo, xan miwisa var, xan _ cisa!~ galaktion tabiZe `magram mainc SedarebiT cis da miwis Sezaveba, mogonebis netarebiT Cems guls enaTesaveba.~ giorgi leoniZe `miwa viyav da cai Seviqen.~ terenti graneli `ar vici, vina var, ar vici, sada var, me TiTqos iqa var, me TiTqos aqa var...~ muxran maWavariani `xorci masesxa miwam, suli masesxa zecam, TxemiT terfamde sesxma,_ ra unda gavce sesxad.~

jansuR Carkviani `erTiani ca da miwa


vis upyria xelSi...~

SoTa niSnianiZe `Tu mimzidveli eg cxovreba legendad iqca, miziduloba wesia da kanoni brZnuli, da raki srulad ekuTvnoda casa da miwas, miwam sxeuli miizida da zecam _ suli.~

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tariel Wanturia `xar suli da xorci _ xar miwis da xar cis... me rom vfiqrob _ arc es... sxva rom fiqrobs _ arc is... xan ise gZuls Tavi, xanac gavxar narciss! xar, cxadia, miwis, magram ufro _ xar cis...~ da a. S.

TiTqos poeti `pirveli adamiania~, qmnadobis Sedegi da amave dros, axali qmnadobis Semoqmedi, radgan poezia `sityvebiT~ axali samyaros Seqmnaa da es sityvebi ubralo, yoveldRiur metyvelebaSi informaciis gadasacemad gamoyenebuli leqsikuri erTeulebi ki ara, aramed Rrma azris gamomxatveli niSnebia, romlebsac poetis Sinagani samyarodan sruliad Seucnobeli sivrceebi `amoaqvT~, amitom poeturi teqsti, iseve rogorc niSani poeziaSi, mravalganzomilebiania... erTi azri sruliad sxvadasxva SinaarsiT, gansxvavebuli sintaqsiT da leqsikiT SeiZleba gaformdes sxvadasxva avtorTan. azris Zala mis gansxvavebul gamovlinebaSia. Mmagram amgvari prezentaciis drosac ki garkveuli kanonzomiereba ikveTeba. swored niSnis es buneba unda amoicnos semiotikis mkvlevarma. Ddainaxos sistemebs Soris niSnis moZraobis universaluri modeli. imis miuxedavad, rom es niSani erT SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba iyos verbaluri, sxva SemTxvevaSi _ vizualuri... gza ideidan materiisken da sagnidan azrisken niSanSi ikveTeba. sityva kvdeba, roca mas enaSi aRar gamoiyeneben, roca is funqcias kargavs. Sesabamisad, sagani roca funqcias kargavs, kargavs azrsac. mxolod funqcia, daniSnuleba amoZravebT niSnebs da sZens maT azrs. adamianic niSania, Taviseburi simbolo da roca is ambobs, rom `azri SeiZina misma cxovrebam~, niSnavs: rom funqcia ipova, romliTac is garkveuli azris, ideis msaxuri iqneba. am msjelobaSi niSnis erTi universaluri buneba gamoikveTa, imisaTvis, rom niSanma iarsebos, aucilebelia funqcia. samyaroSi SemTxveviT arc araferi Cndeba da arc araferi kvdeba. merab mamardaSvili Tavisi cnobili `azrovnebis esTetikis~ saleqcio kursSi erTgan ambobs: `tradiciulad adamianis cnobiereba warmoadgens `sufTa dafas~, romelzec buneba, samyaro aRbeWdavs Tavis niSnebs, es niSnebi wesrigdeba raRac asociaciuri kavSirebiT,

niSnis ganzomileba poetur diskursSi

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Segedad ki Cven vigebT: ase igeba ena... ase igeba xelovneba da sxva~ (mamardaSvili 2000:166). samwuxarod, adamianuri cnobiereba Tavisi aparatiT SezRudulia aRiqvas, dainaxos da Seimecnos samyaroSi yvelaferi, rac xdeba, radgan Cven mxolod imas da imdens vxedavT, ganvicdiT da aRviqvamT, ramdenic es SeuZlia adamianur cnobierebas. sinamdvileSi Cveni xedva Zalian SezRuduli da nawilobrivia, radgan Tavad varT subieqtebic da obieqtebic, roca vcdilobT, SeviswavloT da gamovikvlioT sakuTari Tavi. semiotika _ erTgvari mozaikuri mecnierebaa, mcdelobaa, ufro meti sistemis meSveobiT axsnas samyaro. literatura barti 1989: , , , , . mamardaSvili 2000: , , . eko 2004: , , _. kasireri 1983: ernst kasireri, ra aris adamiani? (Targmna lamara ramiSvilma), Tbilisi. benvenisti 1974: , , ; sosiuri 1977: , , . pirsi 2000: . . , , . morisi 2001: . . , , : , , .

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vinfrid boederi

fiqrebi erTi da yvela sityvebze


qarTvelur enebSi cnebebs erTi da yvela nawilobriv paraleluri semantikuri struqtura aqvs. an Sesabamisi simravlis calkeuli obieqtia fokusSi moqceuli (erTi qarTveli sxva qarTvelebis gansxvavebiT; yoveli qarTveli yvela qarTvelis simravleSi), an Sesabamisi simravlea ganxiluli Sinagani Sedgenilobis miuxedavad ((isini arian) erTi eri, yvela qarTveli (erTad)). meore SemTxvevaSi erTi da yvela, marTalia, mraval obieqts Seicavs, romlebic erT mTlians qmnian (eri Sedgeba simravlis TiToeuli wevrisagan, Sesabamisad, yvela qarTveli erTad TiToeuli qarTvelisagan), magram simravlis TiToeuli obieqti fokusSi ar aris moqceuli. cneba yvelas SemTxvevaSi orive aspeqti calke leqsemadaa leqsikalizirebuli axal qarTulSi: yoveli gansxvavebiT yvela-sgan. cneba erT-isTvis ki umetes SemTxvevebSi erTi da igive leqsema ixmareba (magram yovelTvis ara: marto, mxolo, cali cneba erTi calke-s formebia). safiqrebeli SeiZleba iyos, rom qarTvelur fuZe enaSi iseTive Sepirispireba arsebobda, rogorc indoevropul fuZe enaSi (*oi(no)- erTi calke/marto - *sem- erTi erTad, R. Anttila). amas etyoba mxars uWers etimologia. erT- albaT ekuTvnis rT- Zirs (Sdr. m-rT-el-i), maSin rodesac svanuri eSxu erTi qarTul sxva- sityvis Sesatyvisia, romelic erTi calkesa da sxvebis opoziciis arsebobas pirobad moiTxovs. yvela- s etimologiac Seesatyviseba Tavis funqcias (yvelani erTad), vinaidan,

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, oldenburgis universitetis profesori (germania). ZiriTadi naSromebi (bolo wlebis): Evidentiality in Georgian, in: Evidentials. Turkic, Iranian and Neighbouring Languages (2000); C. erTad: Schroeder- T a n Relational coding in Georgian and Turkish noun phrases: syntax, derivational morphology, and linking by means of participles, Turkic Languages 4 (2000); Syntax and morphology of polysynthesis in the Georgian verb, in: Problems of Polysynthesis (2002); Speech and thought representation in the Kartvelian (South Caucasian) languages, in: Reported Discourse (2002); The South Caucasian languages, Lingua 115 (2005); Depictives in Kartvelian, in: Secondary Predication and Adverbial Modification (2005). interesTa sfero: zogadi da SedarebiTi enaTmecniereba, qarTvelologia.

fiqrebi erTi da yvela sityvebze

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rogorc Cans, es sityva udris sityva yvel -s, romelic warmoSobiT Seyofils niSnavda (mz. SaniZe). im SemTvevaSi, Tu yav/yv- yofnas niSnavda, yoveli (< *yv-ov-el-i) mimReobaa (n. mari; Sdr. cx-ov-eli rac cxovrobs) da adre niSnavda rac/vinc aris/arsebobs (yoveli qarTveli = qarTveli vinc aris/arsebobs). yvela-s aRmniSvneli analogiuri formebi sxva enebSic gvxvdeba (magaliTad lakurSi, Turqulsa da finougrul enebSi, baskurSi).

Winfried Boeder

berlegungen zu ein und all in den Kartvelsprachen1


Die Wrter ein und all sehen wie die reine Verkrperung einer Quantifizierung aus, die in Mathematik bzw. Logik formal definiert werden knnen. Aber bei nherem Hinsehen zeigt sich, dass nicht alle Sprachen einen einfachen Begriff eins kodieren (Gam9reli3e Ivanov 1984: 844), und die Differenzierung des All-Quantors in jeder und alle in manchen Sprachen (neugeorgisch 9vela all, 9ovel- jeder) zeigt, dass die Definition durch einen All-Quantor zur Beschreibung der sprachlichen Tatsachen nicht ausreicht (vgl. Gil 1995). Die folgenden berlegungen sollen zeigen, dass ein und all teilweise hnliche semantische Strukturen aufweisen. In diesem Zusammenhang werde ich mgliche Etymologien erwgen, aber keine Etymologie durch morphologische Details erhrten knnen; vielmehr werde ich nur ber den Rahmen sprechen, in dem nach Etymologien der entsprechenden Wrter gesucht werden kann. 1. In den indogermanischen Sprachen gibt es zwei Wurzeln, die eins bezeichnen: 1) *oi(no)- (vgl. lateinisch unus, englisch one, altindische ka, slavisch in usw.) und 2) *sem- (vgl. lateinisch sem-el einmal, griechisch hes/ma/hn eins, armenisch mi eins, englisch some, deutsch zu-samm-en, ge-sam-t usw.). In den verschiedenen Sprachen ist jeweils eine dieser Wurzeln verallgemeinert worden; manchmal ist die jeweils andere Wurzel in der betreffenden Sprache nur in bestimmten abgeleiteten Bedeutungen erhalten (z.B. im Deutschen und Englischen: zu-samm-en/some neben dem Zahlwort ein/one). Anttila (1989: 366367) hat fr das Proto-Indogermanische folgenden semantischen Unterschied zwischen den beiden Wurzeln rekonstruiert: Die Wurzel *oi(no)- bedeutet one alone und wird auch in den Einzelsprachen oft fr den Begriff allein gebraucht. Die Wurzel *sem- dagegen bedeutet: one together. Im ersten Fall wird ein Gegenstand aus einer (wirklichen oder vorgestellbaren) Menge, einem Aggregat
1

Nino Dobor gini3e (Tbilisi) danke ich fr vielfltige Hilfe bei der Fertigstellung dieses Aufsatzes.

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abgetrennt, im zweiten Fall werden Gegenstnde zu einer Einheit zusammengefgt. In beiden Fllen steht eins in Opposition zu mehreren: im ersten Fall zu anderen Gegenstnden der betreffenden Menge (wie in: einer von ihnen), im zweiten Fall zu Gegenstnden, die durch eins zu einer Einheit zusammengefgt sind, deren innere Konstituenz aber nicht fokussiert wird (wie in: sie sitzen an einem Tisch, mit einem Wort, es war ein Durcheinander; (a8i3e 2008). 2. Es ist denkbar, dass auch im Kartvelischen die Wrter swanisch esxu ein und georgisch erti, mingrelisch arti ein ursprnglich in dieser semantischen Beziehung zueinander standen. Entsprechungen von esxu finden sich in allen Kartvelsprachen, ert- ist nur georgisch und sanisch (mingrelisch-lasisch). Die georgische Entsprechung von esxu ist sxva ander (Ertelisvili 1950: 213). Die Bedeutungsentswicklung von eins zu ander ist leicht zu verstehen: ert- hat ursprngliches sxva- ein berall verdrngt, auer in einer besonderen Verwendung in der Koordination. In: einer arbeitet (und) ein (anderer) faulenzt hat das zweite ein wegen des Kontrastes zwischen dem ersten und zweiten Konjunkt die Bedeutung von ander. Vgl. georgisch ertman erts einer den einen = einer den anderen > ertmanets einander, sowie (1) vs. (2): (1) ver el-ewifebis orTa ufalTa monebad: anu erTi igi moiZulos da sxua igi Seiyvaros ver qel-e2ipebis orta upalta monebad: anu erti igi moi3ulos da sxvaj igi sei9varos (M 6,24) Niemand kann zwei Herren dienen: Entweder wird er den einen hassen und den anderen lieben. (2) orni fqviden fqvilsa erTad: erTi igi waritacos da erTi igi daSTes orni pkviden pkvilsa ertad: erti igi 2ari7acos da erti igi dastes (L 17,34; griechisch: h ma ... h d hetra) Zwei mahlen Mehl zusammen: eine wird weggerafft und eine bleibt.2 hnlich hat das slavische Wort in eins (cf. v ino in einem fort), die Bedeutung ander bekommen.3
Ertelisvili (1950) sttzt sich auf hnliche Flle, wo in verschiedenen Handschriften sxuaund ert- miteinander wechseln: gamovida petre da sx a igi mowafe gamovida (e7re da sxuaj igi mo2apej (DE) vs. ... da erti igi mo2apej (C) (J 20,3), sowie auf das altarmenische Wort fr ander: mi-(e)ws = erti-a (bzw. erti-c). Ich muss es den Spezialisten berlassen, ob die bersetzung des Hadisch-Codex in diesem Fall ein Armenismus ist. 3 Vgl. Wackernagel (1928: 38) ber hnliche Flle im Altindischen. Auf die genaue Entwicklung kann ich hier nicht eingehen. In anderen Sprachen wird umgekehrt das Wort fr ander in der symmetrischen Koordination wiederholt: griechisch llos... llos, lateinisch alius ... alius, altindisch any ... any der andere ... der andere... = der eine ... der andere; vgl. sxva da sxva ander und ander > sxvadasxva verschieden.
2

fiqrebi erTi da yvela sityvebze

35

3. Es sind nun mindestens zwei Szenarien vorstellbar: Entweder gab es im Kartvelischen wie im Indogermanischen nebeneinander die beiden Wrter: die Entsprechung von swanisch esxu mit der Bedeutung one alone und die Entsprechung von erti mit der Bedeutung one together; dann wurde im Swanischen esxu verallgemeinert, im Georgisch-Sanischen dagegen erti. Oder es gab zuerst nur die Entsprechung von esxu, und erti ist eine Neubildung des Georgisch-Sanischen, welche die Bedeutung one together hatte und dann verallgemeinert wurde. - Wie auch immer, es stellt sich die Frage, ob es Anhaltspunkte fr die ursprngliche Bedeutung der beiden Etyma gibt. Die Bedeutung des Prototypen von swanisch esxu one alone wird durch die Bedeutung von georgisch sxva- gesttzt, die einen Gegensatz zwischen einem und anderen Gegenstnden derselben Menge voraussetzt. Andererseits ist die Bedeutung one together4 fr ert- plausibel, wenn es zur Wurzel rt(-v-a) vereinigen gehrt (vgl. rt-ul- zusammengesetzt und 8ur-is-rt-v-a gemeinsam essen, wrtl. das Brot vereinigen). Ungeklrt ist dabei allerdings, ob es noch andere Wurzelbildungen wie ert- gibt. Das anlautende e- ist wahrscheinlich dasselbe wie in e-sxu; vgl. georgisch e-rt : swanisch e-sxu ein = georgisch urt(i-e-rt/ert-u-rt)- : swanisch u-sx(-ar)- einander, wo e- und u- wahrscheinlich keine Versionsvokale sind wie in dem bekannten Toponym x-e-rt-v-isZusammenfluss zweier Flsse, Halbinsel (Sani3e 1973 603).5 Dass auch im Georgisch-Sanischen der Gegensatz zwischen one alone und one together vorhanden ist, sieht man daran, dass die erste Bedeutung durch spezifische Wrter kodiert wird: georgisch mxolo- eine(r) allein (dazu in der Konjunktion xolo allein, aber) und cal- ein (von zwei). 4. Ein analoges Bild wie bei ein haben wir bei den all-Wrtern. Im Altgeorgisch bedeutet 9ovel- ganz (M 13,2 9oveli igi eri das ganze Volk; M 5,29 9oveli guami seni dein ganzer Krper), jeder (im Singular: M 12,25 9ovel-i kalak-i jede Stadt; J 2,10 9ovel-man 6ac-man jeder Mensch) und all (im Plural: L 6,26 9ovel-n-i 6ac-n-i alle Menschen). Seit dem Mittelgeorgischen sind jedoch 9oveli jeder und 9vela- all nebeneinander
4

Zu dieser Bedeutung gehrt wohl auch die bisher wenig beachtete idiomatische Bedeutung von erti bei Zahlwrtern etwa, ungefhr, daaxloebiT (insgesamt > ungefhr?); sie findet sich im Georgischen, Mingrelischen (arti ziri sa eni kiuapu erTi ori saJeni iqneboda, es werden etwa 2 Sashen gewesen sein, Xubua 12 apud O. Ka aia s.v.), Nordwestkaukasischen und Baskischen (Bouda 1963: 309). 5 $in4arauli (1986) erklrt die Wurzel rt- umgekehrt durch Reanalyse von ert- in se-ert-eba > se-e-rt-eb-a und leitet mrteli aus *me-ert-el- ab. Die Wurzel rt- ist aber schon im ltesten Georgisch und im Mingrelischen gut bezeugt (Klimov 1964: 156).

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bezeugt (Mar7irosovi 1964: 226, Gigineisvili 1984).6 Wie im Fall von one alone, bezeichnet 9vela eine Menge, deren innere Konstituenz nicht fokussiert ist, whrend 9oveli die einzelnen Bestandteile einer gegliederten Gesamtmenge (Vater 1979: 93-95) fokussiert, und zwar distribuitiv (Gil 1995: 349). Das Konzept von all ist mit dem von ganz verwandt, und ganz hat in vielen Sprachen die Neigung, fr all gebraucht zu werden, auch in der georgischen und der deutschen Umgangssprache: die ganzen Mdchen = alle Mdchen (vgl. auch Brugmann 1894: altindisch srva- vollstndig, heil, ganz, all, jeder; Haspelmath 1995: 364-368); es ist nicht ausgeschlossen, dass mtel- < m-rt-el- wie ert- zur oben genannten Wurzel rt- gehrt (vgl. Klimov 1964: 136): ganz ist das, was zusammen ist.7 9vela entspricht also strukturell der Bedeutung one together von eins.8 Vor diesem Hintergrund knnte 9vela- zur selben Wurzel gehren wie 9vel- Kse. Mzekala Sani3e (1960) hat gezeigt, dass 9vel- ein deverbales Nomen zur Wurzel 9av- ist, die hier die Bedeutung zusammentun bzw. (sich) sammeln, zusammen sein hat.9 Vgl. die Bemerkung von Eprem Mcire: rameTu yveli Seyofil ars, Sedgenili da ganmagrebuli rametu 9veli se9opili ars, sedgenili da ganmagrebuli (apud Arabuli 2001: 263, Anm. 2) denn Kse ist etwas Zusammengetanes, Zusammengefgtes und Gefestigtes.10 Ungeklrt bleibt dabei das Suffix a.
Die genaue historische und die heutige Distribution der beiden Wrter bleibt allerdings zu untersuchen. Im Folgenden unterstelle ich einfach, dass neugeorgisch 9oveli deutsch jeder und 9vela- all- entspricht. Diese Annahme bedarf sicher einer Korrektur (vgl. die Beispiele bei Gigineisvili 1984). Marr (1925: 107) hlt das spter belegte 9vel-a- (ebenso wie die spteren Varianten von 9ov-el-, 9ovl- / 9ol-) fr ein Element aus der Volkssprache (narodna r ); das mag richtig sein, erklrt aber nicht viel. - Auch auf eine Diskussion von georgisch tito- je ein, tito-tito- je einzeln und auf die reduplizierten distributiven Formen (im Altgeorgischen im Adverbialis) kann ich nicht eingehen: miagos 6ac-ad-6acad-sa sakme-ta mat-ta-ebr (M 16,27) er wird jedem (Mensch-Adverbialis-MenschAdverbialis-Dativ) nach seinen Taten vergelten (vgl. Mar7irosovi 1964: 224; 364 und Gil 1995 mit weiterer Literatur). 7 Der Begriff ganz ist seinerseits oft aus dem der Gesundheit abgeleitet, wie im Indogermanischen: griechisch hlos ganz gehrt zu lateinisch salvus gesund, deutsch heil zu englisch whole; cf. slavisch cel ganz, heil; Brugmann 1894 14. Zum Suffix -elvgl. Arabuli 2001 3.2. 8 In diesem Zusammenhang ist auch mingrelisch ar3o all, ar3a all, ganz (O. Ka aia s.v.) zu erwhnen, das wahrscheinlich zu arti ein gehrt (Mar7irosovi 1964: 228). Man beachte dazu das abchasische Wort ze-g` all, das die nordwestkaukasische Wurzel za ein zu enthalten scheint, sowie -g auch (Deeters 1931: 302). 9 Diesen Hinweis verdanke ich Nino Dobor gini3e. 10 Es ist dabei gleichgltig, ob Seyofa, (sich) zusammentun sich auf die Gerinnung der Milch oder auf das Zusammenfassen des geronnenen Materials bezieht (swanisch li9el-e yvelis amoyvana, M. Cartolani apud Mz. Sani3e 1960: 63; vgl. Arabuli 2001: 262-264). 9vela ist also semantisch vergleichbar mit lateinisch totus < *towetos vollgestopft > vollstndig > ganz > all (Brugmann 1894, Hoffmann 1948: 289-290) und lateinisch universus auf ein und denselben Punkt gerichtet > all (Hoffmann 1948: 286).
6

fiqrebi erTi da yvela sityvebze

37

5. Gnzlich unsicher ist auch die Etymologie von 9ov-el- jeder, das als morphologische Variante von 9vela- all gilt (Gigineisvili 1984). Seiner Bildung nach hat es dieselbe Form wie altgeorgisch cx-ov-el- lebendig (vgl. auch den Parallelismus und die weitgehende Synonymie der Kompositionsglieder von 9opacxovreba Leben(sform), wrtl. Sein-Leben). Demnach wre 9ovel- ein Partizip Prsens (Marr 1925: 10711). Die heutige Bedeutung der Wurzel 9ov(9ovna verweilen) passt nicht zur Bedeutung von 9ovel-. Wenn aber fr 9oveine Bedeutung sein gerechtfertigt werden kann (d.h. ein Zusammenhang zwischen den Wurzeln 9av-/9v- machen, sein, haben und 9ov- < 9v-ov- (?); vgl. Arabuli 2001: 263 Anm. 2 et passim), bietet sich eine mgliche Etymologie an: Es gibt viele Sprachen, in denen all durch was ist ausgedrckt wird (9vela adamiani alle Menschen = adamiani vinc aris die Menschen, die es gibt): im Lakkischen (Bouda 1949: 145), in den Turksprachen, den finno-ugrischen Sprachen (Beke 1914: 72-76, Lewy 1931 [1961: 554 Anm. 1]) und im Baskischen (dena ce qui est, was ist, Lewy ib.). 6. In den meisten Fllen sind all und jeder etymologisch verschiedener Herkunft, aber in wenigen Fllen sieht jeder wie eine Ableitung von all aus (Haspelmath 1995: 378-379): griechisch ps, lateinisch omnis usw. bedeuten zunchst all, dann aber auch jeder. Dies hngt wohl mit der semantischen Asymmetrie von all und jeder zusammen. Wie Gil (1995: 324-327) gezeigt hat, ist all das unmarkierte Glied der Opposition, und jeder setzt immer all voraus, aber nicht umgekehrt (ib. 330). Unmarkierte Terme werden aber oft auf Kosten der markierten verallgemeinert. (Ob es eine solche Asymmetrie auch bei ein in seinen beiden Bedeutungen gibt, bleibt zu untersuchen.) Wie ist vor diesem Hintergrund die Spezialisierung von neugeorgisch 9oveljeder zu verstehen, das im Altgeorgischen die ganze Breite der Semantik ganz, all, jeder abdeckte? All verhlt sich semantisch hnlich wie sein Gegenteil nichts: In beiden Fllen werden oft neue, expressive Ausdrcke und Verstrkungen gebildet: kein bisschen, nicht die Bohne, kein Pfifferling usw., vollzhlig, ohne Ausnahme, samt und sonders, alle Welt usw. (vgl. georgisch su(l)-9vela ganz-all > einfach all(e)). Eine so motivierte Neubildung war mglicherweise 9vela-, das 9ovel- in seiner Bedeutung all, aber nicht in der Bedeutung jeder, verdrngt hat; auf diese Weise erklrt sich die Spezialisierung des heutigen 9ovel- jeder als Restkategorie (und nicht als bergang von all nach jeder).
Marr (ib.) geht von einer sonst nicht erhaltenen Wurzel 9vl- sammeln, sobirat aus. Danach htte das Etymon von 9ovel- dieselbe Semantik gehabt wie 9vela- nach der oben gegebenen Deutung.
11

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7. Insgesamt ergibt sich folgendes Bild (die Pfeile bedeuten Ausdehnung des Gebrauchs):

A.

one alone kartvelischer Prototyp von swanisch esxu cf. indogermanisch *oi(no)swanisch esxu

one together kartvelischer Prototyp von georgisch ert*sem-

georgisch ertB. jed(er) (einzeln) altgeorgisch: 9ovelmittel-, neugeorgisch: 9ovelall(e) (zusammen)

9vela-

Bibliographie Anttila, Raimo 1989: Historical and Comparative Linguistics. Second revised edition (= Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 6). Amsterdam Philadelphia: Benjamins [Arabuli, Avtandil 2001] avTandil arabuli: zmnuri da saxeluri fuZedqmnadobis problema qarTvelur enebSi (sma, enaTmecnierebis instituti). Tbilisi: qarTuli ena Bach, E. et al. (edd.) 1995: Quantification in Natural Languages. Edited by Emmon Bach, Eloise Jelinek, Angelika Kratzer and Barbara H. Partee (= Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy 54). Dordrecht...: Kluwer Beke, . 1914: Trkische Einflsse in der Syntax finnisch-ugrischer Sprachen, Keleti Szemle 15: 1-77

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Bouda, Karl 1949: Zur baskisch-kaukasischen Sprachverwandtschaft (baskisch-lakkische syntaktische bereinstimmungen), Lexis 2,1: 144-145 [dazu: PS. des Herausgebers [Johannes Lohmann], pp. 145] Bouda, Karl 1963: Besprechung von G. Dumzil, Documents anatoliens sur les langues et les traditions du Caucase I (1960), ZDMG 113: 308-310 [Brugmann, Karl 1894] Ex Ordinis Philosophorum mandato renuntiantur Philosophiae Doctores et Artium Liberalium Magistri [...] inde a die primo mensis Novembris A. MDCCCLXXXXIII usque ad diem ultimum mensis Octobris A. MDCCCLXXXXIIII creati. Praemissa est Karoli Brugmann commentatio vernaculo sermone conscripta: Die Ausdrcke fr den Begriff der Totalitt in den indogermanischen Sprachen (eine semasiologisch-etymologische Untersuchung). Leipzig: Edelmann [$in4arauli, Aleksi 1986] aleqsi WinWarauli: ricxviT saxel erT-idan nawarmoebi sityvebi qarTulSi / Words formed from the numeral erti one in Georgian [R. 57], iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis weliwdeuli / Annual of Ibero-Caucasian Linguistics 13: 46-57 Deeters, Gerhard 1931: Der abchasische Sprachbau, Nachrichten der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gttingen. Philologisch-historische Klasse, Fachgruppe III (Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft und stliche Kulturkreise), Nr. 2 [Ertelisvili, Parnavaz 1950] farnavaz erTeliSvili: sxvasiyvis etimologiisaTvis, studentTa samecniero Sromebis krebuli (Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti) 5: 211-219 Fhnrich, Heinz 2008: Kartwelisches etymologisches Wrterbuch (= Handbook of Oriental Studies, Section 8: Central Asia, Volume 18 / Handbuch der Orientalistik). Leiden Boston: Brill [Gam9reli3e, Tamaz V.V. Ivanov 1984] Gamkrelidze, Tamaz Valerianovi V eslav Vsevolodovi Ivanov: Indoevropejskij zyk i indoevropejcy. Rekonstrukci i istoriko-tipologi eskij analiz pra zyka i protoku tury. S predisloviem R. O. kobsona / Indo-European and the Indoeuropeans. A reconstruction and historical typological analysis of a protolanguage and a protoculture by Thomas V. Gamkrelidze & Vjacheslav V. Ivanov. With a preface by Roman Jakobson (ANSSSR; ANGSSR / Academy of Sciences, U.S.S.R.; Academy of Sciences, Georgian S.S.R.; Tsereteli Institute of Oriental Studies, The Institute for Slavic and Balkan Studies). Tbilisi: Izd. Tbilisskogo universiteta / Tbilisi: Publishing House of the Tbilisi State University

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[Gigineisvili, Bakar 1984] baqar gigineiSvili: damatebani qarTvelur enaTa saerTo leqsikur fondSi, Tbilisis universitetis Sromebi 245: 30-51 Gil, David 1995: Universal quantifiers and distributivity, in: E. Bach et al. (edd.) 1995: 321-362 Haspelmath, Martin 1995: Diachronic sources of all and every , in: E. Bach et al. (edd.) 1995: 363-382 Hoffmann, J. B. 1948: Die lateinischen Totalittsausdrcke, in: Mlanges de philologie, de littrature et dhistoire offerts J. Marouzeau. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, pp. 283-290 [Klimov, G. A. 1964] Georgij A.Klimov 1964: Qtimologi eskij slovar kartvel skix zykov (ANSSSR, I ). Moskva: Izd. ANSSSR Lewy, Ernst 1931: Skizze einer elementaren Syntax des Baskischen. Th. Linschmann zum 81. Geburtstage, Caucasica 9: 88-128 [= E. Lewy 1961: 530-562] Lewy, Ernst 1948: Bedeutungsverwandtschaft, Lexis 1: 194-198 [= E. Lewy 1961: 50-53] Lewy, Ernst 1961: Kleine Schriften [ed. Wilhelm Wissmann et al.] (= Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Verffentlichungen der Sprachwissenschaftlichen Kommission 1). Berlin: Akademie-Verlag Marr, Nikolaj Ja. 1925: Grammatika drevneliteraturnogo gruzinskogo zyka (= M 12). Leningrad: [Izd. Rossijskoj Akademii Nauk] Mar7irosovi, Aram 1964: nacvalsaxelebi qarTvelur enebSi. istoriul-SedarebiTi analizi / Mestoimenie v kartvel skix zykax. Istoriko-sravnitel nyj analiz. Tbilisi: sma gam-ba [(a8i3e, Asmat 2008] a. papiZe: erTi, rogorc leqsikurfrazeologiuri erTeuli / One as a lexical-phraseological unit [R. 341-343], in: II saerTaSoriso simpoziumi. iberiulkavkasiuri enaTmecniereba: memkvidreoba da perspeqtivebi / II International Symposium Materials. Iberian-Caucasian Linguistics: Legacy and perspectives (saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa erovnuli akademia, enaTmecnierebis instituti. i. javaxiSvilis sax. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti / National Academy of Sciences of Georgia, Institute of Linguistics; Iv. Javakhishivili State University). Tbilisi / Tbilisi: Tu gam-ba, pp. 336-343 [Sani3e, A6a6i 1973] akaki SaniZe: qarTuli enis gramatikis safuZvlebi. I. mofologia. meore gamocema (= Txzulebani

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III = Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris Sromebi 15). Tbilisi: Tu gam-ba [Sani3e, Mzekala 1960] mzeqala SaniZe 1960: Zveli qarTuli leqsikidan. 4. yveli, xelnawerTa institutis moambe 2: 60-63 Vater, Heinz 1979: Das System der Artikelformen im gegenwrtigen Deutsch. 2., verbesserte Auflage [Diss. 1962] (= Linguistische Arbeiten 78). Tbingen Niemeyer Wackernagel, Jacob 1928: Indoiranica. 2. Mittelind. ekacca-, Zeitschrift fr vergleichende Sprachforschung 55: 109-111

42

qeTevan bezaraSvili Tamar lomiZe

struqtura da semantika: galaktionis erTi leqsis analizi qarTuli mwerlobis nimuSebis zogierTi Taviseburebis gasaazreblad SevarCieT galaktionis erTi teqsti, raTa misTvis, rogorc poetis adreuli krebulis Semadgeneli nawilisaTvis, Sesabamisi adgili mogveZiebina kulturuli mimarTulebebisa da epoqis konteqstSi. vnaxoT, ra Sedegs mogvcems am teqstTan mimarTebaSi analizis struqturulsemantikuri meTodi.
Warxali ezoSi yefda bambura mura, ezoSi mwvane hyvaoda bao. vazis bardebSi scuravda sura, Senc bancalebdi, burulo cao. bobri belavda kaxambals, Jolas, birkvils batebi qarma moreka, ca wamoiwyebs msxvil wvimis srolas da ablabudas krebs boborika. Jveri, Jaltami! moWrili samxars. naxiri modis saRamo drois, uceb mohyveba Warxali xarxars da qali hkivis im `doi-doi~-s. ekveTa qari bardebsa da rtos, uceb aSfoTda isli, Celtebi. o, siymawvile! awi arasdros imgvarad aRar ametyveldebi.

qeTevan bezaraSvili filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis pumanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori. xelnawerTa erovnuli centris ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli. grigol nazianzelis TxzulebaTa Semswavleli saerTaSoriso proeqtis wevri, saerTaSoriso patristuli sazogadoebis wevri. interesTa sfero: bizantiuri da qarTuli literatura, antikuri da Sua saukuneebis ritorikis Teoria, Targmanis Teoria.

Tamar lomiZe ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, ZiriTadi naSromebi: `qarTuli riTmis istoriidan~, `feris mxatvruli gaazrebis Taviseburebani n. baraTaSvilis poeziaSi~, `me~-s koncefcia qarTvel romantikosTa SemoqmedebaSi~ da sxva. interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, semiotika.

struqtura da semantika: galaktionis erTi leqsis analizi

43

galaktionis am adreul SedevrSi (1916 w.) kolorituli bunebis peizaJi bavSviseul gancdaSia warmoCenili. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom `Warxalis~ Tema aris ena _ bavSvobis, siymawvilis ena, romelic iseve specifikuria, rogorc samyaros Zalze konkretuli da danawevrebuli suraTi (vgulisxmobT imas, rom leqsSi asaxulia sinamdvilis TiTqos urTierTdaukavSirebeli fragmentebi, romelTac aerTianebs mxolod maTi `bavSvuri~ xedva, teqstobriv doneze ki _ dialeqtizmebi da evfoniuri kavSirebi). leqsis ena zustad Seesabameba garesinamdvilis aRqmas bavSvis mier, romelsac ar ZaluZs grZnobadi STabeWdilebebis ganzogadeba (ca wamoiwyebs msxvil wvimis srolas da ablabudas krebs boborika ... uceb mohyveba Warxali xarxars da qali kivis im doi-dois). ramdenadac es ena dialeqtizmebiTaa gajerebuli, amdenad, misi Sinaarsi erTgvarad `gabundovanebulia~.1 ratom uwoda galaktionma Tavis am nawarmoebs `Warxali~? sityva Warxali, erTi SexedviT, zedmetad `prozaulia~ da, amitom, TiTqos uadgiloc simbolisti poetis leqsikaSi. meore mxriv, am nawarmoebis Temis Sesabamisad, bavSvobisdroindeli STabeWdilebebi gadmocemulia, rogorc aRvniSneT, bavSvobisave eniT _ dialeqtizmebiT, romelTac semantikuri bundovaneba aqcevs wminda simbolisturi leqsikis tolfas saxe-simboloebad. maSasadame, leqsSi Warxali erTmaneTs upirispirdeba orgvari `bundovaneba~ _ is, romelic bavSvobisdroindeli STabeWdilebebis gadmosacemadaa moxmobili da is, romelic simbolizmis poetikis kanonebiTaa nakarnaxevi da Tavs iCens galaktionis mraval nawarmoebSi (SeiZleba iTqvas, rom leqsis ori ukanaskneli taepiT _ o, siymawvile! awi arasdros imgvarad aRar ametyveldebi _ avtori gvaiZulebs, wavikiTxoT `Warxali~ misi sxva nawarmoebebis konteqstSi da ara rogorc damoukidebeli teqsti). erTmaneTs upirispirdeba ori samyaro _ bavSvoba (warsuli) da zrdasruloba (awmyo). meore mxriv, bavSvoba galaktionTan, erTgvarad, gaTanabrebulia zrdasrulobasTan, vinaidan am SemTxvevaSi
gamoTqmulia azri, rom am leqsis mowesrigebuli bgeriTi forma, dialeqtizmebSi gamoxatuli ganmeorebadi bgerebis evfonia mis Sinaarsobriv struqturas asaxavs. erTi mxriv, ucnobi dialeqtizmebis es bgerwera TiTqos abundovanebs Sinaarss, magram meore mxriv, es aris bavSvobis xmebis gaxseneba, vizualuri STabeWdilebis bgeriTi reproducireba; es aris cda bavSvobis ganumeorebeli samyaros xmieri gadmocemisa, bgerebSi ametyvelebuli siymawvile (T. doiaSvili, leqsis evfonia, Tb., 1981, gv. 113-115).
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STabeWdilebebisa da gancdebis aRsawer adekvatur saSualebad moxmobilia ara ~gamWvirvale~, yvelasTvis erTmniSvnelovnad gasagebi, aramed semantikurad bundovani ena. aSkaraa, rom dialeqtizmebs am teqstSi sagangebo funqcia ekisreba, anu bavSvobis ena funqciurad (magram, ra Tqma unda, ara formalurad, e.i. ara mniSvnelobis materialuri gamoxatulebis aspeqtSi) simbolizmis enasTanaa gatolebuli. amasTan, formalurad siymawvilis ena upirispirdeba galaktionis, rogorc simbolisti poetis enas, rogorc bunebrivi (ufro adekvaturi) _ xelovnurs (SemuSavebuls, Seqmnils). kanonzomieria sevdac, romelic gamosWvivis leqsis or ukanasknel taepSi, radgan es opozicia asimetriulia da upiratesoba (rasac mowmobs leqsis dasasruli) bunebriv (anu bavSvobis) enas eniWeba. amgvarad, teqstSi xazgasmulia bavSvobis `dabali~ (dialeqtizmebiT gajerebuli) enis formaluri gansxvavebuloba simbolizmis enisgan; Tumca, msoflaRqma ar icvleba _ bavSvis msoflaRqmac, SeiZleba iTqvas, `simbolisturia~ _ gansxvavebulia mxolod ori (siymawvilisa da zrdasrulobis) ena. leqsis Temidan gamomdinare, aq centralur saxe-simbolod kanonzomierad gvevlineba (da amitom nawarmoebis saTaurSia gatanili) swored iseTi `prozauli~, `dabali~ sityva, rogoricaa Warxali, romelic axorcielebs mediacias bavSvobisa da zrdasrulobis enaTa Soris: is ar ganekuTvneba dialeqtizmTa ricxvs, magram maTsaviT `dabali~ stiliT gamoirCeva; arc simbolizmis leqsikas ganekuTvneba, magram saxe-simboloa. sagulisxmoa, agreTve, rom sityva Warxali warmoqmnis erT-erT (da erTaderT _ leqsis mTel teqstSi) ganumartav, enigmur saxes (uceb daiwyebs Warxali xarxars) im galaktioniseul saxeTagan, romelTa racionaluri axsna, simbolisturi poetikis Tanaxmad, SeuZlebelia. amasTan, Tumca leqsis enis specifikuri bundovaneba aSkarad ikveTeba literaturuli enis da, miT umetes, galaktionis leqsikis fonze, is, garkveulwilad, ganmartebadia da iZleva nawarmoebis semantikuri interpretaciis SesaZleblobas. davakvirdeT leqsis teqsts: boborikas, anu obobas qseli SeiZleba miwieri codvis simbolod gaviazroT sasuliero teqstebis analogiiT (es mniSvneloba aqvs dedazardals Zvel qarTulSi, galaktioni ki, rogorc cnobilia, kargad icnobda sasuliero mwerlobas). ymawvilis mier boborikas ablabudasagan daubindavi, e.i. ucodveli TvalebiT aRqmuli samyaro aramiwiers hgavs (es Tema _ yrmobis samyaros amaRlebuloba, xSirad gamoxatuli mistikuri

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bundovanebis amsaxveli saxeebiT, kidev ufro xazgasmulia imave periodSi Seqmnil momdevno leqsSi, iseve, rogorc sxva leqsebSi: Semosilno gamWvirvale blondebiT, yrmobis qarno, neta, rad magondebiT?). ymawvili didi simartividan, sisadavidan Wvrets amaRlebulobas da ucodvelobas. zemoTqmuli Sinaarsi gamokveTili unda iyos mxatvruli xerxebiTac _ anaforebiT (ezoSi yefda bambura mura, // ezoSi mwvane hyvaoda bao), riTac iwyeba miwieridan (ezos mwvane molidan)2 zeciurisaken amaRleba. zeciuri amaRlebuloba ki Semdgom striqonebSi buruli cis bundovanebiT unda iyos gamoxatuli. buruli gurulimerul dialeqtSi islis saxuravs an isliT daxurul nagebobas niSnavs da aSkarad arsebiTi saxelia.3 sagulisxmoa, rom sintagmaSi buruli ca poeti am leqsemas zedsarTavis mniSvnelobiT iyenebs. amiT igi axal Sinaarss debs masSi da qmnis kidev erT enigmur poetur xats, romelic SinaarsiT uaxlovdeba leqsemas daburuli/ burusi (iseve rogorc bgerwerulad nislis analogiuria isli, anu burulis Tavdapirveli mniSvneloba). es saxeebi galaktionis mier araerTgzisaa gamoyenebuli amave periodis sxva leqsebSi.4 amave dros, es bgerweruli analogia unda exmaurebodes poetis ltolvas polisemantikuri gamoTqmebisken. Seucnobel mistikur samyaroze gadasvla xdeba Suamavali striqonis saSualebiT, sadac vazebSi mocurave suris mxatvruli saxea warmodgenili. yovelive es gaZlierebulia aliteraciebiTac, riTac xazgasmulia mocurave surisa da buruli cis moZraobis paralelizmi: vazis bardebSi scuravda sura, // Senc bancalebdi
bao mols niSnavs raWulad, xolo Cvils, ZuZuTa bavSvs _ qiziyurad. am sityvis dialeqturi polisemantikuroba kidev erTxel usvams xazs bavSvis mier aRqmul samyaros, rogorc leqsis Temas, da warmoaCens poetis Segnebul arCevans (yvaoda mwvane moli da yvaoda siymawvile erTdroulad). leqsemas bao exmianeba dialeqtizmebiT gamoxatuli sxva aliteraciuli sityvebi: bardebi, bobri, birkvili. vazis bardebis, bobris (qera ymawvilis) da birkvilis (saxlis rikulis, gurulimerulad) bavSvur idilias da simyudroves upirispirdeba uecrad amovardnili qaris kveTeba da mis mier mogvrili (morekili) dabneuloba. 3 ix. a. Rlonti, qarTul kilo-TqmaTa sityvis kona, I, Tb., 1974, s.v. bao, buruli. 4 burusis saxis metafizikur da igavur mniSvnelobaze galaktionis poeziaSi da mis kavSirze adreqristianul apofatikasTan, sufiur mistikasTan da pol verlenis Ars poetique-Si dasmul problemebTan ix. z. kiknaZe, galaktionis cecxli da burusi, galaktionologia, I, Tb., 2002, gv. 79-85. imave sakiTxis analizisaTvis evropuli literaturis konteqstSi ix. g. kvaracxelia, idumaleba, sicrueTamaSi Tu ufro Rrma WeSmariteba, galaktionologia, II, 2003, gv. 62-82. dafarulisa da zeciuri safarvelis, mistikurisa da gamouTqmelis Wvretis Sesaxeb qristianul egzegetikaSi da aristoteles aleqsandriel komentatorebTan ix. q. bezaraSvili, ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika, Tb., 2004, gv. 260-275.
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burulo cao (bancali burulisa, rogorc islis saxuraviani saxlisa, aseve moaswavebs simyudrovisa da simyaris gamoxatulebis gadasvlas moulodneli movlenebisaken). aliteraciebiT warmarTulia Semdgomi striqonebic (wamoiwyebs msxvil wvimis srolas // ablabudas krebs boborika), rac strofebis dasawyisSi gadadis aliteraciebiT gamdidrebul kvazianaforebSi (ca ... II strofi // uceb ... III strofi // uceb ... IV strofi).5 am ukanaskneli xerxiT dafiqsirebulia gawyvetili kavSiri yrmobisdroindel aRqmasa (ca) da zrdasrul samyaros Soris ( uceb), gamoxatulia tradiciuli binaruli opoziciebi: harmonia da disharmonia, zeciuri da miwieri (aRsaniSnavia, rom saxels ca upirispirdeba zmnizediT uceb gamoxatuli epoqaluri movlenebis moulodneloba). III da IV strofebis leqsema uceb erTmaneTTan azrobrivad akavSirebs Warxalis xarxars, qalis kivilsa da qaris kveTebiT6 bavSvobasTan asocirebuli birkvilis, bardebis, islisa da Celtebis aSfoTebas, anu gamokveTs drois ukuRmarTobas, disharmonias da tragedias, SesaZloa, sisxlian epoqasac7 (uceb mohyveba Warxali xarxars da qali hkivis ... // uceb aSfoTda isli, Celtebi), romelic
Eparonomasiisa da aliteraciis Sesaxeb am leqsSi ix. agreTve: z. SaTiriSvili, galaktionis poetika da ritorika, Tb., 2004, gv. 179. es xerxebi, klasikuri ritorikidan moyolebuli, cnobili saazrovno modelebis gamokveTas emsaxureba da SemTxveviT arasodes yofila moxmobili (ix. q. bezaraSvili, ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika, Tb., 2004, gv. 292, 589-631). sagulisxmoa, rom samecniero literaturaSi aRniSnulia galaktionis mier gamoyenebuli bgerweris xerxebis ara TavisTavadi mniSvneloba, aramed maTi saSualebiT Sinaarsis, azris adekvaturobis miRweva. ix. T. doiaSvili, leqsis evfonia, Tb., 1981, gv. 23-34. d. werediani, musika upirveles yovlisa, galaktionologia, I, Tb., 2002, gv. 107116. 6 qaris saxe calke problemaa poeziaSi. igi xSirad nislTan, Camaval mzesTan da mwuxrTan erTad aris warmodgenili galaktionis leqsebSi. qarTan dakavSirebuli motivebis Sesaxeb artistul yvavilebSi, romlebic sisxlisferi Wrilobis, sikvdilis, dakargvis, oblobis, Zveli samyaros ngrevisa da ganadgurebis gamoxatulebaa, ix. z. SaTiriSvili, artistuli yvavilebis erTi invariantuli motivi, galaktionologia, I, 2002, gv. 151-161. 7 madlobas vuxdiT rusudan canavas, miToritualuri modelebisa da simboloebis mkvlevars, romelmac migviTiTa Warxalis xarxaris analogiaze cxovelis daRebul xaxasTan. am analogiidan asociaciiT erTi safexuriRa rCeba apokalifsuri wiTeli m ecis saxemde (gamocx. 17, 3), romeli aRmovals ufskruliT (gamocx. 11, 7). egzegetikuri ganmartebis mixedviT, meci da mewamuli feri misi mZnvarebisa da kacismklvelobisa sax ars (andria kesaria-kabadukieli, Targmaneba iovanes gamocxadebisa, i. imnaiSvilis gamocema, Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris Sromebi, 7, 1961, gv. 55). miuxedavad am varaudisa, Warxalis enigmuri saxe bolomde ganumartavi rCeba.
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Tavis mxriv, asamarebs da aboloebs siymawvilis amaRlebulobas (bavSvobis daiss cxadyofs samxarisa da saRamo drois xazgasma leqsis teqstSi). es gamoxatulia agreTve xiazmiTa da aliteraciebiT gamdidrebuli distanciuri simetriuli paralelizmiT (qarma moreka ... // ekveTa qari ...). am Sinaarss unda cxadyofdes agreTve imave periodis momdevno leqsSi warmodgenili saxeebi, romlebic aseve ukuRmarTi drois sisastikes da sulier problemebs gamoxatavs: tydeba guli, erTxel gaibzara ra, // sastikia suli uamindoTa da striqoni: arara beds CemTvis ar aqvs arara. vfiqrobT, aRqmis ymawviluri sicxade da sicocxlis sixalisis marTlac rom elinurad gulubryvilo gancda,8 moicavs rogorc yrmobis wlebis, ise sulieri siCvilis sixaruls (rogorc kacobriobis elinuri periodis bavSvobas, oden esTetikur xedvas _ platoniseuli ganmartebiT),9 rac gardaiqneba mowifulobis periodis sevdaSi pirvelqmnili harmoniis dakargvis gamo (anu sulieri sisrulisa da uzenaesi WeSmaritebis wvdoma is mistikuri gzaa, romelic miiRweva gansacdelTa gadalaxvis gziT; Sdr. ebr. 5, 12-14; I kor. 3, 1-2). am TvalsazrisiT, leqsSi Warxali orive es gza _ sekularuli da spiritualuri _ erTgvarad, gaerTianebulia. leqsis dasasruls cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebiT da tanjviT miRebuli codnis gacxadeba, rom siymawvile awi arasdros imgvarad aRar ametyveldeba, cxadyofs zemoTqmuls: yrmis siwrfeliT danaxul harmonias da mowifuli adamianis sevdas, romelsac ubiwo TvaliT aRar SeuZlia pirvelqmnili harmoniisa da mSvenierebis danaxva. poetis bavSvobis wlebi kacobriobis sulieri cxovrebis bavSvobis gamoxatulebaa, elinuri aRtacebaa yovelive mSvenieris mimarT (ezoSi mwvane hyvaoda bao, vazis bardebSi curavda sura, Senc bancalebdi, burulo cao). poetis mowifuloba ki tanjvis gzaa (ekveTa qari bardebsa da rtos, uceb aSfoTda isli, Celtebi); da am gansacdeliT miRweuli da sulieri sisruliT gamowveuli gacnobierebaa codviT
. , , , 1923, . 40, 188; amgvari elinuri tonusi TanamedroveobaSi dakninebulad miiCneva; SeniSnulia, rom mxolod patarebSi Tua SemorCenili sicocxlis sixaruliT aRsavse imgvari bavSvuri aRqma, rogoriTac homerosi cxovrebiseul STabeWdilebebs miamiturad warmoadgenda da umniSvnelo yofiT detalebs mSveniers uwodebda. ix. . , / /, , 1924, . 17, 27, 36. 9 Sdr. platonis mixedviT, oden esTetikuri xedva berZnuli sazogadoebis bavSvobas moaswavebs. Tavis ~saxelmwifoSi~ platoni poezias, miTologias, xelovnebas balRur garTobad, TamaSobad miiCnevs, filosofias _ gonebrivad momwifebul kacTa saqmed (Respubl. II. 377ac, 378c; X 602 b), xolo filosofoss _ mSvenieris, WeSmaritebis Semmecneblad saxavs (Resp. V 474cd, 476e; VI, 485 c, 487 c).
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dacemuli bunebisa, romelic igulisxmeba sinanuliT naTqvamSi: o, siymawvile! awi arasdros imgvarad aRar ametyveldebi. ra daskvnis gamotanis saSualebas gvaZlevs Catarebuli struqturul-semantikuri analizi? am analizma cxadyo leqsis kavSiri epoqaluri movlenebis amsaxvel da poetis mier imave periodis sxva leqsebSi gamoyenebul saxeebTan; gamoavlina simbolistTa mxatvruli enisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli polisemantikuroba, romelic bundovanebis Semqmnelia. ganxiluli teqsti orgvari bundovanebiT xasiaTdeba. misi enobriv-stilisturi bundovaneba samyaros elinurad gulubryvilo gancdis asociacias qmnis, semantikuri bundovanebiT ki leqsi simbolistebis esTetikasTanaa dakavSirebuli. simbolizmis esTetikuri sistema da tropuli metyveleba ganmartebulia rogorc sxvadasxva gardasuli msoflmxedvelobisa da mxatvruli saSualebis recefcia.10 amaTgan ki semantikuri bundovanebiT galaktionis simbolisturi periodis es leqsi qristianuli msoflmxedvelobisa da esTetikisaTvis damaxasiaTebel niSnebTan asocirdeba. es problema zogadad ukavSirdeba antikuri da qristianuli esTetikis aRqmis sakiTxs simbolistebis mier, iseve, rogorc konkretulad erovnuli da evropuli poeturi tradiciebis recefciis sakiTxs galaktionTan (rac, Tavad galaktionis definiciis mixedviT, aris evropuli axali poeziis formisa da qarTuli sulis sinTezi _ galaktion tabiZis Jurnali, 1922).11 galaktionis erTi leqsis analizi simbolizmis msoflmxedvelobriv-esTetikuri sistemis, axali poetikisa da stilistikis Seswavlis erT-erTi mosamzadebeli safexuria. momavali kvlevis sakiTxia imis gamovlena, Tu ratom, rogor da ra saxiT xdeba qarTul poetur sinamdvileSi ori esTetikuri maxasiaTeblis Semosvla da riTia es ganpirobebuli _ inteleqtualuri Tu intuitiuri safuZvlebiT (wignieri ganswavlulobis saSualebiT Tu qvecnobierSi daleqili tradiciuli miTosur-xTonuri Zirebis gziT). calke kvlevis Temaa agreTve isic, Tu riT gansxvavdeba es msoflaRqma evropuli mxatvruli teqstebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli msoflaRqmisagan.
10 11

. , , , , 1910, . 136. evropul poeziasTan galaktionis poeziis konceptualuri siaxlovis Sesaxeb ix. T. doiaSvili, artistuli yvavilebis prologi, galaktionologia, II, 2003, gv. 41-61. qristianuli azrovnebisa da saxeobriobis, simbolisturi da qristianuli kodebis, rogorc galaktionis Semoqmedebis bunebrivi konteqstis Sesaxeb (rac axsnilia erovnuli da modernistuli kulturuli tradiciebiT), ix. b. wifuria, galaktionis teqsti swor/mcdar konteqstSi, galaktionologia, III, 2004, gv. 218.

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kidev erTxel sociolingvisturi opoziciebis Sesaxeb


statiaSi ganxilulia sociolingvisturi opoziciis cneba, ganmartebulia igi rogorc mosaubris sametyvelo repertuarSi arsebuli enobrivi cvladebis wyeba, romelTa SerCevas socialuri sarCuli aqvs, da gamoyofilia maTi ti pebi: mikro- da makrosociolingvisturi. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eqceva sociolingvistur fardobiTobas, romlis gaTvaliswinebac aucilebelia xelovnuri universalizaciis Tavidan asacileblad amgvar sakiTxebze msjelobisas. statiis saTauri iwyeba sityvebiT kidev erTxel, rac imas niSnavs, rom Tavis droze Cven erTxel ukve SevexeT am sakiTxs winaswari moxsenebis saxiT (kikviZe, 1997).

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: Tavazianobis gamoxatvis gramatikuli saSualebebi~ (1999), Language-made Paradox: Gender Preferences in Georgian ~ (2002), enisa da genderis kvlevis retrospeqtiuli da prospeqtiuli koordinatebi~ (2005), ena kulturaSi da kultura enaSi~ (2005). interesebis sfero: sociolingvistika, enisa da genderis kvleva, kognituri lingvistika.

tradiciulad enaTmecnierebaSi opozicia gaigeba, rogorc enobrivad arsebiTi (Rirebuli) gansxvaveba gamoxatulebis planis erTeulebs Soris, romelsac Seesatyviseba sxvaoba Sinaarsis planis erTeulebs Soris, da piriqiT. radganac opoziciis cnebam Tavdapirvelad ZiriTadad fonologiaSi moikida fexi (mxolod Semdeg gavrcelda igi enis sxva aspeqtebzec), amitom swored am dargSi Camoyalibebuli moTxovnebidan amosvliT unda daviwyoT misi ganxilva. fonologiis fuZemdebeli, n. trubeckoi iyenebda termins opozicia ara marto funqcionalur (Rirebul) gansxvavebebTan, aramed aseve arafunqcionalur (araRirebul) gansxvavebaTa mimarT; pirvel ti ps gansazRvravda, rogorc dinstinqciurs, xolo meores _ rogorc aradistinqciurs (trubeckoi 1969: 47).

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sxvaTa Soris, dResac mravali avtori aRniSnul termins maincdamainc fonologias ukavSirebs (ix. mag., bekaria 1996: 524; busmani 1996: 342; kristali 1997: 270; traski 1996: 92, da a. S.). ase, magaliTad: ori bgera fonologiuri opoziciis mimarTebaSia, Tu mxolod maT SeuZliaT erTmaneTisagan ganasxvaon ori, erTmaneTis mimarT sxva mxriv fonologiurad identuri, magram sxvadasxva mniSvnelobis mqone sityva (busmani 1996: 342). sainteresoa, rom l. blumfildis Semdgomi Taobis amerikelma enaTmecnierebma aRniSnuli terminis badlad SemoiRes kontrasti. arsebobs mosazreba, rom praRis skolis lingvistebi, aseve a. martine da zogierTi amerikeli struqturalistic opoziciaSi gulisxmoben paradigmatul ganzomilebebs, xolo kontrasti TiTqos ufro sintagmatur mxareze miuTiTebs (traski 1996: 92-93). sinamdvileSi es ukanaskneli opoziciis generativistuli sinonimia (ase, magaliTad: fonemebi kontrastulia im gagebiT, rom isini warmoadgenen bgeris im nawilakebs, romelTa saSualebiTac erT sityvas gamovarCevT meorisagan (ketfordi 2001: 187)). miuxedavad Teoriul-meTodologiuri gansxvavebebisa, sxvadasxva skolis warmomadgenlebi orive terminiT ZiriTadad mxolod struqturul gansxvavebebs aqcevdnen yuradRebas. da mainc, Rirssacnobia, rom jer kidev n. trubeckoim SeniSna Semdegi: fonemaTa calkeuli variantebi gadanawilebulia sametyvelo koleqtivis sxvadasxva wevrze. mxolod gansakuTrebuli varianti miiCneva normalur, karg da sanimuSo warmoTqmad, danarCenebi ki warmoadgenen regionur, socialur da paTologiur gadaxras normidan. magaliTad gamodgeba uvularuli da winaenismieri r sxvadasxva evropul enaSi. Tumca am ori bgeris Rirebuleba gansxvavdeba enebSi. slavur enebSi, iseve rogorc italiurSi, espanurSi, ungrulsa da axal berZnulSi winaenismieri r normad miiCneva, uvularuli r ki ganixileba rogorc sawarmoTqmo defeqti, an rogorc snobisturi maneris gamovlineba. ufro iSviaTad igi warmogvidgeba rogorc teritoriuli Tavisebureba, rogorc, magaliTad, es aris sloveniurSi, sadac igi gansakuTrebiT gvxvdeba korinTiis zogierT dialeqtSi. piriqiT, germanulsa da frangulSi uvularuli r (ufro zustad uvularuli r-s saxesxvaobebi) normad iTvleba, xolo winaenismieri r _ an normisagan dialeqtur gadaxrad, an arqaizebuli metyvelebis niSnad, magaliTad, frangi msaxiobebis r (trubeckoi 1969: 47). aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, avtori gvTavazobs stilisturad relevanturi da stilisturad ararelevanturi variantebis garCevas; am variantTa SerCeva ki dakavSirebuli iqneba

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ara marto mosaubris emociur mdgomareobasTan, aramed misi ganaTlebis donesTan da socialuri klasis kuTvnilebasTan (trubeckoi 1969: 47-48). cxadia, rom winaenismieri r da uvularuli r frangulSi fonologiurad aradistinqciuria; tradiciuli gagebiT, isini lingvistur opozicias ver qmnian. da mainc, zemomoyvanil citataSi faqtobrivad warmodgenilia sociolingvisturi opoziciis SemTxveva. am ti pis opoziciisaTvis aucilebeli pirobaa erTmaneTTan dapirispirebuli enobrivi erTeulebisaTvis socialuri korelatebisa da Sesabamisi sociokulturuli konteqstis povniereba. miuxedavad imisa, rom amgvari SesaZlebloba jer kidev trubeckoim SeniSna (misi fonologiis safuZvlebi xom pirvelad 1939 wels gamoica praRaSi germanul enaze), bgeraTa (da ara marto bgeraTa) am SesaZleblobas ar daumsaxurebia mniSvnelovani yuradReba mkvlevarTa mxridan. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom aRniSnuli viTareba fonemis Teoriebis garkveuli arasrulyofilebiT iyos gamowveuli. am mxriv, gamorCeulad Rirssacnobia b. jorbenaZis mosazrebebi fonemis raobis Sesaxeb. aRniSnul sakiTxs igi exeba maSin, rodesac miznad isaxavs qarTuli enis dialeqtTa bgeriTi Sedgenilobis daxasiaTebas, radganac am dros mkvlevars zedmiwevniT unda hqondes gansazRvruli enis fonematuri sistema, rac, Tavis mxriv, fonemis zust, calsaxa definicias unda efuZnebodes. rogorc cnobilia, am sakiTxze uamravi samecniero publikacia arsebobs da uZvelesi xanidan (jer kidev im droidan, roca ar ixmareboda termini fonema: sxvaTa Soris, arsebobs cnoba, romlis mixedviTac, termini fonema pirvelad gamoiyenes naklebad cnobilma frangma lingvistebma a. diufriS-deJenetma da l. avem me19 saukunis 70-ian wlebSi (losevi 1989: 34). Tumca am sferos erT-erTi yvelaze avtoritetuli specialisti d. jounzi pionerobas mxolod i. boduen de kurtenes akuTvnebs (jounzi 1973: 188-189)) Cvens dromde fonemis nairgvari Teoria da, Sesabamisad, gansazRvra Seqmnila (vrclad ix. qobalava, 1976). aqedan gamomdinare, erTi SexedviT, TiTqos saTqmelic naklebadaa darCenili. magram, rogorc aRmoCnda, povnieria iseTi enobrivi faqtebi, romlebic saeWvod xdian zogierT aqsiomaturad miCneul debulebasac ki. kerZod, fonemis TiTqmis yvela definiciaSi Setanilia mniSvnelobis aspeqti _ igulisxmeba is, rom fonemas aqvs mniSvnelobaTganmasxvavebeli (distinqtiuri) funqcia. Tuki marTlac asea, maSin fonemaTa gamoyofis TvalsazrisiT garkveuli siZneleebis winaSe vdgebiT rig SemTxvevaSi: magaliTad, qarTlurSi (aseve kaxurSi...) taat-i da tat-i formaTa Sedarebis safuZvelze SeiZleba daisvas sakiTxi bgeris fonemurobis

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Sesaxeb maSin, roca igi mxolod S//s fonemis poziciuri variantia: taSti//tasti. sirTule ufro naTlad daCndeba, Tuki yvela paralelur variants gaviTvaliswinebT: taSti//tasti//tahti//tasti/ /tahti. msgavsi viTareba morfemaTa zRvarzec gvxvdeba: da-i-wer-a _ da--wer-a da-s-wer-a (i- da - gramatikuli mniSvnelobiT ganasxvavebs am or formas, magram ramdenadaa SesaZlebeli am niSniT -s fonematurobis Sesaxeb daisvas sakiTxi? aq s-s poziciuri nairsaxeobaa, sxva SemTxvevaSi igi i-s poziciuri variantic SeiZleba iyos: de--wer-a <- de-i-wer-a). daismis sakiTxi: xom ar aris fonema (tradiciuli gagebiT) erTi dialeqtis farglebSi? ara! radgan taSti//tasti//tati paralelurad dasturdeba erTsa da imave teqstSi, zogjer _ erT frazaSic ki (jorbenaZe 1998: 6-7). zemoaRniSnulis safuZvelze da ramdenime sxva specialistis (arn. Ciqobava, z. jafariZe, i. maslovi) mier gamoTqmuli argumentebis moSveliebiT avtoric kiTxvis niSnis qveS ayenebs fonemis xsenebul funqcias, ris Semdegac samarTlianad SeniSnavs: rodesac fonemaTa distinqciur funqciaze laparakoben, Sedegs ureven mizezSi: qor-i, qar-i, qer-i formebSi gansxvaveba mxolod xmovnebiT gamovlinda, magram amis mixedviT ar SeiZleba gakeTdes daskvna, rom es xmovnebi am sityvebSi monawileoben imisTvis, rom mniSvneloba ganasxvavon (jorbenaZe 1998: 7). uxv dialeqtur masalaze dayrdnobiT (bgeraTganviTareba (urcxo ucxo, povet-i poeti, imjavra ijavra), metaTezisi (zrug-i zurgi, Zriel Zlier, rRma Rrma), substitucia (Tebz-i Tevzi, samse savse, xnan-s xnavs), regresuli asimilacia (da-iwer-a -> de-i-wer-a), regresuli disimilacia (Se-a-ty-o -> Sia-ty-o), naCvenebia, rom sityvis mniSvnelobis gamoxatva da aRqma mTlianobaSi xdeba, rom sityva (forma) warmoadgens fonemaTa struqturul mTlianobas da ara calkeul fonemaTa ariTmetikul jams. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, SemoTavazebulia Semdegi definicia: bgera, romelic mxolod poziciiT ar aris Sepirobebuli, warmoadgens fonemas, anu: bgera, romlis arseboba enaSi mxolod poziciaze ar aris damokidebuli, unda ganisazRvros, rogorc fonema (jorbenaZe 1998: 11). maSasadame, fonemisa da bgeris mimarTeba ar unda iqnes dayvanili calsaxa urTierTobaze. rac mTavaria, zemoaRniSnuli midgoma obieqturia, radganac emyareba faqtobriv enobriv masalas, da efeqturia, radganac igi saSualebas gvaZlevs adekvaturad aRvweroT enis rogorc fonematuri struqtura, ise misi sxva doneebic. swored konkretuli empiriuli masalis safuZvelze xdeba SesaZlebeli visaubroT, kerZod, sociofonologiuri da, zogadad,

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sociolingvisturi opoziciebis Sesaxeb. sxvaTa Soris, varirebis, fakultatiurobis principis gamovlenis saintereso SemTxvevas Tavis droze qarTul enaTmecnierebaSic mieqca yuradReba: maSin rodesac Tanamedrove qarTveli inteligenciis bevri warmomadgeneli mxolod magar ls warmoTqvams sityvebSi qalma, Calma, xSirad SexvdebiT rogorc rbil, ise magar l-s sityvebSi palma, palto... aseve sxva enaTa gavleniTaa i-s -d SesaZlo warmoTqma iseT sityvebSi, rogoricaa iarusi, iardi, biuro (Sdr. arusi, ardi, b uro, magram i xmovnis savaldebulo SenarCunebiT _ iara, ziani, miutana da a.S., rac mowmobs, rom araa i-s savaldebulo poziciuri varianti) (jafariZe 1979: 105). rogorc vxedavT, zemomoyvanil msjelobaSi empiriuli masalis Taviseburebam aucilebeli gaxada socialuri komponentis Semotana da damateba, radganac am SemTxvevaSi avtori marTlac erTgvari sociolingvisturi opoziciis SemTxvevebs exeba. radganac opoziciebs ara mxolod fonemebi qmnian, Sesabamisad, sociolingvisturi opoziciebis cneba enis sxva doneebis erTeulebzec SeiZleba gavrceldes. am mxriv, sociolingvisturi opoziciis TvalsaCino magaliTebad miviCnevT mimarTvis formebSi familaruli da Tavaziani mniSvnelobebis garCevis formobriv SesaZleblobas. zemoaRniSnulis Tqmis safuZvels Semdegi garemoeba gvaZlevs: aseT dros erTmaneTis paralelurad gvaqvs: (a) erTi da igive referenti, (b) gansxvavebuli formebi, (g) gansxvavebuli socialuri tonaloba. niSandoblivia, rom (g) komponentis gareSe naklebad gveqneboda safuZveli raime saxis opoziciaze sasaubrod (es rom asec xdeboda, imiTac kargad Cans, Tu rogor msjelobda n. trubeckoi frangulSi arsebuli sociofonologiuri opoziciebis Sesaxeb, rogorc es ukve vaCveneT zemoT). mniSvnelovania isic, rom mimarTvis zmnuri da nacvalsaxeluri formebis ganxilva sxvadasxva enasa da kulturaSi TvalsaCinod xdis ara marto zemoxsenebuli socialuri tonalobis povnierebas, aramed garkveuli, sociolingvisturi fardobiTobis princi pis moqmedebis danaxvis saSualebasac gvaZlevs. vgulisxmobT imas, rom sxvadasxva sazogadoebis rolebrivi matricebi Seicavs erTmaneTisagan ara marto raodenobrivad, aramed Tvisebrivad gansxvavebul elementebs. amasTanave, isini nairgvarad korelireben koduri matricis aseve raodenobrivad da Tvisebrivad gansxvavebul elementebTan, rasac am erTeulTa funqcionirebis specifikuri wesebic emateba. swored es gansxvavebebi qmnian sociolingvistur opoziciebs da aseve warmoaCenen sociolingvisturi fardobiTobis princi pis

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moqmedebis nairgvar Taviseburebebs. qvemoT swored amgvari fardobiTobis arss unda SevexoT saTanado empiriul masalaze dayrdnobiT. rogorc wesi, Tavazianobis enobriv formebs ukavSireben mocemuli kulturisaTvis damaxasiaTebel komunikantTa Tavisebur fsiqosocialur urTierTobebs (ix. mag., brauni da gilmeni, 1960). sxvadasxva enaSi (da kultura/sazogadoebaSi) am urTierTobaTa enobrivi gamosaxulebis wesebi gansxvavdeba sociolingvisturad (xSirad es gansxvavebebi radikaluria). baskeTSi saqmro da sacole erTmaneTs mimarTaven SenobiT hi (T nacvalsaxeli), xolo qorwinebis Semdeg gadadian Tavazian formaze zu (V nacvalsaxeli) Tqven; mSobeli umcrosi asakis Svilebs TqvenobiT mimarTavs, xolo mozardis asaks miRweul, Tavisive sqesis Svils ukve SenobiT esaubreba; es imas niSnavs, rom mama kvlav TqvenobiT mimarTavs sakuTar qaliSvils, xolo deda vaJs (sturua 1992: 347). qarTulSi arsebuli mdgomareoba diametrulad gansxvavdeba zemoaRniSnulisagan; e. i. Sen/Tqven dapirispirebis wevrebi qarTulsa da baskurSi sociolingvisturi opoziciis polarul wertilebze imyofebian. msgavsi polarulobis TvalsaCino magaliTebis dasaxeleba mravlad SeiZleba. CvenTvis savsebiT bunebrivia is, rom Tavazianobis formebi yvelaze xSirad inteligenciis saubarSi gvxvdeba. magram aris Tu ara es sociolingvisturad relevanturi niSani universaluri? ungrul etiketSi aris is, rasac f. papi da k. kiSi Tavisebur garTulebebs uwodeben: SenobiT mimarTva yvelaze metad gavrcelebulia inteligenciaSi da yvelaze naklebad _ glexobaSi: inteligenciis SigniT _ yvelaze farTod pedagogebs Soris (papi da kiSi 1976: 212). naTqvami ar niSnavs imas, rom ungruli inteligenciis warmomadgenlebi erTmaneTis mimarT familarul damokidebulebas usvamen xazs. ubralod, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, sociolingvisturi opoziciis wevrebi relevanturobis TvalsazrisiT sxvadasxva polarobiTaa ganlagebuli qarTulsa da ungrulSi. amgvari Sepirispirebebi ki saSualebas gvaZlevs warmovaCinoT aRniSnul opoziciaTa distinqciuroba da aseve davafiqsiroT sxvaoba rogorc lingvistur, aseve sociolingvistur opoziciebs Soris. am mxriv, TvalSisacem da sagulisxmo viTarebas qmnis sxvadasxva enisa da kulturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli modelebis SexvedragadakveTa. iaponursa da rusulSi mimarTvis Tavazian formaTa gansxvavebuli sociolingvisturi fardobiTobis ilustrirebisas v. alpatovi wers: iaponur enaSi gansakuTrebuli sociolingvisturi

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wesebis arseboba Cans, magaliTad, iaponuri da rusuli Tavaziani formebis Sepirispirebisas. erTi SexedviT, -mas-sufiqsiani iaponuri zmnebisa da rusuli nacvalsaxelis -s mniSvnelobebi identuria: gadmogvcemen Tavazian damokidebulebas Tanamoubris mimarT (Sesabamisad, araTavaziani mniSvneloba aqvs -mas- sufiqsis armqone formasa da nacvalsaxels) (alpatovi 1988: 57). Semdeg avtori gvTavazobs amgvar magaliTs: maqsim gorkis piesis vasa Jeleznovas mTavari gmiri mmarTvels, ganaTlebul adamians mimarTavs TqvenobiT, xolo ufros Zmas, romelsac pativs ar scems _ SenobiT; piesis iaponur TargmanSi igi araTavazianad esaubreba mmarTvels, rogorc Tavis xelqveiTs, da Tavazianad mimarTavs Zmas, rogorc ojaxis ufros wevrs. amave piesaSi vasas Tavisi erTi qaliSvili TqvenobiT mimarTavs, meore ki SenobiT; iaponur TargmanSi es sxvaoba waSlilia: orive Svili dedisadmi mimarTvaSi Tavazian formas iyenebs. zemoaRwerili socialuri konteqstis TvalsazrisiT, iaponurSi alternativa ar arsebobs: Svilma mSobels mxolod Tavaziani formiT SeiZleba mimarTos. rasakvirvelia, msgavsi magaliTebis moyvana dausruleblad SeiZleba, Tumca amjerad mTavari aris ara maTi raodenoba, aramed im umniSvnelovanesi kanonzomierebebis danaxva, rom, sociolingvisturi opoziciebis TvalsazrisiT, enebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian raodenobrivad (ama Tu im sociolingvisturi opoziciis povnierebaarapovnierebisa da, povnierebis SemTxvevaSi, maTi struqturuli Taviseburebebis mixedviT) da Tvisebrivad (sociolingvisturi opoziciis Rirebulebis mqone erTeulTa moxmarebis nairgvari lingvokulturuli wesebis mixedviT). am mxriv, rogorc monokulturul konteqstSi, iseve erTmaneTisagan sagrZnoblad gansxvavebuli ena-kulturebis gadakveTis wertilSi Cndeba e. w. Tavis aridebis (avoidance) problema. Cveni azriT, aucilebelia am cnebis ganmarteba: Tavis arideba aris mocemul enaze metyvelis bunebrivi qmedeba an mcdeloba, gaeqces sakuTari Tavisa Tu Tanamoubris enobriv (ufro zustad, sociolingvistur) identifikacias, rodesac igi ar aris darwmunebuli sakuTari gadawyvetilebis marTebulobaSi. magaliTad, ase xdeba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac ar viciT, SenobiT mivmarToT Tu TqvenobiT konkretul pirovnebas. aRniSnulTan dakavSirebuli, sakmaod TvalSisacemi da, SeiZleba iTqvas, radikaluri SemTxveva aRwerilia specialur literaturaSi: erTi Tailandeli kaci (budisti) quCis meore mxareze gadavida, raTa Tavidan aecilebina Tavis erT-erT nacnobTan Sexvedra, radganac ar iyo darwmunebuli imaSi, Tu rogor

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unda miemarTa misTvis sworad (Tomasi 1992: 128). es SemTxveva saerTod komunikaciisaTvis Tavis aridebis magaliTia. ra xdeba im dros. rodesac metyveli komunikacias ar aridebs Tavs da swored am komunikaciis procesSi mas problemas uqmnis enaSi arsebuli mimarTvis markirebuli formebi? misi qcevis zogierTi, mosalodneli Tavisebureba garkveulwilad damokidebulia imaze, Tu romel enaze metyvelebs igi, ufro zustad, rogori agebulebis enaze metyvelebs. am mxriv inglisuri mosaxerxebeli TavSesafaria, radganac Tanamedrove inglisurSi TiTqmis aRar aris Sen/Tqven tipis opozicia (arc nacvalsaxelebisa da arc zmnis doneze). es imas ar niSnavs, rom inglisurad molaparakes ar SeuZlia erTmaneTisagan Tavaziani da familaruli mimarTvebis garCeva, Tumca isic marTalia, rom maTi ganmasxvavebeli saSualebebi ufro leqsikuria, vidre gramatikuli. amitomac, zemoganxiluli gansxvavebebi Tavazianobis gamoxatvis gramatikuli saSualebebis TvalsazrisiT ara mxolod struqturuli gansxvavebebia. isini maTze molaparake adamianebis sociolingvisturi kompetenciis uSualo Semadgenel nawils warmoadgenen. aqve unda SevniSnoT, rom termini sociolingvisturi kompetencia (vrclad ix. kikviZe, 2003) gulisxmobs im faqtsac, rom mosaubrem icis ara marto mocemuli enis struqturuli wesebi, aramed enobriv erTeulTa sworad moxmarebis wesebic socialurad da situaciurad ganpirobebulviTarebaSi. maSasadame, inglisuris gramatika nakleb formalur wesebs gvTavazobs Tavazianobis aRniSvnis TvalsazrisiT, igi sociogramatikulad naklebad kodirebulia. es faqti ki cxadyofs, rom masSi meti gasaqania saimisod, rom Tavi avaridoT Tanamoubrissociolingvistur (ufro zustad, socio-gramatikul) aRniSvnas mimarTvis dros. qarTulsa da inglisur Soris am mxriv arsebuli gansxvavebebi Sesabamis enobriv erTeulTa gansxvavebul pragmatul semantikasac gulisxmobs, rasac kanonzomierad mivyavarT iqamde, rom mimarTvis formaTa sociolingvistur opoziciebs ZaluZT saTanado wvlilis Setana ama Tu im socio-kulturuli situaciis TaviseburebaTa sistemis CamoyalibebaSi. zemoTqmulis paralelurad, sociolingvisturi opoziciis magaliTebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos mravalgzis SemCneuli gansxvavebebi qalTa da mamakacTa metyvelebas Soris. rac gamorCeulad mniSvnelovania, saopozicio erTeulebi xSirad TviTonve asruleben ara mxolod marTulis, aramed mmarTvelis rolsac socialuri faqtorebis mimarT. sailustraciod SeiZleba ganvixiloT r. fleneris

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(1946) mier moyvanili masala, romelSic warmodgenilia aSS-is montanas StatSi mosaxle indielTa enaSi arsebuli specifika: aq qalTa da mamakacTa metyveleba ZiriTadad sawarmoTqmo TaviseburebebiT gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac qalebi warmoTqvamen velarul xSul /k/-s, mamakacebTan warmoiTqmis afrikati; Sesabamisad, qali warmoTqvams: /wakinsihia/ (Cvili), /kyatsa/ (puri), mamakaci ki /wajinsihia/, /jatsa/. indielTa am tomSi warmoTqma adamianis genderuli identobis maCvenebelia; amitomac, is, vinc umarTebulo formas gamoiyenebs, biseqsualad miiCneva tomis uxucesTa mier. zemoaRniSnuli naSromis avtoris varaudiT, uneburi SecdomiT gamowveuli SesaZlo dacinvisadmi SiSis gamo tomis axalgazrda Taoba Tavs aridebs mSobliur enaze saubars (gv. 134). ra Tqma unda, xsenebul gansxvavebebs garkveuli eqstralingvisturi safuZveli aqvs, rac imas niSnavs, rom enam ganicada garkveuli zemoqmedeba garedan da es aisaxa kidec masSi garkveulwilad; amasTanave, enaSi damkvidrebuli Taviseburebebi gavlenas axdens masze molaparake sazogadoebis wevrTa sociolingvistur arCevanze da, Sesabamisad, qcevazec. garkveuli paralelis gavleba SeiZleba tanzaniaSi arsebul mdgomareobasTan; iq arsebul enobriv situaciaSi wamyvani pozicia uWiravs or enas: suahilis, romelic qveynis erovnul faseulobaTa simboloa, da inglisurs, romelic teqnikur siaxleebTan da ucxo faseulobebTan asocirdeba. intervius dros erT-erTma tanzanielma mamakacma mkvlevars uTxra, rom kamaTisas Tavis orenovan meuRles ZiriTadad suahilize esaubreba, maSin roca coli inglisurad pasuxobs. mecnieri gvTavazobs am movlenis Semdeg savaraudo axsnas: suahiliSi arsebuli normebi gansxvavebul rolebs miakuTvnebs qmarsa da cols (socialurad ufro gamokveTilad?), inglisurSi sxva normebia (socialurad naklebad gamokveTili da ufro konvergentuli?). arCevanis SemTxvevaSi romelime erTi enisadmi upiratesobis miniWeba SeiZleba iyos garkveuli xerxi sasurveli rolis gasacxadeblad (mkilifi 1978: 142). aSkaraa, rom msgavs SemTxvevebSi zemoxsenebuli Tavis aridebis ganzraxvis sisruleSi moyvana imdenadaa SesaZlebeli, ramdenadac enis agebuleba iZleva amis saSualebas. Rirssacnobia, rom amgvari ganzraxvis gaCenis logikas warmarTavs saTanado socialurfsiqologiuri konteqsti, xolo misi ganxorcielebis sazRvrebs gansazRvravs mocemuli enis gramatikuli da semantikuri arsenali.

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ganxiluli masala gviCvenebs, rom sociolingvisturi opoziciis komponentebad gamodian rogorc enis Sidastruqturuli erTeulebi, aseve mTlianad idiomebi. aqedan gamomdinare, mizanSewonili iqneba, erTmaneTisagan ganvasxvaoT mikrosociolingvisturi da makrosociolingvisturi opoziciebi. pirvelis gaTvaliswineba saWiroa mocemuli enis struqturis erTeulTa funqcionirebis garkvevisas, xolo meore _ enobrivi situaciis kvlevisas. aqve unda aRiniSnos isic, rom xelovnuri universalizaciebis Tavidan asacileblad usaTuod unda iqnes mxedvelobaSi miRebuli zemoxsenebuli sociolingvisturi fardobiTobis faqtori rogorc mikro-, ise makrosociolingvisturi opoziciebis kvalificirebisas. literatura alpatovi 1988: . . . . : , 1988. bekaria 1996: Dizionario di linguistica e di filologia, metrica, retorica. Diretto do G. L. Beccaria. Torino: Einaudi, 1996. brauni da gilmeni 1960: Brown, R. W. & Gilman, A. The pronouns of power and solidarity. Style in language, ed. by T. A. Sebeok. New York & Cambridge: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1960: 253-276. busmani 1996: Bussmann, H. Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. Tr. and ed. by G. Trauth & K. Kazzazi. London & New York: Routledge, 1996. Tomasi 1992: Thomas, D. A review of Hy V. Loung, Discursive practices and linguistics meanings: The Vietnamese system of personal reference. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1990. Language in Society, 21/1, 1992: 128-132. ketfordi 2001: Catford, J. C. A Practical Introduction to Phonetics. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. kikviZe 1997: z. kikviZe, sociolingvisturi opoziciebis gamoyofisaTvis//saenaTmecniero Ziebani, VI, 1997: 4-6. kristali 1997: Crystal, D. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 4th ed. Oxford (UK) & Cambridge (MA): Cambridge University Press, 1997. losevi 1989: . . . .: : . : , 1989: 5-92.

kidev erTxel sociolingvisturi opoziciebis Sesaxeb

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mkilifi 1978: Abdulaziz Mkilifi, M. H. Triglossia and Swahili-English bilingualism in Tanzania. Advances in the Study of Societal Multilingualism, ed. by J. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton, 1978: 129-152. papi da kiSi 1976: ., . . . : - . : , 1976: 208-218. sturua 1992: . . , II / / iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis weliwdeuli, t. XVIIIXIX, Tbilisi, 1992: 355-362. traski 1996: Trask, R. L. A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology. London & New York: Routledge, 1996. trubeckoi 1969: Trubetzkoy, N. S. Principles of Phonology. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969. fleneri 1946: Flannery, R. Mens and womens speech in Gros Ventre. International Journal of American Linguistics, 12, 1946: 133-135. qobalava 1976: i. qobalava, fonemis cneba enaTmecnierebaSi. Tbilisi: mecniereba, 1976. jafariZe 1979: z. jafariZe, enis fonemuri Sedgenilobis dadgenisaTvis (saliteraturo qarTulis magaliTze)//arnold Ciqobavas (dabadebis 80 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili krebuli). Tbilisi: mecniereba, 1979: 104-113. jorbenaZe 1998: b. jorbenaZe, qarTuli dialeqtologia, 2. Tbilisi: qarTuli ena, 1998. jounzi 1973: Jones, D. The history and meaning of the term phoneme. Phonetics in Linguistics. A book of reading, ed. by W. E. Jones & J. Laver. London: Longman, 1973: 187-204.

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filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis profesori. mTavari redaqtori samecniero Jurnalisa _ `qristianul-arqeologiuri Ziebani~. ZiriTadi naSromebi: samociqulos ganmartebis efTvime mTawmideliseuli Targmani, 2003. ti pikoni SiomRvimis monastrisa (e. giunaSvilTan erTad), 2005. wmida grigol noselis `didi kateqeturi sityvis~ Zveli qarTuli Targmani: `qristianul-arqeologiuri Ziebani~ I, 2008. statiebis seria: `liturgikuli SeniSvnebi~. interesTa sfero: qarTuli patristika, bizantiur-qarTuli literaturuli urTierToba, qristianuli Teologia, liturgika, kodikologia, teqstologia, leqsikologia.

terminebi _ `brZaneba~ da `moxseneba~ socialur da situaciur konteqstebSi


`brZaneba~ da `moxseneba~, maT Sesabamis pirian formebTan erTad (`brZanebs~, `ubrZanebs~, `mogaxseneb~, `moaxsenebs~ da sxv.), sruliad garkveuli moqmedebis aRmniSvneli terminebia. qegl-is mixedviT, `brZaneba~ _ xelisuflebis an uflebamosili piris gankargulebaa; meore mniSvnelobiT _ risame Tqma, magram ara nebismieri adamianis, aramed raime Zalauflebis mqone piris mier (`brZanebs~ _ iTqmis mdgomareobiT an xniT ufros adamianze, an iseT pirze, vis mimarTac Tavazianobis gamoxatva surT); `moxseneba~ ki _ vinmes mimarT raimes Tqmaa pativiscemiT (igulisxmeba: mokrZalebiT) [qegl I 1950: 1145; qegl V 1958: 605]. amrigad, `brZanebac~ da `moxsenebac~ _ Tqmaa, oRond pirveli maTgani (`brZanebs~, `ubrZanebs~) maRali socialuri mdgomareobis piris Tqmas gulisxmobs (ufro dabali mdgomareobis pirisadmi), meore ki (`moaxsenebs~) _ qvemdgomis mimarTvas zemdgomisadmi. `brZanebisa~ da `moxsenebis~ socialuri Sinaarsi mkveTradaa aqcentirebuli sulxansaba orbelianis `sityvis konaSi~. avtoris sityviT _ `sam-saxe arian Tqmani: Tqma iTqmis, swors (= Tanaswor) kacs etyodes, xolo mo seneba _ uaRresisadmi, da brZaneba _

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umcrosisadmi~ [sulxan-saba 1991: 315, Sdr. 116]. Zvel qarTul teqstebSi `brZanebasa~ da `mo senebas~, garda `Tqmis~ mniSvnelobisa da socialuri determinaciis funqciisa, rogorc irkveva, araerTi sxva mniSvnelobac hqonia.1 magaliTad, `grigol xancTelis cxovrebaSi~, iq, sadac aRwerilia aSot kurapalatisa da netari febronias saubari, vkiTxulobT: `...viTar iloca kurapalatman eklesiasa wmidisa RmrTismSobelisasa da miiRo locva dedisa febroniasi, maSin iwyo sityuad: `uwyi-mea, dedao, rasaTs moved aw?~ kurapalatis SekiTxvaze febronia pasuxobs: `ufalman icis, rasaTs hbrZane aqa~ [abulaZe 1963: 297]. kiTxva-pasuxis SedarebiT aSkarad Cans, rom `hbrZane~ am konteqstSi niSnavs: `moxvedi~, `mobrZandi~. swored aseve ganmartaven `hbrZane~-s `grigol xancTelis cxovrebis~ komentatorebi [sarjvelaZe 1986: 114, 155]. Zvel qarTul teqstebSi `brZanebis~ sxva mravali mniSvnelobacaa dafiqsirebuli ilia abulaZis `leqsikonSi~: `ganweseba~, `mivlineba~, `miwera~, `Tqma~, `daTqma~, `Serisxva~, `mcneba~, `sityva~, `Tqmuli~, `sazRvari~ [abulaZe 1973: 36] vnaxoT, ra mniSvnelobiT ixmareba `brZaneba~ liturgikul teqstebSi, saxeldobr, iq, sadac RmrTismsaxurebis zogierT momentSi diakoni xmamaRla warmoTqvams: `brZane!~ (an: `brZaneT!~). es sityva iTqmis, magaliTad, siwmidis ganaxlebisas, anu pirvelSewirulis liturgiaze, `SeqmnaTa~ sakiTxavisa da wardgomis Semdeg, sanam mwirveli mRdeli, sacecxuriTa da sasanTliT xelSi, warmoTqvamdes: `sibrZniT, aRemarTeniT; naTeli qristesi gananaTlebs yovelTa~ [kondaki 1899: 278].2 aseve, iovane oqropiris Jamiswirvaze, `wmidao RmerTos~ galobis aRsrulebis Semdeg, diakoni mimarTavs mwirvel mRdels an mRdelTmTavars: `brZane, meufeo~ [kondaki 1899: 130. kekeliZe 1908: 44]. jer `brZane~, Semdeg ki `brZaneT~ _ iTqmis diakvnis xelTdasxmis dros, rodesac kerZo-diakvnebs xelTdasxmadi mihyavT aRsavlis karTan [kekeliZe 1008: 167],
1

`brZanebis~ polisemantikur saxiaTs (liturgikuli Zeglebis mixedviT) adre SevexeT werilSi _ `brZaneT!~ (`liturgikuli SeniSvnebis~ seriidan) [koWlamazaSvili 1999: 7-10]. 2 Tu mwirvelia mRdelTmTavari, am sityvebis warmoTqmisas xelT upyria sacecxuri da trikiri [kekeliZe 1908: 141].

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`brZane, meufeo!~ _ aseve mimarTavs mRdelTmTavars protodiakoni sxva xelTdasxmaTa Sesrulebis Jamsac, gansazRvrul momentSi. ras gamoxatavs `brZaneba~ aq moyvanil konteqstebSi da ra liturgikuli Sinaarsi aqvs mas? rogorc sruli liturgiisa da siwmidis ganaxlebis, ise xelTdasxmaTa dros am sityviT diakoni mRvdels an episkoposs iwvevs saTanado moqmedebis Sesasruleblad. saxeldobr, siwmidis ganaxlebisas am sityviT xdeba mRdelis mowveva aRsavalTan, raTa sacecxuriTa da sanTliT ers jvari gadasaxos da warmoTqvas: `naTeli qristesi gananaTlebs yovelTa~; aseve, basili didisa da iovane oqropiris liturgiaze `wmidao RmerTos~ galobis Semdeg tipikoniT dadgenilia mwirveli mRdelisa Tu mRdelTmTavris asvla e. w. `uzedaes saydarTan~, sadac unda moisminon samociqulosa da saxarebis kiTxva. amitomac diakoni mimarTavs maT _ `brZaneT~, e. i. mobrZandiTo. xelTdasxmaTa Sesrulebis drosac amave sityviT moiwveva mRdelTmTavari trapezTan, raTa iq xelTdasxmis locvebi warTqvas da saTanado rituali Seasrulos. amrigad, yvela zemoxsenebul konteqstSi `brZane~ da `brZaneT~ niSnavs: `mobrZandi~, `mobrZandiT~. berZnul da slavur teqstebSi saTanado adgilas ikiTxeba imave mniSvnelobis sityvebi: `kelevson~ da `kelevsate~; `~ da `~ (`brZane~ da `brZaneT~), e. i. maTac analogiuri mniSvneloba eniWeba aRniSnul konteqstebSi. liturgikis specialistTa azriT, qristianul RmrTismsaxurebaSi ritualuri miwvevis amgvari forma romis (konstantinepolis) saimperatoro karis ceremoniidan iqna nasesxebi. iq `kelevsate~ (laT. jubete) warmoiTqmoda, rodesac sasaxleSi mosul stumrebs iwvevdnen sadilze an miuTiTebdnen erTi darbazidan meoreSi gadasvlas; imave sityviT cxaddeboda imperatorTan audienciis damTavreba, ris Semdegac yvela tovebda darbazs [uspenski 1978: 83]. n. uspenskis azriT, samonastro RmrTismsaxurebaSi `kelevsates~ damkvidreba saba ganwmedilis (IV s.) iniciativiT SeiZleboda momxdariyo [uspenski 1978: 65]. `brZaneba~, `mobrZanebis~ mniSvnelobiT, SesaZloa, swored liturgikuli wyaroebis gavleniT iyos damkvidrebuli qarTulSi. amgvari mniSvnelobiT `brZaneba~ mravalgan gvxvdeba, rodesac surT, xazi gausvan, rom saubari exeba didad pativsacem adamianebs: XIII saukunis kanonikur ZeglSi, romlis saTauria `gangeba darbazobisa~, vkiTxulobT: `brZanos qarTlisa kaTalikozman da

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dajdes marjueniT mefisa, taxtsa zeda mokidebiT, natiTa da baliSiTa~ [doliZe II, 1965: 47] mRdelTmTavrebis Sesaxeb iqve naTqvamia: `Semovides Wyondideli da dajdes...~ `Semovides mawyuereli da dajdes...~ `Semovides amba alaverdeli da dajdes...~ da a. S. yoveli mRdelTmoZRvari Semodis da jdeba. bolos unda `modgnen yovelTa monasterTa moZRuarni da winamZRuarni~ da TavTavianTi wesiT dasxdnen. rogorc vxedavT, `gangebis~ Tanaxmad, mRdelTmTavrebi da monasterTa moZRvar-winamZRvarni Semodian an modgebian. mxolod qarTlis kaTalikoszea naTqvami: `brZanos~, rac aRebul konteqstSi niSnavs: `SemobrZandes~. es rom namdvilad asea, mowmobs aRniSnuli Zeglis zogierT nusxaSi SemCneuli gansxvavebuli formulireba: `mobrZandes qarTlisa kaTolikosi da dasjdes marjuniT mefisa, taxtsa zeda mokidebiT, natiTa da baliSiTa~ (xelnaweri S 5050, 2v) [metreveli 1973: 35.] sxva magaliTebi: `ufalo efrem, brZane sakurTxevelad~ [amfiloqe ikonieli X: 151r]. `Zmano, romelTa hbrZaneT da moxu diT da guamsa mogzaur eqmneniT...~ [iovane oqropiri XVII: 273v]. `viTxov Sengan, ufalo RmerTo Cueno, raTa hbrZano wyalobiTa SeniTa zeTsa amas zeda, da _ romelni icxeben saxeliTa SeniTa...~ [gangeba XI: 16r] `brZane, RmerTo, ZaliTa SeniTa...~ (fs. 67, 29) da a. S. amrigad, `brZane~ `mobrZandi~-s mniSvnelobiT iTqmoda ara marto liturgikuli wes-gangebebis dros, aramed yofacxovrebaSic. rogorc sasuliero, ise saero mwerlobis ZeglebSi `brZane~ mravalgan gamoxatavs Tavazian miwvevas. garda miwvevisa, `brZane~-s sxva mniSvnelobebic hqonia, da sazogado Tavazian mimarTvas warmoadgenda Zvel qarTulSi. situaciis Sesabamisad, mas sxvadasxva moqmedebis gamoxatva SeeZlo: `modi~, `wadi~, `adeqi~, `dajeqi~, `Tqvi~, `neba damrTe~, `Wame~, `svi~ da a. S. sainteresoa, rom `brZane~, `Wame~-s (`miirTvi~) mniSvnelobiT gvianobamde SemorCa zogierT dialeqtSi. `brZane~-s amgvari mniSvneloba dafiqsirebuli aqvs qarTvel mweral parmen lorias aWaris cxovrebisadmi miZRvnil erT-erT romanSi [loria 1980: 300], `nebarTvis~ mniSvnelobiT ki es sityva gvxvdeba saxarebaSi (iovane 19,38), `saqme mociqulTa~-Si (21,39) da sxv.

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`brZanebis~ msgavsad, situaciis Sesabamisad mniSvnelobis cvla axasiaTebs `mo seneba~ (`mo seneba~) zmnasac, im gansxvavebiT, rom `brZaneba~ _ socialurad zemdgomi adamianis moqmedebaa, `mo seneba~ _ qvemdgomisa. erTi da igive adamiani erT SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba `brZanebdes~ (qvemdgomis mimarT), sxva SemTxvevaSi ki `moaxsenebdes~ (socialurad zemdgoms). aseve, erTsa da imave kacs erTni `moaxseneben~ (qvemdgomni), sxvani (zemdgomni) _ `ubrZaneben~. aseTi SemTxvevaa aRwerili, magaliTad, `vefxistyaosanSi~: `Semovida mis winaSe (igulisxmeba avTandili) TinaTinis mona zangi, moaxsena: gibrZanebso tani alva, piri mangi~ (v-t 120). avTandils zangi mona `moaxsenebs~, rogorc socialurad qvemdgomi piri (`moaxsena~ aq niSnavs: acnoba; mefe TinaTinis danabarebi gadasca), magram imave avTandils `ubrZanebs~ (e. i. mouwodebs, uxmobs) TinaTini, rogorc socialurad ufro warCinebuli (`ubrZanebs~, Tundac mona zangis piriT!) analogiuri situaciaa, roca monis piriT rostevan mefe uxmobs tariels: (monam) `moaxsena: gibrZanebso. axlos midga, dauwynarda~ (vt 87). axla ganvixiloT `moxsenebis~ sxva mniSvnelobebi, romelTac igi sxvadasxva konteqstSi iZens: nikolaos kaTalikozisadmi (1562-1588) mirTmeul `erTgulebis wignSi~ gabriel alaverdeli episkoposi termin `mo senebas~ orgzis xmarobs, ramdenadme gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobebiT: `Cuen, qristes mier kurTxeulma[n] amba alaverdelman gabriel ese wigni moga seneT Tquen, Cuensa makurTxevelsa qarTlisa kaTalikoz-patriaqsa patronsa nikolaozs, mas Jamsa, odes cotas saqme[sa] zed[a] gaguiwyer da Seundoblad gaguxade. ama[s] zeda Cuen SemogexueweniT da Sendoba guiboZe. aw, dRes da dReis ukan viyvneT Tqueni da Tquenisa saydrisa erTgulni, da arca ra Tqueni winaaRmdgomi vqmnaT da Tquenisa sitysa morCilni viyvneT Cuen, da Cueni saydari Tquens elT-queS iyos... Tavsmdebad RmrTi da sueti cxoveli mogui senebia~ [doliZe III, 1970: 351-352]. konteqstidan aSkaraa, rom pirveli `mo seneba~ (`wigni moga seneT~) `mirTmevas~, mowiwebiT micemas niSnavs, meore `mo senebas~ ki (`Tavsmdebad RmerTi da sueti cxoveli mogui senebia~) _ Tavmdebis wardginebis mniSvneloba aqvs. orive

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moqmedeba (Tavmdebis wardginebac da wignis mirTmevac) kaTalikozisadmi mowiwebiT, misi upiratesobis aRiarebiT xdeba da swored amis niSania orive moqmedebis gamomxatvelad `mo seneba~ terminis xmareba. `mo seneba~ mirTmevas niSnavs sxva, analogiur `erTgulebis wignebSic~. erT-erTi aseTia gerasime mawyuereli episkoposis mier dawerili miqael kaTalikozisadmi (1414-1426): `ese wigni gkadre da moga sene ATquen, wmidasa da qristes mier kurTxeulsa mRdelTmTavarT mTavarsa qarTlisa qaTalikozsa miqaels; gkadreT da moga seneT mas Jamsa, odes mcxeTas move[d] da makurTxeT~ [doliZe III, 1970: 183]. aseve, saba mtbevaris mier mirTmeuli wigni domenti kaTalikozisadmi (1556 w.): `ese ukunisamde gasaTavebeli wigni moga sene me, mtbevarma[n] saba, Tquen, wmidasa kaTolike samociqulosa saydarsa, Tquensa saWeTmpyrobelsa qarTlisa kaTalikozsa patriaqsa domentis, mas Jamsa, odes guakurTxeT. Tquenis saydris erTguli da Tquenisa brZanebisa morCilni viyvneT... amisa gaTavebisa Tav[sm]debad Tavad[i] RmerTi da yovelni misni wmidani da sueti cxoveli mogui senebia~ [doliZe III, 1970: 262]. aq bolo `mo seneba~, ise, rogorc gabriel alaverdelis werilSi, Tavmdebis wardginebis mniSvnelobiTaa naxmari. `mo seneba~ rom mirTmevas gamoxatavdes, Sewirvis niuansiT, amis magaliTebic uamravia Zvel sigel-gujrebSi: 1) aseTia, pirvel yovlisa, 1029-33 ww-iT daTariRebuli `dawerili~ melqisedek kaTalikozisa sveticxovlisadmi, romelSic vkiTxulobT: `ese dawerili mova sene da Sevswire yovelTave CrdiloeTisa kedarTa Soris uaRressa da uaRmatebules-udidebulessa, wmidasa da kaTolike da samociqulosa saydarsa mcxeTisasa~ [doliZe III, 1970: 18]. zustad aseTsave formulirebas imeorebs Sewirulebis Sesaxeb `dawerili~ malaqia kaTalikozisa sveticxovlisadmi (daaxl. 1532 w.) (ix. iqve, gv. 253). 2) aseve, Sewirulebis `dawerili~ Wiaberisa SiomRvimisadmi (1189-1192 ww.): `vhkadre da mova sene RmrTisa sworsa mefeTa mefesa Tamars da maT mier brZanebiTa da kiTxviTa gkadre da moga sene Sen, wmidasa mamasa Sios da SenTa cremlTa mier aRSenebulsa udabnosa mRuimesa da mun Sina damkuidrebulTa mamaTa da ZmaTa JinovniT mixiTarais Zeni daviTis Svilni~ [doliZe II, 1965: 29]. `vhkadre da mova sene RmrTisa sworsa mefeTa-mefesa Tamars, raiTamca igi glexni mis wyaroisa mkazmavad uboZnes da moa sennes monastersa~ (iqve, gv. 33).

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3) Sewirulebis `dawerili~ meWurWleTuxuces kaxa Torelisa rkonis monastrisadmi (1259 w.): `mogui senebia sofeli xovle zuriTa, xodabuniTa, tyiTa, veliTa, wyliTa, wisquiliTa da yovliTa samarTlianiTa zRvriTa... ori miwa metexTa RmrTismSoblisa iyo Sewiruli: beyeurTi da gorgaiTi. maT kide gaeyida da me egrec metexTa RmrTismSobels mova sene Cemis sulisaTs~ [doliZe II, 1965: 59]. 4) Sewirulobis `dawerili~ gelaTis dekanoz iakobisa xaxulis RmrTismSoblisadmi (1259-1293 ww.): `karedi xati xaxulisa RmrTismSoblisa, Tualian-margalitebiani, miniTa misiTa kuboTa, _ ese TviT xaxulisa RmrTismSobelsa winaSe sasuenebelad momi senebian~ [doliZe III, 1970: 173]. iqve, imave dokumentSi: `amas, Cemgan sasoebiT qmnilsa da xaxulisa RmrTismSoblisaTuis mo senebulsa da Sewirulsa, ...salocavad da saaRaped [Cemda] gaCenilsa, vinca Slad el-yos, ...hrisxavs-mca mama, Ze da suli wmida~ (iqve, gv. 174). 5) malaqia kaTalikozis mier dawerili `zesTaarsisa da zeaRmatebulisa da caTa mobaZavisa didisa saydrisa Cuenisa axlisa ierusalimisa genaTisa gujari~ (1529 w.): `Cuen, qristes mier kurTxeulman didman mamamTavarT-mamamTavarman, aRmosavleTisa da yovlisa Crdilos da afxazeTis kaTalikoz msoflio patriaqman malaqion ese gujari da sigeli mogaxseneT Tquen, wmidasa saydarsa gelaTisa da TualTSeudgamsa da ganucdelsa yovladbrwyinvalesa xatsa dedoflisa xaxulisa RmrTismSobelsa~ [doliZe III, 1970: 249]. imave dokumentSi `moxsenebas~ `darwmunebis~ Sinaarsic eZleva aseT konteqstSi: `didad saxelovanman da saxelganTqmulman RmrTismsaxurman da RmrTivgrgnosanman mefeT-mefeman bagrat moguaxsena (= dagvarwmuna) da daguajera, raTamca genaTi saydrad da saepiskoposod Segueqmna; vismineT moxseneba misi, rameTu RmrTisa mier aRmarTul iyo~ (gv. 249-250). mo seneba (`vedrebiTi mo seneba~) upiratesis mimarT mowiwebiT Txovnasa da ajasac gamoxatavs; am mniSvnelobiT es termini gvxvdeba, magaliTad, aznaur giorgi maRalaSvilisadmi naboZeb `wyalobiT sigelebSi~, romelic mas anton II kaTalikos-patriarqisagan araerTgzis miuRia: 1) `ese wyalobiTi werili giboZeT Sen, Cvens erTguls ymas aznaur-Svils maRalaSvils giorgis maszed, romel moxvediT da rac axmetasa da TianeTs Cvenis eklesiisa mcxeTisa sakaTalikosoni samwysoni arian, imaTis mamaTmTavrobis boZebas gvevedreniT. Cvenca

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vismineT vedrebiTi moxseneba Tqveni da giboZeT, rac axmetas da TianeTs Cvenni samcxeToni sakaTalikosoni samwysoni arian, imaTi mamaTmTavroba~ (1801 w.) [doliZe III, 1970: 1064] 2) `moxvediT da erwos Cvenis didis eklesiis mcxeTis saxasos soflis Cekuris mouravobis wyalobas da boZebas gvevedreniT... Cvenca vismineT vedrebiTi Txovna da moxseneba Tqven-mieri~ (1802 w.) [doliZe III, 1970: 1070-1071]. `moxseneba~ rom vedrebas gamoxatavs, anton II-is mier gacemuli ori sxva dokumentis SedarebiTac irkveva: `moxvediT da mamulis wyalobas dagveajeniT; Cvenca vismineT aja da moxseneba Tqveni da giboZeT somxiTs Cvens saxasoSi darbazs ori komli kaci~ (wyalobis wigni anton II-isa svimon TaziSvilisadmi, 1803 w.) [doliZe III, 1970: 1064]. Sdr.: `vismineT aja da vedreba Tqveni da giboZeT sofelsa Sina goms Cveni Zveli namarnali~ (wyalobis wigni anton II-isa nikoloz da ioseb eliozisZeebisadmi, 1807 w.) [doliZe III, 1970: 1101]. aq erT dokumentSi `aja da moxseneba~ weria, meoreSi ki, analogiur konteqstSi _ `aja da vedreba~, rac moxsenebisa da vedrebis sinonimias usvams xazs. msgavsi formulireba ufro Zvel dokumentebSic gvxvdeba: 1) `Cuen vismineT haja maTi da mo seneba ...~ (mamulis mflobelobisa da Seuvalobis ganaxlebis sigeli giorgi III-isa SiomRvimisadmi, 1170 w.) [doliZe II, 1965: 21]. 2) `daguajera RmerTman da vismineT hajai da mo senebai vazirisa Cuenisa anton Wyondidel mTavarepiskopozisa, mwignobarTuxucesisa da protohi pertimosisa~ (Sewirulobis sigeli Tamar mefisa SiomRvimisadmi, 1201 w.) [doliZe II, 1965: 31]. 3) `...da mas wyaroisa saTavesa iyo kuamli ori sasefoi, saxeliT afxazTani, da vhkadre da mova sene RmrTisa sworsa mefeTa-mefesa Tamars, raiTamca igi glexni mis wyaroisa mkazmavad uboZnes da moa sennes monastersa~ (iqve, gv. 33). aq pirveli `mo seneba~ vedrebas gamoxatavs, meore _ Sewirvas. 4) `awca movida Cuenda sula qarTlis erisTavi, guehaja da mogua sena, raTamca SeviwyaleT da qarTlis sofeli sueleTi... monastersa missa qvaTa evs SevswireT~ (Sewirulobis sigeli laSa giorgisa qvaTaxevisadmi, 1213-1222 ww.) [doliZe II, 1965: 35.] 5) `Cuen vismineT mo senebai da hajai iovane qarTlis mTavarepiskoposisa...~ (sigeli laSa giorgisa SiomRvimisadmi, 1222 w.) [doliZe II, 1965: 36].

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6) `Cueni didad erTguli Toreli ivane gueaja da mogua sena, raTamca koJrisa Zirisa monasteri aTenagueni migueboZa~ (wyalobis sigeli giorgi brwyinvalisa ivane Torel-javaxiSvilisadmi, 1338 w.) [doliZe II, 1965: 97]. 7) `vismineT aja da moxseneba misi...~ (wyalobis sigeli giorgi VII-isa guguni mayaSvilisadmi, 1377 w.) [doliZe II, 1965: 100]. 8) `urdoeli da maTi Svili sumbat gueajnes da mogua senes, raTamca maTTa erTguloba-namsaxurTa sanacvlod, sigliTa amiT Seguewyalnes~ (wyalobis sigeli aleqsandre mefisa urdoelisadmi, 1438) [doliZe II, 1965: 124] da a. S. amrigad, `brZaneba~ da `moxseneba~ terminebi, romlebic konteqstisagan mowyvetiT savsebiT garkveul moqmedebas aRniSnaven, calkeul situaciebsa da konteqstebSi iZenen sruliad sxvadasxva mniSvnelobas: socialurad zemdgomi adamianebis yovelgvari moqmedeba (wasvla, mosvla, dajdoma, adgoma, Wama, sma, micema, moxmoba, mowodeba da sxv.) SeiZleba `brZaneba~ zmniT gamoixatos (calkeul SemTxvevebSi mis mniSvnelobas situacia da konteqsti gansazRvravs), xolo socialurad qvemdgomi adamianisa _ `mo seneba~ zmniT (Txovna, vedreba, micema, mirTmeva, darwmuneba, Tavmdebis wardgineba da a. S.). Zvel qarTul werilobiT wyaroebSi es ori termini Zalze polisemantikuria, socialuri da situaciuri konteqstebis Sesabamisad. literatura abulaZe 1963: Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi, wigni I, ilia abulaZis redaqciiT, Tb., 1963. abulaZe 1973: il. abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni, Tb., 1973. amfiloqe ikonieli X: amfiloqe ikonieli, wm. basilis sakiTxavi, xelnaweri A 19, X s. gangeba XI: gangeba zeTsa zeda sneulisasa, xelnaweri A1110, XI s. doliZe II 1965: qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, t. II, teqstebi gamosca, SeniSvnebi da saZieblebi daurTo prof. i. doliZem, Tb., 1965. doliZe III 1970: qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, t. III, teqstebi gamosca, SeniSvnebi da saZieblebi daurTo prof. i. doliZem, Tb., 1970.

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iovane oqropiri XVII: wm. iovane oqropiri, locva nugeSiniscemad, micvalebulsa zeda sakiTxavi, xelnaweri A 450, XVII s. kekeliZe 1908: samRudelTmTavro kondaki, gamosacemad moamzades dek. k. kekeliZem da mR. k. cincaZem, tf., 1908. kondaki 1899: kondaki, Tb., 1899. koWlamazaSvili 1999: e. koWlamazaSvili, liturgikuli SeniSvnebi: Jurn. `religia~, # 7-8-9, 1999 w., gv. 7-10. loria 1980: parmen loria, ganTiadi xevSi (romani), baTumi, 1980. metreveli 1973: qarTul xelnawerTa aRweriloba, qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis (S) yofili koleqcia, t. VII, el. metrevelis red., Tb., 1973 sarjvelaZe 1986: iakob xucesi, SuSanikis wameba; giorgi merCule, grigol xanZTelis cxovreba, saskolo gamocema; teqsti gamosacemad moamzades, leqsikoni da gamokvleva daurTes zurab sarjvelaZem, korneli daneliam da elguja giunaSvilma, Tb., 1986. sulxan-saba 1991: sulxan-saba orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli I, avtografuli nusxebis mixedviT moamzada, gamokvleva da ganmartebaTa leqsikis saZiebeli daurTo ilia abulaZem, Tb., 1991. uspenski 1978: . . , , , . 18, ., 1978. qegl I 1950: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, prof. arn. Ciqobavas saerTo redaqciiT, t. I, Tb., 1950. qegl V 1958: qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, prof. arn. Ciqobavas saerTo redaqciiT, t. V, Tb., 1958.

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bunebrivi ena da kultura _ eris cocxali mexsiereba


`enis mecnierul Seswavlas arasodes ar hqonia da arc axla aqvs ufro mniSvnelovani mizani, vidre enis Seswavla, erTi mxriv, enobrivi koleqtivis cxovrebasTan kavSirSi (ena _ tomis, xalxis, eris arsebiTi niSania), xolo meore mxriv, azrovnebasTan kavSirSi (statikaSic da dinamikaSic), e. i. kulturis istoriasTan, azrovnebis istoriasTan kavSirSi~, _ werda arn. Ciqobava (Ciqobava 1966:182). didi mecnieris mier gamoyofili enis Seswavlis ori mxare mTlianad faravs uaxlesi disci plinis _ lingvokulturologiis kvleviT sferos, sadac Seiswavleba kulturisa da enis urTierTqmedeba sinqroniasa da diaqroniaSi, TviT kultura ki ganixileba rogorc azrovnebis sazrisul konceptTa sistema da azrovnebis struqturaTa warmomqmneli. humanitarul mecnierebaTa mTel rig dargSi dRes aqtualuria azrovnebis istoriis dakavSireba kulturis istoriasTan, aseve aRiarebulia enis wamyvani roli orivegan. ena erTsac da meoresac Tavis TavSi ikrebs, amasTanave, enis meSveobiT xorcieldeba ZiriTadad socialuri urTierTqmedeba sazogadoebaSi. ase rom, swored enis (teqstis, dikursis) analizi iZleva SesaZleblobas gavigoT adamianTa azrovneba da qceva. enis Seswavla ara ,,vakuumSi~, aramed relevanturi socialuri konteqstis gaTvaliswinebiT sinqroniaSic da diaqroniaSic, enas warmogvidgens ara mxolod rogorc kods,

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: `SeuZlebeli Sexamebani~ Tanamedrove poeziis enaSi; qarTuli diskursis ligvokulturul SemadgenelTa struqtura, semantika da funqcionireba; qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonis rvatomeuli _ lingvokulturologiur kvlevaTa fundamenturi wyaro; erovnul-kulturuli konceptebi: bedi~, wuTisofeli~; Targmanis adekvaturobis Sesaxeb kognitiuri midgomis TvalsazrisiT. interesTa sfero: stilistika, ritorika, kognitiuri lingvistika, semiotika, lingvokulturologia.

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aramed, rogorc kods plus kulturas. amis Sesaxeb sainteresod msjelobs cnobili semiotikosi da kulturologi i. m. lotmani. misi azriT, termini ,,kodi~ Seicavs warmodgenas axlaxan Seqmnil struqturaze, xelovnurze da myisieri SeTanxmebiT miRebulze. kodi istorias ar gulisxmobs, fsiqologiurad igi xelovnur enaze migvmarTavs, romelic, saerTod, enis idealur modeladac ki ivaraudeba, xolo ,,ena~ aracnobierad gviCens warmodgenas istoriulad gangrZobiT arsebobaze (lotmani 2004:15). amdenad, kodi ,,umexsierebo struqturaa~, radgan igi, rogorc xelovnuri ena, istorias ar gulisxmobs. aseve arn. Ciqobavac, ganixilavs ra xelovnur enas rogorc kibernetikuli lingvistikis obieqts, wers, rom mas srulebiT ar sWirdeba enis istoria da masSi `ar daismis sakiTxi, ra mimarTebaSia bunebrivi enebis faqtebi azrovnebasTan~ (Ciqobava 1983:423-424). bunebrivi ena ki, iseve rogorc kultura, eris koleqtiuri da cocxali mexsierebaa. am saerTo mexsierebis gareSe warmoudgenelia saerTo kulturisa da saerTo enis arseboba, aqedan gamomdinare _ calkeuli eris arsebobac. aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom enis mexsiereba yvela mexsierebaze ufro tevadia, is TavisTavad moicavs kulturis mexsierebasac, maSin rodesac, kulturis mexsiereba mxolod ,,kulturulis~ xsovnas inaxavs. amgvarad, Tu kultura koleqtiur inteleqtsa da koleqtiur mexsierebas warmoadgens, igi yofila raRac teqstebis Senaxvisa da gadacemis meqanizmi, romelic, amasTanave, axal teqstebsac qmnis. amgvar saerTo mexsierebas kulturuli sivrce SeiZleba ewodos, romlis farglebSic inaxeba da aqtualizdeba xalxisaTvis saerTo teqstebi, amasTanave, maTi aqtualizacia xorcieldeba garkveuli azrobrivi invariantis farglebSi, rac saSualebas iZleva, axali epoqebis konteqstSi teqstma SeinarCunos Tavisi Tavis identoba, miuxedavad imisa, rom misi ganmartebebi (wakiTxva, interpretacia) mravalgvari SeiZleba iyos da icvlebodes droTa viTarebaSi. i. lotmani Tvlis, rom mocemuli kulturuli sivrcisaTvis saerTo mexsierebas uzrunvelyofs, erTi mxriv, swored am mudmivi teqstebis arseboba da, meore mxriv, an kodebis erTianoba, an maTi invariantuloba, anda uwyvetoba da maTi transformaciis kanonzomieri xasiaTi (lotmani 2004:673). unda aRiniSnos, rom mexsierebis meSveobiT kulturis gansazRvreba Zalian gavrcelebulia Cvens droSi, romelic, rogorc amboben, mexsierebis dakargviTaa daavadebuli. magram es seni ukurnebeli ar aris, Tu Sesabamisi neba eqnebaT adamianebs. adamiani im kulturas akuTvnebs Tavs, romelTanac igi dakavSirebulia warmoSobiT, sacxovrebeli adgiliT, garemoTi, aRzrdiT,

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tradiciiT, eniT, romelzec laparakobs da azrovnebs. magram mxolod tradiciasa da mexsierebaze dayrdnoba nebismier kulturas istoriul reliqtad gadaaqcevda, rom ar xdebodes masSi bevri ramis ,,gadaazreba~, xelaxla Seqmna an sxva xalxTagan sesxeba. es rom ase xdeba, amas yvelaze ukeT da TvalsaCinod ena gvidasturebs. roca vcdilobT gaverkvioT Cvens kulturul identobaSi, gverds ver avuvliT sxva kulturaTa Sesaxeb mecnierul codnas iseve, rogorc dedaenis individualobas, unikalurobas ver vigrZnobT sxva enasTan Sedarebis gareSe. dRes bevrs msjeloben im ori tendenciis Sesaxeb, romelic mokled ase SeiZleba gamovxatoT: kulturaTa, enaTa unikalurobis dacva da moZraoba kulturaTa sinTezisaken, anu moZraoba gankerZoebidan kacobriobis kulturuli erTianobisaken. ar gveCveneba utrirebulad, rom zemoTqmuli niSnavs Widils mexsierebis SenarCunebasa da mexsierebis Ddakargvas Soris, roca iSleba yvelaferi specifikuri da ganmasxvavebeli gaerTmniSvnelianebisa da gaerTferovnebisaTvis, rac TiTqosda sayovelTao mSvidobisa da urTierTgagebis safuZveli iqneba. ,,informaciis gadacema ,,umexsierebo struqturaSi~ namdvilad aris sawindari identurobis maRali xarisxisa~, _ wers lotmani, romlis Semdgomi msjelobidan irkveva, ra fasi aqvs aseT identurobas: ,,Tu warmovidgenT gadamcemsa da mimRebs, romelTac erTnairi kodebi aqvT da sruliad moklebuli arian mexsierebas, maSin gageba maT Soris idealuri iqneba, magram gadacemuli informaciis Rirebuleba _ minimaluri, TviT informacia ki _ mkacrad SezRuduli. idealurad erTnairi gadamcemi da mimRebi kargad gaugeben erTmaneTs, magram maT saubris sagani aRar eqnebaT. aseTi informaciis ideali sinamdvileSi aRmoCndeba brZanebebis gadacema~ (lotmani 2004:15). amgvarad, informaciis adekvaturi gadacemisaTvis, romelic mxolod erT-erTi, da ara erTaderTi, funqciaa enisa, saWiroa xelovnuri ena da xelovnurad gamartivebuli komunikacia, aseve xelovnurad gamartivebuli komunikantebiT, sxva yvelaferi ugulebelyofilia, rac enasa da adamianebs bunebriv mdgomareobaSi aqvT. enis Seswavla mis bunebriv mdgomareobaSi gulisxmobs yuradRebis gamaxvilebas im kulturul sivrceze, romelsac asaxavs da romelSic moqmedebs es ena, rogorc garkveuli erovnul-lingvokulturuli erTobis ena. es sivrce erovnul-kulturulia, igi am enis matarebelTa masobrivi (koleqtiuri) cnobierebiT asaxuli kulturaa, romelic eris sametyvelo moqmedebis, enobrivi cnobierebisa da komunikaciis Taviseburebebs avlens. enis Seswavlisadmi amgvari midgoma mTlianad Tavsdeba Tanamedrove humanitarul codnaTa paradigmaSi, romelic anTro-

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pocentruli, funqcionaluri, kognitiuri da dinamikuria, rac imas niSnavs, rom mkvlevarTa yuradRebis centrSi dgeba enisa da kulturis, enisa da eTnosis, enisa da xalxis mentalitetis urTierTmimarTebaTa Seswavla da aRwera. axali samecniero disci plina, romlis amocanebic aq CamovTvaleT, lingvokulturologiad iwodeba. rogorc aRniSnaven, igi e. benvenistis prognoziT aigo: ena, kultura, pirovneba _ triadis safuZvelze. amitom mis bazisur terminTa sistemaSi yvelaze mniSvnelovania enobrivi pirovnebisa da kulturuli konceptis cnebebi. jer kidev neogramatikosebis _ g. osthofisa da k. brugmanis sityvebi imis Sesaxeb, rom enaTmecnierebi didi gatacebiTa da mondomebiT ikvleven enebs, magram naklebad _ molaparake adamians (osthofi, brugmani 1960:153), mecnieruli paradigmis Secvlis aucileblobas mianiSnebda. swored adamianisa da adamianis samyaros axali ontologiis miReba gaxda safuZveli Tanamedrove lingvistikuri kvlevebisaTvis, romlebic komunikaciur paradigmaSi moiazreba. magram komunikaciuri enaTmecnierebis poziciis dawinaureba, kerZod, pragmatikul kvlevaTa intensiuroba, jer kidev ar niSnavs axali diskursuli ontologiis sayovelTao gaziarebas. dRemde SeimCneva azrovnebis inercia, roca enas ganixilaven rogorc sivrcesa da droSi arsebul obieqts, romelsac molaparake iaraRiviT iyenebs, riTac ugulebelyofen im faqts, rom enaTmecnierebaSi adamianis faqtoris SemoyvaniT icvleba TviT mecnierebis obieqtis buneba da sagani. enaTmecniers am SemTxvevaSi saqme aqvs ara ganyenebul, ganivTebul konstruqtTan, aramed uSualod adamianis komunikaciur moqmedebasTan. molaparake adamianze (Homo loquens) orientacia TavisTavad ganapirobebs enis Seswavlas farTo sociokulturul konteqstSi. adamianis, rogorc arsis, adekvaturi aRwera SeuZlebelia misi enis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe, aseve, enis ramdenadme sruli aRwerac miuRwevelia, Tu ugulebelyofilia adamianis faqtori, radgan enaSi yvelaferi adamianuria, adamianSic yvelaze adamianuri _ enaa. yovelive amas gansazRvravs ara marto enisa da azrovnebis urTierTganpirobebuloba, aramed adamianis emociur-eTikuri mimarTebebic samyarosadmi, sinamdvilis faqtebisa da movlenebisadmi, ramdenadac es yvelaferi enaSi da enis meSveobiT aris gamoxatuli, ufro zustad ki, yovel jerze gamoixateba komunikaciis procesSi. ,,yovel jerzeo~, _ vambobT imitom, rom komunikaciis cnebisa da komunikaciuri aqtis axali gaazreba gavxazoT, rac radikalurad gansxvavdeba maTi tradiciuli gagebisagan. komunikaciis ganaxlebuli koncefcia komunikacias aRar ganixilavs rogorc enobrivi sistemis, kodisa Tu adamianis enobrivi unaris mxolod aqtualizacias, aramed

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rogorc formirebas komunikaciis procesSi; ,,anu veRar ganvixilavT ise, rom komunikaciis aqtamde sityva, winadadeba ... arsebobda mza saxiT da komunikaciis procesSi xdeboda maTi aqtualizacia. komunikaciur-lingvisturi Tvalsazrisi gulisxmobs, rom komunikaciis procesSi xdeba yoveli enobrivi erTeulis formireba an xelaxla formireba ... xdeba yoveli enobrivi erTeulis axlad dabadeba da ara mza saxiT mocemulis gamoyeneba~ (lebaniZe 1998:52). komunikaciis cnebis amgvari gagebis Sedegia koncentrireba adamianze, molaparake, metyvel subieqtze, agreTve, msmenel subieqtzec, rac aranakleb mniSvnelovania. yovelive es qmnis komunikaciis dinamikas, rac diskursis, rogorc komunikaciur sametyvelo aqtTa mimdevrobis, dinamikaze aisaxeba.* farTo sociokulturul konteqstSi enis Seswavla axali komunikaciuri Tvalsazrisis gaTvaliswinebasac gulisxmobs. enas eTnosociokulturul konteqstSi ori mecnieruli mimarTuleba ikvlevs: eTnofsiqolingvistika da lingvokulturologia.** pirveli fsiqolingvistikis ganStoebaa, romelic damoukidebel disci plinad Camoyalibebas cdilobs, xolo meore _ lingvokulturologia _ eTnofsiqolingvistikur kvlevaTa wiaRSi iSva. arc es mimarTuleba qceula jer calke mecnierul sferod da misTvis ,,disciplinis~ wodebas ufro deklaraciuli xasiaTi aqvs. aRniSnul mimarTulebebs saerTo zogadTeoriuli debulebebi udevT safuZvlad. erT-erTi postulati, romelsac isini eyrdnobian, sayovelTaod cnobili sepir-uorfis hipoTezaa enis fardobiTobis Sesaxeb. am hi poTezis arsebiTi debulebebi mokled SeiZleba ase gavixsenoT: ena ganapirobebs misi matareblis azrovnebis ti ps, samyaros aRqmis xerxi damokidebulia enaze, romliTac azrovneba xorcieldeba. aqedan gamomdinare, yoveli xalxis msoflxedvisa da msoflgagebis safuZvelia sagnobriv mniSvnelobaTa sakuTari sistema, socialuri stereoti pebi, kognitiuri sqemebi, es ki imas niSnavs, rom adamianis cnobiereba yovelTvis ganpirobebulia eTnikurad.
* sayuradRebod gveCveneba am TvalsazrisTan mimarTebiT m. mamardaSvilis msjeloba: ,,saidan gavigo, ras vfiqrob, Tu ar daviwye laparaki? am winadadebaSi, me axla rom avage, igulisxmeba, rom laparaki ar aris imis gamoTqma, rasac dalaparakebamde vfiqrobdi: TiTqos winaswar mqonda CemTvis azris raRac cxadi Sinaarsi da axla mxolod saSualebas, instruments veZeb am Sinaarsis gamosaxatavad da sxvisTvis gadasacemad. am SemTxevevaSi ena aseTi instrumenti iqneboda. ara! gageba imisa, rasac vfiqrob, me SemiZlia imiT, rom vlaparakob... es Tviseba enisa saxarebis bevr teqstSi ganisazRvreba rogorc enis Zala, an Rone (mamardaSvili 1992:79). ** jer kidev sosiuri werda: ,,enaTmecnierebas mWidro kavSiri aqvs sxva mecnierebebTan, romlebic mas xan daesesxebian, xanac piriqiT, miawvdian xolme masalas (sosiuri 2002:18).

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eTnosociokulturuli faqtori vlindeba, kerZod, azris Camoyalibebisa da formulirebis nacionalur-eTnikur TaviseburebebSi. am zogad debulebebSi ikveTeba enis (dedaenis) roli adamianis SemecnebiT moRvaweobaSi: cnobierebis struqturaTa Sesaxeb Cveni codna mxolod enis wyalobiTaa, rac nebismier bunebriv enaze am struqturaTa Sesaxeb laparakisa da maTi aRweris saSualebas iZleva (kubriakova 1997:21). ena komunikaciur sistemaTa Soris yvelaze Zlieri da daxvewilia, radgan igi ara marto informaciis, codnaTa da misT. miRebisa da gadacemis gamaSualebeli saSualebaa, aramed adamianSi gare samyarodan miRebuli informaciis gadamamuSavebelic, rac mexsierebaSi arsebul codnaTa simravlis mowesrigebisa da sistematizaciis unarSi vlindeba. ama Tu im eTnokulturuli koleqtivisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli samyaros enobrivi suraTis agebac enobriv codnaTa aRniSnuli mowesrigebisa da sistematizaciis specifikiT ganisazRvreba. amgvarad, kodisgan gansxvavebiT, bunebrivi ena, iseve rogorc kultura, eris koleqtiuri da cocxali mexsierebaa, romlis gareSe warmoudgenelia saerTo kulturisa da saerTo enis arseboba, rac TavisTavad ganapirobebs bunebrivi enis Seswavlis aucileblobas farTo sociokulturul konteqstSi. literatura kubriakova 1997: . . . . ., 1997. lebaniZe 1998: g. lebaniZe, anTropocentrizmi da komunikaciuri lingvistika, Tbilisi, 1998. lotmani 2004: . . . . -. 2004. mamardaSvili 1992: m. mamardaSvili, filosofiis safuZvlebi (leqciebis cikli), Tbilisi, 1992. osthofi, brugmani 1960: . , . . - // .. . XIX XX . . 1960. . 153-164. sosiuri 2002: ferdinand de sosiuri, zogadi enaTmecnierebis kursi (qarT. Targm.), Tbilisi, 2002. Ciqobava 1966: arn. Ciqobava, Tanamedrove enaTmecnierebis ganviTarebis gzebi // Tanamedrove zogadi da maTematikuri enaTmecnierebis sakiTxebi, I, Tb., 1966, gv. 170-189. Ciqobava 1983: arn. Ciqobava, zogadi enaTmecniereba, II, Tb., 1983, gv. 423.

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niSeni da naSani warmodgenilia, rogorc arqiteqturis semiotikis problematika da amave dros, rogorc enobrivi TamaSi _ erTi morfemis dekonstruqcia. arqiteqtura sivrcis diskursTan erTad sainteresos dikursia. interesi (inter esse) - yofna Soris _ ganxilulia, rogorc g/ axsnili (opoziciebs Soris) sazRvris paradigma; sazRvris moSla warmodgenilia, rogorc diskursuli praqtika, _ qarTuli enobrivi faqti; sivrcis problema ganxilulia Secvlili problemuri velis konteqstSi; momZlavrebuli saamSeneblo pragmatizmi aRniSnulia axali diskursiT _ nangrevis niSani. naSromSi SemoTavazebulia arqiteqturis fenomenis dekonstruqciarekonstruqciis problemis daZlevisa da misi metakulturis sivrceSi CarTvis ori mimarTuleba: metapoetika da semiotika. dasawyisSi SeiZleba ase vTqvaT (davweroT) - arqiteqtura sivrcis diskurss ganekuTvneba _ da davijeroT, rom am yaidis fraza, dRes - metakulturis epoqaSi, jer kidev (an: ukve) sinqronulad muSaobs; amasTanave ki ar vilaparakoT diskursze, aramed CaverToT diskursSi da vecadoT, rom drois kvalobaze g/avigoT (moviazroT, ganvicadoT da sistemurad warmovadginoT) sivrce, rogorc teqsti da teqsti, _ rogorc sivrce.

SoTa bostanaSvili: saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis arqiteqturis fakultetis sruli profesori; arqiteqturis saerTaSoriso akademiis profesori; poeti. ZiriTadi Sromebi: arqiteqturis poetika; Tbilisis ritualebis sasaxle; sazRvrebis konfliqti da urbanuli konfliqtis sazRvrebi; uridod da uderidod; protoposti, anu gavTend-i. interesTa sfero: filosofia, filologia, literatura. daviT bostanaSvili: arqiteqtori. stu-s arqiteqturis doqtoranti. ZiriTadi Sromebi: arqiteqtura da xelisufleba,arqiteqturis semiologia, casaxle interesTa sfero: kulturologia, lingvistika, literatura.

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danarCeni, rogorc ityvian, TavisiT d/alagdeba (Tavis adgils moZebnis da odesme gadaadgildeba arqivSi): is, rom Tavad arqiteqturuli nageboba, qalaqi _ zogadad naSeni _ sivrculi teqstia, romelsac Tavisi gramatika (poetika da semiotika) da Tavisi didi xnis istoria aqvs; rom yoveli istoria aseve teqstia _ niSanTa garkveuli kombinaciaa da mxolod am saxiTa gvaqvs Tvalwin, rogorc mudmivi awmyo; rom arqiteqturis istoria amave dros aris sivrcis istoria da, rac sainteresoa, arqiteqturis istoria aris Tavad sainteresos istoria. aRniSnuli terminebi: saintereso, sivrce, poetika, semiotika, ageba, niSani da naSeni arqiteqturis sazRvrebia. ganvixiloT es saxelebi amave TanmimdevrobiT.

sainteresos istoria sivrcis diskursTan erTad arqiteqtura sainteresos diskursia, rac Tavis mxriv ramdenime mimarTulebad* SeiZleba warmovadginoT: 1. kulturologiuri; 2. fsiqologiuri (sulieri); 3. fizikuri (TavSesafari); 4. ekonomikuri; 5. socialuri. arqiteqturis poetikas da semiotikas Tavad saintereso ainteresebs _ sainteresoobis fsiqologiuri aspeqti, arsi, fenomeni da definicia. saintereso aRmocendeba (amoifrqveva) nebismieri saxis teqstis (saerTod yofnis, rogorc teqstis) yvelaze ufro mokle monakveTebze, roca Tavad molodini jer kidev ar aris formirebuli [epSteini 2004:493]. saintereso (interesi _ inter esse) niSnavs yofna Soris, an/ da garkveul monakveTSi. SeiZleba asec vTqvaT: saintereso ibadeba binarizmis SuaSi _ opoziciebs Soris _ sazRvarze da davimowmoT cneba, rom kulturis yvelaze daZabuli da nayofieri sicocxle gadis misi calkeuli sferoebis sazRvrebze [baxtini 1979:329]. radgan sazRvari da saintereso identuri cnebebia, SeiZleba ase movniSnoT: sicocxle gadis sainteresoze. am cnebis perifrazi iqneba _ sicocxle ar gadis uinteresoze an/da _ uinteresoze sikvdili gadis. (samwuxarod, Cveni arqiteqturis didi nawili amis magaliTia).

aq, termini mimarTuleba jobia, vidre nawili, an raime sxva, radgan diskursi moZravi sityvaa polisemantikuri transformaciebiT.

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Jil deliozi da feliqs gvatari sainteresos mkveTrad upirispireben codnas da WeSmaritebas , rogorc moZvelebul epistemes. sxvani varaudoben, rom azrovnebis Semdgomi epoqa aRadgens interess WeSmaritebis mimarT, magram ukve sainteresos farglebSi _ misi, bevrad ufro farTe kategoriis SemadgenlobaSi [epSteini 2004:492]. Secvlili problemuri veli upirvelesad opoziciebs (polusebs) Soris sazRvris gauqmebiT aRiniSneba. sazRvris gauqmeba niSnavs akrZalvis (tabus) gauqmebas. akrZalva iwovs da amZafrebs interess, zrdis mis intensivobas. akrZalvis moxsna ki daukmayofilebeli interesis energias anTavisuflebs da afrqvevs. Sewova _ amofrqveva sainteresos umTavresi niSania, amitom mis simbolod miCneulia Rrubeli. saintereso, es aris TamaSi or poluss Soris, romlebsac erTi modaloba aqvT [epSteini 2004:487]. SeiZleba warmovadginoT am azris diskursuli praqtika. sintaqsi _ sazRvari iSleba (an/da saintereso iSleba) ori gansxvavebuli kodiT aris aRWurvili, ori wakiTxva aqvs (dekonstruqcia): 1. sazRvari (an/da saintereso) iSleba _ qreba, uCinardeba, ikargeba, imaleba, ifareba da a. S. 2. sazRvari (an/da saintereso) iSleba _ ixsneba, warmoCndeba, gvenaxeba, aqtiurdeba da a. S. am magaliTSi diseminaciis Sedegi ara mxolod gansxvavebebia, aramed sapirispiro da urTierTgamomricxav mniSvnelobaTa erTianoba. pirveli mwkrivi pasiuria, damamTavrebelia _ post (kulturis) niSania. meore mwkrivi aqtiuria, damwyebia _ proto (kulturis) niSania. am diskursul praqtikaSi aRmocenebuli proto-s da post-is _ SeuTavsebelTa SeTavsebis lingvisturi hibridi _ protopost-i gansazRvravs axal (Secvlil) problemur vels da Sesabamis refleqsiebs [bostanaSvili 2008]. sainteresos diskursi gadajaWvulia sivrcis diskursTan da vidre am jaWvis rgolebs SevexebiT, davasaxeloT sainteresos ltolvisa da Zalisxmevis sagani da mimarTuleba. sainteresos Tvali uWiravs iqiT, saiTac aris saidumlo _ akrZaluli dafaruli da damaluli . am semantikuri jgufis istoria ase iwyeba: ...da Suagul baRSi rom xe dgas, imis nayofs nu SeWamT, gviTxra RmerTma; ar gaekaroT, Torem mokvdebiT. [dab. 3 : 3]. ... Suagul baRSi rom xe dgas, ... _ inter esse-s, sainteresos paradigmaa, sakraluri toposis centria; xe _ msoflio xis da SvidsanTlovanas ( menora ) konceptia.

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.., imis nayofs nu SeWamT, ... ar gaekaroT, ... _ akrZalvis pirveli precedentia. (rac akrZalulia _ saidumloa). ... Torem mokvdebiT... _ pirveli saSiSi. semantiuri mwkrivi ase yalibdeba: saintereso _ saidumlo _ saSiSi. ... da daemalnen ufal RmerTs adami da Tavisi coli baRis xeTa Soris [dab. 3 : 8]. ... daemalnen _ swrafva samalavisken, dafarulisken, saidumlosken. ... baRis xeTa Soris _ pirveli samalavi _ yudro, privatuli toposis (sivrcis) koncepti, (agreTve inter esse-s paradigma). semantiur mwkrivs daemata yudro, rogorc toposi edemis baRSi (ebr. gan eden) _ sivrce sivrceSi. samoTxeSi Tavad adamianic saidumloa, miTumetes maSin, roca is damalulia baRis xeTa Soris. baRidan gamoZeveba _ samalavidan gamosvla sxva gamosvlaTa paradigmaa; samalavis gareT ki Cndeba sakraluri sivrcis opozicia _ profanuli sivrce. sivrcis genezisi, misi struqtura ase yalibdeba: sakraluri sivrce _ baRi edemSi (profanuli sivrce _ baRis gareT) sakraluri dro _ meSvide dRe sakraluri sivrcis centri _ xe Suagul baRSi akrZaluli obieqti (tabu) _ xis nayofi semantikuri mwkrivi ase moiniSneba: saintereso _ saidumlo (akrZaluli, damaluli, dafaruli...) _ saSiSi _ yudro. ase gadadis sainteresos diskursi sivrcis diskursSi. rac ufro didia saidumlo, miT ufro didia interesis intensivoba, _ miT ufro mniSvnelovania sivrce. sivrcisa da sainteresos Soris mainc ar aris mxolod mizez-Sedegobrivi, ierarqiuli urTierTmimarTeba. xazgasmiT unda avRniSnoT, rom saintereso sainteresoa sainteresoobis gamo . gamoTqma _ ra saitereso arqiteqturaa! _ pirvel rigSi swored aseT uangaro sainteresos gulisxmobs da ara analizis Sedegs, manifestacias sivrcis funqcionalur-teqnologiur, socialurekonomikur, an sxva problemebTan mimarTebaSi, (romlebsac ra Tqma unda Tavisi adgili da mniSvneloba aqvT). cxadze cxadia, Tu nawarmoebi (movlena) saintereso ar aris, mas ara aqvs motivacia ganxilvisaTvis.

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kulturis sxva sferoTa Soris (da maTTan erTad), arqiteqturam udidesi wvlili Seitana sainteresos, rogorc fenomenis da terminis avtoritetis CamoyalibebaSi. menhirebi, dolmenebi, kromlexebi da piramidebi; aqvedukebi da xidebi; taZrebi, sasaxleebi da caTambrjenebi, upirveles yovlisa, swored sainteresos sazRvrebs avseben da afarToeben; adamianSi CaTesili gaocebisa da aRtacebis Zalebis gamowvevas pasuxoben; nergaven rwmenas dedamiwaze adamianis arsebobis didebulebisa (e. saarineni), rom sicocxle sainteresoze gadis. sivrcis istoria sivrce - reg _ xazis gasma, gaWra, Semoxazva (regiones) warmoiSva indoevropulidan [miTebi 1988:340]. am mxriv sainteresoa qarTuli gayofa _ ga/yof(n)a (ganwvalva, gavToma). sivrce, rogorc termini (laT. terminus sazRvari) xSirad Caenacvleba sxva terminebs: samyaro, kosmosi usazRvroeba. is erTis mxriv, Tavis sazRvrebSi moicavs samyaros usazRvroebas fizikur da metafizikur saganTa da movlenaTa usasrulo ierarqiul wyobas, xolo meores mxriv Tavad aris moculi sagnebiT da dayofili sagnebSi (niJara, saxli, ...). da/yofili sivrce, sivrcis yof(n)is gansxvavebul saxeebs gan/agebs da gansazRvravs sivrcis mravlobiTi ricxvis saxels sivrceebi. (profanuli, sakraluri, mentaluri da sxva). arqiteqtura, sivrceebis simravleTa da saxeobaTa Soris, im erT-erTi gansakuTrebuli fenomenis saxelia, romlis prerogativa swored kulturuli sivrcis g/agebaa, sivrcis codna da mowyoba, misi saxismetyvelebaa. kulturis istoriis sxvadasxva etapze adamians gansxvavebuli warmodgenebi hqonda sivrceze _ samyaros mowyobaze. ase iqmnebodnen samyaros modelebi, samyaros suraTebi _ teqstebi samyaros Sesaxeb, miTebi da legendebi. miTSi dafaruli gzebi (rasac qvemoT gavadevnebT Tvals) daukiTxavad cxaddebian kulturis yvela sferoSi da ra Tqma unda materialur kulturaSi. arqiteqturaSi es gaxlavT: gza, zRurbli, kari, kibe, xidi, fanjara. sxva saqmea maTze refleqsireba, _ saganTa qmnadobis da Sefasebis procesis konceptualizacia. swored aseTi konceptualizacia gaxlavT arqiteqturis (poetikis da semiotikis) saqme, romlis prerogativaa naSeni moiazros, rogorc niSani _ samyaros modelis Semadgeneli nawili.

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garkveuli azriT sivrce gzis paradigmaa. (momTabare xalxi, monadire, moxetiale raindi, mogzauri raime sivrces gadian). sivrcegzas upirispirdeba statikuri, anu radialuri sivrce, romelic warmogvidgeba, rogorc sakraluridan radialurad gamomavali koncentruli talRebi. am aRniSvnaTa sistemuri erTianoba qmnis samyaros models. samyaros modeli ganisazRvreba rogorc mocemuli tradiciis SigniT arsebul warmodgenaTa mTeli jamis ganzogadoebuli da sqematuri anarekli. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT samyaros modeli yalibdeba samyaros moxelTebiT, misi moqceviT niSnuri sistemis badeSi . ufro sxartad ki asec SeiZleba iTqvas: samyaro modelirdeba semiotikis sivrceSi. samyaros miTo-poeturi, igive kosmologiuri modeli im epoqas ganasaxierebs, romlis Sesaxebac SeiZleba vilaparakoT, rogorc erTianze, sinkretulze _ daunawevrebelze da stabilurze, sadac miTologia gulisxmobs ara mxolod miTebsa da legendebs gancalkevebulad, aramed azrovnebis sistemas, mis gansakuTrebul ti ps. kosmologiuri teqstebi emyareba sami ti pis sqemas: 1. sakuTriv kosmologiuri sqemebi, romlebic muSaoben qaosis aTvisebaze _ afiqsireben sakralur dReebs da adgilebs. 2. sqemebi, romlebic aRweren naTesaobiT da qorwinebiT kavSirebs, agrZeleben da amravleben sakraluris mmarTvel Zalebs. 3. miTo-istoriuli tradiciebis sqemebi, romlebic orientirebulni arian sakraluris mTlianobis da erTianobis statusis dacvaze. sakraluris erTianoba samyaros yvela modelis mTavari RerZi da safuZvelia. idealuri SemTxvevaa, rodesac sxvadasxva sagnebsa da movlenebs, aseve maT nawilebs, erTi warmoSoba aqvT, erTi centri da semantikuri niSnebis ierarqiaSi arian CarTulni. aseTi mmarTveloba qmnis sakralur toposs, romelTan mimarTebaSic danarCeni, yofiTi sivrce _ profanuli toposia. ase g/a/igeba semantiuri sivrce da ase iwyeba sivrcis semantikuri damkvidreba (gasacxovriseba). sakraluri toposis centrs aRniSnavs sakurTxeveli da taZari. misi simboloebia msoflio xe an/da msoflio mTa; zog SemTxvevaSi orive erTad _ xe mTaze an xe mTasTan. aseTi aRniSvna warmoadgens msoflio Wi ps. msoflio xe da msoflio mTa samyaros miTo-poeturi modelis yvelaze gavrcelebul simboloebia.

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sakraluri sivrce marTavs profanul sivrces da es mmarTveloba xorcieldeba gzis saSualebiT. am kavSiris simboloa agreTve mdinare. ase ibadeba gzis miTologema, romlis xuroTmoZRvruli saxeebiT dafarulia yofiTi toposi. Tavis mxriv damfaravi gza Tavad aris dafaruli. (horizontaluri gza dafarulia zRaprebSi, vertikaluri miTSi). zRapris gmiri gadaadgildeba sakraluridan profanulisken, an profanulidan arasivrcisaken (qaosisaken, uaryofiTi da saSiSi adgilisaken); gadalaxavs sazRvars. zRapris gmiri imarjvebs da es gamarjveba aris sivrcis aTviseba (qaosis mowesrigebis paradigma). SiSvel geografiul garemoSi aRmocenebuli nebismieri naSeni (miTumetes sakulto), sivrcis aTvisebis, an dauflebis analogiuri niSania. miTo-poeturi epoqis bolo etapze Cans analitikuri azrovnebis Canasaxic. am etapze mniSvnelovania, ara imdenad esTetika, an poeturi sityva, aramed gazomva aRniSnavs v. toporovi [miTebi 1988:341]. sivrce samyaros arqaul modelSi gansulierebulia. rac mTavaria aq sivrce ar aris Tavdapirveli, _ winmswrebi, romelSic Semdeg sagnebi iqmnebian da avseben mas, aramed piriqiT _ arqauli sivrce sagnebiT modelirdeba. arqauli sivrce sagnobrivia . sivrcis ararseboba saganTa gareSe _ arasivrce [miTebi 1988:220] _ usivrcoba qaosia. sivrce iwyeba opoziciis gaCenasTan erTad: naTeli _ bneli, sivrce _ usivrcoba, ... sainteresoa imis gaxseneba, rom XX saukunis didi amerikeli arqiteqtori luis kani ase aRniSnavs parTenonis poetikas, _ svetebisa da interkoloniumebis monacvleobas: sinaTle _ ar aris sinaTle _ sinaTle _ ar aris sinaTle... am mwkrivis analogiebi, an perifrazebi usasrulo semantikur mwkrivebs warmoSoben: sivrce _ ar aris sivrce _ sivrce _ ar aris sivrce... (igive SeiZleba iTqvas, stounhenjiT dawyebuli, sxva mraval naSenze). es, erTi SexedviT martivi da ubralo mwkrivebi faqtobrivad mTeli kulturis genetikuri kodebis (arqeti pebis) da simboloebis wiaRia. am CanarTis did Tematikas aq aRar gavyvebiT da mxolod mTavars avRniSnavT: pirvelyofili, arqauli cnobierebisaTvis sivrce aris aq da axla (am aRniSvnas poststruqturalizmis sivrcis analizis dros gamoviyenebT).

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aq da axla miTis niSania da luis kanis SeniSvnis gaxsenebiT gvinda movigonoT (an: ga/mo/vi/gonoT) miTis dabrunebis poetika, romelic gasuli saukunis 60-iani wlebidan Semodis kulturis yvela sferoSi. kidev erTi diskursuli praqtika: ga/mo/vi/gonoT _ SevTxzaT, gavixsenoT, movisminoT, movigonoT, gaviazroT. samyaros bibliuri modeli ebrauli miTologiidan da uZvelesi droidan iRebs saTaves. ebrauli ena sivrces moiazrebs da gamoxatavs ara mxolod drosTan erTad, aramed erTdroulad da erTniSnad _ olam, rac ar gaxlavT qronotopis msgavsi lingvisturi hibridi. olam - terminia, magram drosa da sivrces Soris gamyofi sazRvris da mcvelis gareSe. samyaros bibliuri modeli, amave dros zogad kulturologiuri modelia, romelic gacxadda sityvad bgerad, ferad da formad. is mTlianad emTxveva Cvens mier sainteresos diskursSi moniSnul sivrcis semantikas, im arsebiTi gansxvavebiT, rom sivrcis models _ aq da axla _ gansazRvraven iq da mere da iq da maSin _ imedisa da xsovnis metaforebi. aq davjerdebiT zedmetad Semoklebul eqskurss bibliis samyaroSi, radgan Cveni ZiriTadi Temis kvalobaze movixmobT im pasaJebs, romlebsac pirdapiri kavSiri eqnebaT miTologemebTan da sivrcis poetikasTan. samyaros filosofiuri modeli tradiciuliad ori saxiT warmosdgeba: erT SemTxvevaSi dro da sivrce moiazreba, rogorc materiis moZraobis forma (demokrite, aristotele, _ marqsi) _ materialisturi (laT. materialis nivTieri) modeli. meore SemTxvevaSi droze da sivrceze warmodgena efuZneba azris primats, rom samyaros pirvelsawyisi sulia (cnobiereba, goni) _ idealisturi modeli (platoni _ hegeli). kantis filosofia am sapirispiro SexedulebaTa SeTavsebas warmoadgens. gamoricxavs ra gnoseologiur da ontologiuri problemebis primats, egszistencializmis (laT. existentia _ arseboba) yuradReba koncentrirdeba Tavad adamianze (iaspersi, m. haidegeri da sxv.), mis Sinagan moZraobaze. adamiani aris is, vinc svams problemas, adgens misi gadaWris meTodebs da akeTebs daskvnebs; amdenad adamianSi, mis egzistenciaSi unda veZeboT problema da ara mis gareT arsebul sivrceSi. sivrce daikarga.

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sivrcis problemam da samyaros modelma Tavad adamianSi gadainacvla, amitom egzistencializms mesame xazsac uwodeben filosofiaSi. egzistencializmis samyaro rogorc nebeloba da warmosaxva (a. Sopenhaueri) ucxo da saSiSia da gamosavalic ar arsebobs. ase Cndeba absurdis sivrce (kafka, kamiu, sartri, ...), romelic dakargul sivrces Caenacvla. egzistencialuri gaucxoeba mniSvnelovnad ganapiroba meore msoflio omis Sedegad dangreulma sivrcem . mitovebulobis, miusafarobis da martosulobis gancdam didxans ver gaZlo adamianSi, verc axladaRmoCenil mis aracnobierSi da ufro metad gazarda da gaamZafra TavSesafaris Ziebis energia. TavSesafari teqstSi aRmoCnda... sivrcis istoriis dasasruli TavSesafari isev sityvaSi aRmoCnda _ Zvelis-Zvel da TiTqmis daviwyebul sivrceSi, romelic d/alagda, Camoexsna metafizikis aRkazmulobani da teqstad gadakeTda. sityvis dekonstruqciaadaptaciaze sityvas aRar gavagrZelebT da Tavad poststruqturalizmis avtoritetebs davimowmebT: teqstis gareT araferia (J. derida). ase damTavdra samyaros modelebis istoriac (da saerTod istoria), romlis refleqsiis sagani mudam mis gareT iyo _ an sivrcis modelebSi (xe, mTa), an modelebis sivrceSi (naSeni _ arqiteqtura). egzistencializmis absurdis sivrces poststruqturalizmis teqstis sivrce Caenacvla, romelic Tavisive Tavze axdens refleqsias (metateqsti), Tavis gramatologiur wesrigs emorCileba da ara filosofiur, an gravitaciul kanonebs. egzistenciuri mzeris velSi (gnebavT badeSi) moqceuli adamiani humanitarul mecnierebaTa mTavar xarvezad gadaiqca (m. fuko). filosofias ki, romelic arqivs Cabarda, diskursi Caenacvla; nawarmoebs _ teqsti da avtoris sikvdili (arqiteqturaSi naSenis teqsti , an/da urbanuli teqsti ). istoriis dasasruli niSnavs cnobierbis im ti pis dasasruls, romlis simbolo iyo xe. axali, Secvlili epistemes _ problemuri velis simbolo gaxda rizoma _ juja mcenare, romlis fesvi da yvavili erTmaneTisagan ar gansxvavdebian. gzis miTologemas Caenacvla labirinTi. yvela filosofiuri sistemis, Tavisi sawyisidan XX s.-is 60iani wlebis bolomde, miuxedavad maT Soris struqturuli

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gansxvavebisa, struqturaluroba amsgavsebda erTmaneTs. poststruqturalisturi eqsplikacia (saxelebi) swored struqturis dauswrebloaze metyvelebs. sivrcis problematikis da saerTod problemuri velis aseTi mkveTri da radikaluri transformacia (1960-iani wlebidan rom modis) isev diskursuli praqtikiT warmovadginoT: samyaros modeli an/da sivrcis modeli dekonstruqciis Sedegad SeiZleba asec Caiweros _ sivrcis medali (niSani, tvifri). aqve gavixsenoT, rom poststruqturalizmis mTavari Teza: dro gaCerda (sivrcis arqauli modelSi aq da axla-s formaluri analogi), dro sivrcul tvifrad gadaiqca (f. jeimsoni) exmianeba sivrcis niSnurobas, sivrce _ medali . es opusi yvelaferTan erTad semiotikis sainteresoobaze, mis artistobaze miuTiTebs. kidev erTi lingvisturi opusi: miTo-poeturi da filosofiuri sivrce warmodgeba teqst/iT. diskursis sivrce warmosdgeba teqst/ad. teqst_iT wyvets moqmedebas da kargavs moqmedebiT brunvis niSans. teqst_ad qmnis axal viTarebas da iZens viTarebiTi brunvis niSans. sintaqsi _ sivrce aris teqst/i aRadgens saxels da saxelobiT brunvas. zogadad ki, saxelis aRdgena, logosis aRdgena _ dabruneba (misi, an masSi) yvela sxva dabrunebaTa paradigmaturi wiaRia (saxlSi dabruneba, pirvelsaxeSi dabruneba, mudmivi dabruneba), romlis erTianoba warmosdgeba samwevrad: saxe, saxli da saxeli. am samwevrSi saxli, rogorc koncepti, aRniSnavs arqiteqturis adgils faseulobaTa ierarqiis saTaveSi. arqiteqturis uzomo racionalizacia (pragmatizmi), niSnavs sasicocxlo wiaRis ngrevas da ganadgurebas; verdabrunebas, uZraobas da sikvdils. nangrevis niSani momZlavrebuli saamSeneblo pragmatizmis pirobebSi arqiteqtura servisis da komerciis sagani gaxda. Tu metaforaTa Zalisxmevas droebiT davabrunebT, asec SeiZleboda gveTqva: arqiteqtura _ xelovnebis deda _ namdvili dedinacvali gaxda. is gadaiqca im saqmianobad, romlis mamoZravebeli Zala mxolod da mxolod biznesinteresebi da sasargeblo farTebis gamravlebaa. arqiteqtura ki yovelTvis kulturis sivrceSi poulobs sakuTar

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Tavs da kulturologiuri paradigmis gareSe mxolod funqcionalur TavSesafars warmoadgens. martod darCenili ekonomikuri Zala da mSeneblobis logika verasdros qmnian metyvel sivrces, mniSvnelovan faseulobebs. rodesac naSeni uniSnoa, (arakomunikabeluri, usaxo) is kulturis sivrcidan gadis. ase Cndeba nangrevis niSani. nangrevis poetika, rogorc sainteresos istoriis gansakuTrebuli nawili, calke gansjis da diskursis sagania. kulturologiuri ganzomilebis gareSe ukve arqiteqturasTan ki ara, aramed zedroiT struqturebTan gvaqvs saqme (futkris ska, Citis bude, termitebis koloniebis mier Semnili struqturebi). swored kulturis mier Seqmnili cvalebadi situaciebi qmnian stilebis Tu mimarTulebebis cvalebadobas; es cvalebadoba ganapirobebs qalqebis warmoqmnas, ngrevas, ganaxlebas, mutaciebs socialuri konvenciebis safuZvelze. kulturis yvela movlena simboloebiTa da niSanTa sistemiT aris mocemuli: simboloebi warmarTaven kulturas (klod levistrosi). nangrevi erT-erTi aseTi simboloa, igi i/naxavs wesrigs. metaarqiteqturuli refleqsiebi aris is aucilebeli damateba _ samecniero da SemoqmedebiTi komponenti, rac arqiteqturas CarTavs Secvlil problemur velSi _ metakulturis sivrceSi da moawesrigebs. arqiteqturis kulturologiuri rekonstruqcia (sazogadod sivrcis rekonstruqcia) erTdroulad ori mimarTulebiT SeiZleba warimarTos: 1. arqiteqturis poetika (Cangreuli poetikis* rekonstruqcia) _ metapoetika ; 2. arqiteqturis semiotika. orive mimarTulebas aqvs rogorc gansakuTrebuli da xelaxla ganxvavebuli, aseve Semxvedri da saerTo problematika. literatura biblia 1996: biblia, saqarTvelos sapatriarqo, Tbilisi, 1996. enciklopedia 1985: qarTuli enciklopedia, Tbilisi, 1975 - 1985. baxtini 1979: baxtini m. , Mmoskovi, 1979. miTebi 1988: , moskovi, 1988. epSteini 2004: epSteini m. . moskovi. 2004. bostanaSvili 2008: bostanaSvili S, protoposti, anu gavTend-i, Jurn. sjani 8. 2008.

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bibliuri teqstis karl iaspersiseuli gagebisaTvis


cnobil filosofossa da fsiqologs, karl iasperss leqciaTa ciklSi Setanili aqvs Tavi saTauriT: bibliuri religiis dasacavad. avtori iwyebs imis aRniSvniT, rom racionaluri midgomisas bibliaSi Tavs iCens ukiduresi winaaRmdegobani: biblia, erTis mxriv, kultis religiaa, magram winaswarmetyvelni mgznebare sityviT gamodian kultis winaaRmdeg; bibliaSi gvaqvs kanonis religiis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi, magram ieremia ilaSqrebs dawerili kanonis winaaRmdeg saerTod _ RvTis kanoni ars ara daweril sityvaSi, aramed morwmunis gulSi; bibliis ufali rCeuli xalxis ufalia, magram xalxebs Tanaswori Rirseba aqvT, iahve israelis RmerTicaa da yvela xalxisac, erTsa da imave dros; ieso RmerTia, magram amas ewinaaRmdegeba misive sityva: ratom miwodeb me keTils? aravin aris keTili, garda erTi RmerTisa. (markozi 10,18); bibliaSi gvxvdeba TviT rwmenis mkveTrad sapirispiro azrebi da ganwyobilebani: demonologiis urwmunoba, adamianTa gaRmerTeba, nihilizmi (es ukanaskneli _ eklesiastes wignSi).

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, Tbilisis ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asistentprofesori; savle wereTlis filosofiis institutis TanamSromeli. ZiriTadi Sromebi: `erovnuli kulturis Rirebulebebis ori aspeqti~, `ekologiuri problema da enaTa monacemebi~, `samyaroSi yofna xedvis erTi kuTxiT ganxilvisas~, `samyaro da misi scientisturi modeli~ da sxva. interesTa sfero: filosofia, sociologia, xelovneba, enaTmecniereba.

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aseT winaaRmdegobebze miTiTebis Semdeg iaspersi daaskvnis: ... bibliaSi, Tu mas mTlianobaSi ganvixilavT, yvelaferi polarul dapirispirebaSi arsebobs ... sityviT gamoTqmul yovel ideas moeZebneba sawinaaRmdego Sinaarsis gamonaTqvami[3,gv.467]. rogorc iaspersis mier motanili argumentebidan Cans, bibliis racionaluri, logikuri gageba SeuZlebelia. daismis kiTxva: arsebobs Tu ara bibliis wakiTxvis iseTi gza an xerxi, romelic mas azrian mTlianobad warmoadgens, ra SeunarCunebs gonebis TvalSi Sinagan simwyobresa da mniSvnelobas am racionalurad gaugebar teqsts? iaspersi cdilobs upasuxos am kiTxvas. misi pasuxis SinaarsSi garkvevisTvis cota metis Tqmaa saWiro bibliuri teqstis dasaxasiaTeblad, misi specifikis gamosakveTad. bibliisTvis niSandobliv Sinagan winaaRmdegobriobas iaspersi dadebiTad afasebs, roca wers: bibliis am polarobaTa Sedegi aRmoCnda is, rom yvela partias da Semdgomi istoriis sxvadasxva tendenciis gamtarebels SeeZlo bibliis damowmeba. iq mkafiod ganviTarebuli polarobani mudmivad gvibrundebian _ ebrauli Teokratia qristianul eklesiaSi, winaswarmetyvelTa Tavisufleba mistikosebTan da reformatorebTan, rCeuli xalxis idea mraval qristian erSi (agreTve seqtebsa da saZmoebSi), romelic Tavs gamorCeulad Tvlis. gamudmebiT xdeba aRdgena, fiqsirebulTan dapirispireba, cocxali qmna bibliuri religiis safuZvelze. TiTqos dasavleTs bedad rgebodes Tavisi wminda wignis uryevi avtoritetis gamo, xelT hqondes cxovrebis yovelgvari winaaRmdegobis winaswari monaxazi da amis wyalobiT gaTavisuflebuliyos nebismieri SesaZleblobisaTvis, xel-fexi gaxsnodes mudmivi brZolisaTvis adamianis asamaRleblad [3,gv.468]. amrigad: iaspersis mixedviT, bibliis Sinagani winaaRmdegobrioba saazrovno Tavisuflebas aniWebs misiT dakavebul gonebas da dasavleTSi arasdros ganelebula azrTa Widili, ideebis moZraoba wminda werilis axleburad gagebis mizniT. magram mxolod amaze miTiTeba ar kmara bibliis irgvliv ganviTarebuli goniTi procesebis Sinaarsis gasaTvaliswineblad. iaspersi gvTavazobs am mxriv saintereso Semdeg daxasiaTebas wminda werilisa: bibliaSi ver vxvdebiT _ Zlivs SesamCnev CanasaxTa garda _ filosofiur TviTcnobierebas. azrovnebiT aq araferi mowmdeba; daSvebulia mudmivi gadaxrebi urTierTsapirispiro mimarTulebebiT, magram am, ase vTqvaT, logikuri mowesrigebulobis ararsebobis gamo bibliaSi gvaqvs metyveli eqsistenciis mkafio da Zlieri

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gamovlineba; biblia _ esaa sazRvriT situaciaTa aTaswlovani adamianuri gamocdilebis sacavi [3,gv.469]. gavixsenoT: sazRvriTi situacia aris viTareba, romlidanac SeuZlebelia gamosvla radikaluri da Seuqcevadi cvlilebis gancdis gareSe. sazRvriT situaciaSi Zireul cvlilebas ganicdis masSi moxvedrili individi Tu pirovneba, amitom sazRvriTi situacia mudam yvelaze pirdapir da uSeRavaTod mexeba me mTlianad da masxvaferebs meve erTian, anu mis mimarT SeuZlebelia viyo gulgrili. sazRvriTi situaciis magaliTad SeiZleba davasaxeloT viTareba, roca romelime Tavgadasavali mTlianad micvlis msoflgancdas, amis bibliur nimuSad gamodgeba saulis qceva pavled, magram ufro mkafio da Zlieri magaliTi sazRvriT situaciaSi yofnisa aris dabadeba da _ masze ufro metadac _ sikvdili, radgan sikvdilis piras mdgomni vgrZnobT CvenSi mimdinare sxeulebriv kolafsebs, Cangrevebsda cnobieradac naTlad vxedavT gardauvali cvlilebis udides siRrmes. iaspersi laparakobs bibliis ucvlel WeSmaritebaze, romelic rogorc wesi, ifareba da kvlav povnas saWiroebs. amasTan avtori arafers gveubneba imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra Sinaarsis winadadebiT (an winadadebebiT) SeiZleba gamoixatos es WeSmariteba, ra teqstiT SeiZleba misi gamoTqma. amitom unda iTqvas, rom Cven erTgvarad Tavisufali interpretaciis ufleba miveciT Tavs, roca biblia ZiriTadad sazRvriT situaciebze mosaubre teqstad davsaxeT; magram aseTi TviTnebobis safuZvels namdvild qmnis Tavad iaspersis naSromi; magaliTad, misi amgvari gamonaTqvami: ... racionalur kritikas ar Seswevs Zala am WeSmaritebis wvdomisa. adamiani movalea TviTon aRmoaCinos TavisTvis WeSmariteba, anu Tavis sakuTari bedisa da tradiciis Sesabamisad aiTvisos igi [3,gv.474-475]. iaspersis am ukanaskneli azris gageba Zneli ar aris imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom sazRvriTs situaciaSi saqme mexeba sakuTriv me, am situaciaSi moxvedrils da ara adamians saerTod. am situaciaSi aras margebs mecniereba misTvis Cveulebrivi ganzogadebebiT. is, Tu ras niSnavs Cemi sikvdili, SemiZlia gavigo mxolod me TviTon Cemi nacxovrebis mTlianad gaTvaliswinebiT. sxvas Cemi cxovreba aseTi sisruliT arasdros eZleva, amisTvis xom Signidan xedvaa aucilebeli, rac mxolod me SemiZlia?! amdenad da am azriT zemoT iaspersis mier sakuTari bedis xseneba savsebiT gasagebia. magram ras niSnavs iqve avtoris is naTqvami, rom WeSmaritebis aRmosaCenad me mas Cems tradiciis Sesabamisad unda vwvde?

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am kiTxvis dasmiT iaspersis mier sakmao gulmodginebiT ganxilul sxva Temas SevexeT. saqme isaa, rom eqsistenci sazRvriTs situaciaSic, _ vTqvaT sikvdilis piras, _ dgas ara rogorc mxolod sasicocxlo Zalamilevadi tani, aramed rogorc konkretul kulturul tradiciaSi Canergili, mniSvnelovan wilad am tradiciisagan gaformebuli cnobiereba. sikvdilis Semdgom sulis ukvdavebis morwmune adamianisTvis sicocxlis Sewyveta sxvagvarad ganicdeba, mas sxva mniSvneloba aqvs, vidre aTeistisTvis, visac amqveyniuri arsebobis miRma yofnis gangrZobis aranairi SesaZleblobisa ar sjera. roca iaspersi wers, rom adamianma WeSmariteba TavisTvis TviTon unda aRmoaCinos, Tavisi tradiciis Sesabamisad, aq cnobierebis swored amgvari kulturuli determinirebulobaa sagulisxmebeli. qmediT tradiciasTan cnobierebis kavSiris Temis wamoweviT iaspersi adamianis Yyofnis istoriulobas gaxazavs. avtori Tvlis, rom istoriul, anu kulturul epoqaTa mixedviT cvladia yoveli Sinaarsiani teqstis gageba. kulturul-istoriul epoqaTa mixedviT icvleba cxovrebis realuri pirobebic. es cvlilebebi gansakuTrebuli siRrmiT xasiaTdeba Cvens droSi da am siRrmes unda Seesabamebodes religiur warmodgenaTa damajereblobis Tanamedrove gagebac. iaspersis azriT, cvlilebebia Sesatani bibliuri religiis calkeuli dogmebis gagebaSi; zogi maTgani saerTod ukusagdebia Cvens drosTan ukve Seusabamobis gamo. avtori wers: uari unda vTqvaT erovnul religiaze im saxiT, rogoric iyo igi bibliuri religiis adreul stadiaSi, rogorc iahves israelis religia da rogoradac is ganmeorda, pirvel yovlisa, protestantul, kerZod, kalvinistur mimarTulebebSi, romlebic Tavis qristianobaSi ufro Zveli aRTqmis calkeul nawilebs eyrdnoboda, vidre mas mTlianad da axal aRTqmas[3,gv.470]. uarsayofia qristes is religia, romelic iesoSi RmerTs xedavs da imarjvebs ra iesos msxverplad misvlis ideas,... masTan akavSirebs xsnas ... qriste CemSi araa dakavSirebuli sakuTriv da mxolod im odesRac mcxovreb ieso qristesTan da ieso rogorc qriste, rogorc RmerTkaci _ miTia[3,gv.470-471]. ufro vrclad aRar Sevexebi bibliis teqstis calkeuli nawilebis iaspersis mier SemoTavazebul gagebas. Cemi mizania imis garkveva, Tu ra xasiaTis, ra ti pis teqstia biblia saerTod, rogor unda mivudgeT mas ise, rom wminda werilSi erTian Sinaarseul simwyobres mouklebeli mTeli davinaxoT. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebul erT mniSvnelovan moments zemoT iq Sevexe, sadac iTqva, rom bibliis

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mTavar TemaTagania adamianis yofna sazRvriTs situaciaSi. am TemasTan dakavSirebiT iaspersis teqstSi gvxvdeba aseTi adgilebi: bibliaSi Cven vxedavT adamians misi daRupvis ZiriTad saxeobebSi. magram ise, rom swored daRupvaSi ganexvneba (ecxadebal.d.) mas yofna da Sedgomis SesaZlebloba. [3,gv.469]. bibliis wignebSi SeiZleba gamovavlinoT daZabulobis igive ZiriTadi saxeebi, romelTac dRemde moZraobaSi Semoinaxes dasavleTi; RmerTi da samyaro, eklesia da saxelmwifo, religia da filosofia, kanonis religia da religia winaswarmeyvelTa, kulti da eTosi. amitom ucvlel-igiveobriv WeSmaritebas SeiZleba mivwvdeT mxolod saxeze myofobis gadauWrel problemaTa mimarT RiaobiT da yoveli realizebuli movlenisadmi eWviT ise, rom mudmiv vxedavdeT sazRvriTs: daRupvas[3,gv.471]. Tavi rom movuyaroT bibliuri teqstis Sesaxeb aqamde naTqvams, aseTi Sinaarsisa gamogviva saTqmeli: biblias Temad aqvs RmerTi, samyaro da adamianis yofna samyaroSi, metadre mis yvelaze sagulisxmo, krizisul momentebSi _ sazRvriTs situaciebSi. RmerTze, samyarosa da masSi sazRvriTs situaciebSi myof adamianze biblia Taviseburi, xatovani da ara logikuri (cneburi), eniT laparakobs. bibliis ena xatovani eqspresiuli saSualebebiT migvaniSnebs gamosaxat Sinaarsebze, es aZlevs nicSes imis safuZvels, rom ieso qristes didi simbolisti uwodos [2,gv.659]. bibliis enis xatovan-simboluri xasiaTi SesaZlebels xdis wmnda werilis teqstSi iseTi nawilebis Tanaarsebobas, romelTac ufro logikuri enobriv-gamomsaxvelobiTi strategia ver iguebda; amitomaa, rom magaliTad: wigni ezekielisa, romelsac iaspersi Sizofrenikad Tvlis, bibliur teqsturaSi uproblemod zis da fsiqologis TqmiT, odesme msoflio-istoriuli zemoqmedebis Zalac ki SeiZleba aRmoaCndes[3,gv.469]. amrigad: biblia is teqstia, romelic sazRvriTs situaciebze laparakobs xatovan-simboluri eniT. mas Tematuri da enobrivgamomsaxveli profiliT saqme aqvs esTetikur cnobierebasTan, romelsac azrovnebis Taviseburi, iracionaluri logika gaaCnia. aseTi xedva gasagebsa xdis im faqts, rom miuxedavad misTvis damaxasiaTebeli Sinagani winaaRmdegobriobisa, logikuri Seusabamobebisa, biblia erTgvar Sinagan simwyobres mouklebel teqstad rCeba, romelsac filosofiur sakiTxebze fiqris waxaliseba SeuZlia.

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aq mokled unda SevexoT sakiTxs, Tu ris safuZvelze SeiZleba Tvlides iaspersi ezekiels suliT avadmyofad. ezekielis wignis mixedviT, iahve despoturi bunebis umaRles xelisufals hgavs, romlis erTaderTi mizani wesrigis damrRvevi israelis samagaliTod dasja da maTTvis sakuTari saSineli Zalis demonstrirebaa. Znelia RmerTis saxelis Rirsad vcnoT iahve qvemore dialogSic ezekielTan; xolo ezekieli _ vis xilvaSic Cans iahve amgvarad _ sulier sisaRes armoklebul vinmed: _ me dagadeb Sen borkilebs da ver gadatrialdebi erTi gverdidan meore gverdze Seni alyis dReebis dasrulebamde. Sen ki, aiRe SenTvis xorbali da qeri, cercvi da ospi, fetvi da asli da Cayare erT WurWelSi da gaikeTe isini Sen purad. im dReTa ricxvis mixedviT, ramdensac iwvebi Sens gverdze, samas oTxmocdaaT dRes, Wame igi. saWmeli, romelsac Sen SeWam, woniT oc Sekels dReSi, Jamidan Jamze Wame. da wyali wyviT svi, meeqvsedi hini, Jamidan Jamze svi. da qeris kverad Wame igi da adamianis ganavalSi gamoacxve maT Tvalwin. da Tqva ufalma: ase SeWamen israelis Zeni TavianT uwmindur purs im xalxebSi, romlebTanac ganvdevni maT. da vTqvi: oh, ufalo, RmerTo! aha, Cemi suli ar Sebilwula da mZori da namxecevi ar miWamia Cemi siWabukidan dRemde da Cems pirSi ar Casula binZuri xorci. da man miTxra: naxe! me mogeci Sen Zroxis skore adamianis ganavalis nacvlad da maTze moamzade Seni puri. da kidev miTxra: Zeo kacisav! aha, me davlewav puris argans ierusalimSi da isini SeWamen purs woniT da dardiT, da wyals wyviTa da sasowarkveTilebiT Sesvamen. raTa moakldeT maT puri da wyali, da SeZrwundnen kaci da misi maxlobeli da dalpnen TavianT urjuloebaSi[1,gv.792]. miuxedavad imisa, rom ezekielis xilvebis Sinaarsi aeWvebs fsiqolog iasperss maTi mxilvelis sulier sisaReSi, biblias mainc ar sWirdeba dacva _rasac iaspersi cdilobs_ im ubralo mizezis gamo, rom wminda werili xatovani eniT metyveli miniSnebaa samyaroSi adamianis yofnis ragvarobaze, metadre ki, rogorc zemoT iTqva, igia miniSneba yofnis ragvarobaze sazRvriTs situaciebSi. amitom rCeba biblia filosofiuri fiqris mastimulirebel teqstad dResac, Cvens desakralizebul epoqaSi. sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebaTa zeobis

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droSi, rogoric Cvenia, bibliur teqsts aRar SerCenia ontologiuri wona da damajerebloba; mecnierebis avtoritets dandobil cnobierebas uWirs seriozulad aRiqvas RmerTi, romelic Tavis xalxs, israels Savi WiriT, SimSiliT, maxviliTa da sayovelTao siqaCliT emuqreba, magram Tu bibliis teqsts simboloTa enaze metyvel qmnilebad gavigebT, masSi advilad davinaxavT saTanado mTlianobas da filosofiuri azrovnebis wamaxalisebel Zalas. literatura biblia 2001: biblia. Zveli da axali aRTqmis wignebi, saqarTvelos bibliuri sazogadoeba, Tbilisi, 2001. nicSe 1990: . . . 2. . , 1990. iaspersi 1991: . . . . , 1991.

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,,miTiuri dro, ,,miTiuri sivrce da ,,sawyisTan dabruneba


filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori; baTumis niko berZeniSvilis institutis ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli. ZiriTadi naSromebi: ,,miTologiuri gadmocemebi aWaraSi(weraqveTas miTi, ukvdavebis maZiebeli luymani) (baT.2001); ,,aWaruli samonadireo miTosi (baT.2004); gamoqveynebuli aqvs statiebi qarTul miTo-ritualur, miTo-sociogoniur sakiTxebze: ,,qarTuli kosmogonia-Sesaqmis fragmentebi (gveleSapisa da xaris brZolis cikli) (2005); ,,qarTuli sociogonia _ qalis gvelTan qorwinebis miTosi(2007); ,,graalis Tasebi da varskvlavT-qvebi qarTul miTologiaSi(2007); ,,sawyisTan dabrunebis qarTuli kosmogoniuri miToritualuri modelebi(2008) da sxva. mxatvruli proza: ,,Samani da dedofali (2007); ,,HOMO TATUS homo TaTusi(2008). interesTa sfero: semiotika, miTis poetika, arqaul kulturaTa kvlevebi, analizuri fsiqologia.

miTi yvelaze idumali da amave dros yvelaze gamWvirvale msoflmxedvelobrivi deklamaciaa, risi gamoTqmac kacobriobam SeZlo Tavisi transcedenturi warsulis Sesaxeb. miTi iwyebs samyaros da samyaro miTSive gasruldeba, masSia ganfenili kosmosis da winarekosmiuri, yvela realisturi Tu mistiuri realia. Tumca aq SeuZlebelia saganTa da movlenaTa Sefaseba namdvilobis niSniT, raki Cveneuli ,,realobebi ar emTxveva miTosur ,,realobebs. RvTiur sibrZnegamotarebuli miTi Tavad gadaalagebs sagnebs da movlenebs, miuCens mxolod maTTvis gankuTvnil adgils da statuss, migvaniSnebs miTiur samyaroze, rogorc yofierebis erTaderT realur da universalur formaze, yvelaferi danarCeni mxolod misi ,,aCrdilebia. sinamdvilis specifiuri aRqma da gageba miTs gamoarCevs yvela danarCeni azrovnebis sistemebisagan. arqauli adamiani, romlis azrovnebis erTaderT formas miTosuri azrovneba warmoadgenda, misTvis samyaro mxolod miTiuri SeiZleboda yofiliyo, anu imgvari, rogoradac misi yofiereba yoveli aRqmagagebis jerze miTis miToSemoqmedebiTi uwyveti tendenciiT gadamuSavdeboda da ukan brundeboda yofierebis axali formiT. es Tvisobrivad axal samyaros, axal yofierebas niSnavda, da marTlac, rogorc wers o.

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freidenbergi, ,,samyaro, danaxuli pirvelyofili adamianis mier, misi subieqturi cnobierebiT xelaxla iqmneba, rogorc meore damoukidebeli, obieqturi yofiereba, romelic amieridan, realuri cnobierebisaTvis SeumCneveli sinamdvilis gverdiT iwyebs sawinaaRmdego cxovrebas (freidenbergi 1978:21). magram es ar niSnavs adamianis sinamdvilisagan mowyvetas, piriqiT, es ufro did, ufro namdvil realobaSi gadasvlas gulisxmobs, raki mxolod aq, miTSi SeiZleba sasicocxlo universaluri modelebis povna, mxolod miTi iZleva im maradiul ,,realobebs, romlebic arseboben maradisobaSi, arseboben samyaroSi droisa da sivrcis miRma, anu ,,aradrosa da ,,arasivrceSi. miTiuri ,,ara-dro da ,,ara-sivrcec, isev imaves, _ miTiur drosa da miTiur sivrces niSnavs, raki Yswored usazRvroebaa misi sazRvari, raki araarsebobaa misi maradiuli arseboba: miTi yvelganaa da aris yovelTvis, raki is yvelaferia. miTosuri yofiereba SigniT, SuagulSia moqceuli da Tavis irgvliv atrialebs dro-sivrces, dro-sivrciT modusebs Tavad yofiereba gansazRvravs, am SemTxvevaSi _ miTosuri. amitom, ,,ara-dro da ,,ara-sivrce, an drois ,,gaCereba an mdinareba ar Slis yofierebas, aramed, ukve Tavadve SemosazRvravs mas maradiuli wrebrunviT Tavad mis irgvliv (losevi 1991:87). levi-strosi miTis ormag struqturaSi mesamis _ ,,raRac absolutur doneze miuTiTebs: miTs gaaCnia ormagi struqtura, istoriuli da araistoriuli, magram gaaCnia kidev mesame done, romelic SegviZlia ganvixiloT, rogorc raRac absoluturi. miTi iyenebs mesame droiT sistemas, romelic TavisTavSi orive dasaxelebul droiT sistemas iTanxmebs. miTi yovelTvis dakavSirebulia warsulis movlenebTan: ,,samyaros Sesaqmemde an ,,sawyis drosTan _ yovel SemTxvevaSi ZvelisZvelTan. magram miTis mniSvneloba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom drois gansazRvrul momentSi adgilis mqone movlenebi arseboben aradroSi. miTi Tanabrad xsnis rogorc warsuls, aseve axlandelsa da momavals. miTis safuZvelSi mravalplanianoba Zevs. amitom miTiuri dro erTsa da imave dros Seuqcevadi da Seqcevadia (levi-strosi 2001:217-220). amdenad, miTiuri ,,ara-dro da ,,ara-sivrce isev miTiuri dro da sivrcea, mxolod _ ,,absoluturi miTiuri dro da sivrce. igi yofierebis imgvari formaa, romlis garRvevac SeuZlebelia, Tundac imis gamo, rom mas ara aqvs sazRvrebi, farglebi, CarCoebi; raki igi arsebul yvela ujreds msWvalavs Tavisi mkvrivi sakraluri, kanonmdebeli substanciiT, ar tovebs gaunivTebels arcerT

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samyaroseul ,,WuWrutanas. es ,,ganivTeba da ,,gamkvriveba gadamwyveti aRmoCndeba miTosuri samyaros gansazRvrisas. miTSi yovelive ganivTebuli da gasagnobrivebulia. miTologiisaTvis ,,yvelaferi sxeulebrivia, xolo yvelaferi sxeulebrivi amasTanave droa(losevi 1991:87). pirvelyofili azrovneba yovelgvar zRvars Slis sivrcesa da dros Soris da maT fizikur, sxeulebriv formas aniWebs. dro, iseve rogorc sivrce, upirvelesad fizikuri, mkvrivi, sagnobrivi sxeulia, ,,dro vlindeba fizikur sxeulSi, rogorc moZraoba an simSvide(losevi 1991:87). dro aris ,,monakveTebis mqone sivrce, sivrce ki _ ,,sagnebi(freidenbergi 1978:20). Aamitom dro da sivrce arqauli msoflmxedvelobisaTvis aris saerTo substanciis mqone raRac erTiani sagnobrioba. es ,,sagnobrioba, anu ,,miTosuri sxeuli, anu ,,dro aris miTologiuri fesvebidan amozrdili platoniseuli ,,ideis maradisoba, ,,romelic erTdroulad yvelganaa da arsadaa, romelSic Sedegi mizezs uswrebs, anu romelic aris absoluturi miznebis samefo, da romlis idealuroba fizikurad gaiazreba mxolod rogorc sxeuli(losevi 1991:87). miTis ,,ara-droisa da ,,ara-sivrcis ,,absolutizmSi dakarguli dro da sivrce yofierebis Suagulisaken, ,,sawyisisaken miemarTeba, iq kvlav sxeulebriv formas iZens, kvlav aRdgeba miTisave ,,damabrunebeli meqanizmiT, rom samyaroSi wonasworoba, kosmiuri wesrigi SeinarCunos. misi kreaciuli ,,warsuli, iWreba ra ,,axlandelSi, Tanabrad gadaswvdeba ,,momavals, rom isev ,,warsulSi dabrundes da adamianic, iseve rogorc nebismieri sxva samyaroseuli gamovlineba, am mojadoebul wreze ataros. swored am ,,wreze gacxaddeba Taviseburi miTosuri ontologia, romelSic ,,warsuli kargavs pirdapir mniSvnelobas, gamoavlens ra ,,mudmivarsebulis Tvisebas, romlis ganmeorebadobac, rogorc ,,mudmivarsebulis SeuZlebelia, swored imis gamo, rom mudmivarsebulia. es ontologia yofierobs miTSi da miTis gareTac, magram miTi mas xilvad, sagnobriv formas sZens da miTisagan gancalkevebisas kvlav vualirdeba, TumcaRa ganagrZobs Tavis ,,arasxeulebriv arsebobas. miTosuri ontologia aris ,,sawyisi, romelsac ,,Riaobas mxolod miTi sZens, misi gancda da misiT ganmsWvalva mxolod miTSi da miTiT aris SesaZlebeli. am azriT, miTi kosmosis da winarekosmiuri istoriaa, romelic ,,sawyisis movlenebiT iwyeba da mudmivad ,,Riaobs magiurritualur TanaqmedebaSi. miTiur droSi ganxorcielebuli yvela qmedeba sagangebo miTo-ritualuri da magiuri meqanizmiT aris

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amuSavebuli. aq arsebiTad gansazRvrulia miTis, ritualisa da magiis kosmogoniuri xasiaTi, rac mudmivad, uwyvetad gasdevs mTels eqsplicitur da implicitur miTologiur tradicias. miTiuri warsuli _ ,,winare, gvevlineba pirvelmizezTa ubnad, yovelives wyarod rac iyo ,,Semdeg. aq arsebiTad mocemulia drois mizezobriobis interpretaciis Canasaxi (meletinski 1976:173). miTiuri drois mizezobrioba am droSi Seqmnil nebismier pirvelgamovlinebaTa genezisis dadgenas gulisxmobs da ramdenadac, ,,miTis, gansakuTrebiT pirvelyofiluris, kardinalur niSans saganTa arsis maT genezisamde dayvana warmoadgens (meletinski 1976:172), imdenad, miTis umTavres funqciad, saganTa da movlenaTa genezisis dasadgenad, maTi Sesaqmis ,,sawyis droSi dabruneba da Taviseburi miTosuri etiologizmis ganxorcieleba gvevlineba. amitom miTi, romelic Tavisi warmoSobiT etiologiuria (tokarevi 1962:348), ,,sawyisTan dabrunebasTan_ rogorc miTis kidev erT umniSvnelovanes funqciasTan mimarTebas saWiroebs. cxadi xdeba, rom ,,mizezTan Sexeba ,,sawyisTan gvaaxloebs. ,,sawyisSi gacxadebuli ,,mizezi aris swored Taviseburi miTosuri etiologizmi (TiToeuli terminis ukan konkretuli miTosuri epoqa da aspeqti dgas). igi upirvelesad, kosmosisa da misi Semadgeneli elementebis aRweras emsaxureba. rogorc e.meletinski miuTiTebs, pirvelyofil miTologiebSi samyaros modeli aRiwereba misi calkeuli elementebis warmoSobaze Txrobis gziT. am azriT etiologiuri miTebi arsia miTebisa _ par excellence (zeupiratesi), Tumca ar daiyvaneba axsnebamde. miTiuri drois movlenebi gvevlineba Tavisebur metaforul kodebad, romlis saSualebiTac modelirdeba samyaros bunebismieri da socialuri wyoba (meletinski 1976:172). amdenad, miTosuri etiologizmi aris ,,sawyisSi gacxadebuli ,,mizezi; ,,mizezi, romelic emsaxureba upirvelesad genezisis gadmocemas, sadac ,,axsna funqciuri metonimiis niadagze warmoSobili meoreuli movlenaa. ,,miTosuri etiologizmi mxolod mizezs (sawyiss) ar moicavs. pirvelyofili azrovnebisaTvis pirobiTia mizezobrivi kavSiri. Cveni kauzaloba (mizezidan miRebuli Sedegis formalurlogikuri mizezobrioba) misTvis ucnobi iyo. ,,erTi gamovlinebis mizezi misTvis momijnave gamovlinebaSi ido. agvarad warmoiqmneboda mizezebisa da Sedegebis jaWvi, Caketili wris saxiT, sadac wyobis TiToeuli wevri iyo mizezic da Sedegic (freidenbergi 1978:20). warmodgeniT azrovnebamde mizezobrioba ar gacnobierebula.

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,,mizezis nacvlad iyo ,,danaSauli an ,,sawyisi. Aantikur enebsac ki jer ar gaaCniaT terminebi ,,mizezi da ,,Sedegi ganyenebuli mniSvnelobiT (iqve). amitomA,,miTosuri etiologizmi aris ,,mizezic da ,,Sedegic, anu ,,sawyisic da ,,sasrulic. igi mTel samyaros moicavs, moicavs kosmoss rogorc mTels da miTosuri realiebis sazRvrebSi (ufro zustad-usazRvroebaSi, dausabamobaSi) pasuxs scems yvela zementalur da transcedentur kiTxvas. Aamdenad, ,,sawyisTan dabruneba (anu ,,miTiur droSi dabruneba), miTis erT-erTi funqciaTagania, romelic etiologizms, rogorc miTis arsebiT maxasiaTebel niSans eqstensiurad gafarToebul farglebSi gaiazrebs. ,,sawyisis miTi sawyisSi, SesaqmeSi, ,,miTiur droSi gvabrunebs da dasabamiseul movlenebTan partici paciis gziT, sakralur-vitaluri ZalebiT agRvWurvavs, romlis mizanmimarTuli zemoqmedebiT samyaros sxvadasxva sferos daqvemdebareba da konkretuli miznebis miRweva xdeba SesaZlebeli. kosmosis mTeli istoria or umniSvnelovanes droiT monakveTSia ganfenili: ,,miTiuri dro da ,,istoriuli dro_ im samyaroseul realobebs gansazRvravs, romlebsac istoriul da preistoriul epoqebSi hqonda adgili. am ,,istoriulobaSi da ,,preistoriulobaSi movlenaTa emanacias ,,sawyisi gansazRvravs, raki m. fukos sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, ,,sawyisi wertili erTdroulad realuri drois miRmac mdebareobs da SigniTac: igi aris is pirveli niSnuli, romelic aZlevs dasabams nebismier istoriul movlenas (fuko 2004:395). yofierebis am sxvadasxva formebSi, sadac dro-sivrciTi modusebi sxvadasxvagvarad ganicdeba, ,,istoriulobisaTvis drois Seuqcevadobis, drois ,,wrfivi koncefciaa misadagebuli, xolo ,,miTiur epoqaSi, _ drois cikluri, ,,maradiulad brunvadi(eliade 1998) meqanizmi muSaobs. Tumca aris mcdelobebi aborigenebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel ,,Zvelisa da ,,axlis dapirispirebaSi drois wrfivi da ara cikluri interpretaciis danaxvisa (cnobili avstralieli mecnierebis col-qmar berndtebis SexedulebiT) (meletinski 1976:176). drois miTiur models, viTarca diqotomias _ ,,sawyisi dro / empiriuli dro, gaaCnia linearuli xasiaTi, magram es modeli TandaTanobiT ivseba sxva, gadaizrdeba sxva _ drois ciklur modelSi (meletinski 1976:176). papuasebisa da sxva ,,pirvelyofili eTnikuri jgufebisaTvis misaRebia e. liCis Teoriac drois arqaul grZnobaze, rogorc raRac or poluss Soris meryevze: sicocxlesa da sikvdils, Ramesa da dRes da a.S. Soris. msgavsi gaorebuli warmodgena

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harmonizirebs miTiurisa da empiriuli drois dapirispirebas (meletinski 1976:176). ,,istoriuli dro, rogorc empiriuli da, Sesabamisad profanuli, princi pulad aramiTosuria da miTiuri epoqebis dasasrulis zRvarze Cndeba. miTologiuri azrovneba ,,ignorirebs istoriul heterogenizms. profanuli, empiriuli drois yvela mravaljeradi cvlileba dahyavs Sesaqmis erTjerad aqtamde, romelic transcendentur sakralur miTiur droSi xorcieldeba(meletinski 1976: 177). ,,miTiuri dro, rogorc miTiuri yovlismomcveli warsulis transcendenturi realia, erTiani, mTliani miTosuri substanciaa, magram masSi ori izomorfuli, Tanaarsebuli droiTi aspeqtis gancalkevebac aris SesaZlebeli (Tumca es gancalkeveba ukiduresad formaluria). miTiuri dro ,,sawyis da ,,sizmris dros moicavs, romelTac sakuTar ,,droiT intervalebSi ganxorcielebuli ,,Sesaqmis aqtebi mijnavs: pirveli wminda kosmogoniuria, igi winarekosmosur (qaosur) da kosmogenezis periodebs gulisxmobs. es qaosis meufebisa da Semdgom misi kosmosad gardaqmnis epoqaa, Sesabamisad, _ yvelaze adreuli, ,,sawyisi dro. ,,sizmris dro (drem time) pirvelyofil sazogadoebebSi farTod gavrcelebuli terminia, gansakuTrebuli sakralur-paradigmuli miTiuri epoqis aRsaniSnavad. avstraliel aborigenTa adgilobrivi terminologia, arandaSi _ alTira, alCera; alurijaSi _ juguri, karajerSi _ bugari, ungarinebSi _ lalau, ungudi, varramungaSi _ vingara, binbingaSi _ mungami, gunvigaSi _ bunami da a. S (meletinski 1976:174; levi-briuli 1937:269), _ yvela SemTxvevaSi ,,sizmris mdgomareobisa da ,,miTiuri drois saerTo niSan-Tvisebebze miuTiTebs, rac gansakuTrebuli sicxadiT miTosuri dro-sivrciTi kategoriebis erTian, ganucalkevebel konteqstSi vlindeba. ,,sizmris droc Sesaqmeebis epoqaa, magram arakosmogenezis. aq samyaro imTaviTve mocemuli, mudmivyofieri ,,mza kosmiuri produqtia (amitom ,,sizmris droSi ar daismis kiTxvebi samyaros warmoSobis irgvliv). miTologiuri azrovnebis specifika ganapirobebs im moulodnel qronologias, romlis mixedviT, pirvelyofili miTologiebi, swored, ,,sizmris droiT iwyeba, sadac samyaro ukve Seqmnilia. swored aq Cans yvelaze cxadad platoniseuli ,,ideis maradisoba, roca ,,mizezi uswrebs Sedegs. sizmris drois mza kosmosi ,,Sedegia, ,,mizezi ki maSin gamoCndeba roca mocemuli kosmosis ,,arakosmiuri substancia gacnobierdeba da genezisSi _ ,,sawyisTan, romelic ,,mizezia, dabruneba gaxdeba aucilebeli.

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kosmosis mdgomareoba ,,organizebul mTels gulisxmobs, xolo ,,sizmris droSi mocemuli ,,mza kosmosi ,,araorganizebuli mTlianobaa. rogorc levi-briuli miuTiTebs, papuasebisa da avstralielebis zebunebrivi samyaro ar aris agebuli wesrigze. Zalebi, romelTa arsebobasac isini grZnoben am zebunebriv samyaroSi, moqmedeben TiToeuli TavisTvis. ar arsebobs aranairi subordinacia maRali da dabali Zalebis urTierTdamokidebulebaSi. isini Tanabarni arian rogorc nebismier maTganTan, aseve erT romeliRac umaRles ZalasTan. yvela es Zala miTebSi figurirebs uwesrigo mdgomareobaSi(levi-briuli 1937:292). amdenad, ,,sizmris droSi mocemuli ,,mza kosmosi specifiuria _ igi Taviseburad ,,arakosmiuria, qaosisagan gamocalkevebuli gansakuTrebuli kosmiuri mdgomareobaa, romelsac ,,kosmosis mcdeloba _ SeiZleba vuwodoT. levi-strosis sityviT, ,,TiToeuli didi struqturuli erTeuli Tavisi bunebiT aris raRac ,,urTierToba(levi-strosi 2001:219). am azriT, kosmosi(rogorc mTeli) romelic yvelaze didi struqturuli erTeulia aris ,,urTierToba, erTis mxriv, qaosTan da ,,kosmosis mcdelobasTan, xolo, meores mxriv, ,,urTierToba _ ,,sizmris drosTan da ,,sawyis drosTan, rasac saboloo jamSi, pirvel SemTxvevaSi,kosmosis cnobil qaosur-wesrigovan dualur bunebasTan, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi, kosmogoniisa da sociogoniis gaigivebasTan mivyavarT. ,, qaosis mcdeloba , did kosmiur struqturaSi is damatebiTi, SedarebiT ,,mcire struqturuli erTeulia, romelic qaossa da kosmoss Soris gardamaval safexurad, mediaciur rgolad SeiZleba CaiTvalos. levi-strosi aRmoaCens mediaciur, gardamaval safexurs miTis struqturul wyobaSi da SesaZleblad Tvlis sami ti pis logikuri operaciis gamoyofas. miTi Cveulebriv aperirebs dapirispirebulobebze da iltvis maTi TandaTanobiTi moxsnis, _ mediaciisaken (levi-strosi 2001:234241). miTis struqturaSi ganxorcielebuli amgvari logikuri operaciebiT ixsneba mravali ,,ulogiko miTosuri aspeqti. amave gziT aixsneba ,,sizmris droSi mocemuli kosmosis ,,arakosmiuri, uwesrigo xasiaTi. ramdenadac ,,sizmris drois ,,mza kosmosi ,,arakosmiuria da ramdenadac miTis arsebiT niSans kosmologizmi, anu kosmiuri wesrigisaken swrafva warmoadgens, imdenadve arsebobs yovelgvari logikuri winapiroba kosmogenezisaTvis. magram genezi Tavisi pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT ar xorcieldeba. ,,sizmris dro imeorebs Tavisebur ,,Sesaqmeebs, oRond es ukve Seqmnil (mzad mocemul)

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saganTa da movlenaTa ,,srulyofis, nawilobrivi ,,gardaqmnis epoqaa, raki, ,,mza kosmosis ,,mza produqtebi, miuxedavad paradigmulobisa, ,,daumTavrebelia. es iTqmis rogorc calkeul obieqtebze, aseve Tavad samyaroze da adamianebze. amitom ,,sizmris drois miTiuri gmirebi _ pirvelwinaprebi, kulturuli gmirebi da demiurgebi moRvaweoben samyaroseul gamovlinebaTa, maT Soris adamianTa modgmis ,,dasamTavrebel-dasaxvewad. xSirad am motivaciiT miTebSi Zvelis ganadgurebisa da xelaxali Sesaqmis aqtebsac vxvdebiT. gansakuTrebiT bravaljeradi Sesaqmis obieqtia adamiani, rasac, Cveulebriv, win uZRvis ,,daumTavrebeli (magaliTad: burTiseburi _ uxel-fexo, ucxvir-piro, uyuro da a.S. adamianebi) kacobriuli modgmis esqatologia. garda ,,mza kosmosis Taviseburi kvlavSesaqmisa, ,,sizmris dro sociogoniuri SesaqmeebiT gamoirCeva. faqtobrivad am SemTxvevaSic sociogoniac, anu meore kosmosis _ mezokosmosis Seqmna, kosmogoniuri xasiaTisaa, SeiZleba iTqvas, aseT SemTxvevaSi ,,sawyisi drois kosmogenezur funqcias ,,meore kosmosis _ mezokosmosis Sesaqme asrulebs. aq kosmogonia sociogoniiT aris Canacvlebuli, Tumca, es ,,Canacvleba wminda formaluri xasiaTisaa, raki, sociogonia Tavisi ,,Sesaqmeebis dros kosmogoniur eskizs imeorebs, xolo kosmogonia, piruku, xSirad bunebis gamovlinebaTa socializacias axdens. e.meletinski miTis specifiur kosmologizmze saubrobs: miTi aRiqmeba, rogorc ,,Sesaqmis droSi Sesvla (meletinski 1976:175), miTi princi pulad kosmiuria da, rom, kosmiuri modeli qmnis miTologiuri ,,samyaros modelis birTvs gacilebiT farTo gagebiT (meletinski 1976:225 ). es srulebiT ar ewinaaRmdegeba kosmosis modelSi anTropomorfuli elementebis arsebobas. samyarosa da adamianis Sesatyvisobas upiratesad gaaCnia socialuri xasiaTi; miTebi mogviTxroben qaosisagan bunebismieri da socialuri kosmosis Seqmnaze, maT urTierTSeRwevadobasa da nawilobriv gaigivebaze(iqve). bunebismieri da socialuri kosmosis ,,urTierTSeRwevadobis ZaliT ,,sawyisisa da ,,sizmris droc Tvisobrivad izomorfulia. amitom aris, rom, sxvadasxva miTologiur sistemaSi maTi Tanmimdevroba sxvadasxvagvarad aris gansazRvruli, an, yvelaze xSir SemTxvevaSi, erT-erTi maTgani amovardnilia, raki meores SeuZlia pirvelis funqciiT aRWurva. ganviTarebuli miTologiebi ZiriTadad kosmogenezze _ ,,sawyisi drois movlenebze aperirebs. pirvelyofil miTologiebSi piruku: ,,amovardnilia ra kosmogenezis aqti, sawyisad

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,,sociogenezi gvevlineba. rogorc Cans, aq saqme uda gvqondes, ara imdenad erTimeoris uaryofasTan, ramdenadac aspeqtebis ,,wamowevasa da ,,gadawevasTan. erTi konkretuli miTologiuri sistema, mag. pirvelyofiluri, win wamoswevs miTis sociogoniur aspeqts ,,sizmris drois movlenaTa TxrobiT, ise rom ar uaryofs ,,sawyisis kosmogonias, aramed es ukanaskneli CarTulia ,,sizmris drois movlenebSi rogorc periferiuli motivi. ufro ganviTarebul miTologiur sistemaSi ki, kosmogoniuri aspeqtia aqtualizirebuli, raki masSi samyaros gancda ukve logikur ierarqiul struqturas efuZneba, sadac kosmogenezi, Cveulebriv pirveladi aqtia da mxolod misi ganxorcielebis Semdgom xdeba SesaZlebeli sxva, nebismieri ti pis Sesaqme. am ,,mcire Sesaqmeebs (romlebic kosmogenezis eskizzea agebuli), rogorc miTiur gmirTa moRvaweobis Sedegs, mxolod sociogoniaSi SeiZleba hqondeT adgili. amdenad, miTi, romelic yvela SemTxvevaSi kosmogoniuria amave dros, yvela SemTxvevaSi sociogoniuric aris. es erTi da igivea. anu _ miTi princi pulad socio-kosmogoniuria. Sesabamisad, ,,sawyisi dro da ,,sizmris dro TavianTi kosmo-sociogoniuri sawyisebiT izomorfulia da erT, gansakuTrebul dro-sivrciT kategoriamde daiyvaneba, romelsac erT sazogado termins _,,miTiuri dro, an ,,miTiuri epoqa, mivusadagebT. es miTiuri epoqa profanuli, Tvladi istoriuli drois mijnazea SeCerebuli da miTis, ritualisa da magiis saSualebiT maradiulad imeorebs arqeti pul modelebs. igive miTur-ritualur-magiuri meqanizmiT momavalSi gadasrolili es modelebi istoriuli epoqis ,,araistoriul zonebSi, moTosur SreebSi xvdebian da iqac, ,,wrfiv istoriulobaSic qmnian ra ,,wriul, ,,brunvad miTosur realiebs, agrZeleben TavianT cxovelmyofelur, samyaros momawesrigebel funqcias. raki yofierebis TiToeuli forma mxolod sakuTar drosivrciT modusSi ganicdeba, isini ar qmnian ,,uwyvet rigs. miTiuri dro da sivrce upirvelesad vlindeba warmosaxuli samyaros CaketilobaSi; am TvalsazrisiT iWers ,,kunZulis mdgomareobas(nekludovi 1975:183). Tumca es warmosaxuli ,,kunZuliseburi samyaro Tavad mTeli samyaroa (kosmosi rogorc mTeli) da misi ,,Caketiloba mTel samyaros gadaswvdeba. igi erTi didi da yovlismomcveli ,,Sinaa, raki arqaul sazogadoebaSi, upirvelesad, Tavad adamianma ,,gadawyvita bunebasTan partici pacia da masTan ukidures familarul damokidebulebaSi yofna. aqedan Cndeba samyaroSi ,,saxlad yofnis simSvidis momgvreli gancda da SiSi

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,,kosmosis gareT, qaotur ,,gareSi moxvedris winaSe. samyaros amgvarma diqotomiur modusSi warmodgenam mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvra pirvelyofili sazogadoebebis Siga fratrialurtomobrivi wesrigi, dafuZnebuli miTiuri droidan miTiuri winaprebis mier mowodebul tradiciul doqtrinaze, romlis umciresi gadaxvevac ki, moaswavebs ara konkretuli ,,damrRvevi individis ganadgurebas, aramed saerTo socialuri da upirvelesad, kosmiuri wesrigis damxobas da ,,qaosis mobrunebas (Tumca, rogorc samarTlianad SeniSnavs i.surgulaZe, ,,garesa da ,,Sinas problemaSi miTosi srul wesrigs ver amyarebs, radgan maT Soris sademarkacio xazi yoveldRiurad irRveva praqtikuli mizezebis gamo (surgulaZe 1987: 134). sociumis ,,arasrulyofili wesrigi srul izomorfizms amJRavnebs im gansakuTrebul kosmiur mdgomareobasTan, romelsac Cven ,,kosmosis mcdeloba vuwodeT. isini, orive, ,,sizmris drois kategoriebia, mxolod ToToeuli maTgani formalurad sxvadasxva aspeqts _ sociogoniurs an kosmogoniurs gamoxatavs. amgvarad Tematizirebuli ,,wesrigi da amgvarad gagebuli kosmologizmi warmoSobs im sisastikes romelsac pirvelyofili sazogadoeba iCens wesis damrRvevis mimarT. sakuTari sociumidan gaZevebuli individi yvela SemTxvevaSi ganwirulia, raki mas mxolod sakuTar sazogadoebaSi, sakuTar teritoriaze aqvs ,,saxlad yofnis da Sesabamisad, yofierebis gancda. upirovno sociums individi ki ar gansazRvravs, aramed, Tavad sociumi gansazRvravs individs. TiToeuli maTganis mTeli arseba mxolod sakuTari da saerTo ,,SinaTi aris gamsWvaluli, risi sxva ,,SinaTi, sxva ,,saxliT, sxva sociumiT Canacvleba SeuZlebelia, raki `sxva Sina~ ar arsebobs. arsebobs misi alternatiuli sivrce _ `gare~. ,,Sinas mowyvetili adamiani momentalurad aRmoCndeba ,,gareSi, qaosur wyvdiadSi, sadac igi yvela sasicocxlo Zalas aris CamoSorebuli da rac sabolood misi fizikuri sikvdiliT sruldeba. ,,Sina( a ) da ,,gare ( ) miTis sociogoniuri aspeqtis diqotomiuri struqturis drosivrciTi kategoriebia (udaod Secdomaa ,,Sinasa da G,,gares droiTi konteqstidan moglejiT, ganyenebulad, mxolod sivrciT kategoriad ganxilva). sociogoniur(socio-kosmogonia) miTosSi ,,Sina da ,,gare samyaros horizontaluri wyobis models qmnis. es horizontaloba wriulobaSia formatirebuli, sadac ,,Sinas wriul gancdas (es wriuli zRvari uxilavia da mxolod sociumis Tvalsawiers moicavs) wris gareT yvela mxridan horizontalurad ganfenili qaoturi ,,gare upirispirdeba. samyaros wyobis amgvar wriul-horizontalur

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diqotomiur struqturas miTis kosmogoniur aspeqtSi samyaros trixotomiuli, vertikaluri struqturis kosmiuri modeli: zeskneli( x )-skneli( )-qveskneli( ), Seesabameba (triqotomiuli dayofa gvevlineba ufro rTuli ierarqiuli modelebis safuZvlad, sadac figurireben 1,3,4,5,7,9,10 da ufro meti ciuri sferoebi, an 2, 3, 7 qveda samyaroebi (meletinski 1976:213). kosmologiuri triqotomia Sesaqmis aqtis _ cisa da miwis gankveTis Sedegad maT Soris kosmiuri sivrcis warmoSobas gulisxmobs. kosmiuri triqotomiuli modelis paralelurad, mogvianebiT kidev erTi kosmiuri modeli Cndeba, romelic ukve ganvlil diqotomiur princips efuZneba, Tumca, igi ,,Sinasa da ,,gares wriul-horizontalur modelSi wriulobis moxsnis xarjze horizontalur binarulobas aZlierebs: ori horizontalurad dapirispirebuli opoziciis diqotomiuri gafarToebiT (gaorkecebiT), oTxi horizontaluri sferoa miRebuli, sadac TiToeuli horizontaluri xazi qveynierebis romelime mxares Seesabameba: _ aRmosavleTi( ) _ dasavleTi( ) _ CrdiloeTi( z ) _ samxreTi( ). gafarToebuli ori, romelic udris oTxs, Tvisobrivadac sawyis ors imeorebs, amitom, erTis mxriv, aRmosavleTi da dasavleTi igivea rac CrdiloeTi da samxreTi ( ), xolo, meores mxriv, aRmosavleTi da CrdiloeTi udris vertikaluri wyobis qvesknels ( ), xolo dasavleTi da samxreTi _ zesknels ( ). sabolood ki: ,,Sina aris _ zeskneli-dasvleTi-samxreTi ( ), xolo ,,gare _ qveskneliaRmosavleTi-CrdiloeTi ( ). sferoebs Soris adgili kosmiuri sivrciTaa amovsebuli. rogorc vxedavT, ,,gare qaosisis paralelurad, qvesknels emTxveva, xolo ,,Sina anu adamianTa sacxovrisi _ zesknels. da marTlac, ,,miTiur droSi adamianebi da miTiuri winaprebi ,,SinaSi gverdigverd cxovroben, xolo ,,Sinadan gasuli individi, ,,gareSi moxvedris Semdeg eufleba ra gardauvali sikvdili, qvesknelSi, saiqioSi gastumrebulia. amdenad, miTosuri msoflmxedvelobis arqaul safexurze ,,Sina-zeskneli da ,,gareqveskneli samyaros wyobis universalur models qmnian, sadac erTmaneTTan horizontalur mimarTebaSi imyofebian. ,,samyaros vertikaluri RerZis boloze ,,suleTis qveyanam SedarebiT gvian gadainacvla (baxini 1965:26, surgulaZe 1987:145). ,,miTiuri droidan miTis ,,sawyis droze aperirebam samyaros struqturis horizontaluri gancda, triqotomiuli vertikaluriT Secvala. es axleburad gaazrebuli, axleburad _ kosmiurad ,,gadalagebuli

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dro-sivrciTi modusebia, sadac ,,miTiuri drois xarjze ,,kosmiuri sivrcis miTosuri xati gamoikveTeba (ix. sqema 1.).
cikli dro (epoqa) sivrce sociogonia ,,sizmris ,,Sina da ,,gare (Agvaris, tomis,fratriis SigniT da gareT) horizontaluri (wriulobaSi formatirebuli horizontaloba) kosmogonia I ,,sawyisi kosmiuri sivrce (casa da miwas Soris) kosmogonia ,,sawyisi kosmiuri sivrce (oTx sferos Soris) II

modeli

vertikaluri

horizontaluri

grafikuli gamosaxva

struqtura

diqotomiuri

triqotomiuri

diqotomiuri

(sqema1). droisa da sivrcis kategoriebi sociogoniasa da kosmogoniaSi

detalurad SemuSavebuli kosmologiuri sivrcobrivi modelis warmoSoba adasturebs miTologiaSi dro-sivrciT warmodgenaTa erTianobas (miwa wylis qaosis SuagulSi, RmerTebisa da titanebis opozicia, rogorc droSi, aseve sivrceSi da a.S.) da miTis ZiriTad princi ps _ aRwera genezisze Txrobis saSualebiT. ufro mkveTri kosmosis sivrcobrivi modeli ganviTarebul miTologiebSi korelirebs naklebad mkveTr warmodgenebs miTiuri drois sazRvrebze. warmoiSveba Taviseburi ,,ganusazRvrelobaTa Sesatyvisoba, im gagebiT, rom urTierTdakavSirebuli da urTierTamsaxveli spatialuri da temporaluri aspeqtebi erTmaneTSi damatebiT urTierTobaSi imyofebodnen (meletinski 1976: 217). miTebSi deklamirebuli kosmologiuri dro-sivrciTi erTiani modeli cxadyofs, rom dro, romelSic aRniSnuli kosmogonizmi (Sesaqmis aqti) xorcieldeba, ,,sawyisis droa, xolo adgil-sivrce _ samyaros Suaguli, centri. Mm. eliades dakvirvebiT, wes-CveulebebSi nebismieri ganwmendili sivrce samyaros centrs emTxveva, iseve rogorc nebismieri ritualis dro emTxveva, ,,sawyisis miTiur dros (eliade

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1998:9). miTi Tavs uyris am or, kosmosisTvis umniSvnelovanes _ miTiuri droisa da miTiuri sivrcis poluss da gvTavazobs maTi gadakveTis wertilSi warmoqmnil movlenebs, arsebebs, sagnebs, obieqtebs, romlebic swored am gadakveTis _ ,,miTosuri pirveljvaredinis meoxebiT rCebian ara Tu obieqturi, aramed TviT miTiuri droisa da sivrcis miRma da arqeti pebad, saxe-simboloebad iqcevian. rogorc levi-strosi aRniSnavs, ,,es movlenebi, romelTac drois gansazRvrul momentSi aqvT adgili, arseboben aradroSi. (levi-strosi 2001:217). Aarqeti pebis, modelebis warmoqmna da mdgradoba mxolod da mxolod miTiuri droisa da sivrcis gadakveTis SemTxvevaSi aris ganxorcielebadi. Nnebismieri maTganis gamoricxva imTaviTve gamoricxavs maT Sesaqmes. miTiuri droisa da miTiuri sivrcis gadakveTa aseve uzrunvelyofs mis wiaRSi warmoqmnili movlenebis mudmivobasa da ganmeorebadobas, rac pirvelgadakveTis Sedegad ,,aradroisa da ,,arasivrcis miRebiT aris ganpirobebuli. Aamdenad, kosmosSi movlenaTa ganmeorebadoba Seuqcevadi procesia, imisgan damoukideblad, adamiani ritualis saSualebiT gamoixmobs Tu ara maT kvlavdakvlav. maS ra daniSnuleba aqvs adamians miTTan da ritualTan mimarTebaSi, Tuki kosmosSi imTaviTve gadawyvetilia movlenaTa amgvari wyoba? ufro metic, ,,adamiani ar aris Tanadrouli imisa, rac mas aiZulebs arsebobas an imisa, ris safuZvelzec igi arsebobs; aramed igi upyria Zalas, romelic mas ganabnevs, ganaridebs Sors sakuTar pirvelsawyiss da Tan adamians am ukanasknels hpirdeba. es Zala ucxo ar aris adamianisaTvis, igi masSi mkvidrobs da ara mis miRma im maradiul sawyisTa simSvideSi, romlebic gamudmebiT ganaxldebian (fuko 2004:401). adamiani intuitiurad ganicdis, magram ar aRiarebs, sawyisTan daSorebas, masTan miaxloebis mcdelobis yovel jerze. magiur ritualebSi adamiani ver imeorebs sawyisis movlenebs, mxolod maT imitirebas axdens. Tumca ,,simulaciuri Sesaqme mas namdvil Sesaqmes ganacdevinebs. adamiani motyuebulia da igi SecdomaSi upirvelesad sakuTari azrovnebisa da Tvalsawieris iluzur maStabebs Sehyavs, roca mas surs iazrovnos da nawilobriv imoqmedos (amisTvis Wirdeba magia) umaRlesi gonis darad. ,,adamianisaTvis samyaros Semoqmedi umaRlesi gonis arseboba gansakuTrebulad mniSvnelovania, ramdenadac adamiani Tvlis, rom igi, iseve rogorc umaRlesi goneba(samyaros Sinagani naTesaobis mizeziT) aRWurvilia warmoebis, azrovnebis, Seqmnis unariT, Sesabamisad, adamianisaTvis Zalzed mniSvnelovania RmerTis mdgomareoba Seqmnil kosmosSi (platonova 1989:25). RmerTis mdgomareobas kosmosSi

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adamiani miTis saSulebiT gansazRvravs. amitom miTi adamians yovelive arsebulisa Tu SesaZlo arsebulis damadasturebel mtkicebulebad Wirdeba. amdenad, miTi adamians Wirdeba da ara kosmoss. kosmosi isedac miTSi Tanamyofobs. garkveuli azriT miTi da kosmosi gaigivebulia, maTi xilvadi Tu uxilavi konturebi mudmiv TanxvedraSi modis. maTi gancalkevebis SemTxvevaSi maTi funqciuri gamosaxva vualirdeba, magram ar anulirdeba. miTSi adamianma RmerTTan erTad Tavisi Tavic aRmoaCina, aRmoaCina anTroposopi, raki misi embrionuli xati masSi imTaviTve iyo mocemuli. maSasadame, adamianma miTis saSualebiT sakuTari Tavi kosmosis movlenebSi ganicada. amitom swored miTis saSualebiT ikmayofilebs adamiani Tavis Tandayolil ambicias, erTis mxriv, Tavi movlenaTa centrSi daayenos, xolo meores mxriv, kosmosis umniSvnelovanes movlenebs eziaros da maTi monawile gaxdes. Kkosmosis movlenebTan partici pacia ki miTis, ritualisa da magiis TanaqmedebaSi aris SesaZlebeli. Mm.eliade aRniSnavs, rom ,,kosmogoniuri movlenebis perioduli ganmeorebadobis saWiroeba, kosmogoniur momentebTan adamianuri gamocdilebis gaigivebiT, gvevlineba uZvelesi pirvelyofili azrovnebis damaxasiaTebel niSnad (eliade 2002:95). kosmogoniis gancdiT, rac magiuri ritualebis gziT miiRweva, adamiani sawyis droSi ,,gadaityorcneba, Tundac es sawyisis imitacia iyos, rac adamians, erTis mxriv, axali vitaluri ZalebiT aRWurvavs, xolo meores mxriv, RmerTTan miaxloebis ambicias daukmayofilebs. iqneb es sulac ,,RmerTis nostalgiaa da ara ambicia, bibliuri samoTxis datovebis Semdeg rom gauCnda kacobriobas. rogorc ar unda iyos, admianis cnobiereba erTsa da imave dros sami ganzomilebisaken aris mimarTuli: igi cxovrobs da uSualod aRiqvams awmyos, magram misi yvela mizani da idea momavalSi aris ganxorcielebadi, romlis asagebad, arqiteqtonikis gadmosaRebad is mimarTavs warsuls. adamiani ,,ver eteva SemosazRvrul droSi. momavali misTvis princi pulad Riaa, amitom ,,siviwrovis gancdis gamo drois sazRvris gadalaxvis intencia masSi warsulisken miimarTeba(dalaqiSvili 2001:51). amdenad, adamians warsuli momavlisTvis Wirdeba, magram sad aris aq awmyos adgili? am sameulSi awmyo dominantobs, raki igi mudam aris. warsuliviT arc ,,gamoxmoba Wirdeba da arc momavaliviT ,,gadatyorcna. swored amitom, adamianis yofierebis am gzaze erTaderT dabrkolebad awmyo gvevlineba. igi adamians mudmivad TiSavs, erTis mxriv, momavlisgan, da, warsulisganac _ meores mxriv. magram swored awmyos akisria ,,centris funqcia, mxolod mas SeuZlia gaawonasworos da moawesrigos Tavis irgvliv

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yofierebis is forma romelSic adamiani mkvidrobs. amitom, maSin rodesac warsuli agebs momavals, awmyo erTsa da imave dros warsulad da momavlad gvevlineba, xolo am konteqstSi adamianuri arseboba aris ,,maradiuli ganmeorebadoba, romelic ,,miTis maradiuli kvlavdabrunebis(m.eliade) pirdapirproporciulia. haidegeris sityviT, ,,munyofiereba ,,aris misi warsuli Tavisi yofierebis saxiT, rac, uxeSad rom vTqvaT, mudam misi momavlidan ,,xdeba(haidegeri 1989:41). amdenad, adamiani romelic cxovrobs awmyoSi, mimarTavs warsuls, rom gadaswvdes momavals. am gzaze miTis, ritualisa da magiis roli unikaluria. maTi saSualebiT, pirvelmovlenebi, pirvelarsebebi, pirvelsagnebi kvlavdakvlav cocxldebian awmyoSi da momavalSi, rasac eliadem ,,miTis maradiuli kvlavdabruneba uwoda. levistrosi saubrobs ,,aracnobier struqturaze, romelic Zevs TiToeuli tradiciis, wes-Cveulebisa Tu socialuri wyobis safuZvelSi (levi-strosi 2001:31). ,,aracnobieri struqturidan momdinare saxe-simboloebi, romlebic iungisaTvis ,,arqeti pebi an ,,pirvelyofili saxeebia, gvevlinebian tendenciebad ,,motivebis aseTi warmosaxvebis warmosaqmnelad. warmosaxvebi romlebic SesaZloa meryeobdnen detalebSi, magram amasTanave, ar kargavdnen TavianT bazisur sqemas(iungi 1991:65 ) . miTiuri warsuli gvevlineba aramxolod ,,paradigmul moTxrobad, aramed, igi aris rogorc pirvelsaxeTa saRmrTo sacavi, aseve sacavi magiuri da sulieri Zalebisa, romlebic ritualebisa da miTiuri epoqis movlevaTa inscenirebis daxmarebiT, sadac Sesaqmis miTebis recitaciebia CarTuli, ganagrZoben wesrigis mxardaWeras(meletinski 1976:174). miTosuri teqsti sawyisTan dabrunebis teqstobrivi deklamaciaa, magram igi Tavad, damoukideblad moklebulia ,,damabrunebel meqanizms. Ddabrunebis meqanizmSi miTi aucilebeli, magram erT-erTi (da ara erTaderTi) komponentia. miTiuri sawyisi movlenebis ,,asamuSaveblad arsebobs urTierTdamokidebulebaTa samwevriani formula: miTi/rituali/magia. anTropologTa amerikuli skolis mkvlevarTa (harneri, kastaneda, eliade, malinovski, elkini, evanspriCardi) TvalsazrisiT, ,,miTi, rituali da magia[Zala] erTmaneTisagan ganuyofelia... ,,magiuri ritualis dabadebas aucileblad axlavs ambebis rkali, romelic xsnis yvelafers.swored es ambebia miTebi. Aam azriT, miTi warsul saukuneTa

,,miTiuri dro, ,,miTiuri sivrce da ,,sawyisTan dabruneba

109

mkvdari memkvidreoba ki ar aris, aramed cocxali Zala, romelic mudmivad iwvevs axal movlenebs(canava 2001:115). miTi _ teqsti, rituali _ qmedeba da magia _ Zala, is sami komponentia, romelTa mTlianobaSi amuSavebas droisa da sivrcis ganzomilebaTa garRveva da warsulSi, sawyisSi moxvedriT, maTi kvlavgamoxmoba, kvlavdabruneba SeuZlia. Arqaul sazogadoebaSi ,,sawyisTan dabruneba miTis ZiriTadi funqcia iyo, romlis ganxorcielebac _ xeldasxmulTa (qurumebi, Samanebi, tomis beladebi, mefeebi) prerogativa. tradiciuli sazogadoebis daSlis Semdeg miTis pirveladi funqciac Sesustda da danarCen komponentebsac _ ritualsa da magias gaeTiSa. pirvelyofil tradiciul sazogadoebaSi ,,sawyisTan dabrunebis tendencia aucilebel saxes atarebs, sadac Taobebi gandobis wesCveulebebiT ecnobian tomis saidumlo doqtrinasa da samyaroseul mistiur istorias, risi miRebac neofitisaTvis mxolod ,,sizmris droSi gadasvliT da uSualod miTiuri winaprebisagan gadmocemiT aris SesaZlebeli. avstraliaSi miTiur winaparTa Tavgadasavlebi daiyvaneba xangrZliv gaseirnebaze, romlis drosac ,,sizmris drois arsebebi sCadian sxvadasxva qmedebebs, xolo axalbedebma gandobisas unda gaimeoron es mistiuri marSrutebi. am gziT isini aRadgenen im Zveli drois movlenebs, romlebic avstralielebisaTvis Seicaven Tavisebur kosmogonias. Tumca saubaria ,,nawarmoebis dasrulebasa da srulyofaze da ara mis Seqmnaze. miTiurma winaprebma gadaitanes sawyisi drama, ris Sedegadac Seiqmna samyaro da adamiani amJamindeli formiT, _ da Sesabamisad, swored isini floben am codnas da SeuZliaT maTi gadacema. Tanamedrove terminologiaSi es ase JRers _ saRmrTo codna, naklebad dakavSirebuli ontologiasTan, magram dakavSirebuli, mxolod mistikur istoriasTan (eliade 2002:101102). ,,sawyisTan dabrunebis tendencia, dRevandel folklorul sinamdvileSi, yvelaze TvalSisacemad magiur poeziaSi _ SelocvebSi aris gamJRavnebuli. marTlac, Selocva dReme inarCunebs Tavdapirvel, arqaul bunebas, sadac dRemde logikur TanamyofobaSia kulturultradiciuli yofis sami sfero: teqsti (ambavi, miTi),rituali da magia. e.meletinskis dakvirvebiT, ubralo SelocvebSic ki, Cveulebriv, mocemulia mokle Sesavali miTiuri pirvelwinapris, RmerTis Sesabamis paradigmul moRvaweobaze (meletinski 1976:173). maSinac, roca ,,sawyisTan dabrunebis tendencia sxva Janris (samonadireo, Sromis, saakvno-saZeobo da a.S.) teqstebSi cxaddeba, igi ar kargavs

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Tandayolil magiur substanciasa da mizanmimarTulebas. ,,sawyisovani droebi aRiqmeboda, rogorc kosmogoniuri droebi. amitom yovelgvar ritualur iniciaciebs, maT Soris koronaciebsa da saaxalwlo ceremoniebs, SeiZleba acilebdes kosmogoniuri miTebis recitaciebi, an kosmogoniuri aqtis simboluri CarTva (meletinski 1976:218 ). amitom aris, rom xSirad, Sromis, samonadireo, saakvno-saZeobo da sxva JanrebSi, erTi SexedviT gaugebari mizezebis gamo, Sinaarsobrivad sruliad gansxvavebuli _ kosmogoniuri motivebi iCens Tavs. swored es kosmogoniuri motivebi gvevlineba im arqaul reliqtebad, romlebic teqstis ritualur da magiur bunebas (da funqcias) aqtualizireben. Sromis processa Tu nadirobis win Sesrulebuli sasimRerosaferxulo teqsti, romlis Sinaarsobrivi birTvi kosmogoniuria, sawyisis miTs gaacxadebs da erTaderT mizans _ konkretul sferoSi (Sroma-nayofiereba, nadiroba da a. S.) magiuri zemoqmedebis gziT warmatebis miRwevas emsaxureba. aseve, imTaviTve gansazRvrulia SelocvebSi Sesaqmisa Tu samyaros wyobis modelebis, esqatologiuri da sxva kosmogoniuri siuJeturi rkalis SeWra. TiToeul teqstSi ,,sawyisis miTia kodirebuli, romlis saSualebiT Semlocveli sneuls ,,sawyis miTiur drosa da sivrceSi abrunebs, rom samyaros xelaxali Sesaqme ganaxorcielos. xelaxal SesaqmeSi sneuli Tavadac xelaxla ibadeba, mxolod janmrTeli da uvnebeli. sneulis sawyis droSi mibruneba imitom aris aucilebeli, rom, rogorc m.eliade aRniSnavs, ,,cxovrebis gamosworeba SeuZlebelia, SesaZlebelia mxolod misi xelaxla Seqmna, kosmogoniis xelaxali ganmeorebis saSualebiT. marTlac, mraval pirvelyofil xalxebSi gankurnebis ZiriTad elementad gvevlineba kosmogoniuri miTis artikulireba(eliade 1998: 30.). sneulis sawyis movlenebSi gadayvanas mkurnali-magi, Samani axorcielebs. mniSvnelovania, rom igi yoveli axali magiuri ,,samedicino proceduris win, Tavdapirvelad, Tavad unda gadaityorcnos miTiur, sawyis droSi, xelaxla unda aRiWurvos magisa Tu Samanis unariT (ZaliT),risTvisac Tavisi Tavdapirveli xeldasxmis (Samanad qcevis) sawyis movlenebs unda daubrundes. am mizniT Samani Sneulis winaSe ,,imeorebs im pirvel ,,mowodebas, e.i. ,,pirvel dacemas romlis drosac mas gaucxadda Tavisi mowodeba. es movlenaTa imitireba ar aris. am dros Samani xelmeored, mTeli sicxadiT ganicdis xeldasxmis, ,,Samanad qcevis mdgomareobas (levistrosi 2001:187 ).

,,miTiuri dro, ,,miTiuri sivrce da ,,sawyisTan dabruneba

111

,,sawyisis miTi sawyisi drois movlenebze mogviTxrobs, magram mxolod samyaros Sesaqmes ar gulisxmobs. igi yovelgvari pirvelmovlenis, pirvelarsebis, pirvelsagnis ,,Sesaqmeebs moicavs, Tumca amgvar Tematur mravalferovnebaTa miuxedavad, struqturulad yovelTvis kosmogoniur models imeorebs, raki ,,kosmogoniuri miTi gvevlineba yovelgvari ,,Sesaqmis arqetipul modelad da gvabrunebs ra ,,sawyisSi, arsebiT rols asrulebs saqorwino, sanayofiero, dabadebis, savele samuSaoebisa da sxva ritualebSi (eliade 1998: 10). qarTuli Selocvebis, aseve Sromis, nadirobis, saakvno-saZeobo da a.S. poeziis is nawili, romelTac jer kidev ar daukargavT genetikuri sawyisi _ ritualur-magiuri buneba, struqturulad isev inarCuneben ,,sawyisTan dabrunebis tendenciebs da sxvadasxva kosmogoniur miTo-ritualur modelebs ayalibeben; amasTanave, miTis, ritualisa da magiis erT konteqstSi, ufro zustad, erTobliobaSi gaazrebis saSualebas iZlevian, rac ZiriTadi Tezaa miTis definiciisaTvis (soc. anTropologTa amerikuli skolis mixedviT). qarTuli kosmogoniuri siuJetebi sxvadasxva folklorul JanrebSi arian mimobneulni, Tumca romel JanrSic ar unda iyvnen gacxadebulni, yovelTvis inarCuneben ,,sawyisovnobis funqcias. literatura baxtini 1965: .. , . 1965. dalaqiSvili 2001: dalaqiSvili l. istoriuloba da miTis maradiuli kvlavdabruneba, kreb. ,,ena da kultura, #2Tb.2001. eliade 1998: . . , .1998. eliade 2000: . , .2000. eliade 2002: . . ,.2002. l e v i - b r i u l i 1 9 3 7 : - . , . 1937 levi-strosi 2001: - . , .2001 losevi 1991: . . , : . . , . 1991 meletinski 1976: .. , .1976.

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nekludovi 1975: .. o- , : , .1975. platonova 1989: .. , . 1989; surgulaZe 1987: surgulaZe i., sivrcobrivi aspeqtebi qarTvelTa religiur da miTosur warmodgenebSi, kreb. masalebi saqarTvelos eTnografiisaTvis, XXIII, Tb.1987. tokarevi 1962: .. ? : , 10, .1962 iungi 1991: .. , .1991 f r e i d e n b e r g i 1 9 7 8 : .., , .1978. fuko 2004: fuko m. sityvebi da sagnebi, frangulidan Targmna d.labuCiZe-xoferiam, Tb.2004; canava 2001: canava r. miTis, ritualisa da magiis urTierTmimarTebisaTvis, kreb. ,,ena da kultura, #2, Tb.2001. haidegeri 1989: haidegeri m. yofiereba da dro, Tb.1989.

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abelur-kaenuri simbolizmi da kulturaTa dapirispireba


yoveli individis, yoveli Cvenganis uSualo da pirveladi sinamdvile, anu cnobierebaSi Cawnuli organuli erTianoba bunebriv Tu socio-kulturul faqtorebad danawevrebul da Semdgom maTive gaerTianebiT Sedgenil obieqtur-mecnieruli warmodgenisgan Zalzed gansxvavdeba. adamianTa urTierToba cocxali intenciebiT imdenad gajerebuli ucnauri movlenaa, rom igi formaluri, pirobiT-obieqturi gadmosaxedidan srulad ar aRiqmeba, ganyenebul-mecnieruli xedviT mxolod zedapirulad aRiwereba. amitomac, sazogadoebrivi Tanacxovrebis nebismieri, socialur jgufTa did fragmentebze orientirebuli, rogorc wesi, ideologizirebuli modeli yovelTvis nakluli bunebisa iyo da axlac, Tundac teqnologiuri mani pulirebis usazRvro SesaZleblobiT SeiaraRebuli _ aseTad rCeba. yvela im gaugebrobasa Tu komfliqts, romelic Tanamedrove msoflios erTgvar epidemiad iqca siRrmiseul safuZvlad swored es, sxenebuli nakluloba unda edos. bolo drois kulturaTa Sexvedris problemis gansakuTrebiTi an akviatebiTi ybadaReba, kvlav Tvalsawieris simoklis an nakluli xedvis gamovlena unda iyos. es problema Zalzed calmxriv-pragmatuli gagebis zogierT eqsperts yvela ubedurebis

filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, kinomcodne, inJiner-fizikosi. ZiriTadi naSromebi: `cifruli gamosaxuleba da eidosuri xati~, `kosmosi, sivrce-dro da virtualuri realoba~, `perspeqtiva _ aRorZinbidan cifrul gamosaxulebamde...~... samecniero interesebi: amJamad ori mimarTulebiT vmuSaob: pirveli, xmelTaSua zRvis kulturaTa da civilizaciaTa safuZvlebSi ganmsazRvreli da dReisaTvisac sagulisxmo msoflSegrZnebiTi, anu dro-sivrciTi xasiaTis konceptebis gamovlena-Sepirispireba. da meore _ `arTroni, anu elinuri azrovnebis is simboluri winaforma, romelmac Semdgomi, dasavluri kulturis msoflSegrZnebiTi mimarTeba ganapiroba.

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mizezad miaCnia1 _ inteleqtualuri aberacia dapirispirebis konstataciur dones siRrmiseulad gaumWolav saburvelad aRiqvams. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Tavad kultura, anu meore buneba umteswilad, Tu srulad ara, swored garemomcvel sinamdvilesTan Sejaxebisas individualur samyaroebSi aRZrul warmosaxviT fenomenTa realobaSi gadmodinebis Sedegia... sworee amitom, kulturaTa dapirispirebis faqtoris win wamowevas xels, garda aRniSnuli Tvalsawieris simoklisa an gadafarvisa, yovelTvis bolomde amoucnobi adamianuri arsis maradiuli problemis sirTulec uwyobs. Torem, imis danaxva, rom nebismieri kultura, Tu is namdvilad kulturaa, miuxedavad cvalebad da ganbnevad pozitiur sinamdvilesTan gadanaskvisa, mainc adamianis imanentur bunebas efuZneba, rom misi garkveul kanonzomierebaze damyarebuli aRnagoba ganpirobebuli sulieri wyobiT aris Zneli ar unda iyos. sirTules ki swored is warmoSobs, rom Tavad adamianis Sida realoba gare, sagnobrivi samyarosgan Zalzed gansxvavdeba. Tavis TavSi arsebulis, nivTierisgan gansxvavebulis, gaurkvevlisa da miuwvdomlis ara marto wvdomas, aramed gare, sasicocxlod mniSvnelovan sinamdvilesTan adeqvatur (sadag an farsag) morgebas adamiani isev Sida unariT, warmosaxviT cdilobs. sayrdeni, Tundac droebiTi, romelic mouxelTebel, ucnob teritoriasTan miaxlebis saSualebas gvaZlevs, rogorc nicSe aRniSnavda, warmosaxvis an fantaziis nayofia da aseTad simbolo an metafora warmosdgeba. simbolo ki yovelTvis ormagi bunebisaa (Zvel berZnebTan sityva symbolon-is Tavdapirveli mniSvnelobac _ orad gadatexili joxisa Tu Cxiris naWeri _ orobiTobas gulisxmobda). is, e. i. cnobierebaSi Camjdari simbolo, rogorc wesi, ori, gare da Sida sinamdvilis erTdroulad gawvdomas cdilobs. mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba, rogorc
kulturaTa dapirispirebis problema gansakuTrebiT mZafrad da katastrofulad socio-ekonomikur mecnierebasa da saerTaSoriso biznesis sferoSi aRiqmeba _ 90-iani wlebidan axali mimarTuleba, Cross-Cultural Management-ic ki Seiqmna. espanel-amerikeli sociologi manuel kastelsi (Manuel Castells) ki Tvlis, rom kulturuli gansxvavebulobidan amosuli hi poTeza, im SemTxvevaSic, roca is rasistul elements ar moicavs (igulisxmeba, rom Cveulebrivad es, rasistuli elementi kulturaSi Tanaobs) problemas ver xsnis. mTavari, misi azriT, teqnologiuri ganviTarebaa: ...erTsa da imave kulturas, sazogadoebasa da saxelmwifos Soris mimarTebis struqturidan gamomdinare sakmaod gansxvavebuli teqnologiuri traeqtoriebi SeuZlia warmoSvas. ( . : , )
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abelur-kaenuri simbolizmi da kulturaTa dapirispireba

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Cans, am universaluri mentaluri warmonaqmnis aRnagobaTa anu Camoyalibebis wesTa Soris unda idos. Tu winarefleqsiuri, yovlis erTianad momcveli miTosuri azrovneba amgvar, rogorc wesi, qimerul warmonaqmnebs grZnobad-emociuri muxtiT, `gasulierebuli kvanZiT~ kravda, ukve Semdgomi, anu sxva yvelafrisgan gankerZoebuli adamianuri cnobiereba samyaroSi Caweras Sida, imanenturi wyobis mixedviT formirebuli simboloebiT cdilobs. imanenturi Tviseba an Zireuli intuicia kvlav simboloa, iseTi, romelic im meta-, RvTiur Tu sxva saxis farul, adamianuri arsebisaTvis miuwvdomel kanonzomierebis WvretiT moxilvas gulisxmobs. da aq, amgvar midgomaSi erTgvari ganuzRvreloba Semodis _ erTi simbolo meores efuZneba, meore kidev sxvas da a. S. usasrulod... Tu samyarosa da adamianis WeSmariti arsis saboloo amocnobis miamitur, sworxazovan gezs mivyvebiT, maSin, marTlac mxolod ganuzRvrelobis, wamxeduri fardobiTobis, ganbnevisa da jojoxeTuri ganmeoradobis velSi davrCebiT... religiuri simbolo amgvari usasrulobiT gzadaketilobisa an idumal da amoucnob RvTisagan alyaSi moqcevisa iobis moTqmavaebaa: risTvis eZleva sinaTle tanjuls da sulgawamebuls _ sicocxle? (iob. III, 20). azris aseT Slegur sulier traeqtoriaze dausrulebel srbolasac da kiTxvasac: saidan modis sibrZne da sad aris Semecnebis adgili? (iob. XXVIII, 20), religiaSi erTi SemaCerebel-damsazRvravi instancia da pasuxi aqvs _ yovladsruli RmerTi. filosofosisaTvis mTavari mainc formaa. im SemTxvevaSic ki, roca is yvelafris sawyisad yovladsrul RmerTs miiCnevs, demiurgosi misTvis mainc absoluturi forma da formismimcemi instanciaa. aq, e. i. filosofiuri azrovnebis velSi, damsazRvravi da usasrulo ganmeorebadobis Semakavebeli mxolod forma SeiZleba iyos. mere ra, rom aseTi warmonaqmni simboluria, mere ra, rom is mxolod Sualeduri, droebiTi sayrdenia _ cvalebad gare samyarosaca da spontanur-qaoturad monacvle miswrafebebiT gajerebul sulier wiaRsac adamiani swored amgvari warmonaqmniT awesrigebs. Sida da gare xdomilobaTa SeuCerebeli, zRvardaudebeli dinebis, maTi uazro ganbnevis Sekaveba da aseve, maTi mocva-gaazrebis SesaZlebloba, anu adamianur me-s mier sakuTar Tavsa da samyaros Sesaxeb raRacis gagebis piroba mxolod amgvari, kantiseuli saxeldebiT, inteligibeluri kvanZebis wyalobiT xorcieldeba.

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kantis trancendentaluri kategoriebic savaraudod arsebul siRrmiseul, aSkarad da naTlad gamouvlenel kanonzomierebaTa WvretiTi wvdomis Sedegad Camoyalibebuli da amitomac simboluri formebia. garkveuli zewesrigis intuicia, ra Tqma unda, winarefleqsiul, miTosur azrovnebaSic arsebobs (miTur simboloTa gagebas an gaSifvras amitomac vaxerxebT), magram racionalurad gawerili Zireuli formebi ufro garkveuli saazrovno-logikuri operirebis SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs. am TvalsazrisiT, kantis kategoriebi, aprioruli formebi _ sivrce, dro, mizezobrioba, aucilebloba da a. S. _ ze- Tu meta- wesrigis mravawaxnagovani gamovlinebaa. Zireul forma-intuiciaTa swored amgvari mravlobiTobisa da kidev istoriul garemo-pirobaTa gamo xdeba ise, rom calkeuladamianuri cnobierebis wyoba mowesrigebuli upiratesad romelime erTi kategoriuli formis mixedviT SeiZleba iyos. da Tu calkeul individTa Sejaxeba-Seyris Sedegad sazogadoebriv ganzomilebaSi kvlav romelime kategoriuli mimarTebis upiratesoba ikveTeba, maSin mocemuli eTnosis, Temisa Tu eris kulturis daxasiaTeba swored am upiratesi formis mixedviT SeiZleba moxdes. kerZod, Cems wina naSromSi aRniSnuli iyo, rom abeluri tradiciis xalxis arseboba da saqmianoba upiratesad sivrciTi, xolo kaenurisa _ droiTi mowesrigebis niSniT xasiaTdeba2. winamdebare werilSi, amjeradac, yuradReba gamaxvilebuli kvlav dro-sivrciT maxasiaTebelze iqneba. Tumca, aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom droisa da sivrcis kantis kategoriebi moxmobili metwilad TvalsaCinoebis mizniT aris. Torem, karga xania mecniereba drois an sivrcis cnebas calcalke aRar ganixilavs. amas garda, kantTan es ori cneba aratolZalovania, dro miCneuli gare da Sida movlenebis, xolo sivrce _ mxolod gare movlenebis apriorul pirobad aris. amitomac, adamianuri cnobierebis Tanamedrove aRweras, fenomenologiur Tu qrono-toposur wyobas kantis urTierT gancalkevebuli kategoriebi mTlad kargad ver esadageba. imis TvalsaCino magaliTad, Tu ramdenad daSorda dRevandeli azrovneba kantis models Jil delezis membranuli topologia gamodgeba.

ix.-T, irakli mWedliSvili _ abelur da kaenur tradiciaTa dro-sivrciTi simbolizmi, kreb. semiotika, Tb. 2007, gv. 142.
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abelur-kaenuri simbolizmi da kulturaTa dapirispireba

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delezis xedviT, aracnobier zedapirze (gamyofze, membranaze) warmoSobili singularuli movlena (xdomiloba), romelic arc pirovnuli da arc individualuri xasiaTisaa Zvradobisa da TviTSekavSirebis imanenturi SesaZleblobiT xasiaTdeba. amasTan, saintereso da sagulisxmoa isic, rom Zvradobaca da TviTSekavSirebac, misi azriT, nomadur (momTabare) ganawilebas eqvemdebareba da is cnobierebis sinTezis pirobisagan, fiqsirebuli da dafuZnebuli ganawilebisagan radikalurad gansxvavdeba. roca Cvens winaSe anonimur, nomadur, upirovno da wina-individualur singularobaTa fuTfuTa samyaro ixsneba transcendentalur vels mxolod maSin vaRwevT.3 singularoba _ es WeSmaritad transcendentaluri movlena gagebuli ori mizezobriobis, neitralobisa da warmomSobi potencialis koniunqciuri (logik. AND) kavSiris mixedviT unda iyos. kanti ki transcendentalur vels apercefciis sinTezur erTianobad warmoadgens, rac masSi, am velSi me-s SetaniT daunintereseblobis (neitralobis) pirobasa da genezisis SesaZleblobas spobs. amgvari midgomiT, transcendentaluri imis (cnobierebis) msgavsebad da xatad warmodgeba, risi dasabuTebac Tavad unda moexdina. Tumca, Tu xsenebul or kauzalobas yuradRebas ar mivaqcevT da mxolod transcendentalur pirobaTa sferoTi SemovifarglebiT kantis xedvam, garkveuli miaxloebis doneze, sakmaod koreqtuli Sedegi SeiZleba mogvces. da aq, albaT, mainc mcire dazustebaa saWiro. transcendentaluri veli, delezis aRweriT, arsobrivad gamyofi, gardamavali an sasazRvro areSi warmoSobili metastabiluri bio-fizikuri sistemaa da terminebs, nomaduri da dafuZnebuli (an abeluri da kaenuri) aq, am konteqstSi mxolod metaforuli mniSvneloba SeiZleba hqondeT. xolo, socio-kulturul velSi ki, rogorc iTqva, es terminebi swored transcendentaluri pirobebis, dro-sivrciTi kategoriebis gamovlenas an maTi meSveobiT aRweris mcdelobas asaxavs. ase rom, ori xedvis, ori aRweris terminuli analogia, am SemTxvevaSi, maT Soris pirdapir da uSualo korelacias ar gulisxmobs... amrigad, rogorc iTqva, ganxilul, ukve Camoyalibebul adamianur me-Ta dapirispirebaSi, iq, sadac sazogado mimarTebebi isaxeba transcendentalur pirobaTa gamovlena miaxloebis an sizustis kantiseul donezec SeiZleba xdebodes. ukve naxseneb Cems wina naSromSi aRniSnulia, rom TiToul (abelur da kaenur) tradiciaSi gare realobis romelime, droiTi an sivrciTi niSniT mowesrigebis
1

. . . ., 1998. . 143

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prevalireba Sida an sulier wiaRSi, swored am ori kategoriis Zireuli kavSiris gamo, sapirispiro tendenciis TanaobiT kompensirdeba. ase rom, raime socialuri jgufisaTvis saxasiaTo da gansakuTrebuli kulturul-tradiciuli erTianoba calkeuli individis garkveul, pirvelad intuiciebsa Tu simbolur formebze orientirebas efuZneba. ori adamianuri samyaros Seyra-Sejaxeba ki, rogorc Cans, amgvari erTeuli xedvis gavrcobisa da sazogado mocvis erTerTi aucilebeli pirobaa (aq heraklitec SeiZleba gagvaxsendes _ omi sayovelTaoa, uTanxmoeba simarTlea, yvelaferi brZoliTa da aucileblobiT warmoiSveba). xolo, Sepirispirebisa da uTanxmoebis pirobas, garda xsenebuli Zireul formebze gansxvavebuli orientaciisa da aqedanve warmomdgari kulturul-mentaluri Seusabamobisa kidev erTi mudmivi, amjerad bunebrivi warmomavlobis faqtoric emateba. ortega erTgan aRniSnavs: TviTCaRrmaveba, iseve, rogorc yvelaferi adamianuri sqesiT xasiaTdeba _ mamakacuri TviTCaRrmaveba qalurisagan gansxvavdeba4. aq, amgvari mimarTulebiT azris warmarTva gnostikur tradiciisken mibrunebas, adamianuri arsebis or sawyisad dayofas sulac ar gulisxmobs5. sqesi, albaT, erTi arsis iseT gansxvavebul modalobad unda warmovidginoT, romelic adamianur individTa Seyris albaTobas zrdis da maT urTierT mizidva-ganzidvas daZabulobas matebs6... amitomac, pirvelad da uSualo realobaSi vaSli rogorc aseTi an vaSli TavisTavad ar moicema. adamianuri aRqmis yovel fiqsirebul suraTSi, Tu dasabamiseul simbolos mivmarTavT, mxolod vaSli adamisaTvis an/da vaSli evasaTvis arsebobs. da es vaSlebi namdvilad gansxvavdebian _ Tundac imitom, rom adamica da evac
citata aRebulia naSromidan, adamiani da adamianebi. SegiZliaT ix.-T wignSi, --, , ., 1991, . 252. 5 Rosarium Philosophorum-is XIII saukunis anonimi avtori wers: mamakacisagan da qalisagan mrgvali wre gaakeTe, misgan oTxkuTxedi amoiRe, xolo misgan ki _ samkuTxedi. Tu mrgval wres gaakeTeb, filosofiur qvas miiReb. am saocari qvis simbolos srulyofili cocxali arseba, axali adami, meore adami an adam kadmoni warmoadgens, romelic qalur sawyissac moicavs. alqimiur moZRvrebaSi TiTqmis yvelaferi Corpus Hermeticum-dan da sxva adreuli wyaroebidan aris Tavmoyrili: piTagoras tetraqtis (oTxeba), empedokles sfero, platonis androgini, gnostikuri adami, da a. S. 6 daZabulobas sqesTa Soris e. w. animosity-c, anu mtrobac warmoSobs. gaRizianeba, romelsac es faqtori iwvevs fsiqozuri xasiaTisaa da amitomac is ara Cvens mier ganxilul Cveul, normalur urTierTobaTa, aramed paTologiis sferos ganekuTvneba...
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abelur-kaenuri simbolizmi da kulturaTa dapirispireba

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yovelTvis vaSlis mxolod erT mxares xedavs. Tu erTi mis wiTel loyas ucqers, meores xedvis areSi vaSli ara mxolod fermkrTali, aramed Wiani, Wiisgan gamoWmulic ki SeiZleba iyos. amas garda, damokidebuleba Tu mimarTeba am naxevrad gamovlenil obieqtTan aseve gansxvavebulia: ueWvelia, rom, Tu codvis vaSli adams marTlac evam SesTavaza, maSin es obieqti evas samyaroSi Tavidanve gansakuTrebul, surviliTa Tu vnebiT Seferil adgils unda ikavebdes. xolo adamisaTvis ki, vnebisa Tu survilis momcvel sagnad es obieqti mxolod dagemovnebis Semdeg SeiZleba iqces. zogadi warmodgena mTliani vaSlisa iseTi mentaluri obieqti an fiqciaa, romelic or gansxvavebul, Tundac mxolod droSi daSorebul xedvaTa an STabeWdilebaTa SeTavsebiT yalibdeba. konkretuli (da ara idealuri) vaSlis mTlianoba Cvens cnobierebaSi platonis im sityvieri msgavsebis gvarad unda yalibdebodes, romelic warmoTqmulis uSualod danaxvis saSualebas gvaZlevs da romelic Tavisi bunebiT Zveli urCxulebis _ qimeras, skilasa da kerberis _ analogiuri aris7. ase rom, vaSli, rogorc mentaluri obieqti (da vimeoreb, ara rogorc platonuri, idealuri obieqti) Sedgenili, qimeruli warmonaqmnia _ vizualur an qrono-toposur rigis anabeWdTa garda mis kompozicias uSualo, kerZo gamocdilebisa da kulturultradiciuli naWdevebis erTobliobac SeiZleba qmnides. an, sxvanairad _ mentaluri vaSli iseTi simboloa, romlis erT, obieqturi realobidan momdinare mxaresTan bmaSi meore _ subieqturi fiqcia an warmodgena aris. rogorc Cans, sityvieri msgavsebis kvlavwarmoqmna maradmimdinare, dausrulebeli procesia. Cveni cnobiereba, struqturalisturi qmedebis analogiurad yovelTvis iseT warmodgenas agebs, romelic pirveladi samyaros anabeWdi an asli ar aris, Tumca, swored imitom, rom pirveladis msgavsia, aseTi konstruqcia am samyaros inteligibelurs xdis8. magram sakmarisia
platoni, saxelmwifo, IX, 588. ise ki, dazustebisaTvis, unda aRiniSnos, rom naxevradxiluli vaSli, anu vizualuri xati sokrates mixedviT sagnis ideis mesame qvedonea, mibaZvis mibaZva an Crdilis Crdilia (ix. iqve, X, 597). xolo, mosaxilvelad Seqmnili sityvieri xati, unda vivaraudoT, iseTi mentaluri qimeraa, romelic ara grZnobad-vizualur anabeWdTa SeTavsebiT, aramed pirveli rigis realobaTa, idealur formaTa arakoreqtuli SekowiwebiT iqmneba... zogadad, platonis moZRvrebis es momenti, mimarTeba mentalur moxilvasa da vizualur xats Soris calke, gansakuTrebul ganazrebas saWiroebs... 8 struqturalisturi qmedebis Sesaxeb ix.-eT: . . wignSi, . . . ., 1989, . 253.
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ki mxolod calmxrivi, isic naxevrad gamovlenili sensualuri warmomavlobis obieqtTa msgavseba koreqtuli warmodgenis SeqmnisaTvis? iqneb inteligibeluroba enobrivi gamoTqmis, nebismier sityvier msgavsebaTa an semiotikur niSanTa, diskursul sazrisTa pluralizms gulisxmobs? Tu asea, maSin koreqtulobaze laparaki an zedmetia, an, piriqiT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom yoveli niSani, simbolo an metafora da mTlianobaSi ki, reprezentacia koreqtulia, radgan sazrisi aqvs. magram aseT SemTxvevaSi dgeba kiTxva, ra movuxerxoT istorias, xsovnas an waruval Rirebulebebs? pluralur gamoTqmaTa simravlidan rogor gamovarCioT is gansakuTrebuli, romelic gardamavali da dasaxsruli Tanmimdevbrobis, anu erTian-kulturuli ganzomilebis qaosuri ganbnevis Semakavebel, gamWol elementad gamodgeba? dedamiwaze uamravi sagania, romelTagan erTis nebismier meoresTan Sedarebac SeiZleba. ... Sedareba an xati, romelic mofiqrebuli mxolod erTi adamianis mier aris, aravis aRelvebs. ... da piriqiT, iseTi adamiani ar arsebobs, romelsac erTxel mainc ar SeegrZnos, rom bediswera mZlavri da Clungia, rom is udanaSaulosTan erTad Seubralebelic aris. zuxairam leqsi swored am, wamieri Tu akviatebuli, magram yvelasaTvis auridebeli azris gamo dawera9. borxesis moTxrobis gmiri, averoesi am sityvebs Zveli, momTabare beduinebis periodis poeziis, ufro sworad, poeturi metaforis dacvis mizniT warmosTqvavs. zuxairam ori, brma aqlemisa da bedisweris xati Seapirispira (bediswera, rogorc brma aqlemi...). didi xnis winaT gardacvlili arabis Seqmnili es metafora dResac gvaRelvebs, radgan adamianuri sevdisa da Wir-varamis Tanaziar xvedrs Segvaxsenebs. da es Tanaziaria swored is, rac nebismier, SesaZlebel Sedarebisa Tu Sepirispirebis wyvilidan swored im bmas gamoarCevs, romlis energiac cnobierebaSi Sesabamisi gancdiT daRarul kvals gaivlis da CvenSi sicocxlis paradoqsuli da dramatuli TamaSis paTosur melodias aaJRerebs. gansxvavebiT gare samyarosTan percefciulad gaSualebuli mimarTebisa, anu fardobiT da cvalebad warmodgenaTa donisa uSualo, ueWveli da cocxali swored es, gancdiTi ganzomilebaa. amitomac, protagoras msgavsad, ufro sworad, perifrazulad SeiZleba ganvacxadoT, rom yvelafris sazomi adamianuri ganzomilebaa da am,
. . wignSi, . -. 2000,. 275.
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araobieqturi, SeiZleba zogjer mcdari, magram (dekartes cogito-s msgavsad da masTan erTad) Cveni arsebobis namdvilad damadasturebeli, tkivil-gancdis ueWvelad SemgrZnebi erTaderTi donidan unda amovideT... imas, Tu ras davarqmevT an ras davukavSirebT am saerTos an Tanaziars am SemTxvevaSi gadamwyveti mniSvneloba ar unda qondes. SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom adamianur ganzomilebas swored aseTi, maradiulad sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis an egzistenciur problemaTa gancda, sasrulisa da usasrulos SeTavsebis, maTi Tanaobis yovelTvis Tavidan dasadgeni Zalisxmeva, anu sulieri aqtebi qmnis. Tanaziaroba ki, SeiZleba aseTi Sinagani gzebiT svlis, topologiurstruqturuli analogiis gamovlenad miviCnioT. an, SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom nomadurad ganawilebuli raRac singularobaTa, winaindividualur transcendentalur xdomilobaTa seria paradoqsuli rezonansis gamo Tavs erT, SemTxveviT wertilSi iyris, anu misi realizacia kamaTlis erT gagorebaSi xdeba (isev aluzia herakliteseuli xatisa _ samyaros marTavs bavSvi koWebiT moTamaSe). magram aseTi, delezis sityvebiT, sazrisis warmomSobi dionisuri manqana subieqts gamoricxavs. aseT modelSi subieqtis adgils Tavisufali, anonimuri da nomaduri singularoba ikavebs, romelic, rogorc adamians, aseve mcenaresa da cxovels erTnairad gamWolavs. da swored es anomimuri, brma da dauinteresebuli movlenaa is, ris gamoc sxva yvelafrisgan gamorCeuli, RmerTis mier gandidebuli adamiani iobiviT mosTqvams, ris gamoc is ucnaurad cnobad metaforebs qmnis. da am, ganxorcieleba-gamovlenis doneze imas, saidan amovalT, trascendentaluri filosofiis pirvelad da SemTxveviT realizebad singularul sazrisTa Tu sxva, yofierebis naturfilosofiuri an evoluciuri poziciidan, ganmsazRvravi mniSvneloba ar unda qondes. ganxilvis subieqtur-individualur, anu grZnobad-gancdiT dones gansakuTrebulad pirovnuli, metafizikuri konteqsti, anu adamianis mier daviwyebuli RvTiuris an/da RmerTSi gasxvisebuli adamianuris nagulisxmebi Tu aSkarad gamoTqmuli koncepti mainc Semoaqvs. ase rom ar iyos, sxvadasxva dros, adgilsa da kulturul sivrceSi Tanaziari xvedris gamo amoTqmul sityvaTa, amqveyniur amaoebaTa CiviliTa Tu morCilad miRebis amdeni magaliTi ar gveqneboda. albaT rusTavelsac igive Tanaziar-egzistenciurma gancdam aTqmevina: va, sofelo, raSigan xar, ras gvabruneb, ra zne gWirsa!.

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aSkaraa, rom arabi avtoris msgavsad rusTavelis es sityvebic imave, usamarTlo, muxTali da brma bedisweris gamo wuxils gadmogvcems. Tumca, am SemTxvevaSi, yuradReba erT mniSvnelovan momentze unda SevaCeroT. poeturi, anu droiTi niSniT mowesrigebuli Semoqmedeba ufro damaxasiaTebeli, rogorc wina naSromSi aRiniSna, ukidegano sivrcis areals mindobili abelur-nomaduri tradiciisaTvis aris. adreuli, arsobrivad abeluri civilizaciebis (gansakuTrebiT ki, siriul-sparsulis) gavlenasTan erTad qarTul kulturas (saerTod ki, im drois msofliosac) Tavisi Rrma kvali zeobis periodis arabul-islamurma samyaromac daamCnia. da es imdenad aSkara, naTeli, dadasturebuli da sayovelTaod miRebuli Sexedulebaa, rom inerciulad vefxis tyaosani zogjer mxolod aRmosavluri motivaciis mixedviTa da igive saazrovno poziciebidan ganixileba... ara da, rusTavelis moyvanili citata arabulidan gadmoRebuli, im drois erTerTi mowinave kulturis wvdomiTi monapovaris gameoreba an misi gamoZaxili, eqo namdvilad ar unda iyos. gacilebiT adreuls, vTqvaT, Tundac egvi pturs, Tavi rom davaneboT, msgavsi gancda-ganwyoba arabebze adre sxva xalxsac gamouTqvams. magaliTad, semituri modgmis sxva tomebma nomaduridan dafuZnebul cxovrebis wesze gadasvlisas igive gancda religiurad mkacr formaSi moaqcia _ vinaidan mdgmurni da xizanni varT Sens winaSe, ... aCrdiliviT aris Cveni dReni am qveynad, araferia saimedo (I neSt., XXIX, 15). drtvinva amqveyniuri amaoebis gamo, romelic Zvel aRTqmqmaSi gamoTqmuli mravlad aris asaxvas, ra Tqma unda, vefxis tyaosanSic hpovebs (va, sofelman sofels myofi yovli dasva cremlTa denad, ver gaZRa sofeli, va, sisxliTa CemTa xvretiTa!, awya vcan, saqme soflisa zRaparia da Cmaxia!, cocxali davxvde ukvirdes, sicocxle ars saTuebi da sxv.). magram, amas garda, rusTavelis msoflgancdiT poziciasa Tu inteleqtualur stils igive qristianuli naazrevidan da albaT, ufro adreul SeyraTa bilikebidan Semosuli antikuri formebic apirobeben. vefxis tyaosnis rig striqonebSi uTuod neoplatonuri warmodgenidan Semosuli xedva, anu samyaros harmoniuli wyoba da masTan ziari mimarTebac igulismeba _ miT viswavlebiT, mogveces SerTva zesT mwyobrTa wyobisa. warmavali da amoucnobi xvedris gamo drtvinvis garda rusTavelTan igive antikur-harmoniuli xedvidan momdinare adamianis renesansuli adgilis winaTgrZnobac SeiZleba davinaxoT _ ...igia lxini soflisa, igia nivTi da vali. sulxan-sabasTan vkiTxulobT: nivTi ewodebis oTxTa kavSirTa: miwasa, wyalsa, airsa da cecxlsa. da radgan sityva nivTi,

abelur-kaenuri simbolizmi da kulturaTa dapirispireba

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rogorc Cans, ara rusTavelis an sulxan-sabas kerZo warmodgenas, aramed enaSi damkvidrebul Zireul ganazrebas unda gamoxatavdes, maSin mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom adamiani, moyvanili citatis mixedviT pirveladi elementebis sadaria da amitomac mas samyaros harmoniul wyobaSi gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs sakmaod sarwmuno unda iyos. ra Tqma unda, rusTavelis Semoqmedeba am mimarTulebiTac Seswavlil-gamokvleuli sakmaod kargad aris. mocemul statiasa Tu kvlevas ki ufro sxva mizani da mimarTuleba aqvs. kerZod, zemoT iTqva, rom arsebobs raRac iseTi, mudmivad problemuri adamianuri ganzomileba, sadac egzisteciur-sasicocxlo xasiaTis gancdiTi TviTCaRrmaveba xdeba da rom, Sedegi amgvari sulieri aqtebisa sxvadasxva drois, kulturisa da tradiciis moazrovneTa SemoqmedebaSi sakmaod sacnauri analogiiT vlindeba. rusTavelis yoveli, aforizmad qceuli gamonaTqvamic, ara mxolod romelime, aRmosavluri an dasavluri tradiciis gavlenidan, aramed da pirvel rigSi, swored am Zireuli ganazrebidan unda modiodes. magram, yovelTvis da dResac, ufro aqtualuri mainc gamovlenis zedapiria, anu is donea, sadac kulturul tradiciaTa gansxvaveba aSkara da TvalSisacemia. aseT velSi ziari azris gavlisa da qmedebaTa SeTanadebisaTvis aucilebeli xsniloba, rogorc wesi, TiTqmis gauvali, gansxvavebul saazrovno formaTa barierebiT ixergeba. dasabams aseTi mdgomareoba ara guSindeli dRidan an SedarebiT Soreuli warsulidan, aramed pirveladi dayofis, e. i. abelur da kaenur cxovrebis wesTa gancalkevebis periodidan unda iRebdes. isev arabi avtoris metaforasa da rusTavelis citatas Tu davubrundebiT da davakvirdebiT, aRmoCndeba, rom arsobrivad erTidaigive azri gamoxatuli swored Zireuli dayofidan momdinare, TiTqos urTierTSeuvali simboloebiT aris. beberi aqlemisa da soflis brunvis ori xati or gansxvavebul, sayovelTao doneze jer isev dapirispirebul kulturul tradiciaTa wiaRs ganekuTvneba. cnobilia, rom adamiani metyvelebis, gamoTqmis Semadgenel niSanTa an simboloTa SeqmnisaTvis aucilebel inventars, Tavdapirvelad, mxolod gare, fizikur-sagnobriv samyaroSi poulobda. magram arCeva mniSvnelovani, sasicocxlo sazrisTan erTad utilitaruli mniSvnelobis mqone faqtorebisa da sagnebisa im krebulidan xdeboda, romelsac mas cxovrebis wesi, anu TviTSenaxvis aucilebloba karnaxobda. ase rom, amgvari, ragind farTo mocvis, magram, mainc SezRuduli da gamoyenebiT-funqciuri niSniT gamorCeul obieqtTa

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mixedviT Sedgenili simbolo-niSanTa erToblioba cxovrebis wesis ier-saxes TavisTavad atarebda. amitomac, im adreuli periodidan moyolebuli, dRemde, yoveli simbolo an niSani, farulad Tu aSkarad, romelime cxovrebis wesis an Sesabamis msoflSegrZnebiTi warmodgenis damRasac atarebs. udabnoSi mcxovreb da moRvawe beduinisaTvis aqlemi ara marto gadaadgilebisa da Tavis rCenis saSualeba, aramed samyaroSi, rogorc SeuzRudavi sivrcis arealSi Caweris organuli simboloc aris. aqedan cxadia, rom beberi da brma aqlemis simbolo an metafora amgvarad warmodgenili samyaros usasrulo Zalmosilebis gancdis pirobasac inarCunebs da SezRuduli, sasruli ganzomilebis arsebis adamianur xvedrsac migvaniSnebs. xolo, rusTaveliseuli xati, sofeli ki, swored arabulis sapirispiro tradiciis kvals, niSansa Tu konotacias atarebs. Tu isev sulxan-sabas mivmarTavT, aRmoCndeba, rom am sityvis ganmartebis Tvalis gadavleba or mniSvnelovan moments erTbaSad da aSkarad avlens. erTi mxriv, sulxan-sabas mixedviT, sofeli kacriels niSnavs, xolo, meore mxriv, is sam saxed iTqmis: saukuno igi sofeli da wuTisofeli da kacis bunebac soflad iTqmis. kacrieli, rogorc Cans, berZnuli oikumenas qarTuli Sesatyvisi unda iyos. aki kacriels, iqve, sxva ganmartebac mosdevs _ sofeli ewodebis sruliad sawuTrosa. xolo sawuTro, sulxan-sabas mixedviT, igive msoflioa. amrigad, Tu gavixsenebT, rom berZnuli oikumena, gansxvavebiT usasrulo da SemousazRvravi nomaduri sivrcisa, dedamiwis mxolod dasaxlebul arealTa, anu SemosazRvrul adgilTa, toposTa erTobliobas gulisxmobda, maSin, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom Sesabamisi qarTuli terminic _ sofeli, kacrieli an msoflio _ igive datvirTvas unda atarebdes. zemoT ukve naxseneb Cems wina naSromSi aRiniSna, rom sivrcis SemosazRvrul arealSi dafuZnebuli kaenuri tradiciis xalxi TavianT warmodgenebs, arsebobasa da saqmianobas droiT mimdevrobas ukavSirebs da amave niSnis mixedviT awesrigebs. sulxan-sabas ganmartebaSi kaenuri tradiciis orive mxare saxezea: sofeli, kacrieli rogorc SemosazRvruli toposi an amgvar toposTa erToblioba da droiTi ganzomileba, sofeli, rogorc maradiulobawarmavaloba _ saukuno sofeli, wuTisofeli (an sawuTro)10.
gamoTqmac: kacis bunebac soflad iTqmis, sulxan-sabasTan isev droiT sazriss, moklevadian adamianur sawuTros unda gulisxmobdes.
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abelur-kaenuri simbolizmi da kulturaTa dapirispireba

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ase rom, am erTob mcire da SezRuduli analizisa da albaT kidev sxva, cnobili Tu jer bolomde gamoukvleveli, magram sacnaurad mimaniSnebeli monacemebis safuZvelze SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qarTuli kulturuli tradiacia, rogorc Cans, dasabamidan (yovel SemTxvevaSi, iqidan, saidanac gadmocemani, Zeglebi da wyaroebi Cvenamde aRwevs) kaenur ti ps ganekuTvneboda. enaSi davanebul tradiciul formaTa lingvisturi, semiotikuri Tu sxva saxis gamowvlilviTi Seswavla, albaT, gamoTqmuli mosazrebis utyuar dasabuTebas mogcems. Tumca, aqve, safuZvliani Seswavlis gareSec SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kaenuri tradiciis amsaxveli enobrivi formebi qarTul kulturaSi Semosuli antikur civilizaciebTan Sexebis Sedegad ar unda iyos. Tundac mxolod elinebis mier odindel qarTvelTa saxeldebis miwaTmoqmedebasTan uSualod dakavSirebis faqti (georgia) swored kaenuri tradiciis ara garedan Tavsmoxveul, aramed adgilobriv warmomavlobas unda migvaniSnebdes11. ase rom, kaenuri cxovrebis wesidan momdinare enobrivi Tu sxva saxis simbolo endemuri warmomavlobis gamo, unda vigulisxmoT, rom qarTuli enisa da zogadad, kulturis sruliad organuli Semadgeneli iyo da Semdgomac axeTad darCa. Tavis mxriv, aRniSnuli tradiciis formebs verc mxolod dRevandlamde mosuli qarTuli saazrovno kulturis ganmsazRvravi qristianuli konteqsti daamkvidrebda. imitom, rom aRmosavlur da dasavlur tradiciaTa Sexvedris sivrceSi warmoSobili qristianuli paradigma~ im drois elinisturi sinkretizmis daZlevis garda da ufro, pirveladi dayofis~ kulturul tradiciaTa urTierTmorgebis mcdelobacaa (jvarcmis aqtiT dasabamiseulTan erTad kaenis codvis gamosyidvis simbolizmic amas migvaniZnebs). Tu asea, Tu qristianuli naazrevis sayovelTaoba romelime, kaenuri Tu abeluri tradiciis prioritets gamoricxavs, maSin qarTuli kulturisa da sityvierebis kaenur formebze upiratesi orientireba swored adreuli, pirveli aRmosavluri civilizaciebisgan gansxvavebuli xmelTaSua zRvis Crdilo arealSi gavrcelebuli da Rrmad gamjdari tradiciis gamovlena unda iyos...

igulisxmeba, rom elinebi, Tavadac SemosazRvrul miwis nakveTebze intensiuri miwaTmoqmedebis mimdevari xalsi sxva, ucxo tomel adamianTa daxasiaTebisas swored rom analogiurobis princi pidan unda amosuliyvnen. analogiis ar arseboba ki sxva dasaxelebiT, barbarosebi, xasiaTdeboda...
11

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Sua saukuneebis qarTuli samecniero azrovnebis istoriidan: efrem mciris sqolio samyaros geocentrulobis Sesaxeb
filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, xelnawerTa erovnuli centris mTavari mecnieri TanamSromeli. grigol nazianzelis TxzulebaTa kvlevis saerTaSoriso jgufis wevri. ZiriTadi naSromebi: grigol RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTa komentarebis publikaciebi seriiT Corpus Christianorum, Series Graeca 36, 45, 52. Corpus Nazianzenum 5, 12, 17 (1998, 2001, 2004). Pseudo-Nonniani in IV orationes Gregorii Nazianzeni commentarii (Corpus Christianorum. Series Graeca, 50, Corpus Nazianzenum, 16), Turnhout-Leuven, 2002. interesTa sfero: Sua saukuneebis qarTulbizantiuri literaturuli urTierTobebi, mTargmnelobiTi skolebi, bizantiel avtorTa Txzulebebis Zveli qarTuli Targmanebis gamocema.

Sua saukuneebis qarTuli azrovnebis Camoyalibebis kvlevaSi gansakuTrebuli adgili eTmoba pirvelwyaroebis _ qarTul xelnawerTa kolofonebis Seswavlas, romlebsac sxvadasxva epoqis qarTveli mwignobrebi winaSesavlebis, boloTqmebisa Tu marginaluri SeniSvnebis saxiT urTavdnen TavianT naSromebs. qarTul xelnawerebSi marginaluri SeniSvnebi _ eqspoziciuri xasiaTis mcire teqstebi imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor unda wavikiTxoT da gavigoT sxva, ufro mniSvnelovani teqstebi _ adreuli periodidan Cndeba, Tumca marginalur SeniSvnebs, rogorc teqstis interpretaciis Camoyalibebul sistemas, pirvelad XI saukunis Savi mTis (antioqiis regioni) elinofili mwignobris, efrem mciris Targmanebis Semcvel krebulebSi vxvdebiT.1 es arc aris gasakviri, radgan, Tavisi
efrem mcires Tavis kolofonebSi Teoriuli mosazrebebic aqvs gamoTqmuli teqstis komentirebis meTodebis Sesaxeb. efremis mixedviT, arsebobs marginaluri ganmartebis (`kidesa warwerili Targmanebis~) ori tipi: zepiriT dawerili~ SeniSvna, romelic teqstis mTargmnels ekuTvnis, da berZnuli dednidan (`dedidan~) momdinare SeniSvna. rogorc kolofonidan irkveva, xelnawerTa aSiebze SeniSvnebis darTvis es wesi efrems svimeonwmidis monastris biblioTekis berZnuli xelnawerebidan gadmouRia. ix. ioane damaskelis `dialeqtikis~ qarTul Targmanze darTuli efrem mciris Sesavali, damaskeli 1976:67-68.
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specifikidan gamomdinare, swored berZnulis adekvatur, literalur Targmanebs `u ms Semateba reca ganmacxadebelad sitysa.~2 xelnaweris aSiebi ki is Tavisufali sivrcea, sadac mwignobars _ mTargmnels, redaqtors Tu gadamwers _ SeuZlia gamoTqvas, gamosaxos, mianiSnos is, risi Tqmisa da gamoxatvis saSualeba mas ar eZleva ZiriTad teqstze muSaobisas. am Tavisufali sivrciT mudam sargeblobdnen bizantieli mwignobrebi _ bizantiuri xelnawerebis aSiebze uxvad vxvdebiT Sua saukuneebis mwignobarTa komentarebs.3 berZenTa mibaZviT efrem mcirec xSirad urTavda xolme Tavis Targmanebs ganmartebiTi xasiaTis SeniSvnebs.4 is xom elinofili _ `berZenTa moyvaruli~ mwignobari iyo am sityvis pirdapiri gagebiTac, razec berZnebis mimarT mis kolofonebSi araerTxel gamoxatuli gansakuTrebuli mowiweba da aRfrTovaneba mianiSnebs. marginaluri SeniSvnebis daniSnulebaa, ZiriTadi teqstis gaazrebasa da gagebaSi daexmaros mkiTxvels, Tumca maTi analizi xSir SemTxvevaSi mravalmxrivi daskvnebisa Tu mosazrebebis gamoTqmis saSualebas iZleva. marginalur SeniSvnaTa Seswavla cocxlad warmogvidgens im garemos, romelSic muSaobdnen qarTveli mTargmnelebi, im gavlenebsa Tu tendenciebs, romlebic zemoqmedebdnen qarTveli mwignobrebis muSaobis stilisa Tu azrovnebis Camoyalibebaze.5 am kuTxiT ganvixilavT sqolios, romelic dasturdeba adrebizantiuri sasuliero mwerlobis umniSvnelovanesi
damaskeli 1976:67. komentarebis ganlageba xelnaweri wignis aSiaze wminda bizantiuri movlenaa. Tu elinisturi epoqis xelnawerebSi aSiaze mxolod mokle miniSnebebi da pirobiTi niSnebi iyo dasmuli, xolo teqstis komentari calke wignSi iyo moTavsebuli, bizantiur xelnawerSi uncialuri damwerlobis minuskuliT Secvlis Sedegad (asaxeleben sxva mizezebsac) SesaZlebeli gaxda komentarisaTvis sqolios formis micema _ misi ganlageba xelnaweris aSiaze, vilsoni 1984:103; nimo smiTi 2000:76-77. 4 efrem mciris muSaobam bizantiuri mwignobruli meTodebiT gansazRvra XI-XII saukuneebis qarTuli xelnaweri wignis mkveTrad gamoxatuli bizantinizebuli saxe, ix. oTxmezuri 2005: 54-63. 5 qarTul samecniero literaturaSi dasturdeba efrem mciris kolofonebis analizze dayrdnobiT Sua saukuneebis mwignobrobis istoriis rekonstruqciis araerTi cda (qarTul literaturul-Teoriuli azrovnebisa da mTargmnelobiTi koncefciebis Camoyalibeba, gramatikuli da literaturis Teoriis terminologiis Seqmna, berZnul-qarTul xelnawerebze muSaobis teqnikis SemuSaveba, antioqiis wignTsacavebi da qarTul-berZnuli mwignobruli urTierTobebi da a. S.), ix. bezaraSvili 2001: 134-157; 2002: 87-107; 2003: 103-117; 2004: 147-155. TvalTvaZe 1989: 68-77; 1997: 78-84; oTxmezuri 1997: 78-80; 1999: 227-234; 2004: 194-206; sarjvelaZe 1984: 198-252.
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Tamar oTxmezuri

warmomadgenlis, kapadokieli mamis, grigol RvTismetyvelis liturgikuli sakiTxavebis qarTuli Targmanebis Semcvel oTx ZiriTad nusxaSi: Jer. Iber. 43 _ XII-XIII ss; Jer. Iber. 15 _ XII s.; Jer. Iber. 13 _ XIII s. da Tbilis. A-109 _ XIII s.6 oTxive xelnaweri warmoadgens grigol RvTismetyvelis 16 liturgikuli sityvis komentirebul krebuls. komentarebis avtoria X saukunis bizantieli mwignobari, kesariakapadokiis episkoposi, basili minimusi. mTlianad krebuli _ grigolis sakiTxavebi basili minimusis komentarebiT _ qarTulad efrem mciris mier aris Targmnili. am xelnawerTa aSiebze bizantieli mwignobris komentarebTan erTad vxvdebiT SeniSvnebs, romlebic, ZiriTadad, efrem mcires ekuTvnis.7 sqolio erTvis grigol nazianzelis 43-e sakiTxavis, `basili didis epitafiis~ basilis minimusis komentars. Tavis mxriv, basili minimusis komentari ganmartavs `epitafiis~ im pasaJs, sadac gavlebulia paraleli basili didis saTnoebasa da mzes Soris, romelic `kidiT kidemde sworpativobiT gananaTlebs~ mTel samyaros.8 basili minimusis komentarSi ganmartebulia meqanizmi, Tu rogor anaTebs samyaros mze; ganmartebisas naxsenebia `yoveli sofeli~, `sferi~ da `kerZosferi~. basilis komentaris swored am pasaJs erTvis sqolio: rameTu `yoveli sofeli~ raJams Tqua, yovlisave xilulisaTs itys cisa da queyanisa da maT Soris raca ars zRua da meli, romeli-ese ars sofeli xiluli. xolo uxilavi sofeli ars, raca rame ars zena kerZo cisa amis, Cuen mier xilulisa, da queSe kerZo melisa da zRsa. amas Tana uwyode, viTarmed sfer uwodian berZulad eseviTarsa qmnulebasa gumbadisa da kamarisasa, romel yovliT kerZo mrguali iyos; gumbadis saxe da k a r v i s s a x e ara xolo zeda T, aramed _ queSeTca. da eseviTarsa ityan saxesa cisasa, viTarmed simrgule ese, romel ars zena kerZo zRsa da melisa, ca ese, romelsa vxedavT, eseviTarive Cahvlis gareSemcveli zRsa da melisa da iqmnebis queSe kerZo
bregaZe 19881: 133-138, 144-158, 159-167; BbregaZe 19882: 79-81. grigol nazianzelis sakiTxavTa efremiseuli krebulebis qarTul SeniSvnaTa avtorobis Sesaxeb ix. oTxmezuri 2004: 194-206. 8 wJ~ ajp j a[krwn ta; a[kra ijsotivmw~ katafwtivzein (PG 36, 584 C 4-5). qarTuli teqstisaTvis ix. grigol nazianzelis Txzulebebi 2004: 272, l. 5-6; pasaJi, Tavis mxriv, eyrdnoba Psal. 18, 6.
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maTsa simrgule eseviTarive, romelsa gareSeni uvarskulaod cad uwoden. da amas yovelsa, zenasa da quenasa erTsimrgulesa, sfer uwoden. xolo martod zenasa amas casa _ imisferon saxel-sdeben, ese igi ars naxevarsferi, rameTu sruli sferi ars yovliTkerZo swori simrgule cisa . raRa ars zena kerZo zRsa da melisa da ra ars queSe kerZo maTsa? yovliTurT Semcveli maTi. xolo me, vina Tgan ZueliTgani saxeli qarTulad vera vpoe visgan, igive berZuli sferi davdev. amis sferisa simrgulesa Sina, zedasa da queSesa, viTarca wertili rame karakiniTa momrgulebulsa Sina Sua oden ars queyana.9 amgvarad, sqolioSi erTmaneTs enacvleba leqsikologiuri da kosmologiuri xasiaTis msjeloba: `yoveli sofeli~ aris xiluli da uxilavi soflis erTianoba. xiluli sofeli aris yvelaferi, rac ki ram xilulia _ ca, qveyana (anu dedamiwa), zRva da xmeleTi. xolo uxilavi sofelia is, rac aris, erTi mxriv, xiluli cis zemoT da, meore mxriv, xmeleTsa da zRvis qvemoT. amis Semdeg sqolioSi warmodgenilia berZnuli leqsikuri erTeulis, sfai`ra-s ganmarteba. sfai`ra aris `gumbaTi~, `kamara~, romelic yoveli mxridan mrgvalia; gumbaTs da karavs hgavs ara marto misi zeda, aramed qveda nawilic. Semdeg sqolioSi kvlav grZeldeba saubari samyaros agebulebis Sesaxeb: xiluli ca mrgvalia da zRvisa da xmeleTis zemoTaa. is Semouvlis zRvasa da xmeleTs, moicavs maT da zRvisa da xmeleTis qvemoTac simrgvales qmnis. am cas `gareSeni~ uvarskvlavo cas uwodeben. amis Semdeg sqolios avtori kvlav ubrundeba leqsikuri erTeulis, sfai`ra-s ganmartebas da masTan erTad ganmartavs hJmisfai`ra-sac: mTel simrgvales, zedas da qvedas, sfero ewodeba, xolo hemisferoa cis zeda sfero; Semdeg isev meordeba sferos ganmarteba _ es aris mrgvali ca mTlianad. msjeloba grZeldeba kiTxva-pasuxis formiT: maS, ra aris xmeleTisa da zRvis zemoT da qvemoT? is, rac moicavs maT (igulisxmeba ca). da kvlav leqsikologiuri xasiaTis SeniSvna _ qarTveli mwignobari ganmartavs mis mier berZnuli leqsikuri erTeulis berZnulidan pirdapir (transliteraciiT) gadmotanis mizezs _ sqolios avtors berZnuli leqsikuri erTeulisTvis sfai`ra qarTul enaSi ver upovia Sesatyvisi da amitom es sityva berZnulidan pirdapir gadmoutania. komentars
9

Cods. Tbilis. A-109, 61r, Jer. Iber. 15, 66v, Jer. Iber. 43, 65v (non leg.), Jer. Iber. 13, 319r.

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Tamar oTxmezuri

asrulebs isev kosmologiuri xasiaTis msjeloba, amjerad ukve mxatvrul aspeqtSi gaazrebuli: rogorc wertili fargliT Semoxazul wreSi, isea qveyana (dedamiwa) moqceuli sferos centrSi. amgvarad, sqolioSi, erTi mxriv, mocemulia berZnuli leqsikuri erTeulebis ganmarteba, meore mxriv, Tanmimdevrulad, mwyobrad aris Camoyalibebuli warmodgena samyaros agebulebaze, kerZod, kosmologiuri koncefcia samyaros sferulobisa da misi geocentrulobis Sesaxeb. qarTul TargmanSi berZnuli leqsikuri erTeulis transliteraciiT gadmotana da misi ganmarteba elinofiluri mTargmnelobiTi tradiciisaTvis da, gansakuTrebiT, efrem mciris mTargmnelobiTi meTodisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli movlenaa. am xerxis gamoyenebis mizezi efrem mciris kidev erT marginalur SeniSvnaSi aris axsnili: efrems qarTulSi ver upovia xelobis aRmniSvneli berZnuli leqsemebis Sesatyvisebi, `amisTs dagdebasa, anu tyuviliT dawerasa, berZuladve dawera virCie~,10 _ SeniSnavs mTargmneli. am mxriv misabaZi efremisTvis, rogorc yovelTvis, berZnebi arian, romlebsac aseT SemTxvevaSi ucxo saganTa aRmniSvneli leqsikuri erTeulebi pirdapir gadmoaqvT ucxouri enidan. magaliTad, arabulidan Saqari _ saxarad, yulyasi _ kulkasad, zafrana _ zafarad. igivea naTqvami Cvens sqolioSi: `xolo me, vinaTgan ZueliTgani saxeli qarTulad vera vpoe visgan, igive berZuli sferi davdev.~ ase rom, es efremis mier araerTxel ganxiluli sakiTxia. rac Seexeba kosmologiur koncefcias samyaros sferulobisa da geocentrulobis Sesaxeb, is, rogorc cnobilia, saTaves antikurobaSi iRebs. piTagora da misi mimdevrebi, samyaros harmoniuli xedvidan gamomdinare, miiCnevdnen, rom dedamiwa da planetebi sferulia; samyaros sferulobis Sesaxeb miniSnebas vxvdebiT platonis `respublikaSi~; TxzulebaSi `cis Sesaxeb~ aristotele gamokveTilad saubrobs cis da, sazogadad, samyaros sferulobis Sesaxeb. sabolood samyaros geocentruli modeli kosmologiuri sistemis saxiT Camoayaliba elinisturi epoqis astronomma, klavdius ptolemaiusma. mecnierebaSi samyaros geocentruli xedva ptolemaiosis, zogjer ki aristoteluri modelis saxelwodebiTaa cnobili. rogorc cnobilia, bizantiurma azrovnebam imemkvidra antikuri mecnierebis (rogorc humanitaruli, ise sabunebismetyvelo) ZiriTadi
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basili didis `asketikoni~ (cod. Tbilis. A-1115, XII s., 223r.). starostini 1975: 386.

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mimarTulebebi da disci plinebi, maT Soris _ antikuri epoqis warmodgenebi samyaros agebulebis Sesaxeb.11 bizantiur epoqaSi samyaros xedvis iseTi modelis gverdiT, rogoricaa wylebSi motivtive oTxkuTxedi formis dedamiwa (kosma indikopleustesis `Cristianikh; topografiva, VI s.), arsebobda samyaros xedvis geocentruli modelic, romelic savsebiT misaRebi iyo bizantiis inteleqtualTa wreebisaTvis. samyaros sferulobis Sesaxeb saubrobs ioane damaskeli Tavis enciklopediur naSromSi `gardamocema~, romelic antikur filosofosTa naazrevsa da maT komentarebze dayrdnobiT aris Seqmnili. interesi antikuri samecniero memkvidreobis mimarT Tavs iCens IX saukuneSi _ dasturdeba am periodSi gadawerili ptolemaiosis, evklidesa da sxva antikuri avtorebis araerTi xelnaweri, rac maT popularobaze mianiSnebs. sabunebismetyvelo disci plinebSi SeiniSneba interesi damoukidebeli kvleva-Ziebebis mimarTac (leon maTematikosis moRvaweoba). xolo X-XII saukuneebi (makedonuri da komnenuri renesansis epoqa) gamoirCeva Tavisi ganmanaTlebluri tendenciebiT, azrovnebis mecnieruli stiliT, antikuri kulturuli memkvidreobis mimarT interesiT (svidasa da fotiosis moRvaweoba da maTi bibliografiuli xasiaTis naSromebi). gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia XI saukunis II naxevris cnobili bizantieli moazrovnis, miqael fselosis da misive drois antioqieli mwignobris, konstantinopolis samefo karis swavlulis, simeon seTis Sexedulebebi samyaros agebulebis Sesaxeb.12 orive berZen naturfilosofosTa mimdevria, maTi kosmologiuri Sexedulebebi mTlianad efuZneba ptolemaiosis geocentrul models.13 orive avtori samyaros agebulebaze saubrisas xSirad axdens ptolemaiosis parafrazs, axsenebs aristarqes, ptolemaiossa da sxva antikur avtorebs. sazogadod, miqael fselosi XI saukunis bizantiis inteleqtualuri cxovrebis umniSvnelovanes figurad da saazrovno procesebis ganmsazRvrelad aris miCneuli.14
gavriuSini 1983: 327-338. miqael fselosis kosmologiuri Sexedulebebi, ZiriTadad, Camoyalibebulia mis TxzulebaSi Didaskaliva pantodaphv (PG CXXII, col. 688-784); xolo simeon seTisa _ ~ ~ Suvnoyi~ twn fusikwn. am Txzulebis nawili gamoqveynebulia miqael fselosis SromebSi (PG CXXII, col. 784-809); mTliani gamocemisaTvis ix. delati 1939:1-89. jer kidev gamoucemeli da Seuswavlelia miqael fselosis sabunebismetyvelo xasiaTis Txzulebebi, romelTa Seswavlac samomavlod gaaRrmavebs Cvens warmodgenas bizantiuri samecniero azrovnebis Sesaxeb, gavriuSini 1983: 336. 14 sartoni 1972: 750.
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Tamar oTxmezuri

amdenad, mis TxzulebebSi kosmologiuri problematikis gamoCena am sakiTxis mimarT gansakuTrebul interessa da, zogadadac, bizantiuri samecniero azris ganviTarebaze miuTiTebs XI saukunis II naxevarSi,15 efrem mciris Sav mTaze moRvawobis periodSi. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom miuxedavad antioqiaSi im dros Seqmnili rTuli politikuri viTarebisa,16 Savi mTa garkveulwilad exmaureboda bizantiis sataxto qalaqSi mimdinare saazrovno procesebs. gvianbizantiuri periodidan am kuTxiT yuradRebas imsaxurebs Teodore metoqitis astronomiuli xasiaTis traqtati, romelic ptolemaiosis modelzea agebuli. amgvarad, Sua saukuneebis azrovnebam, romelic antikurobasa da aRorZinebas Soris gardamaval safexurad aris miCneuli, kargad Semoinaxa samyaros geocentruli modelis idea da Tavis mxriv, garkveulwilad xeli Seuwyo me-16 saukuneSi samyaros axali xedvis _ kopernikis heliocentruli modelis SemuSavebas. vfiqrobT, qarTuli sqolio samyaros geocentruli agebulebis Sesaxeb swored am konteqstSi gaazrebas da Seswavlas saWiroebs. dReisaTvis uSualo wyaro, romelsac SeiZleba dayrdnoboda efremi Tavis sqolioSi samyaros geocentruli modelis Camoyalibebisas, ar iZebneba. Tumca SesaZlebeli aRmoCnda ramdenime teqstis dadgena, romelTa gavlenac am sqolioze aSkarad SeiniSneba. 1. basili minimusis komentarebi idea samyaros sferulobis Sesaxeb upirveles yovlisa ikveTeba Tavad basili minimusis im komentarSi, romelsac erTvis qarTuli sqolio. rogorc aRvniSneT, komentatori ganmartavs dedamiwis mziT ganaTebis meqanizms, rac, Tavis mxriv, bizantiis inteleqtualTa wreebSi arsebul sabunebismetyvelo codnas unda efuZnebodes.17 basilis komentarSi vkiTxulobT:
qarTuli mTargmnelobiTi tradiciisTvis miqael fselosi naklebad aris cnobili (grigol nazianzelis me-40 sakiTxavis miqael fselosis komentaris qarTuli Targmanis Sesaxeb ix. grigol nazianzelis Txzulebebi 2007: 321-329 _ m. mWedliZis gamoc.), Tumca am pirovnebis gavlenis Sesaxeb XI saukunis II naxevris qarTul azrovnebaze, kerZod, efrem mcireze, mainc SesaZlebelia saubari, bezaraSvili 2004: 156, sq. 212, 196-198. 16 969-1084 wlebSi antioqia bizantiis imperiaSi Sedioda, ramac didad Seuwyo xeli am regionis kulturul aRmavlobas. Tumca Turq-seljukTa Semotevebis Sedegad 1084 wels bizantiis mflobelobis xana siriaSi dasrulda, ix. metreveli 2007: 88-89. 17 basili minimusi grigol nazianzelis Txzulebebis komentirebisas xSirad exeba iseT sakiTxebs, romlebic Sua saukuneebis samecniero-sabunebismetyvelo azrovnebasTan aris kavSirSi, rac dReisaTvis naklebad Seswavlil sakiTxs _ basili minimusis komentarTa wyaroebis kvlevas ukavSirdeba. am kuTxiT niSandoblivia germaneli mecnieris, T. Smidtis naSromi _ grigol nazianzelis 38-e sakiTxavis basili minimusis komentarebis publikacia da misi kvleviTi xasiaTis Sesavali, Smiti 2001: xxiv-xxviii.
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yovlisa soflisa mimarT wertilis saxe damokidebuleba aqus queyanasa, rameTu yovelsa queyanasa wertilis saxe damokideba aqus simaRlisa mimarT mzisa da garemos missa momrgualebulisa sferisa (Com. 43, 188). komentaris mixedviT, dedamiwa (`queyana~) wertilad aRiqmeba rogorc mzis, ise mTeli samyaros (`yovlisa soflisa~) mimarT, romelic, Tavis mxriv, sferoseburad gars ertymis dedamiwas. es gansja aSkarad avlens kavSirs qarTul sqolioSi gatarebul azrTan samyaros sferulobis Sesaxeb da gansakuTrebiT sqolios bolo nawilTan, sadac dedamiwa warmodgenilia, rogorc wertili fargliT Semovlebuli sferoSi: `amis sferisa simrgulesa Sina, zedasa da queSesa, viTarca wertili rame karakiniTa momrgulebulsa Sina Sua oden ars queyana.~ am frazaSi mxatvruli saxis (Sedarebis) saSualebiT aris Camoyalibebuli samyaros geocentruli xedva. aRsaniSnavia, rom Tavad mxatvrul saxes _ wertili, romelic fargliT Semoxazuli wris centrSia _ wyaro eZebneba isev basili minimusis komentarebSi. kerZod, grigol nazianzelis 42-e homiliaSi naxsenebia samefo qalaqi konstantinopoli _ qristianuli sarwmunoebis centri. basili komentarSi konstantinopolis Sesaxeb wers: rameTu esreT ars igi yovlisa soflisaTs, viTarca wertili, romlisagan moimrgulebis simrgule karakiniTa. rameTu misgan ganvlen da kualad missa Semovlen yovelni kideni. (Com. 42, 63). amgvarad, vfiqrobT, mxatvruli saxe qarTul sqolioSi momdinareobs basili minimusis komentaridan (konstantinopoli _ samyaros centri = wertili fargliT Semoxazul wreSi), oRond am SemTxvevaSi masSi gansxvavebuli, axali Sinaarsia Cadebuli (dedamiwa _ sferosebri samyaros centri = wertili fargliT Semoxazul wreSi). grigol nazianzelis teqstidan Tu basili minimusis komentarebidan aRebuli mxatvruli saxis gansxvavebuli SinaarsiT gansxvavebul konteqstSi gamoyeneba efrem mciris mwignobruli muSaobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli xerxia. Tavis kolofonebSi efremi xSirad sargeblobs grigolis an misi komentatoris mxatvruli eniT da maTi leqsikisa da frazeologiis gamoyenebiT xSirad qmnis mxatvrul saxeebs, romlebic mis teqstebSi ukve gansxvavebul Sinaarss da datvirTvas atareben. magaliTad, basilis epistoleSi konstantine porfirogenetis mimarT vxvdebiT mxatvruli saxes: `pevSebiTa amiT wyalsa erTgulebiT mi pyrobad~ ,18 sadac `wyali~ grigolis
epistolis qarTuli Targmani gamoqveynebulia, oTxmezuri 1989: 18-31; berZnuli teqstisaTvis ix. Smiti 2001: 2-6.
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homiliebis sibrZnis metaforaa. efremi kvirike aleqsandrielisadmi miZRvnil epistoleSi, romelic man warumZRvara grigol nazianzelis liturgikuli sakiTxavebis qarTuli Targmanebis krebuls, eqvTimes Sesaxeb aRniSnavs: `urwyulobasa Zlierisa amis RmrTismetyuelisa wignisa Rnisasa ganhzavebda wyalTagan sulierTa.~19 aq `sulieri wyali~ _ grigolis TxzulebaTa eqvTimeseuli eqspoziciuri Targmani _ eqvTimeseuli egzegesia, romliTac is grigolis sibrZnes (`urwyul~ e. i. ganuzavebel Rvinos) ganazavebs litoni mkiTxvelisaTvis. orive SemTxvevaSi mxatvruli saxeSi, romelic grigolis sibrZnes exeba, figurirebs `wyali~, Tumca mas calkeul SemTxvevaSi gansxvavebuli datvirTva aqvs. an kidev, grigol nazianzeli Tavis me-15 sakiTxavSi ase ixseniebs makabelebs: `gancxadebulad u orcono orcTa Sina~ (T. VIII),20 Sdr. efremis mimarTva kvirike aleqsandrielisadmi epistoleSi kvirikes mimarT: `jereT orcTaRa Sina yofasa Sen, orcTzeSTasasa ...~ 21 da sxv.22 2. ioane damaskelis `gardamocema~. qarTuli sqolio kavSirs avlens aseve ioane damaskelis `gardamocemasTan~, kerZod, am Txzulebis meoce TavTan `cis Sesaxeb~. es Txzuleba qarTulad orjer aris naTargmni _ Tavad efrem mciris mier da efremis mimdevris, elinofili mTargmnelis, arsen iyalToelis mier. damaskelis Txzulebis me-20 TavSi vkiTxulobT: yovelsave soflis Sesaqmesa Sina cisa dabadeba gswavies, romelsa-igi gareSeni brZenni uvarskulaod simrguled [sferad, arseni] uwoden mi parviTa mosesmierisa SjulisdebisaTa... kualad ukue, vieTme hgonies, viTarmed yovlisave garemos ca ars, viTarca iyo igi mrgual saxed k a m a r i s a [sferis saxeoba misi, arseni] ... aw ukue romelni-igi ityan casa kamaris saxed momrgulebulsa [sferissaxeoba Tques cisa, arseni], amas gamoaCenen, viTarmed sworad ganSorebul ars igi queyanisagan simaRled da sivrced da simaRled... vinaTgan Semdgomisaebr sitysa yovelive zena-kerZi yovliT-kerZo casa ganukuTnebies, rameTu saxed kamarisa [sferis saxed, arseni] gare-Seicavs queyanasa da simaliTa miT moZraobisa misisaTa Tanaiyvanebs mzesa da mTovaresa da varskulavTa ... xolo sxuaTa vieTme k e r Z o d k a m a r i s a eocna ca (sferisnaxevroba eocna cisa, arseni), sitysa misgan RmrTivswavlulisa daviTissa, viTarmed: `romelman gardaarTxna cani,
grigol nazianzelis Txzulebebi 1998: xxxiv. grigol nazianzelis Txzulebebi 2000:43. 21 grigol nazianzelis Txzulebebi 1998: xxxiii. 22 `siCCoebisa~ da `sZis~, `lomisa~ da `cidamtkavelis~, `Znisa~ da `TavTavis~ mxatvruli saxeebisa da maTi gaazrebis Sesaxeb grigolis homiliebSi da efrem mciresTan ix. bezaraSvili 2004.
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viTarca k a r a v n i ~ [tyavi, arseni] (fsal. 103, 2), da kualad sityvisaebr esaiasa, viTarmed: `romelman daadgina ca, viTarca kamara~ [kamara arseni] (esaia 40, 22).23 ioane damaskelTan warmodgenilia samyaros orgvari xedva. erTia antikuridan momdinare samyaros geocentruli modeli, romelic dedamiwas cis sferos cenrtSi moiazrebs, xolo meorea samyaros bibliuri xedva, romlis mixedviTac ca naxevarsferulad, karvis saxiT gadaefareba dedamiwas. azrobrivad qarTuli sqolio ukavSirdeba damaskelis teqstSi warmodgenil geocentrul models, magram sqolioSi warmodgenili msjeloba ar misdevs damaskelis teqsts imdenad, rom `gardamocemis~ me-20 Tavi am sqolios wyarod miviCnioT. magaliTad, `uvarskvlavo ca~ damaskelTan da qarTul sqolioSi sxvadasxvagvarad aris ganmartebuli; qarTul sqolioSi aris `yoveli soflis~, `xiluli da uxilavi soflis~ ganmartebebi, rasac ver vxvdebiT damaskelTan; saerTodac, qarTuli sqolio ufro vrclad da detalurad aRwers samyaros geocentrul models, vidre damaskeli. Tumca, vfiqrobT, sqolios Sedgenisas efrems unda esargebla im gamocdilebiT, romelic mas miRebuli hqonda damaskelis Targmnisas. magaliTad, samyaros sferulobaze saubrisas efremi xazgasmiT miuTiTebs, rom cis `simrgulis~ Sesaxeb sxvebi `ityan~, uvarskvlavo cis raobasac `gareSeni~ ganmartaven. damaskelTanac `gareSeni brZenni~ saubroben uvarskvlavo cis Sesaxeb, cis sferulobis Sesaxebac sxvebi _ `romelni-igi ityan~. orive SemTxvevaSi `sxvebsa~ da `gareSeebSi~ antikuri epoqis filosofosebi igulisxmebian.24 SeiniSneba garkveuli kavSiri `gardamocemis~ qarTuli Targmanis da qarTuli sqolios leqsikas Soris. is leqsikuri erTeulebi, romlebiTac damaskelis efremiseul TargmanSi berZnuli terminebi sfai`ra da hJmisfai`ra aris gadmotanili (`kamara~, `karavi~), sqolioSi am terminTa transliteraciiT gadmotanili berZnuli formebis _
damaskeli 2000: 81-84. mTeli qveynierebis dabadebis Jams Seiqmna ca, rasac uvarskvlavo sferod amboben moses dogmatebis mimTvisebeli gareSe brZenni. zogierTebis TvalsazrisiT, ca wriulad garemovlis yovelives, sferosebria ... vinc ambobs, rom ca sferosebria, igi mas miwisagan Tanabrad dacilebulad da daSorebulad warmoaCens zevidanac, gverdidanac da qvemodanac ... amboben, agreTve, rom ca sferosfer wres uvlis dedamiwas da misi uswrafesi moZraobisas, masTan erTad wres Semoivlis mze, mTvare da varskvlavebi... sxvebma naxevarsferulad warmoidgines ca, Tanaxmad RvTismetyveli daviTisa, romelic ambobs, `vinc ganavrco ca, viTarca tyavi (Psal. 103, 2), rac karavs cxadyofs... netari esaia ambobs: `vinc daafuZna ca, rogorc kamara~ (Isa. 40, 22), damaskeli 2000: 347 (e. WeliZis Targmani). 24 `gareSes~ ganmartebisaTvis Sua saukuneebis mwerlobaSi ix. siraZe 1975: 217218, 234; bezaraSvili 2001: 134-157.
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`sferisa~ da `imisferonis~ _ ganmartebebSia gamoyenebuli (`karvis saxe~ da `yovliT kerZo mrguali kamara~). am or teqsts Soris sxvaobas, erTi SexedviT, qmnis am terminTa qarTulad gadmotanis gansxvavebuli wesi, Tumca am movlenas Tavisi axsna eZebneba. rogorc cnobilia, efrems `gardamocemis~ Targmani Sesrulebuli aqvs Tavisi mTargmnelobiTi moRvaweobis pirvel etapze, rodesac jer kidev ar aris Camoyalibebuli misi elinofiluri mTargmnelobiTi koncefcia.25 am etapze is elinofili mwignobrisaTvis damaxasiaTebel gansakuTrebul precizulobas ar iCens terminTa Targmnisas. sfai`ra-s gadmotanisas erTmaneTs anacvlebs or sityvas _ `kamara~ da `simrgule~, an iyenebs sityvaTSeTanxmebas `mrgual saxe kamarisa~, xolo rTul sityvas hJmisfai`ra Targmnis Semadgeneli nawilebis mixedviT _ hJmi-sfai`ra `kerZod-kamara~. terminTa gadmotanis es xerxebi (aRweriTi da etimologiuri Targmani) swored im met-naklebad Tavisufali mTargmnelobiTi meTodisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli,26 romliTac efrems naTargmni aqvs damaskelis `gardamocema.~ rac Seexeba grigol nazianzelis liturgikul sakiTxavebs da maT komentarebs, isini efremma Targmna Tavisi moRvaweobis gviandel etapze,27 rodesac ukve mTlianad iyo Camoyalibebuli misi, rogorc mTargmnelis, elinofiluri koncefcia. am TargmanebSi efremi ukve maqsimalur sizustes icavs terminTa gadmotanisas.28 basilis komentaris Targmnisas termini sfai`ra efrems, rogorc elinofils, pirdapir berZnuli formiT gadmoaqvs, xolo mis ganmartebas sqolioSi iZleva.29 aRsaniSnavia, rom basili minimusis komentarebis efremisul TargmanSi terminebi sfai`ra da hJmisfai`ra sxva SemTxvevebSic berZnuli formiT aris gadmotanili (mag. Com. 40: 18). amgvarad, sqolio samyaros agebulebis Sesaxeb Sedgenilia efremis mier im codnaze dayrdnobiT, romelic am sakiTxis Sesaxeb arsebobda bizantiel inteleqtualTa wreebSi, da im gamocdilebis gamoyenebiT, romelic qarTvel mwignobars cnobili bizantieli avtorebis Targmnisas hqonda miRebuli. calke yuradRebas imsaxurebs qarTuli sqolios stili _ azri cxadad, mkafiod aris formulirebuli, erTi da igive azri, misi gamokveTis mizniT, gamoTqmulia ramdenjerme sxvadasxva formiT;
efrem mciris mTargmnelobiTi moRvaweobis etapebis _ Tavisufali mTargmnelobiTi meTodidan literalur meTodze gadasvlis Sesaxeb ix. WeliZe 19962: 548-559. 26 broki 1979: 69-87. 27 efrem mciris mier grigol RvTismetyvelis liturgikuli sakiTxavebis Targmnis TariRTan dakavSirebiT ix. WeliZe 19962: 548-559; oTxmezuri 1997: 78-81. 28 WeliZe 19961: 506-508. 29 berZnuli leqsikuri erTeulis transkrifciiT gadmotana da ganmartebis (ufro xSirad etimologiuri xasiaTis) darTva efrem mciris mTargmnelobiTi meTodis damaxasiaTebeli Taviseburebaa, ix. oTxmezuri 2002: xxxviii.
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teqstSi CarTulia leqsikuri erTeulebis ganmarteba; moyvanilia Sedareba, romelsac, Tavisi yofiTi Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, eqspoziciuri daniSnuleba ufro aqvs, vidre mxatvruli; gamoyenebulia kiTxvamigebis (erotes-apokrisisis) xerxi _ Sua saukuneebSi damkvidrebuli swavlebis tradiciuli forma (kiTxva: `raRa ars zena kerZo zRsa da melisa da ra ars queSe kerZo maTsa?~ migeba: `yovliTurT Semcveli maTi~). yovelive es sqolios Sua saukuneebis sacnobaroenciklopediuri xasiaTis teqstis formas aZlevs. amgvarad, rogorc Tavisi SinaarsiT, ise formiT, grigol nazianzelis TxzulebaTa efremiseul xelnawerebSi daculi qarTuli sqolio samyaros agebulebis Sesaxeb exmaureba XI saukunis bizantiaSi mimdinare saazrovno procesebs, xolo misi avtori, efrem mcire im winarenesansuli suliskveTebiT Cans gamsWvaluli, romliTac gansakuTrebiT gamoirCevian am epoqis inteleqtualebi.30 azrovnebis mecnieruli stiliT, antikurobisadmi interesiT, racionalisturi midgomiT, naturfilosofiuri ideebiTa da ganmanaTlebluri mizandasaxulobiT efrem mcire msgavsebas avlens Tavisi epoqis mowinave bizantiel moazrovneebTan. am ti pis azrovnebis CamoyalibebaSi didi roli unda Seesrulebina im garemosac, romelSic efrem mcire moRvaweobda. es aris XI saukunis bolo periodis axlo aRmosavleTi _ antioqia Tavisi mdidari biblioTekebiT, inteleqtualuri cxovrebiTa da, rac mTavaria, multikulturuli garemoTi, sadac erTmaneTis gverdiT moRvaweoben sxvadasxva erovnebis mwignobrebi.31 vfiqrobT, swored amgvari wre da garemo iqneboda gansakuTrebiT xelsayreli axali, `ucxo~ codnis dagrovebisaTvis; swored aq, berZen, siriel, arab
30 XI saukunis II naxevris bizantiaSi inteleqtualuri moZraobis humanisturrenesansuli xasiaTisa da am moZraobaSi konstantinopolis filosofiuri skolis rolis Sesaxeb ix. mWedliZe 2006: 16-21. 31 k. kekeliZis azriT, efrem mcires Sav mTaze urTierToba unda hqonoda berZen enciklopedist nikon SavmTelTan, ix. kekeliZe 1980: 252; bregaZe 1959: 014. sayuradReboa efremis urTierToba antioqiis sapatriarqosa da antioqiis patriarqTan, ioane oqsitesTan, romelsac efremi daxmarebisaTvis mimarTavda ama Tu im Txzulebis Targmnisas, oTxmezuri 1997: 78-81. rac Seexeba kontaqtebs araberZen moRvaweebTan, k. kekliZis azriT, efrem mcires urTierToba SeiZleba hqonoda XI saukunis 80-ian wlebSi svimeonwmidis monasterSi moRvawe arab berTan, miqaelTan, romlis mier arabul enaze dawerili `ioane damaskelis cxovrebis~ berZnuli Targmani efremma gadmoTargmna qarTulad, kekeliZe 1980: 252. jobaZe ar gamoricxavs TanamSromlobis SesaZleblobas qarTvelebsa da sirielebs Soris Sav mTaze Zelicxovlis eklesiis mSeneblobisas, jobaZe 1986: 118. am rigis sakiTxebi samomavlo Seswavlas saWiroebs da vfiqrobT, exmaureba siriuli mwerlobis cnobili mkvlevris, s. brokis mier dasmul sakiTxs imis Taobaze, rom `am saintereso regionis istoria namdvilad imsaxurebs, mTlianobaSi iyos gaazrebuli,~ broki 1990: 59-60.

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mwignobrebTan urTierTobis Sedegad unda gamokveTiliyo efremis mravalmxrivi interesebi da misi mwignobruli saqmianobis maZiebluri xasiaTi. SemTxveviTi ar unda iyos isic, rom samecniero ti pis codna qarTul azrovnebaSi garkveulwilad Semodis swored axlo aRmosavleTidan _ qristianuli da muslimuri kulturebis urTierTgadakveTis adgilidan, sadac intensiurad mimdinareobda dasavleTsa da aRmosavleTs Soris samecniero codnisa Tu kulturuli faseulobebis gacvla-gamocvla.32 vfiqrobT, am ti pis pirvelwyaroebis warmoCena da kvleva qarTuli saazrovno procesebis Seswavlis mizniT, safuZvels umtkicebs qarTul samecniero literaturaSi gamoTqmul Tvalsazriss, rom XI-XII saukuneebis qarTveli moazrovneebi TavianTi samecnieroTeoriuli azrovnebiTa da saswavlo-enciklopediuri mizandasaxulobiT idgnen im magistralur xazze,33 romelsac mogvianebiT gahyva evropuli inteleqtualuri samyaro. magram samwuxarod, qarTuli azrovneba, saqarTveloSi Seqmnili mZime istoriulpolitikuri viTarebis gamo, ver CaerTo da gamTlianda im umniSvnelovanes procesSi, romelic evropuli renesansis saxeliT aris cnobili.34 literatura abulaZe 1990: T. abulaZe, vaxtang meeqvsis mTargmnelobiTi moRvaweoba, Tbilisi, 1990. bezaraSvili 2001: q. bezaraSvili, `gareSe~ sibrZnisadmi damokidebulebisaTvis efrem mciris kolofonebSi, macne, enisa da literaturis seria, 1-4, 2001. bezaraSvili 2002: q. bezaraSvili, `Rrma wignuri sityvis~ gagebisaTvis efrem mciris kolofonebSi, macne, enisa da literaturis seria, 1-4, 2002.
rogorc cnobilia, siriulma kulturam gansakuTrebuli roli Seasrula Sua saukuneebis msoflio istoriaSi. swored siriuli Targmanebis saSualebiT gaecno islamuri samyaro antikur naazrevs _ platons, aristoteles, maT Soris ptolemaiosis geocentrul modelsac. am modelis siriuli versia ukve VI saukuneSi arsebobda. es Sromebi arabuli Targmanebis gadamuSavebuli versiebis saxiT miiRo evropam, vi peri 1974: 9; kraCkovski 1957: 20, 373; pigulevskaia 1979: 21-29. 33 XI saukunis Semdgom qarTuli astronomiuli azrovnebis ganviTarebis Sesaxeb ix. SaniZe 1975; TevzaZe 1979; abulaZe 1990. 34 meliqiSvili 2003: 566-569.
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bezaraSvili 2003: q. bezaraSvili, efrem mciris kolofonebi mTargmnelobiTi meTodebisa da elinofiluri Targmanis maxasiaTeblebis Sesaxeb, literaturuli Ziebani, XXIII, Tbilisi, 2003. bezaraSvili 2004: q. bezaraSvili, ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika. grigol RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTa qarTuli Targmanebis mixedviT, Tbilisi, 2004. bregaZe 1959: uwyeba mizezsa qarTvelTa moqcevisasa, Tu romelTa wignTa Sina moi senebis, T. bregaZis gamoc., Tbilisi, 1959. bregaZe 19881: T. bregaZe, grigol nazianzelis TxzulebaTa Semcvel qarTul xelnawerTa aRweriloba, Tbilisi, 1988. bregaZe 1988 2: T. Bregadz, Rpertoire des manuscrits de la version gorgienne des Discours de Grgoire de Nazianze, in Versiones orientales, repertorium ibericum et studia ad editiones curandas, ed. B. Coulie (Corpus Christianorum. Series Graeca, 20. Corpus Nazianzenum,1), BrepolsTurnhout, 1988. broki 1979: S. Brock, Aspects of Translation Technique in Antiquity, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, 20, 1, 1979. broki 1990: S. Brock, Syriac Manuscripts Copied on the Black Mountain, near Antioch, in Lingua Restituta Orientalis: Festgabe fr T. Assfalg (Aegypten und Altes Testament), 20, R. Schulz and M. Grg eds., Wiesbaden, 1990. gavriuSini 1983: . . , XI , - , . XVI, . . . , , 1983. grigol nazianzelis Txzulebebi 1998: Sancti Gregorii Nazianzeni Opera, Versio iberica I, Orationes, I, XLV, XLIV, XLI, ed. a H. Metreveli et K. Bezarachvili, Ts. Kourtsikidze, N. Melikichvili, Th. Othkhmezouri, M. Raphava, M. Chanidze (Corpus Christianorum. Series Graeca, 36. Corpus Nazianzenum, 5), Turnhout-Leuven, 1998. grigol nazianzelis Txzulebebi 2000: Sancti Gregorii Nazianzeni Opera, Versio iberica II, Orationes XV, XXIV, XIX. ed. a H. Metreveli et K. Bezarachvili, Ts. Kourtsikidze, M. Machavariani, N. Melikichvili, M. Raphava (Corpus Christianorum, Series Graeca, 42, Corpus Nazianzenum 9), Turnhout - Leuven, 2000. grigol nazianzelis Txzulebebi 2004: Sancti Gregorii Nazianzeni Opera, Versio iberica IV, Oratio XLIII, ed. a B. Coulie, H. Metreveli et K. Bezarachvili, Ts. Kourtsikidze, N. Melikichvili, Th. Othkhmezouri, M. Raphava (Corpus Christianorum. Series Graeca, 52. Corpus Nazianzenum, 17), Turnhout-Leuven, 2004.

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grigol nazianzelis Txzulebebi 2007: Sancti Gregorii Nazianzeni Opera, Versio iberica V, Orationes XXXIX et XL, ed. a B. Coulie, H. Metreveli et K. Bezarachvili, Ts. Kourtsikidze, N. Melikichvili, M. Raphava (Corpus Christianorum. Series Graeca, 58. Corpus Nazianzenum, 20), Turnhout-Leuven, 2007. damaskeli 1976: ioane damaskeli, dialeqtika, m. rafavas gamoc., Tbilisi, 1976. damaskeli 2000: wm. ioane damaskeli, marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoebis zedmiwevniTi gadmocema, r. miminoSvilisa da m. rafavas gamoc., Zv. berZnulidan qarTulad Targmna e. WeliZem, Tbilisi, 2000. delati 1939: A. Delatte, Anecdota Atheniensia et alia, vol. 2, Paris, 1939. vilsoni 1982: N. G. Wilson, The Relation of Text and Commentary in Greek Books, Atti del convegno internazionale, Urbino 20-23 settembre1982, a cura di C. Questa e R. Raffaeli, Urbino, 1984. vi peri 1974: . . , , , 1974. TevzaZe 1979: g. TevzaZe, rusTavelis kosmologia, Tbilisi, 1979. TvalTvaZe 1989: d. TvalTvaZe, efrem mciris leqsikografiuli sqolioebisa da sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis mimarTebisTvis, macne, enisa da literaturis seria, 1989, 3. TvalTvaZe 1997: d. TvalTvaZe, efrem mciris literaturul Teoriuli naazrevidan, krebuli miZRvnili z. WumburiZis dabadebis 70 wlisTavisadmi, Tbilisi, 1997. kekeliZe 1980: k. kekeliZe, Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria, I, Tbilisi, 1980. kraCkovski 1957: . . , , . IV, , 1957. meliqiSvili 2003: d. meliqiSvili, Savi mTidan gelaTamde (Savi mTis qarTuli mTargmnelobiTi skolis ZiriTadi princi pebi), naTeli qristesi. saqarTvelo, I, Tbilisi, 2003. metreveli 2007: e. metreveli, Savi mTis mwignobruli keris istoriisaTvis XI saukunis I naxevarSi, filologiur-istoriuli Ziebani I, Tbilisi, 2007. mWedliZe 2006: m. mWedliZe, miqael fselosis filosofiuri pozicia, saazrovno da pedagogiuri meTodi, Tbilisi, 2006. nimo smiTi 2000: J. Nimmo Smith, The Early Scholia on the Sermons of Gregory of Nazianzus, Studia Nazianzenica I, edita a B. Coulie (Corpus Christianorum. Series Graeca, 41. Corpus Nazianzenum, 8), Turnhout Leuven, 2000.

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oTxmezuri 1989: T. oTxmezuri, grigol nazianzelis TxzulebaTa komentirebis istoriidan, mravalTavi, XV, 1989. oTxmezuri 1997: T. oTxmezuri, efrem mciris avtografuli nusxis, S-1276-is, erTi mTargmnelobiTi sqolios Sesaxeb, istoriulfilologiuri krebuli miZRvnili ivane javaxiSvilis dabadebidan 120 wlisTavs, 1997. oTxmezuri 1999: T. oTxmezuri antikur avtorTa wignebi bizantiur epoqaSi: efrem mcire da gareSeTa wignebi, ANAQESIS. akad. T. yauxCiSvilis iubilesadmi miZRvnili krebuli, Tbilisi, 1999. oTxmezuri 2002: Th. Otkhmezuri, Pseudo-Nonniani in IV orationes Gregorii Nazianzeni commentarii (Corpus Christianorum. Series Graeca, 50, Corpus Nazianzenum, 16), Turnhout-Leuven, 2002. oTxmezuri 2004: T. oTxmezuri, grigol nazianzelis qarTuli Targmanebis Semcveli krebulebis marginaliebi, korneli kekeliZe 125, 2004. oTxmezuri 2005: T. oTxmezuri, grigol nazianzelis TxzulebaTa komentarebi qarTul mTargmnelobiT tradiciaSi (disert.), 2005. siraZe 1975: r. siraZe, Zveli qarTuli Teoriul-literaturuli azrovnebis sakiTxebi, Tbilisi, 1975. pigulevskaia 1979: . . , , , 1979. sartoni 1972: G. Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, vol. 1, Baltimore, 1972. sarjvelaZe 1984: z. sarjvelaZe, qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis Sesavali, Tbilisi, 1984. starostini 1975: . . , , , . . ., , 1975. SaniZe 1975: `etlTa da SdTa mnaTobTaTs~, a. SaniZis gamoc., Tbilisi, 1975. Smiti 2001: Th. S. Schmidt, Basilii Minimi in Gregorii Nazianzeni orationem XXXVIII commentarii (Corpus Christianorum. Series Graeca, 46. Corpus Nazianzenum, 13), Turnhout - Leuven, 2001. WeliZe 19961: E. Chelidze, The Two Georgian Translations of the Works of St. Gregory the Theologian, Studia Patristica 33, 1996. WeliZe 1996 2: e. WeliZe, Zveli qarTuli saRvTismetyvelo terminologia I, Tbilisi, 1996. jobaZe 1986: V. Djobadze, Archeological Investigations in the Region West of Antioch on-the-Orontes, Stuttgart, 1986.

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Sua saukuneebi adamianis sxeulis daviwyebisa da istoriidan misi gandevnis epoqaa. iq da imxanad mxolod macxovris sxeuli prevalirebs: iq mxolod iesos gankaceba da mis mier kacobriobis codvaTa gamosyidva axsovT. sikvdiliTa sikvdilisa damTrgunvelis aRdgoma safuZvlad daedo dogmats sxeulTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb, romlis Tanaxmadac qalebi da mamakacebi saiqioSi kvlavac Seimosebian xorciT, raTa itanjon jojoxeTSi an inetaron samoTxeSi, sadac xuTive grZnobas kvlav miecema gasaqani: TvaliT maradiulad ganWvreten RmerTsa da sasufevlis naTels, ynosvas yvavilTa surneli dauamebT, angelosTa galobiT datkbebian, zeciur sakvebs igemeben da uwmindes haers Seexebian. Sua saukuneebSi sxeulisadmi araerTgvarovani da urTierTgamomricxavi damokidebuleba arsebobda: mas xan adidebdnen, xan _ amdablebdnen. roca adamianis idealad xorcis damTrgunveli beri cxaddeboda, TavSekaveba da umankoeba uzenaes saTnoebad miiCneoda, xolo avxorcoba da gemoTmoyvareba _ sasikvdilo codvad. Tavdapirveli Secodeba mxolod adamianis ampartavnobaze ki ar migviTiTebda, aramed seqsualur codvasac ganasaxierebda. yovelive amaSi damnaSave mokvdavi sxeuli iyo da isve emsxverpla:

istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asistent-profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: XIII_XIV saukuneebis saqarTvelos istoriidan, avgustineseuli providencializmi da JamTaaRmwerlis religiuri msoflmxedveloba da istoriuli esseebi. interesebis sfero: eklesiisa da religiis istoria da istoriuli anTropologiis problemebi.

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pirveli qali da pirveli mamakaci Sromisa da tkivilisTvis gaiwirnen. Tumc, XIII saukunis Teologebi mTlad ver aRweven sxeulis nihilizebas: amboben, rom fexze dgoma adamianis saukeTeso pozaa, radgan sulis swrafvas ganasaxierebs qvevidan zeviT, miwidan RvTisken; sqesobriv gansxvavebulobaSi ikiTxeba adamianuri bunebis midrekileba srulyofisaken; aRdgomis Semdeg samoTxeSi rCeulTa srulyofileba da mSveniereba unda warmoCndes; xorciel tkbobaSicaa madli: is adamianur gonebas unda daemorCilos, radgan xorcieli grZnoba sulier miswrafebebs aZlierebs. amgvarad, Sua saukuneebSi mcxovrebi da moazrovne adamianis ganxilvisas iolad gavarCevT, erTi mxriv, sulieri xsnis moimede xorciel vnebaTa damTrgunvel eriskacs da, meore mxriv _ sixarulisa da sicilis maRiarebel monazons. Tumc, winaaRmdegobebs bolo ar uCans: gvams xan xrwnilad da ferflad warmoidgenen, xanac micvalebulTa pativsacemad ceremoniebs gamarTaven... marto evqaristiis kulti rad Rirs! nurc is dagvaviwydeba, rom Sua saukuneTa evropaSi sxeuli mTavar metaforadac iqca, romlis SemweobiTac aRiwereboda sazogadoeba da misi institutebi. sxeuli SesaZloa yofiliyo erTianobisa da konfliqtis, wesrigisa da aRrevis, bunebiTi cxovrebisa da harmoniis simbolo. amdenad, SesaZloa aRarc gagvikvirdes, rom saxelmwifo religiad qceuli qristianoba Tan Trgunavda nebismier xorciel gamovlinebas, Tan adasturebda, rom RmerTi adamianuri sxeuliT Seimosa, adamiani suliwmidis taZrad iqca. Sua saukuneTa mkvidri Tavs marxviT wvrTnida, magram wregadasul karnavalebsac awyobda. seqsualoba, Sroma, brZola, sizmari, tansacmeli, Jestebi, sicili... Sua saukuneebSi mcxovreb adamians yovelive es sxeulTan abrunebda da SesaZloa, xelmeoredac aRmoaCeninebda mas.

evropuli saazrovno orientirebi


Sua saukuneTa evropaSi cocxlobs samonazvno sulierebis lozungi wuTisoflis biwierebis Sesaxeb, rac, uwinaresad, swored sxeulis, xorcis ugulebelyofiT gamoixateba. eklesia krZalavs da mkacrad gansjis nayrovanebas, avxorcobas, ukanono seqsualur urTierTobebs... mkvidrdeba sisxlisa da Teslis tabu. bolos da bolos, naxevari evropa swored sisxlis problemebTan dakavSirebulma daavadebebma moceles!

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sisxli gansazRvravda sazogadoebis ori umaRlesi fenis _ mlocvelTa (oratores) da meomarTa (bellatores) kriteriumebs. meomrebi, romlebic mudam etoqebodnen sasuliero fenas, iZulebulni iyvnen, sisxli daeRvaraT, maSin, roca berebs _ viTarca sarwmunoebis damcvelT _ brZola da, Sesabamisad, sisxlisRvra ekrZalebodaT. maT socialur gansxvavebulobas Sesabamisi tabu gansazRvravda: macxovari krZalavda sisxlisRvras. paradoqsi iyo, rom qristianuli kulti im sisxlian msxverpls emyareboda, romelic kvlav da kvlav meordeboda evqaristiisas: aiReT, WameT. es Cemi sxeulia. yvelam SesviT aqedan, vinaidan es aris Cemi sisxli axali aRTqmisa... (maTe, 26, 26-28). qristianuli liturgiis umniSvnelovanesi epizodi erTgvarad sisxliani msxverplSewirvacaa. Sesabamisad, Sua saukuneebSi sisxli ara mxolod sasuliero pirTa da eriskacTa socialuri ierarqiis safuZvlad iqceva, aramed saero pirTac ganasxvavebs da aucxoebs erTmaneTisgan. samxedro wodeba TandaTanobiT imsWvaleba miTiT sakuTari keTilSobilebis Sesaxeb, rac misi, rogorc socialuri jgufis, saarsebo niadagicaa. sisxlis tabuireba erT-erTi mizezia Sua saukunebSi qalis meorexarisxovani rolisa da am sisxlisfer koliziebSi dedaTa wesic igulisxmeba. Sua saukuneTa Teologiam aaRorZina qalisTvis dawesebuli Zveli aRTqmiseuli akrZalvebi, romelTa darRveva SesaZloa keTrovani Cvilebis dabadebasac dasdeboda safuZvlad. amgvarad, Cvens winaSea sxeulis sqesobrivi bunebis devalvaciis niSnebi. TviT qristianuli qorwinebac ki vnebaTa SemcirebaTa xarjze unda kurTxeuliyo. sqesobriv siaxloves mxolod modgmis gagrZelebis perspeqtiva amarTlebda. colis zedmetad vnebiani siyvaruli mruSobaa, _ ambobdnen saeklesio pirebi. adamians Tavisi sxeuli unda aelagma da am saqmeSi yovelgvari gadacdoma mkacrad isjeboda. aqac mamakaci iyo warmmarTveli. sodomia sasikvdilo codvad ganixileboda. mis gansakuTrebulad mkacr Sefasebas albaT isic ganapirobebda, rom bosuelis mtkicebiT, mxiarulebis (gay) kultura XII saukuneSi swored eklesiis wiaRSi iSva. pap grigol VII-is (1073-1083) pontifikatisas safuZveli daedo Sidasaeklesio cxovrebis radikalur cvlilebas, Sewyda simonia, konkubinati, zRvari gaivlo sasuliero da saero wodebebs Soris. lateranis pirveli saeklesio krebis Tanaxmad, sasuliero pirebs aekrZalaT colebisa da mxevlebis yola, raTa suli damaxinjebisagan exsnaT da suliwmidis gardamosvlisTvis xeli ar SeeSalaT. ase

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iqmneboda dauqorwinebel mamakacTa fena. saeroebsac unda ekontrolebinaT sakuTari neba da vneba, eRiarebinaT patriarqaluri, monogamiuri da samudamo qorwineba. Camoyalibda sqesobriv urTierTobaTa erTgvari ierarqia, sadac pirvel safexurs qalwuloba (umankoeba) ikavebda, meores _ qvrivobis umankoeba, mesames ki _ qorwinebisa. Tumc, Teoria praqtikasTan arc Tu ise axlos idga: sasuliero pirebi qorwindebodnen, ibrZodnen, mxevlebs iCendenen... aristokratia barbarosobisdroindel poligamias misdevda. keTilSobilTa fenis warmomadgenelTa col-qmroba warmoudgeneli iyo ukanono kavSirebis gareSe. ubiwoba Zalze iSviaTi saTnoeba gaxldaT. magram eklesiis mier sazogadoebisaTvis Tavsmoxveuli seqsualuri eTika mainc ikavebda adgils Sua saukuneebis evropelis warmosaxvasa da yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom miSel fukosa da pol veinis mtkicebiT, aseTi seqsualuri morali ar SeiZleba qristianobis know how-d CaiTvalos. puritanul simamaces jer kidev romis imperiaSi icnobdnen. qalisTvis meorexarisxovani rolis miniWeba didwilad ganapiroba bibliuri teqstebis eklesiis mamebiseulma ganmartebebma. adamianis Seqmnis pirvel bibliur versias _ Seqmna RmerTma kaci, Tavis xatad Seqmna igi, mamakacad da dedakacad Seqmna isini (dabadeba, 1, 27) _ iolad Caenacvla saeklesio avtoritetTa mier popularizebuli meore versia _ ufalma RmerTma ZilquSi mohgvara adams da ra eZina, gamouRo erTi nekni da mis adgilas xorci Caudo. neknisagan, adams rom gamouRo, dedakaci Seqmna ufalma RmerTma da adams miuyvana (dabadeba, 2, 21-22). es debuleba imgvarad interpretirdeboda, rom Tavdapirvelad, sxeulTa qmnis procesSi, qali ar iyo mamakacis Tanaswori. TeologTa erTi nawili avgustines darad amtkicebda, rom qalis daqvemdebarebuli mdgomareoba codviT dacemidan momdinareobs. adamianuri arseba orad gaiyo: maTgan umaRlesi (goni da suli) mamakacs ganekuTvna, umdablesi ki (sxeuli, xorci) _ qals. Toma akvinelma (daaxl. 1225-1274) aristoteles debuleba gaixsena: suli xorcis formaao da aseTi opozicia Camoayaliba: suli _ mamakaci; xorci _ qali; RmerTma isini erTdroulad Seqmna. RvTiuri suli oriveSia ganfenili; magram, amave dros, mamakaci ufro met gonebriv simkvircxles avlens, misi Tesli ukvdavyofs kacobriobas da es RvTis mier kurTxeulia. Tumc, imave Toma akvinels gamouTqvams aseTi Tezisic: Tu RmerTi qalis umaRles arsebad Seqmnas izraxavda, mas adamis Tavisagan Seqmnida; Tu qals umdables

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arsebad moiazrebda, maSin mis Sesaqmnelad fexebs gamoiyenebda. RmerTma qali adamis Sua nawilidan Seqmna, raTa maTi Tanasworoba daedasturebinao. qorwinebas saeklesio reglamentic orive mxaris TanxmobiT amtkicebs. qalis mdgomareoba gaaumjobesa RvTismSoblis kultis gavrcelebam. RvTaebrivi qaluroba ganamtkica qalis, dedis, anas saxiT ki _ bebiis avtoritetmac. da mainc: iman, rom pirvelyofili codva seqsualur codvad gardaisaxa, qals mTeli cxovreba sazRaurad uqcia. Sua saukuneebi mamakacTa epoqad warmogvidgeba. am drois (da ara marto amdroindeli) yvela dokumenti mamakacis Sedgenilia. qali erTguli colisa da dedis pativiT unda dakmayofilebuliyo. Sesabamisad, sasuliero adeptebi mamakacs boWavdnen, ukrZalavdnen meZavebTan urTierTobas. uZvelesi profesiis warmomadgenlebi, cxadia, idevnebodnen, magram mainc axerxebdnen sazogadoebaSi socialuri regulatoris rolis Sesrulebas. metaforulad, meZavis sxeuli ganasaxierebda Sua saukuneTa sazogadoebriv winaaRmdegobriobas [le gofi, triuoni 2008: 5-52; mosi 1996: 242-263; diubi 2005: 20-45; fuko 1996: 105-108; baxtini 1990: 106; le gofi 2002: 142-169];

aswlovani drama
XIII saukunis saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriv cxovrebas yvelaze srulad JamTaaRmwerlis aswlovani matiane asaxavs. is, praqtikulad, Sua saukuneTa evropis yofisa da saazrovno orientirebis Tanxmieria, Tu cxadia, imasac gaviTvaliswinebT, rom qalis kulti qarTvelis mentalobaSi saqarTvelos RvTismSoblis wilxvedrobaze saeklesio gadmocemam, wminda ninos Rvawlma da deeficirebul TamarTan dakavSirebulma saistorio tradiciam gaaZliera. da mainc, Cven Suasaukuneobriv Targze aWrili saistorio narativis wamkiTxvelebad vrCebiT. daviwyoT imiT, rom JamTaaRmwerelic, Sua saukuneTa evropel avtorTa umravlesobasaviT, sasuliero piria. yovel SemTxvevaSi, mas berad miiCnevs mkvlevarTa umravlesoba [joxaZe 2003: 6-7]. JamTaaRmwereli providencialisti qristiania da misi rwmeniT, samyaro Cadenili codvebisTvis isjeba, Tumc, TviT borotebac RvTis mier adamianis gamosasworebladaa daSvebuli. JamTaaaRmwerlis dramis personaJebi _ qarTveli saero da sasuliero ierarqebi, monRoli

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xelisufalni, qalebi da kacebi _ RvTis gangebis instrumentebi arian. dramis avtori RmerTia [joxaZe 1998:]. JamTaaRmwerelma Tavis epoqas upasuxa da aseTi teqsti Seqmna. Cven vcdilobT, misi sityvebidan is amovikiTxoT, ris Tqmasac ar apirebda: XIII saukunis qarTuli elitis warmomadgenlebs sxeuli mosavT; isini adamianebi arian da ara _ sqemebi; maTac axasiaTebT zogadadamianuri seqsualoba, sqesobrivi unikaloba; maTi cxovreba aRsavsea adamianuri sisusteebiT; bolos da bolos, maT uyvarT erTmaneTi, radgan uerTmaneTod verc RmerTis Seyvarebas SeZleben... ara, amis Tqma Sua saukuneTa istoriografs arc surda da arc SeeZlo. magram iqneb mainc wamoscda rame?

qali da mamakaci
JamTaaRmwerlis teqstSi bevri qali personaJia: mefeebi Tu dedoflebi, mefeTa satrfoebi Tu eriskacTa da monRol noinTa asulebi, debi, Svilebi, mxevlebi... aq yvela qali (an TiTqmis yvela) qmnulkeTilia, siturfeaRmatebuli da xilviTa Svenieri... da Tu es sami epiTeti am qalTa garegnobas ramdenadme srulad mainc ar aRwers, es JamTaaRmwerlis uyuradRebobis brali ar aris: isini avtors mxolod imdenad sWirdeba, ramdenadac moraluri daskvnisaTvis unda gagvwiros. Tanac isini mxolod meorexarisxovnobamisjili sqesis warmomadgenlebi arian. mxolod maTi qmedebebiTa Tu TavgadasavliT SeiZleba imis mixvedra, risi Tqmac JamTaaRmwerels maTma sakvirvelma saqcielma aiZula. miuxedavad zemoT argumentad moyvanili qalis gakultebis qarTuli variantisa, XIII saukunis elitarul mamakacebs mainc axsovT, rom qali maTi Tanaswori ar aris. teqstSi pirvelad amas sasikvdilod ganwiruli laSa-giorgi exeba, roca qarTvel warCinebulebs misi dis taxtze asvlis nebarTvas Txovs. rogorc Cans, aq dedis faqtori gadamwyvet rols TamaSobs, magram mainc sagangebod gaxazavs, rom rusudani, qalobis miuxedavad, brZenia da samefo saqmeTa mcodne. laSa imaSic arwmunebs SekrebilT, rom rusudani wyalobis, niWisa da pativis iseTive uSurveli gamcemi iqneba, rogorc _ RvTivkurTxeuli Tamari. Zneli amosacnobi ar unda iyos, rom imdroindel saqarTveloSi qalis damcrobili roli oden Tamaris avtoritetiT unda gafersavsdes da isic _ bedis ironiiT nakarnaxeb am erTaderT SemTxvevaSi. sanacvlod _ pativdebas unda elodon [qarTuli proza 1982: 293];

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sxvaTaSoris, rusudanis sqess jalaledinic iTvaliswinebs: Cven ki is gaviTvaliswinoT, rom xvarazmeli princi muslimia da yuranis erTguls qalis rolze gansakuTrebiT mdabali warmodgena unda hqonoda. mis saubarSi avag aTabagTan daufaravad sWvivis rogorc msoflioSi saxelganTqmuli samefos winamZRolis, ise _ mamakacis ambicia: masmies, rome mefe Tqveni dedakaci ars. da myoT qmar misa da mefe Tqven zeda da vsZloT yovelTa mterTa... [qarTuli proza 1982: 299]; iqneb gadaWarbebulic ki ar iyos fiqri imaze, rom jalaledinis rusudanze daqorwinebis gegma meyvseulad mofiqrebuls hgavs. aq mTavari monRolebisTvis qmediTad SewinaaRmdegebaa. rusudani, viTarca mefe saqarTvelosi, jalaledinisTvis mxolod miznis misaRwevi saSualebaa. da es kidev ufro akninebs Sua saukuneebSi qalis, rogorc aseTis, rolsa da mniSvnelobas. qalis wamgebian mdgomareobas JamTaaRmwereli kidev erTxel maSin Seexeba, roca sargis Tmogveli daviT narinis gamefebas gaaprotestebs: ara jer ars, raTamca naSobman dedakacisaman dai pyras mefoba da ara Zeman TviTmpyrobelisa mefisa mamakacisaman. sargisis pretenzias is asazrdoebda, rom narinis mama ar iyo mefe (sxvaTaSoris, sainteresoa misi bedic. JamTaaRmwereli muslimobisa Tu sxva mizezTa gamo rusudanis qmars saerTod aRar ixseniebs). meorec: imdroindel saqarTveloSi, rogorc Cans, mxolod kanonieri mamis Svilebs hqondaT Svilobis ufleba. Tu mefe-qalis Svilsac ki ar indobdnen da misi taxtze asvla skepsisis sagnad eqciaT, ioli warmosadgenia, ra barierebi SeeqmnebodaT arawarCinebul dedaTa naSobT! es epizodi pirdapir exmianeba Sua saukuneTa evropul morals, romlis Tanaxmad, qalisa da mamakacis Tanayofobisas mamakacis sqesi, misi warmmarTveli roli da funqcia cxovelmyofelia da ganmsazRvreli. sargiss daviT narinis TanaaRzrdilebi upasuxeben, rom qalobis miuxedavad, rusudani kanonieri mefe iyo, romlis Zes, diaxac, ekuTvnoda taxti [qarTuli proza 1982: 337]; aq rusudanis, rogorc qalis, Seryeul statuss mxolod mefoba Svelis da isic _ monRoleTSi, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT sayaenos politikur miznebze. JamTaaRmwerlis teqstSi gvxvdeba erTi saintereso epizodi, romelic qalTa megobrobas asaxavs. cxadia, es mcire fragmenti Sorsmimavali daskvnebis gakeTebas ar gvaZlevs, magram mainc SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom XIII saukuneSi qalebs aqvT urTierTsolidarobis gancda da urTierTndoba.

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Turanis mflobeli Tegudari abaRa yaens ganudga. Zmas, baraxa yaens Seezraxa kidec mis dasamxobad. Zalze komikuri mizezis gamo SeTqmulebis ambavi gaxmaurda da Tegudari iZulebulia dasavleT saqarTveloSi gaiqces. swored aq, quTaisSi xvdebian erTmaneTs daviT narinisa da Tegudaris meuRleebi. narinis cols qmrisdarad pativi ucia Tavisi sqesis warmomadgenlisTvis. da gauSinaurdes urTierTas da miendves [qarTuli proza 1982: 371-372]; narinis coli aq pativs miagebs ltolviladqceul dedakacs, romelsac egeb sxva Rirsebebic gaaCnda _ gaSinaureba da mindoba amasac moiTxovs. Tumc, teqsti ufro Sors wasvlis nebas ar gvaZlevs. sagangebod aRsaniSnia JamTaaRmwerlis personaJ qalTa Svilosnobis sakiTxi, romelic sruliad standartuli gamoTqmebiT gamoixateba: miudga da Sva, mucel iRo da sxv. JamTaaRmwerels SeuZlebelia, Tavis winaswar dasazRvrul dramaSi adgili daeTmo qalisaTvis, Tu is imdroindel morals ar Selaxavda. kanonis farglebSi mcxovrebi dedakacebisaTvis bunebrivi mdgomareoba gaxldaT Soba, modgmis gangrZoba... amdenad, am movlenis erTi sityviT gamoxatvac arabunebrivad ar unda mogveCvenos. JamTaaRmwerlisaTvis mTavari moqmedi pirebi, rasakvirvelia, mamakacebi arian: mefeni, erismTavarni, sasuliero pirebi, monRoli noinebi da yaenebi... saxeldobr erTaderTxelaa naxsenebi dabali fenis warmomadgeneli _ daviT laSas Zis gadamrCeni, vinme sosani, romelic vaJisTvis laSas eboZebina. mamakacTa sxeulis aRwerisas avtori im garegnul niSnebs gamoyofs, romelTa gareSec brZola warmoudgenelia: Zliereba, axovaneba, goliaTuroba, sviani mklavi, uSiSroba (jalaledinzec ki ambobs, iyo uSiSi, viTarca _ uxorcoo...)... es rainduli epoqis kanonia da JamTaaRmwerlis mier daxatuli garegnuli xat-saxenic masTan SeTanadebulia. sasuliero pirTa garegnobaze istorikosi saerTod arafers gveubneba: aq yovelive suliT gasxivosnebuli unda iyos. mag., saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi nikolozi aRwerilia, rogorc kaci mxilavi suliTa, angelozTa mobaZavi da a.S. Tumc, roca yaeni hulagu Sexvda, gankvirda wessa da xilvasa Sesaxedavsa missa [qarTuli proza 1982: 337]; wess sulxan-saba ganmtkicebul Cveulebad ganmartavs da Cvens SemTxvevaSi, qristianul wesze unda iyos laparaki. teqstSi ar weria, ra gansakuTrebuli wesi aRasrula nikolozma. Tumc, rac unda eqna, es hulagusaTvis ucxo ar unda yofiliyo: Tu gadmocemas

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gia joxaZe

verwmunebiT, igi dabadebidanve nestoreli qristiani iyo da coladac am sjulis qali hyavda. maS ram gaakvirva ase? wesiT, Tu qristologiur msjelobas ar gamarTavdnen da marTlmadideblobasa da nestorelebs Soris arsebul winaaRmdegobebs ar gaixsenebdnen, yaensa da patriarqs erTmaneTis xilva gasakvirad ar unda darCenodaT. SesaZloa, yaenis gaoceba gamoiwvia marTlmadidebeli beris habitusma: grZelma Tmam da wverma, sigamxdrem, saxis ferma, romelic mxolod marxviTa da mRviZarebiT gamorCeul sulier mamebs adevT... SesaZloa. Tumc JamTaaRmwereli sxvas aras ambobs. yuradReba mivaqcioT or detals, romelTac JamTaaRmwereli imetebs daviT laSas Zisa da daviT narinis garegnuli daxasiaTebisas: daviT laSas Ze yofila taniTa did da axovan da sxvil [qarTuli proza 1982: 340]; am xatis daviwyeba SeuZlebelia: daviT laSas Ze, SecdomiT ulud wodebuli, saqarTvelos mefe 1247-1270 wlebSi, laSa-giorgis ukanono Svili maRali, axovani da msuqani yofila. da kidev: enamZime mcired. narini biZaSvilis anti podia: zomieri tanis, xmeli mamakaci (sic!)... aq JamTaaRmwereli sruliad umniSvnelo niuanss amxels: TmiTa Txel _ da narinis garegnuli portretic daxatulia. da kidev: enatkbil da sityvier, anu narini, biZaSvilisagan gansxvavebiT, tkbilmoubari brZanebula. samwuxarod, JamTaaRmwereli mis mWevrmetyvelebas arafriT asabuTebs. kidev erTi: JamTaaRmwerels swored daviTebze saubrisas axsendeba, rom metoqe ufliswulebsac ki SeuZliaT erTurTis siyvaruli: ornive daviT da daviT siyvarulsa zeda egnes da ara winaaRudgebodes erTmanerTsa [qarTuli proza 1982: 339]; es niuansi sagangebo aRniSvnis Rirsi arc iqneboda, rom mxolod saqarTvelos taxtisaTvis mebrZol konkurentebsa da maT mimdgom pirebs ar gulisxmobdes. am konteqstSi cneba siyvarulis gamokrToma pirdapir cis gaxsnasa hgavs! JamTaaRmwerlis dramaSi aris erTi personaJi, romlisTvisac saxis feris gamo zedwodebac ki gamouZebniaT: es gaxlavT hereTis erisTavi SoTa, romelsa manisi ferobisaTvis kuprobiT uxmobdes [qarTuli proza 1982: 312]; zogi mosazrebis Tanaxmad, kupri misTvis saxis kanis siSavis gamo uwodebiaT. Cven SevexeT JamTaaRmwerlis mier ramdenadme gamorCeulad daxatul personaJebs da aq sityva ramdenadme zedmeti ar unda iyos: Sua saukuneTa istoriografiis palitraSi ferebi mxolod

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RvTis erTgulebiTa da TavSewirviT gamorCeulTaTvis moiZebneba. da es ferebic oden sulis feradovnebas warmoaCens.

qali + mamakaci
XIII s-s saqarTvelos mkvidrni _ qalebi da mamakacebi iseTive seqsualobiT gamoirCevian, rogoriTac imave epoqis evropelebi an SesaZloa ... Cveni Tanamedrove qarTvelebi da evropelebi. unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom maTze sasuliero piri gviambobs, romelic Sua saukuneTa istoriografiis adeptia. codvili kacobriobis Cvenebasac imitom riskavs, rom gaaazrebinos codvisaTvis miRebuli sasjeli da saRvTo gzisken moabrunos dacemulebi. Tu am problemebs gaviTavisebT, mivxvdebiT, rom striqonebs miRma ikiTxeba cocxali samyaro, icnobian cocxali adamianebi TavianTi aviTa da kargiT, madliTa da codviT, borotebiTa da saTnoebiT... Sua saukuneTa istoriografiuli konteqsti gulisxmobda, rom mefe xams uxvi, mlocvel, mmarxvel da ganmkiTxvel da mowyale... amave dros, mxned moisari, winambrZoli da a.S. [qarTuli proza 1982: 283]; aseTic iyoo laSa-giorgi, gvarwmunebs JamTaaRmwereli da Semdeg aRgviwers, rogori Seiqna mas mere, rac ymadnaficebi daacxro da xarki gainaRda: Tanamihyva uwesoTa kacTa, ... viTar ganisvenebda nadirobiTa da msmurTa Tana, midrka siborotedmi... smaman mRerasa da siRodasa da nayrovanebaman sibilwesa, umetes gardaria... [iqve]; am pasaJis gagebisaTvis wamiT daviviwyoT, ra Sedegebi moaqvs xelisuflebis zneobriv (Tu uzneo?) magaliTs: amis Taobaze ukve vwerdiT [joxaZe 2003: 25]; swored am mamxilebel tiradaSi JamTaaRmwereli uneblieT gviambobs imaze, risganac verc erTi sazogadoeba ver izRvevs Tavs. metic: rac mis funqciobaze migviTiTebs. laSas Tavi gamouCenia dedaTa uwesoTa Tana aRreviTa. STabeWdilebis gasaZliereblad JamTaaRmwereli dedebis mier nacTunebi bibliuri solomonis magaliTsac iSveliebs da kidev erTxel miuTiTebs, rom imdroindeli saqarTvelos mamrobiTi sqesis elita gulgrili ar yofila uZvelesi profesiis warmomadgenlebisadmi: ganZRes da iSvebdes da uwesobad midrkes siZvaTa Sina [qarTuli proza 1982: 285]; laSa-giorgis uqorwineblobas JamTaaRmwereli dedaTa mimarT mis mwvel gulisTqmas abralebs. e.w. veliscixis epizodi yvelasaTvis cnobilia da aq kidev erTxel arc SevexebodiT, rom ara is komikuri siswrafe, romliTac JamTaaRmwereli Txrobas aviTarebs: laSa kaxeTis sofel veliscixes ewvia. ixila

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qali friad qmnulkeTili da myis aRtacebul iqmna gulisTqmiTa mier. mswrafl Tvisad miiyvana da Seiyvara friad. da muclad iRo dedakacman da Sva yrma [qarTuli proza 1982: 283-284]; aseTi kadrireba mxolod Sua saukuneTa meistories SeeZlo da kidev... sabWoTa kinos, sadac morcxv ambors Sezrdilmucliani qalis aseve morcxvi Rimili mosdevda. morali naTelia, da Tanac ormagi: mefem dabali warmomavlobis qali ar unda SeirTos (sisxlisa da Teslis tabu!); qorwineba kanonieri unda iyos (igive tabu!); qristianma ar unda imruSos (veliscixeli qali manamde gaTxovili iyo); magram CvenTvis mniSvnelovani sakiTxi farulad swored am daweril Tu dauwerel sentenciebSi feTqavs: mefe Secda, codviT daeca, radgan mefec adamiania, magram kacobriobis istoria xom xSirad Secdomebsa da SemTxveviTobaze igeba. mkvdaria ena, romelSic Secdomas ar uSveben. cocxali ena Tavisi SecdomebiT cocxlobs. bolos da bolos, rom ara es Secdoma, arc daviT laSas Ze, SecdomiT ulud wodebuli daikavebda Tavis adgils qarTul basilografiaSi! magram... mefe bolomde cdeba, rogorc adamiani: arc sulier winamZRvrebs usmens, arc sakuTari gulisTqmis ayola ZaluZs. qali qmars daubrunes. laSas ki coli ar SeurTavs. aravin icis, ra ganicada qalma, roca qmars wartaces da sasaxlisken aqnevines piri. aravin icis, ras fiqrobda maSin, roca laSam friad Seiyvarada bavSvi STausaxa, an mere, roca daorkecebuli pirveli qmrisken gaaqanes. arc is icis vinmem, ra sulier mdgomareobaSi Cavarda erTi naxviT Seyvarebis meufeca da msxverplic! Sua saukuneTa istoriografia amas gvimalavs. rusudan mefes Tvisi Ze daviT narini erTpirovnul samefo kandidaturad miaCnda da laSa giorgis Zis _ konkurentis mocileba gadaewyvita. sxva mraval ukadris saqcielTan erTad, saqarTvelos xelisufals incestualuri kavSiric daubralebia ZmiswulisTvisa da qaliSvilisTvis. ai, ras wers rusudani Tavis siZes, yiasdins: amisTvis meneba moklva Zmiswulisa Cemisa daviTisi, rome colsa Sensa da asulsa Cemsa Zmiswuli Cemi daviTi Tanaeyofvis...[qarTuli proza 1982: 318]; JamTaaRmwereli amtkicebs, rusudans politikuri interesi alaparakebdao, da es simarTlesac waagavs, magram arc im fiqris gamoricxva SeiZleba, rom aseTi maniakaluri kavSiri (romlebzec saubrobs safrangeTis istoriis mkvlevari J. diubi) arc imdroindeli qarTveli sazogadoebisaTvis yofila ucxo. rusudani dedamisiviT mSvenieri yofila. misi col-qmruli cxovreba ramdenjerme unda dawyebuliyo, magram ucnob mizezTa gamo gadadebula. jer xlaTis sultans mouwadinebia misi SerTva. Semdeg

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didis SemoxvewiTa Sarvanis mflobels uTxovia dedoflis xeli. Sarvans qarTlis erisTavi gamgzavrebula. TviT laSa-giorgi bagavans wasula. aTi dRec da rusudani SarvanSas daumSvenebda mxars (an piriqiT!). JamTaaRmwerlis mier moyvanili qorwilis gadadebis mizezi ufro saRvTismetyveloa, vidre _ adamianuri: mowyale RmerTs ar mousurvebia qristiani qalis muslimze daqorwineba: diax, am konteqstSi swored sityva qalis gamoyeneba sjobs, radgan gauTvaliswinebeli garemoebebi rom ara, rusudani gamefebas ver moaxerxebda. bolos mainc muslimi irCia. RvTis nebas gadavida da mainc alahs eymo: jalaledinis urdoebis pirveli SemoWris Semdeg qmrad rumis sultnis _ ToRrul Sahis Ze _ moRis ed-dini moiyvana. es ukanaskneli erTgulobisTvis daumZevlebia rusudans: viTar ganicada, sTnda mefesa rusudans da ineba qmrad miyvaneba misi, romeli aRasrulaca... [qarTuli proza 1982: 297]; is, rom mefem ymadnafici qveynis ufliswulis qmrad moyvana gadawyvita, uCveulo arafriTaa. Cveni azriT, am pasaJs is acocxlebs, rom rusudanma gaicno, ixila, SeaTvaliera (ganicada), moewona da ineba (sTnda). sqesTa urTierTobac xom am gradacias emyareba. XIII s-s saqarTveloSi gansxvavebul socialur kategoriaTa dapirispirebuloba seqsualur sferoSic aRwevs. TviT samefo ojaxic ki ver aridebs Tavs ukanono kavSirebsa da poligamias. daviT laSa-giorgis Zis pirveli coli, jigda-xaTuni uSvilo aRmoCnda. es sayovelTao mwuxarebas iwvevda. mefem umemkvidreod gadaSenebis safrTxe gadaWra: meuRled moiyvana erovnebiT osi alTuni im pirobiT, rom SvilTa Sobis Semdeg, ganutevebda. Semdeg JamTaaRmwereli gviambobs, rogor gaaCina alTunma ori Svili da rogor ganiSora daviTma sayvareli Tvis alTun..., friad qmnulkeTili [qarTuli proza 1982: 347]; es mcire fragmentic ki uamrav kiTxvas aRZravs; iqneb is aRTqma, romelic daviTs alTunis moyvanisas daudia, sulac jigda-xaTuns miemarTeboda: Svilebs gamiCens da maSinve gavuSvebo. jigda-xaTunisagan gansxvavebiT, alTuns dedoflad ar ixsenieben da Cvenc ubralo mxevlad miviCnevT, romelTa Rvawli samefo ojaxebSi cnobilia, magram ratom wers JamTaaRmwereli: amisTvis ineba mefeman moyvana, Svilierebisa ZliT, alTun, naTesaviT ovsi, meuRled...? sagangebod xom ar gaxazavs JamTaaRmwereli jigdaxaTunis dedoflobas: Seiyvana Svilad dedofalman jigdaxaTun?; ratom ver ikavebs Tavs da rad avlens sinazes JamTaaRmwereli am ubralo mxevlisadmi: aqa ganiSora sayvareli Tvisi, romeli friad

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qmnulkeTil iyo? am kiTxvebze pasuxs JamTaaRmwerelTan ver vpovebT. is mkacrad dasZens, rom jigdaxaTuni gardaicvala da qvrivi mefe axali colis mosaZebnad arc Tu ise Sors wavida: imxanad gardacvlili avag aTabagis qvrivi, raWis erisTavis asuli gvanca SeirTo. ra Tqma unda, isic qmnulkeTili. qalebs, ise Cans, daviTis gulis mosagebad didi dro ar sWirdebodaT: gvancasac etrfiala da Semdgomad mciredisa miiyvana igi colad da dedoflad da warmoiyvana samefod Tvisad [qarTuli proza 1982: 347]; Cvens winaSe kidev erTi blic-romania. JamTaaRmwerlis pedalireba colad da d e d o f l a d moiyvanao, egeb, zemoT dasmul kiTxvaTa irib pasuxebadac gamogvadges! daviT laSas Zis morigi qorwineba morigmave daqvrivebam gamoiwvia. esuqni monRoli noinebis daa da egeb, es politikuri qorwinebac ki iyo! yovel SemTxvevaSi, aq nefe-patarZlis raimenair satrfialo urTierTobaze laparakic ki zedmetia. magram es epizodi saintereso imiTaa, rom swored esuqnis ukavSirdeba pirveli adiulteri mTeli teqstis (asi da cota meti xnis wlis) manZilze. daviT laSas Ze monRolTa samsaxurSia TveobiT, xandaxan _ wlobiTac ki. qveyanas basil ujarmel-Wyondideli marTavs. Tanac ise, rom samefo miwawyals saTavisod iyenebs. aq JamTaaRmwereli sazogadod gavrcelebul xmas ixsenebs: sityvaca esreT iyo... mokled, imasac ambobdnen, basilsa da esuqns seqsualuri urTierToba hqondaTo (viTarmed esuqns Tanaeyo) [qarTuli proza 1982: 363]; adiulters azarts sasiyvarulo samkuTxedis mesame monawilis CarTva matebs xolme da arc JamTaaRmwereli ayovnebs: Sesmenil iqmna basili mefis winaSe, romelman mswrafl moiyvana da brZana Zelsa damokideba. mefe, bunebrivia, Seuracxyofilia. amitomac damohkides Zelsa Sua qalaqsa. magram yvelaferi amiT rodi mTavrdeba. muclis sneulebas emsxverpla daviT mefe. JamTaaRmwereli kvlav moarul xmebs eyrdnoba: Tqmul ars eseca..., TiTqos esuqns moewamlos daviTi da ase gadaexados samagiero sayvarlis mkvlelisaTvis. am sevdian ambavs mosdevs JamTaaRwerlis _ sasuliero pirisa da moralistis mkacri Sefaseba: basilma ara rida sawolsa patiosansa da uwesobisTvis daisajao. Tan Wyondidisa da ujarmis mTavarepiskoposs, TiTqos, sasuliero wodebisTvisac eRalatos (Coxanica aRixadna) da saero xelisuflebas daxarbebodes [qarTuli proza 1982: 377]; XIII saukunis saqarTveloSi ucxo arc poligamiis SemTxvevebia, Tumc, wminda dimitri II-is cxovrebaSi ar Cans, rom mefes romelime meuRlisadmi gansakuTrebuli grZnoba anu gulisTqma amoZravebda.

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aq mTavari politikaa. coli ki sami hyavda: trapizonis keisrisa da beqa jayelis asulebi, aseve _ monRoli solRaric. iqneb es sityvebi: gulis sityvisa ukana Sedgomilman moiyvana colni samni sinanulsac ki niSnavdes! JamTaaRmwereli monRolebs abralebs, magram dimitris siZvis saqmeebSic rom edo wili, ver uaryofs [qarTuli proza 1982: 390399]; poligamias amxedrebia mTeli qarTveli samRvdeloeba: kaTolikos-patriarqi, aToneli basili (SesaZloa, pimen salosica da anton naoxrebelisZec), magram _ uSedegod. poligamiasTan erTad dimitri politikuri miznebis gamo arc saqorwino vaWrobaSi monawileobaze ambobda uars: sadun mankaberdelis Txovnas, rom monRolis nacvlad TviTon SeirTavda mefis das, Tamars (daevaWra, raTa mihyidos dai misi), dimitri daTanxmebia (xolo igi erCda da mohyida) [qarTuli proza 1982: 386]; TviT sadunsac sami coli, albaT, socialur-politikuri gavlenis sacTurma SearTvevina.

epilogi axali prologis win


Cvens winaSea XIII saukunis qarTvelTa sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis erTi waxnagi, romelic metnaklebi tevadobiT ase SeiZleba Camoyalibdes _ sqesTa Soris urTierTobani. gadaWriT arc imis Tqma gvicdia, rom yvelaferi zustad ise iyo, rogorc JamTaaRmwereli gviambobs. magram Cven mxolod es versia gvaqvs. man, Cveni azriT, ufro dagvaaxloa istoriis personaJebTan da ramdenime wuTiT mainc dagvajera, rom maTac ZaluZT sunTqva, urTierToba, siyvaruli, codviT dacema da ... sinanuli. Cven qarTuli saxelmwifoebrivi elitis warmomadgenlebs SevexeT da, samwuxarod, mxolod imitom, rom sxva socialur jgufebis intimur cxovrebaze ara viciT ra. arada, sxvadasxva socialur kategoriaTa sxeulebrivi praqtika, iseve, rogorc _ tabuireba, didad gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan. literatura baxtini 1990: .., , . diubi 2005: J. diubi, raindi, qali da mRvdeli, Tbilisi.

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le gofi, triuoni 2008: . , . , , . le gofi 2002: . , , , , . mosi 1996: ., . . . , . fuko 1996: ., . , , . qarTuli proza 1982: qarTuli proza, wigni III, meTerTmetemeToTxmete saukuneebis mwerloba, JamTaaRmwereli, monRolTadroindeli matiane, Tbilisi. joxaZe 2003: XIII-XIV saukuneebis saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriidan, Tbilisi. joxaZe 1998: avgustineseuli providencializmi da JamTaaRmwerlis religiuri msoflmxedveloba, Tbilisi.

157

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d a

k r i t i k a
daviT andriaZe

`samSoblo~ `dedis ZuZui~ da `sxva~


(winaswari SeniSvnebi sakiTx(av)isaTvis: sadoavangardi da postmodernistuli resentimenti)
filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, Jurnal `artefaqtis~ mTavari redaqtori, iv. javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: ferwera da imaginacia (monografia), ikonologiuri marginaliebi (monografia), leviaTanis daRupva (monografia) da sxva. interesTa sfero: kulturis filosofia, literaturis kritika, artkritika, xelovnebis sociologia, semiotika.

`dekonstruqcia~ _ es deridaseuli sityva ukve CvenSic bevrs akeria pirze. da mainc, pirvelad iyo sityva _ `destruqcia~. adreulma haidegerma gamoiyena igi `metafizikis gaqvavebuli tradiciis Sesarbileblad~ moxmobili cnebad, tradiciisa, minimum kantidan _ kohenamde rom aRniSnavda kacobriul ideas. am `Humanitat~-is mze raxania Caesvena; da am `daisma~ im ti pis azrovnebamde migviyvana, klasikuri racionalizmisa da tradiciuli Teoretizmis kontrformad rom ganixileba. ai, alternatiuli monologizmi, romlis karnavaluri `xmauri da mZvinvarebac~, kanonmdebeli gonebis oreulad, anu gaukuRmarTebul idealizmad gvefeTeba. cotac da, Cvens winaSe `andergraundi _ dialogizmis~ _ XX saukunis am Zireuli konfiguraciuli diskursis aCrdili wamoimarTeba. ase warmoisaxeba hegeliseuli `ubeduri cnobierebis~ modernuli varianti, _

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resentimenti, Tu `dostoevSCina~, romelsac m. baxtini ganmartavs, rogorc izolirebuli pirovnebis gaorebis kults. mokled, klasikuri monologizmis wanamZRvari: `cnobiereba rogorc aseTi~, `WeSmariteba rogorc aseTi~ da a. S., anu wanamZRvari: `ise, me rom ar vyofiliyavi~ (ras hqvia _ `ar vyofiliyavi~?) cota ar iyos gulubryvilod JRers. arada, faqtia, rom idealistur-humanisturi sityvis realuri avtoroba am sityvis monawiles angariSs aRar uwevs. `dekonstruqtivistul apofatikaSi~, anu alternatiul monologizmSi, klasikuri gonebis aracnobieri sawyisi nihilizmSi iwyebs TviTgamoxatvas; sxvagvarad: esaa refleqturi ganwyoba `arafrisadmi~. problema ase Semotrialdeba kontrforsiT: `ise, TiTqos `sxva~ ar yofiliyos~; da es kontrforsi sadoavangardul poetikaSi SiSvldeba. kulturis istoria adasturebs, rom ulmobloba da libido erTimeoresTanaa dakavSirebuli; TumcaRa, froidisamebr, araerTi avtori libidoSi agresiuli momentis miRma veRar gavida. erTni varaudoben, rom seqsualuri ltolvis Tanamdevi agresiuloba kanibalizmis gadmonaSTia. isic ivaraudeba, rom nebismieri tkivili gulisxmobs siamovnebis moments. ase Tu ise, sadizmis namdvili fesvebi seqsualuri grZnobis deformaciaSi ar unda veZeboT, yovel SemTxvevaSi, mxolod amgvari grZnobis deformaciaSi... mocemuli `gadaxra~, iseve, rogorc mazoxizmi, Rrma pirovnul damRas atarebs, rac imas niSnavs, rom adamians surs (nebavs), daamciros `sxva~, gaakontrolos rogorc ekzotopia. magram, vinaa es `sxva~? tani _ tani tatani, gulwamtani, ucxod marebi~, romelic `sul laSqarSia~, rac kia ZuZus maswyvita dedama... axla, isic vikiTxoT es `ucxod marebi~ da `ZuZus mowyvetili~ tani xom araa sadisturi `gan-sxvavebis~, obieqti?! sadizmi `sxvisi~ realobis xelyofaa, amasTan, Znelia eWvis Setana imaSi, rom realuri `sxvaoba~ anu baxtiniseuli `~ dasavluri humanitaruli azrovnebisaTvis _ postmodernis am `samSoblosaTvis~, vTqvaT, levinasisa da blanSosaTvis, `dedis ZuZu~ iyo. mokled, `~ _ es baxtiniseuli terminus _ Tavisi protopostmodernuli implikaciebiT dasavleTisTvis gacilebiT gasagebi (da misaRebic) aRmoCnda, vidre _ xelovnuri rZiT nakvebi sabWoTa humanitariisaTvis.

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swored aseTia, magaliTad, ruseTSi postmodernizmis ti pur figurantad miCneuli d. savinis `tankas~ diskursiul-konteqstualuri foni, romelic mxolod gveCveneba postmodernistulad; gveCveneba da sxva araferi (isev `sxva~?!). Cvens winaSea kulturis istoriaSi kargad cnobili postromantikul-nicSeanuri miTologema `geniisa~, romelic XIX saukuneSi modernistul eqstremad, namdvil `provokaciad~ _ `provokaciad~ im gagebiT, ra gagebiTac xmarobs mas andrei beli Tavis `peterburgSi~ _ mogvevlina da Tanabrad ganmsWvala sxvadasxva diskursuli praqtikebi _ esTetikidan politikamde. ase vuaxlovdebiT dasavluri baxtinistikis im `intimur~ punqts, Tundac `erogenul zonas~, romelsac postmodernistuli dionisurobis absurdi SeiZleba ewodos. iqneb, es ufroa dRevandeli dasavluri kulturologiuresTeziologiuri metafora, vidre karnavaluri qveskneli. yovel SemTxvevaSi, SeiZleba davuSvaT, rom sadoavangardsa da postmoderns Soris `sxvaobas~ isev da isev `sxvaobis~ fenomenologia ganapirobebs. postmodernistuli dionisurobis absurdi `resentimentia~, romlis protagonistadac gvevlineba Zveli, magram, ukve dekonstruirebuli `iatakqveSa adamiani~. Tumca, aq erTi `magram~ mainc saWiroa. saqme isaa, rom postmodernistuli `dekonstruqciis~ oponentebi, mowinaaRmdegni Tavad mimarTaven xolme dekonstruqcias, roca `karnavalizacias~, rogorc dekonstruqciis radikalur winaaRmdegobas, sakuTar `oreulad~ aqceven, oreulad, andergraundis logikis (Tu dia-logikis) Tanaxmad rom modificirdeba. bolos da bolos, `sxvis~ dekonstruireba sakuTari oreulis terminebSi, a. uxtomskisa ar iyos, niSnavs `sxvaTa~ imgvar gansjas, romelic `, , , , . . !.. ` ~. ai, dostoevskis `gmir-ideologTa~ darad, sworedac amgvar ambivalentur, anu seriozul-sasacilo dauTmoblobaSi, sakuTari alibis mtkicebaSi, sakuTari Seucvlelobis gamudmebul mtkicebaSia gantotvili dekonstruqtivistuli resentimentis fesvebi. sxvaTa Soris, `iatakqveSa adamianis~, rogorc `gmiri-ideologis~ (baxtini), anda antiideologis (dostoevski) aCrdili, anu aCrdili saukunis liberalur-totalitaluri kulturisa, xan aSkarad, xanac latenturad gamokrTeba g. morsonisa da k. emersonis teqstebSi.

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ase mimarTavs andergraundis mkvidri postTanamedrove adamianisaTvis damaxasiaTebel gadagvarebul qcevaTa, ufro zustad, saqcielTa damkvidrebas. ase iqmneba skandaluri situacia, romelic SeiZleba gagebul iqnes, rogorc dasavluri postmodernuli resentimentis sabWouri imitacia. ase yalibdeba `gabriyvebis poetika TviT gabriyvebulTa poziciidan~ (k. isupovi). amgvari poetika, marTlac, Camohgavs bodleriseul `jojoxeTis reklamas~, araklasikuri meTodologiis filosofosTa Soris ki, dRes saxezea baxtiniseuli parakategoriuli organonis mzardi satanizacia, im baxtinisa, visi _ rogorc m. gasparovi ityoda _ `gamomwvevad arazusti~ terminebic filosofiur Jargonad iqceva, antikulturis aRmwer metaenad yalibdeba. am terminebiT aRiwereba amgvari `antikulturis~ aramxatvruli faqtura, `Zalovani struqturebi~, socialuri sugestia, da mTlianobaSi, esTetizebuli bolSevizmis socialuri simbolizmi; da swored esaa postmodernistuli resentimentic _ erTsa da imave dros, cnobieric da aracnobieric, centralizebulic da marginaluric. postmodernul resentimentamde ki iyo modernuli resentimenti. risi gamoxatulebaa sadoavangardi Tavisi `sxvis~ waSlis~ strategiebiT. sadovangardis paradigmad dRes ukve `Riad~ gvTavazoben vl. maiakovskis _ am poeti-teroristis poezias. Tavis droze, e. fromma moixmo nekrofiliis nimuSad `futuristuli manifestebi~; a. Jolkovskis mierac ase iqna dasaxuli maiakovskis leqsebi sadizmis paradigmebad. da ara mxolod leqsebi _ piradi cxovrebac da yofiTi realiebic... magram, a. Jolkovskimde iyo b. livSici romlis memuarebic _ saTauriT ~ _ 1933 wels daiwera. misi avtori kvalificirebul froidistad Tvlida Tavs, da arcTu ambiciurad... da kidev: livSics ara mxolod a. Jolkovski, aramed a. siniavski da i. karabCevskic `amarTleben~. mokled, esaa ara mxolod klasikis demiTologizacia, aramed konkretuli poetur-artistuli figuris (implied author) resentimentic... da mainc, maiakovskis sadoavangarduli fizionomia oficialuri sabWouri modelis (percovi) sapirispirod, v. xodaseviCis cnobil nekrologSi iqna gaSiSvlebuli. misi gagrZeleba, da imavdroulad, faruli `polemikaa~ roman iakobsonis nekrologi, nekrologi-

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semiozisi (semiozisic Taviseburi nekrologia, nekrologi ki, semiozisi!). mTavari isaa, rom `M~-s iakobsoniseuli modeli (Semdgom ganviTarebuli l. stolbergeris monografiaSi, mogvianebiT ki _ z. papernisTan, v. terasTan, e. braunTan da a. S.) `me~-sa da `ara-mes~ antinomiazea agebuli. es `ara-me~ ki, Tavis mxriv, qalSi _ am menstrualur invalidSi Casaxlebuli simaxinjiTaa reprezentirebuli. `~- sTvis qali, yvela sxva ubedurebasTan erTad, uxamsi sentimentalurobis, tradiciuli, mtruli da ragindara uvargisi xelovnebis socialuri damkveTia. TviT venera miloselic amgvari saqalTanos reprezentantia (... , / / / ... ! / , ...). qali _ negatiuri metaforikis wyarocaa. `~-is mizoginizmi, marTlac, usazRvroa; sadoavangardisti poeti cinikurad uTvlis bebruxanas tanze xalebs da ise aSiSvlebs mis sxeuls, rogorc rodeni Tavis `mSvenier omierSi~, oRond, ufro gamomwvevad... metic, `~ TviT SemoqmedebiT processac, kerZod, sakuTars _ qalis `gamyidvelobasTan~ aigivebs: ` / / ..., / ; , , ~... aq aRar aris adgili `~-is, ase vTqvaT, qalofobiis sademonstraciod. miT ufro, rom Cemi mizani arc `~-is mizoginizmis interteqstualuri korelatebis daZebnaa, arc paralelebis moZieba, magaliTad, lermontovTan (` ~). arc misi artistul anti podebTan (magaliTad, blokTan da mSvenieri qalis miseul kultTan) polemika... amjerad arc im mZulvarebis konsistencia minda avwono, ramac gansazRvra `~-is rkiniseburi leqsebis simZime; mokled, axla CemTvis mTavaria am paradigmisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ara ` ~ anda ` ~, aramed misi safuZvlmdebare Tu implicituri markerebi, romlebic jgufdebian, erTi mxriv, sintaqtur markerebad, meore mxriv ki, Zalauflebis markerebad. oriveni ki, erTad gamoxataven `ndobis lingvistikas~. orive SemTxvevaSi, saqme gvaqvs literaturasTan, rogorc sadisturi pirovnebis, fsiqoavtoreprezentaciasTan. axla ki sareklamo pauza: `qarTuli wamali salxino~ `salxino~ gamoiyeneT sarZeve jirkvlebis daavadebis samkurnalod. kistozur-fibrozuli mastopaTia, mastiti; mSobiarobis Semdeg aicilebT mastits da gaaumjobesebT bavSvis kvebas sakuTari rZiT.

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isini gamojanmrTeldnen. Tqven? ikiTxeT afTiaqebSi. fsiqoanalizSi sakmaodaa deSifrirebuli pirveladi sadisturi travmis sindromi, romelsac bavSvi dedis mkerdTan mocilebis Semdeg, ufro farTo gagebiT ki _ mozrdilTa meurveobisagan ganTavisuflebis wiaR ganicdis da mravalgzis dasturdeba avangardistuli epoqis naratiul teqstebSi; SeiZleba gavixsenoT sadis `Jiustinas~ finali, sadac protagonisti qali iRupeba mkerdze dacemuli elvis Sedegad; esaa sadisturi esTetikis fantasmagoriul reJimSi dasaxuli simbiozis kulminacia. momavalSi ki, gvecxadeba ra `samyarod TavisTavSi~, esa ukve literaturaa, TandaTan rom aRbeWdavs avtoris Sinagan realobas, rogorc diskurss, individualur fsiqikur aqts garegan, socialur da intersubieqtur gamocdilebad anzogadebs, da ase marTavs siuJets, rogorc ojaxursa da socialurs Soris ekvivalentobas. sadoavangardisti (igive `~) aRwers gmiris, sxvadasxva juris aqtiur-sadistur qmedebebs. es `ukanaskneli~ amyarebs wesrigs samyaroSi, am mizniT ayenebs seqsualur obieqts tkivils, es `obieqti~ ki eqsistencialur maqsimumad hyavs dasaxuli. sadisturi sindromis gamovlena imiT motivirdeba, rom mag., gmirs miatovebs Seyvarebuli. es ukanaskneli maiakovskis poemaSi ` ~ asocirdeba dedasTan, RvTismSoblis saxels rom atarebs, Txovdeba, iZens potenciuri dedis rols, mere imave gmirisaTvis gvevlineba TavSesafrad, rodesac mas ukve aRar sWirdeba, iyos mozrdili da a. S. sadizmi am konteqstSi dedis mkerdisagan bavSvis gaucxoebis aspeqtSi iSifreba. sxva SemTxvevaSi, mag., a. flakeris mier mSvenivrad interpretirebul, vs. ivanovis novelaSi `~ amgvari kavSiri eqsplicirebulia; daaxloebiT analogiuri situaciaa iseT teqstebSi, rogorebicaa zamiatinis `~, a. tolstois `~, babelis ` ~, kaverinis ` ~, eseninis ` ~, kruSCionixis ` - ~, kamenskis ` ~, xlebnikovis leqsSi ` ~ da a. S. sxvaTa Soris, swored es ukanaskneli iyo, vinc Seecada (pirvelad) Seeqmna samyaros imgvari scienturi modeli, romelic koordinirebuli iqneboda primarul sadistur travmasTan. xlbnikovTan (statiaSi ` ~) wamoyenebulia winadadeba, cnebas `simbiozi~ daematos cneba `metabiozi~, ris magaliTicaa ` -

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~. xedavT, `sxvis~ metamorfoza, aqac sadistur konsteqstSia dasaxuli?! rac Seexeba, oralur sadizms, aqac bavSvis piri-saxiTaa igi dasaxuli (da dasaxsruli) da warmoadgens simbiozis `sxvas~ _ simbiozs cocxlisa da TiTqos, gardacvlilisac, romelic abstrahirebulia da arafsiqikuri realobis sibrtyezea gavrcelebuli. momdevno motivia samyaros Sesansvla _ es gorgon-tualuri aqcia, mag. qalaqis mier kosmosis STanTqma (Sdr. p. filonovis metamorfozebi); fsiqoanalitikosisaTvis Zneli ar unda iyos amgvar aqtSi zekompensaciis motivis implikacia, zekompensaciisa, romelsac eltvis individi, da visac aRar ZaluZs mtanjveli mogonebebisagan emansi pacia; amasTan, esaa mogonebaca da ga-mogonebac (invencia) imis wil, Tu individi rogor moswyda misTvis erTaderT (momavalSi ki _ universalizebul) `kvebis wyaros~. STanTqmisaTvis ganwiruli universumis xati xom saerTodaa futuristuli (Tu kubofuturistuli) egzersirebis motivi. magaliTad, SeiZleba movixmoT i. severianinis ` ~, b. pasternakis `~, m. cvetaevas satira... darRveuli simbiozis _ sul erTia, eqstravertuli iqneba igi Tu intravertuli _ sadisturi restavracia iTvaliswinebs, rom `obieqtur~ gansacdelSi Cavardnil samyaros daubrundeba dakarguli subieqturoba; bavSvic, agre agresiulad rom eqceva dedas, rZe rom waarTva pirmSos, aseve cdilobs obieqtobisagan mSoblis gaTavisuflebas. simbiozis dasasruli ki, bavSvisTvis teleologiurobis dasawyiss niSnavs. diax, pawia sadisti teleologistia, mas subieqtoba Semoaqvs garemomcvel samyaroSi, ise, rogorc maleviCis `patara ufliswuls~, romelmac filonoviseuli qalaqis mier samyaros STanTqma kulminaciamde miiyvana da `Savi kvadratis~ saxiT daabnela samyaro (`xom dagabnele~?!)... diaxac, dedis ZuZus mowyvetili, anu mkerdTan gaucxoebuli (gan-sxva-vebuli) usuaria obieqtis subieqtivirebis mowadineca da macnec... axla, ki ori daskvna: samomavlod (potenciurad) subieqtivirebuli obieqti an xdeba damokidebuli misTvis am Tvisebis damTmobi subieqtisagan, `sxvisgan~ gancalkevebulad rom arsebobs, anda, piriqiT, samudamodaa damokidebuli masze, vinc Seqmna misi subieqturoba (Sdr. sadis `JiustinaSi~ scenaTa monacvleoba, sadac protagonist qalze xan Zaladoben, xanac, igi axerxebs Zaladobisagan TavdaRwevas). ai, saidan momdinareobs is fsiqologiuri kontroverza,

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romlis kvalobazec, avangardistuli poezia futuristul da akmeistur fraqciebad daiSala. futurizmi asuraTxatebs saganTa janys, obieqtTa amboxs, subieqtebisadmi damorCileba rom ar surT (Sdr. pasternakis ` ~), akmeizmSi ki, es laitTema aRar `muSaobs~ (Sdr. janyis daTrgunva gumiliovTan) akmeizmi gamosaxavs sagnobriv samyaros, rogorc kulturis samyaros, adamianis mier Seqmnil samyaros (es aspeqti renate laxmans aqvs gaanalizebuli akmeistebis kulturfilosofiis Sesaxeb daweril naSromSi). mokled, akmeizmisaTvis obieqti mxolod subieqtTan kavSirSi iZens mniSvnelobas. da mainc akmeizmi sadisturia _ da, erTi SexedviT, rac unda paradoqsulad JRerdes es Tezisi, igi mainc araa rezons moklebuli, radganac akmeizmis sadisturoba ganixileba im azriT, rom igi Tavis garSemo verafers naxulobs imgvars, rac ar iqneboda kultura, rac ar iqneboda adamianisagan momdinare (Tu `momarTul~) nebaze, Tundac intenciaze damokidebuli. akmeisturi ontoteqstic amitomacaa kulturuli artefaqtebiT konstituirebuli. rac Seexeba oralur agresiulobas, man avangardSi Tavi im motiviT iCina, rom sametyvelo kreaciaSi, gamoTqmaSi unda dasaxuliyo saSualeba referentTa samyaroze gamarjvebisa, misi gauqmebisa, dafuZneba sityvisa, rogorc aseTisa (xlebnikoviseuli ` ~). ase dakarga futuristul poeziaSi faqtiurma universumma gansxvaveba enobriv universumTan mimarTebiT. amasobaSi, postsimbolizmis metonomiuri poetika (sinekdoqes CaTvliT) isev fsiqikur sarCuls amogvibrunebs da sadoavangardistul konotaciaTa maraos sapirispirod gadagviSlis. pars pro toto da totum pro parte-s relaciaTa avangardistuli absolutizaciac sxva araferi iyo, Tu ara kulturkreatorTa mogoneba imis Sesaxeb, rom yovelive (simbiozi) ikargeba da xelaxla moi poveba nawilis _ dedis ZuZus saxiT, xolo es `dedis ZuZui~, rogorc CvenebianT `samSoblo xevsurisas~ didgvarovani avtoris erT qrestomaTiulad kitCizirebul teqstSia, `ar gaicvlebis sxvazeda~. iqneb, cxonebuli rafiel erisTavic am `sxva~-Si baxtin-levinis _ blanSoseul ekzotopias winaTgrZnobda, da saerTod, egeb, isic sadoavangardisti iyo, vin icis?!

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axali esperanto anu sicilakebis semiotika


Tanamedrove cxovrebaSi kompiuteruli teqnologiebisa da internetis funqciis gazrdam warmoSva e.w. virtualuri enis qvetipi, sadac verbaluri narativis garda, mniSvnelovania iseTi semiotikuri niSnebic, rogoricaa sicilakebi (Rimilakebi) da sxvadasxva saxis piqtogramebi. xSirad, virtualuri urTierTobisas sityva Canacvlebulia aseTi niSnebiT, metic, dialogic ki mimdinareobs aseT niSanTa gamoyenebiT. am niSanTa fsiqologiuri, xasiaTobrivi, Tematuri da konteqsturi mravalferovneba kidev ufro amartivebs am saxis komunikacias. xsenebul niSanTa ase aqtiurad gamoyenebis mizezi enis ekonomiurobisaken midrekilebaSi unda veZioT, garda amisa, azrovnebisa da metyvelebis urTierTmimarTebis TaviseburebaTa mravali aspeqti ganapirobebs aseTi niSnebis saWiroebasa da xSir SemTxvevaSi Seucvlelobas. ganvixilav am niSnebs niSnis rolan bartiseuli sami - simboluri, paradigmatuli da sintagmaturi ganzomilebiT. sanam am niSnebze konkretul saubars daviwyeb, ramdenime ZiriTad definicias gavixseneb, rac SemdgomSi gaaadvilebs konkretuli sakiTxis ukeT gaazrebas. semiotikaSi arsebobs uamravi definicia niSnis Sesaxeb, magram yvela maTgani or ZiriTad ganmartebas eyrdnoba da maT metnakleb Sevseba _ interpretacias warmoadgens.

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo universitetis zogadi da gamoyenebiTi enaTmecnierebis kaTedris doqtoranti, poeti (literaturul konkurs wero~s(2008) I premiis mflobeli) eleqtronuli literaturuli biblioTekis lib.ge_s Tanaavtori, literaturuli Jurnalis lil redaqtori, araerTi literaturuli proqtis avtori da Tanaorganizatori, ramdenime samecniero da literaturuli publikaciisa da erTi poeturi krebulis _ Sokoladi _ avtori. interesebi yvelaferi, rac ki enis -Yyofierebis saxlSi cxovrobs, niSani Seqmnis procesSi da Semdeg...

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pirveli aris pirsis ( semiotikis erT-erTi fuZemdeblis) midgoma, romlis mixedviTac, niSani warmoadgens raRacas, rac aRniSnavs raimes vinmesaTvis raime mimarTebiT an moculobiT arsebobas. meore gaxlavT ferdinand de sosiuriseuli modeli niSnisa, rogorc aRmniSvnelisa da aRsaniSnis erTianobisa, romelsac mxolod sistemis sxva elementebTan erTianobis Sedegad eniWeba funqcia. saintereso interpretacia warmoadgina rolan bartma, romlis mixedviTac nebismieri niSani gulisxmobs sami ti pis damokidebulebas: Sinagani damokidebuleba, romelic akavSirebs aRmniSvnelsa da aRsaniSns da ori garegani damokidebuleba, pirveli virtualuria, igi miakuTvnebs niSans sxva niSanTa gansazRvrul sistemas, meore damokidebuleba aqtualuria, is aerTianebs niSans sxva niSnebTan, anu gamoiyofa simboluri, paradigmaturi da sintagmaturi ganzomileba. virtualuri komunikaciebisas, eleqtronuli gzavnilebis, forumebisa da Catebis enaSi xSirad gamoyenebuli sicilakebi, anu garkveuli emociis grafikulad amsaxavi niSnebi, mravali funqciiTa da interpretaciT gamoiyeneba. es sicilakebi asaxaven subieqtis emocias, obieqtisadmi mis damokidebulebas, raime movlenis analizs, raime faqtis aRweras..... nebismieri saxis emocia Tu movlena warmoadgens aRsaniSns, romlis aRmniSvneli am emociis grafikuli xatia. romelic xSirad cvlis verbalur narativs. amis mizezi, garda ekonomiurobis princi pisa, SeiZleba iyos xSir SemTxvevaSi verbalurad SeuZlebloba emociis sruli saxiT gadmocemisa, an gadmosacemad uxvi leqsikuri masalis gamoyenebis aucilebloba. am saxiT, adamianis emocia da mimika iZens grafikul gamosaxulebas, gadaiqceva niSnad, xolo Semdeg, xSirad es niSani piqtograma kvlav brundeba mimikis saxiT. mimarTebaTa gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT gamoiyofa monopersonaluri sicilakebi, romlebic mosaubris, anu subieqtis emocias gamoxatavs da bi personaluri: mosaubris TanamosaubresTan, subieqtis obieqtTan mimarTebis gamomxatveli niSnebi. monopersonaluri niSnebma SeiZleba gamoxaton Semdegi saxis emociebi : mikvirs, kmayofili var, mowyenili var, davmarcxdi, vfiqrob, Tanaxma var, gavbrazdi.... bi personaluri niSnebi ori saxisaa, erTi, rodesac gamoxatavs subieqtis damokidebulebas gansazRvruli obieqtisadmi da rodesac mimarTvis obieqti ganusazRvrelia.

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bi personaluri jgufis niSnebi gamoxataven Semdeg Sinaarss: duelSi giwvev, gkocni, ar geTanxmebi, gelodebi, damireke..... aq aucilebelia subieqtisa da obieqtis urTierTarseboba, damokidebuleba gadadis subieqtidan Tanamosaubreze an emociis obieqtze. arsebobs erTgvari usubieqto sicilakebi, isini aRweren iseT faqts, romelic xdeba mosaubreTagan damoukideblad, mag: Tovs, wvims da.a.S. Tumca aseTma niSnebmac SeiZleba miiRon damatebiTi, obieqtTan mimarTebiTi Sinaarsi: wvims, imitom rom vtiri, Tovs, imitom rom mciva da a.S. , aq niSans emateba gadataniTi Sinaarsi, niSani xdeba metaforuli da iZens simbolos datvirTvas. es sicilakebi aerTianebs semiotikuri niSnisaTvis damaxasiaTebel yvela Tvisebas, warmoadgens aRsaniSnis grafikulad gamoxatul emociur xats, da qmnis aRsaniSn-aRmniSvnelis damokidebulebis models. aseT simboloTa erTianoba warmoadgens virtualuri enis qveti p niSanTa sistemas, xolo am niSanTa gamoyeneba erT horizontalur sibrtyeze, dialogsa da saubarSi, saintereso sintagmaTa magaliTebs gvaZlevs, rasac SesaZloa ikonuri winadadebebic ki vuwodoT. amgvari ikonuri winadadebebiT SesaZloa saubris awyoba ise, rom sruliad ar gamoiyenebodes verbaluri narativi. aRsaniSnavia, rom es niSnebi, erTgvar esperantos funqcias asruleben, zogadenobrivni arian da erTnairad gasagebi nebismieri enobrivi garemos mkvidrisaTvis, rac zrdis maTs funqcias, vinaidan globaluri eleqtronuli qselis mTavari mizani swored erebsa da enebs Soris martivi komunikaciebis damyarebaa.

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cxovreba Teatrs gavs, sadac yvela Tavis rols asrulebs ambobda berZeni poetiepigramisti paladasi. cxovreba cirkia _ mReroda gundi (ZvelberZnuli qoros es Tanamedrove versia) devid bouis simReraSi. cxovreba cirks, scenaze gaTamaSebul epizodebs mogvagonebs, sadac TiToeul Cvengans Tavisi roli aqvs. ufro ki maSin, roca zaza burWulaZis mineraluri jazis pirveli epizodi, sadac uSualod moqmedeba xdeba cirks am karnavalur sanaxaobas ukavSirdeba. yvelaferi es ki Tanamedrove romanis, an gnebavT, postmodernuli romanis erT-erT mTavar princi ps TamaSis princi ps iTvaliswinebs. miT umetes, rom am multivalentur romanSi/teqstSi karnavalicaa, Tavisi mezalansebiTa da profanaciebiT, dekonstruqciac Tavisi binaruli opoziciebiTa da gramatologiuri elementebiT da avtoris sikvdili Tu avtoris me-s hi pertrofirebac (avtoris cnebasTan dakavSirebuli ormagi kodireba). magram mivyveT TanmimdevrobiT. daviwyoT imiT, rom avtori (am cnebas versad gaveqceviT) Tavis romans qarvas adarebs, vinaidan romani, iseve rogorc qarva, TavisTavSi saukuneebis gamocdilebas aerTianebs imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom yvelaze Zveli qarva daaxloebiT 30-90 milioni wlisaa da masSi uxrwneli saxiT, Cakirulia yvelaze Zveli

SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis institutis TanamSromeli. literaturaTmcodne. Targmna wignebi: iuri lotmani. kultura da afeTqeba (2004), piter biorki renesansi (2001). avtoria statiebis: melanqoliuri diskursi da uxilavi subieqti, panTeisturi katafatika da sxv. interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, kulturis istoria.

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organizmebi mcenareebi Tu mwerebi. Tan, saberZneTSi mas xom mzis RmerTTan aigivebdnen, ramdenadac am sityvis berZnuli Sesatyvisi iyo , xolo mzis RvTaebis zedwodeba gamomafxizlebeli pirdapir iyo dakavSirebuli masTan. amis paralelurad, mineraluri jazi, Tavisi brikolaJuri teqnikiT, romelic literaturuli Tu vizualuri xelovnebis interteqstebiT Tu citatebiTaa gajerebuli plutarqes paraleluri biografiebidan (romulusis aorTqleba da a.S.), danaSauli da sasjelis epizodis parodizebis (fokos da Samugias epizodi) Tu prustiseuli erTgvari diatribuli narativis CaTvliT (sadac mwerali dauswrebel mosaubres elaparakeba), goias ofortebiT (Samugias xilva), adamsebis ojaxiT (moWrili xeli ) Tu felinis 8iT (romanis alternatiuli saTauri SemoqmedebiTi klimaqsi gvido anselmis SemoqmedebiT kriziss Segvaxsenebs) damTavrebuli, _ imaze miuTiTebs, rom is msoflio kulturis gamocdilebas moicavs da qarvis (da aqedan gamomdinare, paundiseuli definiciiT, ideogramis _ mzeRmerTis) kvalad, gamomafxizlebeli, samkurnalo daniSnuleba aqvs. swored aqedan momdinareobs romanis saTauris avtoriseuli definiciac _ mineraluri jazi: mineraluri, rac samkurnalo Tvisebebs gulisxmobs da, gurjebis sayvarel saqmianobasTan, nabaxusevis Semdeg loginSi uqmad kotrialTan asocirdeba; xolo jazi _ seiri, dardis gaqarveba, zurna-duduki, saseiro-s mniSvnelobis matarebelia. aqedan ukve semantikuri TvalsazrisiT wyvildeba ori cneba: sawadeli da saseiro. imavdroulad, qarva erTgvarad ukavSirdeba Taflsac, rac romanSi araerTgzisaa moxseniebuli da ikvreba metaforuli wyvilebi goleuli/ futkari da mwerali/teqsti, rac Tavis mxriv, ukve pirdapir ukavSirdeba teqstis, rogorc qarvis gagebas. axla, Tuki avtoris sityvebs gavixsenebT, rom yoveli didi qmnileba unda iyos sazogadoc da viwrod nacionaluric (romanSi is pasaJi, sadac kuTxurobis Sesaxeb anekdotzea saubari) , maSin futkrisa da Taflis konteqstSi sruliad samarTlianad Semova romanis erT-erTi personaJi daTvi diadi ruseTis xati. miT umetes, misi tambovuri warmoSoba gvibiZgebs amisken. axla ukve romani politikuri pamfletis saxes iRebs da aseT SemTxvevaSi asociaciuri cTunebisTvis Tavis daRweva Znelia: Samugias kiserze ZaRlis mZori xom igive Teimuraz xevisTavTan gvagzavnis jayos xiznebidan, xolo qarTveloba, rogorc didi tvirTi Teimurazis da ivanes dialogs mogvagonebs imave romanidan; an Tundac fraza _ wamovwvebodi CemTvis leRvis CeroSi da aRaraferze ar vifiqrebdi... zafxulia da misi dadgomisTanave WerSi imodena buzi Cndeba, SegiZlia Tvalo da

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Semodgomamde mainc ver daTvli, romelic ilias kacia-adamians Segvaxsenebs. TviT SemoqmedebiTi krizisic romanis alternatiuli saTauri TiTqos migvaniSnebs, rom gurjistanSi araferi Secvlila: davijero, sabolood dabruvdiT da sakuTari xeliT naWedi Tanamdeboba-wodebulebaTa Tanmimdevrobaca da xeli-xel Sekowiwebul faseulobaTa wesrigic TviTon moSaleT? momkaliT da ar mjera. miT umetes, rom avtoriseuli festina lente-c amis erTgvari dadasturebaa, roca TiTqos romani ver sruldeba (rogorc prustis gmiri, romelic romanis daweras apirebs, magram ar gamodis da romanic maSin mTavrdeba, roca personaJi ukve weras iwyebs), rasac avtori gamudmebiT gvimtkicebs. Tumca Cven viciT, rom es avtoris niRabia da romanis dausrulebloba mxolod xerxia karnavaluri xerxi. yovelive amis gaTvaliswinebiT daTvi-personaJi kidev ufro amZafrebs am STabeWdilebas, roca avtori uneblieT, TiTqos sasxvaTaSorisod, axsenebs olimpoel kneinas heras, romelmac xseni daRvara, saidanac rZiani gza, anu didi daTvis Tanavarskvlavedi gaCnda. es ki, Tavis mxriv, viskontis didi daTvis danislul varskvlavs Segvaxsenebs da gzis gamouvalobaze migvaniSnebs. dabolos, mdgomareobis gamouvalobas kidev ufro amZafrebs oCigavebis saxlSi daTvis stumroba da am Caketil sivrceSi eqstatiuri rokva. miT umetes, personaJebi am dros jaWvur geranoss cekvaven, rac Tezevsisa da labirinTidan Svidi qalwulis gaTavisuflebis miTs ukavSirdeba . Tumca, Tu ufro farTo perspeqtividan SevxedavT, yvelaze rTuli, zogadad, adamianis xvedria samyaroSi, sadac biblia, felini da zolebiani kbilis pasta TanabarmniSvnelovan cnebebad iqcnen; sadac Cvens hi perrealur samyaroSi omi pirdapir eTerSi gadaicema, SualedebSi higienuri tamponebis reklamebiT ; sadac masobrivi kvlavwarmoebis xanaSi sulieri kultura meorexarisxovnad iqca, rac gacxadebulia romanis bolos tyavis savarZlebSi Cafluli prezidentebisa da andazis, rogorc sulieri kulturis nimuSis, dapirispirebis metaforaSi. adamianis mier sakuTari bedis mowyobis mcdeloba TviTneburad an RmerTTan SeTanxmebis gareSe uRmerTobis xanis niSania, rac kidev ufro cxadad Cans Samugias xilvaSi Tavisi valpurgis RameebiT Tu homunkulusebiT (goeTes faustis citirebiT da faustur civilizaciaze miTiTebiT). iqneb amitomac axsenebs zaza burWulaZe piTagoraseul siyvaruls , romelzec TiTqos unda gvesaubros da aviwydeba. iqneb amitomac gvris nostalgias tambovel daTvs qolTreinis kompozicia, _ afrikis SemTxveviTi gagoneba. Tuki, rogorc avtori amtkicebs erTgan, dRevandel dRes, sabazro ekonomikis junglebSi... literatura, rogorc dargi, male iseve

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amowuravs TavisTavs, viT, vTqvaT, sqolastikam amowura, raRa saWiroa avtoris, rogorc mTavarsardlis da sasveni niSnebis, rogorc alyis, militaristuli metafora? aseT dros swored tropuli xerxebi da mniSvnelobebi iqceva xeli-xel Sekowiwebul faseulobaTa wesrigis dekonstruqciis iaraRad. amgvari teqnika ki uxvadaa mineralur jazSi upirvelesad, prustiseuli metateqstiT Tu mkiTxvelTan interpelaciiT, aRmniSvnelTa TamaSiTa (erTi da igive sagnis an movlenis dasaxasiaTeblad binaruli opoziciebis CamoTvliT maT Soris polaruli sxvaobis gageba uqmdeba) Tu aporiulobiT; kulturis kodebis ironizebiT (sadac myari gamoTqmebis, erTgvari gnomuri kodebis erovnuli saunjidan avtori cdilobs sikvdilis Sesatyvisi gamoTqma SearCios) Tu uneblie etimologiiT (Senoba/SeCemoba, sadac SeCemoba etimologiuri TvalsazrisiT seqsualur kavSirTan wilnayar siaxloves, rogorc WeSmarit siaxloves mogvagonebs); molodinis horizontis gacruebiT (fraziT _ aq albaT mkiTxveli elodeba, rom... ) Tu cnobil literaturul teqstebze parodiiT (rodesac mineralur jazSi samaSvelo rgoli Cndeba, rom Samugia sxva romanebis personaJebiviT wyalSi ar daixrCos). Tumca aq yvelaze mTavari mainc jazis cnebaa, vinaidan is Tavisuflebis postulatia da axla da aq iqmneba . amdenad kavSiri ikvreba rogorc romanis saerTo struqturasTan, ise karnavalurobis gagebasTan teqstTan ierarqiis gareSe da es aSkaraa Tundac imitom, rom mineralur jazSi ar arseboben mTavari da aramTavari gmirebi, tradiciuli gagebiT. magram arsebobs teqsti, romlisTvisac drois araviTar xangrZlivobas ar aqvs mniSvneloba da Tanmimdevruli, xazovani Txrobis sistema mis Tavisuflebas veRar SezRudavs. misTvis mxolod maradiuli awmyoa ; da rac mTavaria arsebobs avtori, romelic Tavis teqstTan erTad ibadeba da evolucias ganicdis; romelic Tanamedrove romanSi avtoris sikvdilis miuxedavad, kvlavac agrZelebs arsebobas da winaaRmdegobas gamZafrebuli me-s SegrZnebiT upirispirdeba. aqedan momdinareobs mineralur jazSi galaktioniseuli interteqsti _ maqvs mkerds midebuli qnari rogorc minda, rac imavdroulad, sistemisgan da kanonikisgan gaTavisuflebuli avtoris ganuzomel Tavisuflebas gulisxmobs; meore mxriv, isev galaktioniseuli CemTvis dResaviT aris naTeli, ras ityvis Cemze STamomavloba gulisxmobs hi pertrofirebul me-s da SemoqmedebiT potencias iTvaliswinebs. rogorc derida ityoda, yvelaferi teqstobrivia da araferi arsebobs teqsts gareSe. maT Soris, Cveni cxovrebac. Cven ki, mkiTxvelT, isRa dagvrCenia, vifiqroT, niSnebs Soris qveteqstebi vikiTxoT da

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viocneboT; viocneboT sodomamdel samyaroze, sadac aRar iqneba ierarqiuli wesrigi; arc mniSvnelobebis sistema SezRudavs adamianis Tavisuflebas da aRarc mTavar da meorexarisxovan personaJebad dayofen adamianebs swored ise rogorc mineralur jazSi. an, sulac gaviRimoT romans xom TiTqos refreniviT gasdevs avtoris uwyinari (Tu ironiuli) sicili _ exe-xe, romelic Tavisi bunebiT dionisuria, an, gnebavT, karnavaluri da Tavis TavSi aerTianebs imave binarul wyvilebs: qebas da lanZRvas, dacinvas da aRtacebas, kvdomas da aRdgomas. literatura 1. devid bouis es simRera (Life is a Circus) butlegeruli Canawerebis saxiT gavrcelda. Sesulia butlegerul albomSi The Forgotten Songs of David Robert Jones da mas jon haTCinsonTan erTad asrulebs. 2. sagulisxmoa, rom jer kidev romaeli swavluli plinius ufrosi (ax.w. 23-79) miiCnevda, rom qarvis amuletebi adamianis sulier simSvides uwyobs xels da borotisgan ifaravs mas. 3. moWrili xeli, rogorc simbolo, hari poteris meore wignSic gvxvdeba, rodesac is meoreklaselTa saxelmZRvaneloebis wamosaRebad midis. aseve, wignis bolos marjvena xeli Zvreba dambldors, romelic dauRalavad ebrZvis lord voldemorts. niSandoblivia, rom ioane naTlismcemlis mimdevarTaTvis mTavari siwminde ioane naTliscemlis mokveTili marjvenaa. 4. gavixsenoT Taflis da futkris da aqedan gamomdinare, maTi mzesTan kavSiri. Zvel egvi pteSi Tafli mze-RmerTis, ras cremlebad miaCndaT. futkari, ieroglifis TvalsazrisiT, qvesknelis sauflosac ganasaxierebda. futkrebis gamoCena ki sicocxlis, ganaxlebis simbolod iTvleboda. amdenad, futkari kvdoma-aRdgomis simboloc iyo da orfikosebis msgavsad, mas sulTan aigivebdnen. (es sagulisxmoa karnavaluri xasiaTis roman mineraluri jazis mimarT, vinaidan baxtinis TqmiT, karnavalis yvela saxe ormxrivia, TavianT TavSi cvlisa da krizisis orive poluss aerTianebs: dabadebasa da sikvdils, kurTxevas da wyevlas, qebas da lanZRvas, siymawvilesa da siberes, qvenasa da zenas, winasa da ukanas, sicruesa da sibrZnes). induistur miTologiasa da ikonografiaSi ki samkuTxedis wverze mjdomi futkari Sivas gansaxierebaa. kriSnas xSirad gamosaxavdnen cisferi futkriT Sublze. siyvarulis RmerT kamas ki, kupidonis msgavsad, xelT upyria mSvildi, romlis laric futkrebisganaa damzadebuli. erT-erTi argonavti, periklimene, poseidonma lomad, gvelad da futkrad

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gardasaxvis unariT daajildova, vinaidan futkari gazafxulis da aRdgomis simbolo iyo. sagulisxmoa agreTve qalRmerT demetresTan dakavSirebuli elevsinuri ritualebi, sadac bunebis kvdoma-aRdgomis scenebi TamaSdeboda, sadac demetres qaliSvils, persefones hadesi itacebda miwisqveSeTis saufloSi. persefones, anu koras ki xSirad Taflis msgavssac uwodebdnen. rituals atarebdnen hierofanti, hiera, hierofantidebi (ori qali) da yovldawmida qurumi qalebi, an melisebi, rac futkrebs niSnavs. Cvenamde SemorCenilia me-5 saukunis monetebi efesodan, romlebzec gamosaxulia futkarTa dedofali, rogorc didi dedis, demetres simbolo; xolo mormonebTan futkari idealuri sazogadoebis simbolo iyo. 5. am TvalsazrisiT niSandoblivia romauli ritualebi, sadac asaxuli iyo iniciaciis sxvadasxva safexuri. erT-erT maTgans ewodeboda lomis safexuri. neoplatonikosi filosofosi porfiri werda: Teologebi Tafls sxvadasxva simbolur datvirTvas aniWebdnen, vinaidan mas mravalgvari Tviseba aqvs is ganwmends, gankurnavs kidec adamians da Semnaxveli Tvisebac gaaCnia. Taflis wyalobiT, bevr rames icaven gafuWebisgan da is Wrilobebsac malamod edeba. ebraul da qristianul legendebSi, magaliTad, samsonis istoriaSi samsoni klavs loms, xolo Semdeg gamoSignul loms aTvalierebs, sadac futkrebis gunds da Tafls dainaxavs da Taflis Wamas iwyebs (msaj.14). 6. aq uneblieT gvaxsendeba vefxistyaosnis akakiseuli interpretacia, roca man personaJebis warmomavloba lokaluramde daaviwroa da tarieli, avTandili da fridoni kuTxuri warmoSobis TvalsazrisiT ganixila. meore mxriv, kosmopolituris da nacionaluris mimarTebaze saubaria mineraluri jazis im epizodSi, sadac ukudo kata asociaciurad dawyvilebulia gurjistanTan da es erTi mxriv, qarTvelebis gandidebis maniaze (qebai da didebai qarTulisa enisai) migviTiTebs, xolo meore mxriv ilias bednier ers da javaxiSvilis jayos xiznebs Segvaxsenebs. 7. ironiuli miniSneba bodhis xeze, romlis qveSac gautama buda gaciskrovnda. swored leRvis xeze CamoixrCo Tavi iuda iskariotelmac. da Tuki jazi musikaluri bgerebis Tavisufali interpretaciaa, teqstSi aseTia mniSvnelobebis Tavisufali TamaSi. amdenad, romanis saerTo konteqstidan gamomdinare, sagulisxmoa, rom fonetikuri da semantikuri TvalsazrisiT, garkveulwilad wyvildeba buda/iuda.

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8. es cekva asociaciurad gadmoscems xveuli labirinTidan Tezevsis gamosvlas mis erT-erT gmirobas. geranoss, zogadad, Sereulad asrulebdnen aseTi mimdevrobiT: biWi-gogo-biWi... 9. aq aSkara aluziaa bodriiris wignTan sparseTis yures omi ar momxdara, romelic 1991 wels gamovida. 10. piTagoraseuli siyvarulis Tanaxmad, SeuZlebelia imis siyvaruli, rac adamians aqvs. is ufro raimes miuwvdomlobidan momdinareobs, vinaidan siyvaruli aris Zala, romelic raime obieqtis dauflebisken an wvdomisken gvibiZgebs. rogorc ki obieqts veuflebiT, siyvaruli sixaruliT da kmayofilebiT icvleba. magram raime obieqtis mimarT siyvaruli sikeTis mimarT arasworad mimarTul siyvarulad iTvleboda. sikeTe ki mxolod da mxolod RmerTia, erTi, absoluturi sinamdvile. sikeTe samyaroa, romelSic yvelaferi harmoniaSia erTmaneTTan. 11. qolTreini qristianul ojaxSi aRizarda. 1950-iani wlebis bolos man colad SeirTo xuanita naima grabi, romelsac muslimuri sarwmunoeba hqonda miRebuli. amitomac, qolTreini islamiT dainteresda. rogorc amboben, swored islami daexmara qolTreins, rom alkoholisa da heroinisadmi midrekileba daeZlia. es periodi misi SemoqmedebiTi da sulieri gamofxizlebis dasawyisia. swored am periodSi, 1961 wels aris Cawerili kompozicia Africa, romelic musikosis sulieri gamocdilebiTaa gajerebuli. 12. roca avtori velosi peds axsenebs da romanSi misi saWiroebis Sesaxeb saubrobs, uneblieT SeiZleba gagvaxsendes Cexovis sityvebi, rom nawarmoebSi uqmad dakidebulma Tofma boloSi mainc unda gaisrolos da teqstSi Tavisi arseboba gaamarTlos. 13. barti avtoris sikvdilSi wers: Tanamedrove mwerali sakuTar teqstTan erTad ibadeba... yoveli teqsti iwereba aq da axla. mineralur jazSic zaza burWulaZe wers: ai, swored esaa am wignis sayrdeni wertili: warsuli da momavali erTad mocemuli axla, marad awmyoSi. 14. baxtinis Tanaxmad, karnavali aris sanaxaoba rampisa da Semsruleblebad da mayureblebad dayofis gareSe. karnavalSi yvela uSualo monawilea, karnavaluri qmedebis Tanaziaria. karnavals ar ucqeren da, mkacrad rom vTqvaT, mis gaTamaSebas ki ar axdenen, aramed cxovroben masSi, cxovroben misi kanonebiT, vidre es kanonebi moqmedeben, anu karnavalur cxovrebas ewevian. TviTon karnavaluri cxovreba aris iseTi cxovreba, romelic amogdebulia Cveulebrivi kalapotidan, anu erTgvari ukuRma cxovrebaa, gadmobrunebuli samyaroa. karnavalis

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dros uqmdeba wesebi, akrZalvebi da SezRudvebi, romlebic Cveulebrivi, anu arakarnavaluri cxovrebis dinebasa da wyobas gansazRvraven; upirvelesad uqmdeba ierarqiuli wyoba da masTan dakavSirebuli SiSis, mokrZalebis, pietetis, etiketis da a.S. formebi, anu yovelive is, rasac adamianTa socialur-ierarqiuli da yvela sxvagvari (maT Soris asakobrivi) uTanasworoba ganapirobebs. 15. avgustines Tanaxmad, maradiuloba drois gagebas ar eqvemdebareba, is dgas da ucvlelia da maradiulobaSi yvelaferi awmyoSia. 16. galaktioniseuli sityvebi aluziaa horaciusis cnobili leqsis Exegi Monumentum, romliT STagonebulma puSkinmac dawera striqonebi: ..., sadac sakuTar Tavs da sakuTar poezias asxams xotbas.

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kritikis dabadeba
mcire eqskursiT daviwyeb da Jan starobinskis 1967 wels daweril da 2001 wels gadamuSavebul erT statias gavixseneb, sadac avtori kritikis Zalze saintereso etimologias gvTavazobs. statias kritikis mimarTeba hqvia da avtori am sityvis Ziris mosaxelTeblad JorJ blenis wignsac imowmebs: cnobilia, rom sityva kritika ZvelberZnuli zmna krinein-dan modis (laT. cerno), romlis Tavdapirveli mniSvnelobac gayofas, garCevas ukavSirdeba, aqvea gafantvisa da ganiavebis saxeebic da rac mTavaria, starobinski gamohyofs e.w. kritikul dReebsac, krizisis periods, roca, hi pokrates medicinis Tanaxmad, avadmyofis bedi wydeba. Tanamedrove qarTuli literaturisa da kritikis mdgomareoba da zogadad, kulturuli viTareba swored am erTi Zalze moqnili da TiTqosda SiSismomgvreli sityviT, krizisiT SeiZleba daxasiaTdes. anu, avadmyofi cnobilia, masze ukve bevri dawerila, zogs aseTive avadmyofuri paTosiT aRsavse werilebi SeuTxzavs mis gamo, sxvebs ki Wkvianuri, magram arafrismTqmeli gansjebiT daumZimebia mkiTxvelis goneba. iyo maxvilgonivruli SeniSvnebic. didi Sansebi arc am werils aqvs, arc am erTi statiiT gairkveva rame, magram imedia, fiqrs mainc mivayolebT imas, rac dRevandel Cvens literaturaSi xdeba. ar minda mowuwune nihilistad CamTvalos vinmem, magram krizisi dRes yvelgan igrZnoba,

ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis doqtoranti, SoTa rusTavelis literaturis institutis TanamSromeli. Jurnal `cxeli Sokoladis~ literaturuli redaqtori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: galaktionis qalaquri teqsti, poeturi narcisizmi da interteqstualoba, `piradi biblioTeka~ (esseebi). interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba, kritika, mxatvruli Targmani.

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da am dros mniSvneloba ara aqvs, vin ufro metni arian dRes saqarTveloSi, profesionali, mondomebuli da muyaiTi avtorebi Tu gulgrili an xelgautexavi mwerlebi. dRes rom literaturuli procesi cota vinmes ainteresebs, cxadia. cxadia isic, rom arc kritika aRelvebs bevrs. xSirad daiCivleben xolme amaze, magram sinamdvileSi erTeulebi Tu aRiareben, ra aris aucilebeli sisxlsavse literaturuli cxovrebisTvis. am momCivanTagan umravlesobas, samwuxarod, arafris ufleba aqvs da verc kaTedraze Sedgeba saqadagod, imitom rom es kaTedrebic (literaturuli gamocemebi) aRar arsebobs da Tavadac yovelTvis ukan ixeven, roca raime sajaro Sexvedraze iwveven. samagierod qadageben ama Tu im literaturuli kavSiris pirmSoni, romlebsac jgufebi pirobiTad hqviaT, Torem sinamdvileSi arc SemoqmedebiTi kavSirebia eseni da arc raime Rirebulis aRmsarebelni, aramed garkveuli mentaluri Tu finansuri erToba, adamianebi, romelTac an fuli aerTianebT, an Senoba, anda sulac xaTri. qadagebs am jgufebis mier (Tu piriqiT) gawamebuli kulturis ministri, erTi xelis mosmiT rom Seuwyvita Tavis droze dafinanseba uklebliv yvela gamocemas, da mravali sxva saqmeze ki aravin dardobs, aravin fiqrobs imaze, rom ori profesionali prozaikosi da oric popularuli poeti ver Seqmnis Tanamedrove literaturas. arc kafeebis Tavyrilobebi eyofa amas da arc miT umetes, presaSi mimofantuli abzacebi, am Tavyrilobebs rom aRwers. amaswinaT, yurZnis SarSandel mosavalze CavekiTxe meRvineebs, kompaniis warmomadgenlebsa da glexebs da verc erTisgan ver miviRe pasuxi yurZnis xarisxis Sesaxeb, imaze, Tu rogor Rvinos unda elodos momxmarebeli 2006 wlis mosavlidan. erTni mxolod rusul embargoze moTqvamdnen, meoreni ki socialur problemebze, imaze, rom kompaniebi Zalian iafad ibarebdnen yurZens da a.S. xarisxze fiqriT ki aravin iwuxebda Tavs. literaturac aseT dReSia CvenTan, mxatvrul Rirebulebebze vinRa dardobs, roca honoraris maZiebeli avtori, RmerTma uwyis, romeli redaqciis kars ar miadga; roca mwerali minimalursac kia moklebuli, maT Soris dabeWdvas, Tundac uhonorarod; roca mwerlis bediT aravin interesdeba, TiTo-orola gamonaklisis garda. bolo wlis manZilze Zalze iklo mxatvruli literaturis wilma sagamomcemlo saqmeSic. sul oriod romani gamovida, sami-oTxi poeturi krebuli da ramdenime Targmani. xSiri gaxda klasikis gadamRerebuli gamocemebi, romelic arsebuli xarvezis daZlevis iluzias qmnis mxolod. SeCerebuli literaturuli perioduli gamocemebis gamo

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bakur sulakauris gamomcemloba wels pirvelad daarRvevs tradicias da ver Seadgens Tavis 15 saukeTesos, wlis rCeuli moTxrobebis krebuls, radgan moTxrobebi TiTqmis aRarsad ibeWdeba (leqsebze rom araferi vTqvaT). kidev erTi problema avtorebis cnobadobaa. naxeT bolo aTwleulis manZilze gamoqveynebuli interviuebi klasikosebTan, cnobil an Tundac axalgazrda mwerlebTan, da Tavad darwmundebiT, rom maT yovelTvis Zalian uWirT gvarebis dasaxeleba, jer erTi ar icnoben kolegebis nawers da Tuki icnoben, sityva ar emetebaT maTTvis. anda piriqiT, asaxeleben mxolod TavianT megobrebs, maT qaCaven. maxsovs ramdenime wlis win gamomaval erT literaturul gazeTSi, sadac yovel nomerSi ibeWdeboda interviuebi, kiTxvaze, vis gamoyofdiT Tanamedrove mwerlebidan, sul erTsa da imave avtorebs asaxelebdnen da ase grZeldeboda gamudmebiT. gansakuTrebuli problema eqmnebaT Tanamedrove klasikosebs. Tavis droze erTi korespondenti samjer, sami sxvadasxva kiTxviT Seecada daecdeninebina saxelovani mwerlisTvis Tundac erTi saxeli umcrosi Taobidan, da mainc verafers gaxda. icoda, magram ar Tqva, wakiTxulic hqonda zogierTi maTgani, magram ver aTqmevines. ukve ramdenime welia vcdilob, xandaxan Zalian agresiuladac, rom saqarTveloSi recenzirebis, mimoxilvisa Tu kritikis sxva, ufro Tanamedrove wesebi damkvidrdes. bevrjer miTxovia mwerlebisTvis, Tavisi kolegis wignis Sesaxeb azri gamoeTqva, ubralod mimoexila mainc, magram ar maxsovs vinme gamoxmaurebodes am Cems Txovnas. arada dasavleTSi, kritikosi sul sxva rames gulisxmobs, pirvel rigSi ki esaa mwerali, romelic Tavisnairze wers, mniSvneloba ara aqvs es Tavisnairi ufro niWieri iqneba Tu uniWo. iq yvelas kargada aqvs gacnobierebuli, rom usafuZvlo Rrenas an uTavbolo sadRegrZeloebs aravin dabeWdavs. magaliTisTvis, gadaxedeT The New Yorker-is, Guardian-is, The London Review of Books -is, The London Review of Books -is an nebismier sxva saxelovani amerikuli Tu evropuli literaturuli gamocemis bolo nomrebs da Tavad darwmundebiT, rom nobelis premiis laureati da orgzis bukeris gamarjvebuli, j.m. kutzee norman meileris bolo romanze wers, milan kundera ki salman ruSdize, jon apdaiki orhan famuqis bolo nawarmoebs mimoixilavs, julian barnsi ki miSel uelbekisas. arada aseTi kargi sakbilo maT iSviaTad aqvT xolme, ZiriTadad debiutantebis an yvelasTvis ucnobi avtorebis recenzireba uwevT xolme gasagebi mizezebis gamo.

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saqarTveloSi ar arsebobs kargi literaturuli gadacemac, arc erTi arxi ar zrunavs amaze, arada yvelam kargad icis, ramxela Zala aqvs televizias, gansakuTrebiT ki zarmaci, monebivre qarTveli mkiTxvelisTvis. saqarTveloSi literaturuli Jurnalistikisa da kritikis mwvave krizisia, aRaravin wers portretebs, mimoxilvebs, wignis prezentaciebidan ki zogierT Jurnalists avtoris saxeli da gvaric ki ar amaxsovrdeba. sxva saqmea kritika, romelic Zalze ukuRmarTad esmiT saqarTveloSi, romelic saerTod moklebulia pasuxismgeblobis grZnobas da Casafrebulis poziciebidan danaxul process ufro aRwers, vidre realur suraTs, sadac erTmaneTs unda Seerwyas garkveuli meTodologiuri simkacre da refleqsiuri miukerZoebloba. arada kritikas namdvilad SeuZlia garkveuli periodi mxatvruli teqstebis gareSe gaZlos, piriqiT provocirebac ki moaxdinos maTi Seqmnisa, literaturul process ki kritikis gareSe umal ucnauri warmoSobis snobebi an provincialebi daepatronebian. Tanamedrove msoflioSi kritikas sul sxva problemebi udgas. literaturis Teoriis mravalwliani batonobis Semdeg, iq sxva saxe miiRo am saxis mwerlobam. formaluri analizidan bevri Rirebulebis sakiTxebze da literaturis sazrisis Ziebaze gadavida, struqturalizmis, poststruqturalizmisa da dekonstruqciis klasikosebma ki literaturuli eTikis problemebzec ki daiwyes wera (todorovma, kristevam da mravalma sxvam). saqarTveloSi sxva problemebis winaSe vdgavarT, aq arc Zlieri literaturaTmcodneobiTi skola yofila da arc realur Teoretikul kritikas uarsebia rodisme. saqarTveloSi Tavis droze Cveulebriv movlenad iqca literaturuli nawarmoebis, vTqvaT `vefxistyaosnis~, daviT guramiSvilis an baraTaSvilis teqstebis analizisisas Staineris, Siuresa da sxva sinTezuri sibriyvis citireba. saqmes ver Svelis geronti qiqoZis an guram asaTianis saxelebs amofarebac. CvenTan, rogorc Cans, yvelaferi Tavidan unda daiwyos, Tumca dainteresebuli, yuradRebiani mwerlebisa da mkiTxvelebis gareSe araferi gamova da vin icis, iqneb saqarTveloSic dadga dro, roca SeuZlebelia kritika mxolod teqstis analiziT Semoifarglos. iqneb pirveladaa qveyanaSi viTareba, roca literaturam da kritikam unda ikisros is roli, romelsac samwuxarod verc politikiT dabrmavebuli mas-media arTmevs Tavs da verc e.w. inteleqtualebi. bolodroindeli qarTuli kultura xom rituals daemsgavsa, aranair kritikas rom ar uSvebs (ver uZlebs da imitomac ar uSvebs),

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Tanamedrove kritika xom arsebiTad kafiobaa, sadac mxolod ori mxare Cans. kritika CvenSi xom mxolod saxeldaxeloa, kritika wakiTxvis gareSe, e.w. Wor-kritika. moris blanSo erTgan aRniSnavda, kultura racionaluri diskursis universalizaciisken miiswrafis, literatura ki piriqiT, yovelTvis uars ambobs amgvar gawonasworebulobaze-o. Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom literaturis sferoSi xSirad racionalobaze orientirebuli amgvari kulturuli gmiris funqcias kritika da literaturaTmcodneoba kisruloben xolme, Tumca maT kidev erTi mTavari niSani gamoarCevT, esaa Tavisufleba da mxolod am or, erTi SexedviT urTierTgamomricxav mxareTa SerwymiT xdeba teqstis Tu zogadad literaturis sazrisis dazusteba. imiT davamTavreb, raTac daviwye, anu kritikis etimologiiT da am sityvis yvelaze Rrma mniSvnelobiT, krizisis periods rom exeba. dRes qarTuli kultura (literatura da sxv.) marTla avadaa da marTla wydeba misi bedi, magram am sityvebSi negatiurze metad, Cemi azriT, ufro saqmiani mowodeba gaismis, romelic gvTxovs kargad davimaxsovroT es dro, mware dReebi, saidanac raRac axali unda daiwyos. igi arc movla-patronobas gvTxovs da arc qadagebas, aramed mxolod yuradRebas, dakvirvebas da aRweras. kritikac aqedan ibadeba da erTi mxriv winaaRmdegobis, meore mxriv ki gawonasworebulobis am usasrulo davaSi vinZlo gulgrilobisa da ganurCevlobis monstric gaqres.

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xose ortega i gaseti

ena. Sesavali axal lingvistikaSi (leqciaTa kursidan adamiani da xalxi)


Znelad mosaZebnia imaze ufro adamianuri urTierToba, romelic deda-Svils an Seyvarebulebs akavSirebs. uaRresad unikaluri arseba _ deda xom Tavisi unikaluri qmnilebis _ Svilis gamo cxovrobs. Seyvarebulobis dros ki swored am konkretul mamakacs uyvars swored es konkretuli qali _ Seudarebeli, Seucvleli, erTaderTi. maTi qceva, maTi erTmaneTisadmi damokidebuleba pirovnebaTSorisi urTierTobis Zalze naTeli magaliTia. barem aqve SevniSnoT: Seyvarebuli wyvili yvelaze xSirad da yvelaze metad saubriTaa dakavebuli. ra Tqma unda, sasiyvarulo alerssac eZlevian, Tumc, esec saubris gagrZelebaa, oRond _ sxva formiT. amas dazusteba aRar sWirdeba. siyvaruli, romelsac mzera da alersi asuldgmulebs, ufro metad cocxldeba saubriT, dausrulebeli dialogiT. siyvaruli mgalobeli frinveliviT stvens da WikWikebs, siyvaruli mWevrmetyvelia da, Tu romelime Seyvarebuli mainc dums, es imas niSnavs, rom mas sxvagvarad ar SeuZlia. is bunebiTaa gamorCeulad mdumari. es uaRresad individualuri qmedeba, romelsac orive monawile mTel Tavis pirovnul siRrmes axmars, originaluri Sesaqmis es uwyveti aqti _ siyvaruli _ Suamavlad metyvelebas irCevs. laparaki garkveuli enis gamoyenebas niSnavs, Tumc, Seyvarebulebs ar SeuqmniaT igi. ena, romelzec mijnurebi saubroben, maTTan erTad arsebobda, sazogadoebaSi feTqavda. bavSvobaSive Casaxlda masSi adamianTa sametyvelo aRqmasTan erTad. rameTu enas _ imTaviTve da samudamod marad mSobliurs _ iTviseben ara gramatikidan an leqsikonidan, aramed _ mxolod adamianuri metyvelebidan. yvela mijnurs surs raRacis Tqma, bevris gamoTqma, magram sinamdvileSi es survili mxolod erTs niSnavs _ giamboT sakuTar cxovrebaze, TiToeulis ganumeoreblad individualur yofaze. roca erT-erT pirvel leqciaSi aRvniSne, adamianTa cxovreba Tavidan bolomde radikaluri metyvelebaameTqi, davamate, rom siyvaruli ori martoobis gacvla-gamocvlis,

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ori idumali Sinagani samyaros Serwymis cdaa da Tu is warmatebiT dasrulda, ori nakadi gaerTiandeba, ori cecxli erTurTs SeeduReba. ai, ratom eubnebian Seyvarebulebi erTmaneTs: Cemo siyvarulo! an sxva maT dar sityvebs. magram erTmaneTisgan unda gavarCioT, ris Tqmas lamoben am sityvebis meSveobiT da is, rasac amboben. is, risi Tqmac Seyvarebulebs surT, erTurTisadmi rom ganicdian, is grZnobaa _ WeSmariti, aRmvsebi, maTi pirovnuli siRrmidan momdinare, maT mier gancdili da gacnaurebuli. sapirispirod is, rasac amboben anu gamoTqma, romliTac erTurTs mimarTaven, siyvarulSi utydebian, grZnobaSi arwmuneben _ Cemo siyvarulo! _ maTTan garedan movida. maT ar esmiT misi arsi. aq zustad igive viTarebaa, rac _ misalmebisas. mSvenivrad mesmis, rom misalmebisas Semxvedrs xeli unda gavuwodo, magram srulebiT ver gamigia, ratom unda moviqce swored ase da ara sxvagvarad. Seyvarebulebma Seumcdarad ician, rom grZnobaTa gacvlisas mTavaria amgvar an analogiur sityvaTa darTva. magram isini ver xvdebian, rad hqvia maT grZnobas siyvaruli, rad gamoixatvis bgeraTa swored amgvari TanmimdevrobiT da ara sxvagvarad. maT survilSi, grZnobaSi, gamoutydnen satrfos, da gamoTqmis aqtSi anu garkveul bgeraTwarmoebaSi, kavSiris danaxva SeuZlebelia. da Tu mijnurebi am bgeraTSeTanxmebas irCeven, mxolod imitom, rom smeniaT: Seyvarebulebi ase iqcevian. da ara sxva romelime mizezis gamo, razec migviTiTebs sityva siyvaruli. ena socialuri Cvevaa, ori adamianis, ori samyaros Suamavali da TiToeuli individis mier misi gamoyeneba uaRresad individualuria. da am faqtis SemaZrwunebel, TiTqmis komikur dadasturebas imaSi vxedav, rom Cveulebriv, racionalursa da logikurs veZaxiT Cvens ukiduresad gonivrul saqciels. maSin, roca TviT es sityvebi _ racionaluri, logikuri _ warmodgeba sityvebisagan ratio da logos, romlebiTac Tavdapirvelad laTinursa da berZnulSi metyvelebas aRniSnavdnen. sxvagvarad rom vTqva, am sityvebiT gamovTqvamT iracionalur qmedebas, Tanac iSviaTad erT-erT gadamwyvet momentSi, yvelaze xSirad ki _ sxva danarCenSi. vimeoreb: Cven met-naklebad kargad gvesmis ideebi, romelTa gamoxatvas warmoTqmuli sityvebiT vcdilobT, magram ar viciT, ras gamoxatavs Cveni metyveleba, TavisTavad ras niSnavs Cveni gamoTqmani anu sityvebi. yovelive zemoTqmuli misalmebasac exeba. TviT xelis gawvdis faqti mxolod maSin cnobierdeba, roca misalmebis Semdeg viwyebT Teoriul msjelobas imaze, rac moxda da Sedegad Cvevis

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etimologias aRmovaCenT xolme. igive xdeba sityvis SemTxvevaSi. xSirad masSi azrs ver vpoulobT da gaugebari rCeba. ase moxda siyvarulTan dakavSirebiT. es sityva romaelTagan gvergo, magram ara romauli, aramed _ etruskulia. etruskTa gamocdilebidan iSva (sakiTxavia, rogori gamocdilebidan?), Tu maTac sxva xalxebisgan isesxes? samwuxaroa, magram ar viciT siyvaruls _ agrerigad didi adgili rom uWiravs Cvens cxovrebaSi _ maincdamainc ase ratom veZaxiT? magaliTad, vambobT: SiSma ganmgmira. TavisTavad am gamoTqmas azri ara aqvs. gaugebaria, grZnoba, romelic CvenSi iSva da sivrcesTan gaucxoebulia, rogor aRmoCnda Cvens miRma da Semdeg gangvgmira kidec! Tumc am SemTxvevaSi yovelives naTels hfens etimologia, romlis Tanaxmadac berZnulsa da sxva indoevropul enebSic arsebobda swored aseTi gamoTqma. pirvelyofil indoevropelebs sjerodaT, rom vnebebi, sneulebaTa darad, kosmiuri, garemomcveli, adamianTa miRma arsebuli Zalebia, romlebic drodadro CvenSi iWrebian. Cveulebis meore niSani isaa, rac gvaiZulebs mis dacvas, mis morCilebas. metyvelebaSi rogor xdeba yovelive es? vin gamibrazdeba an vin damemuqreba, Tu me ara sityvebs, aramed Cems mier gamogonil bgerebs gamoviyeneb? roca misalmebaze saubrisas erTgvar iZulebaze mivuTiTebdi, mxolod sanqciis is ti pi giCveneT, romelic warmoiqmneboda Cveulebis ugulebelyofisas. magram rogorc qvemoT davinaxavT, Cveulebis yvela ti pSi iZuleba mxolod am ti pisTvis niSandobliv formas iRebs. gansxvaveba maT Soris ukiduresad arsebiTia. es formebi yvelaze ukeT arkeveven funqcias, romelsac Cveulebis TiToeuli ti pi asrulebs ama Tu im sazogadoebaSi. maqsimaluri iZuleba fizikuri xasiaTisaa. socialuri garemocva mas maSin mimarTavs, roca adamianebi uaroben CveulebaTa Zalze niSandoblivi ti pis _ samarTlis dacvas. Tu ratom, qvemoT vnaxavT. amjerad ki mxolod SeniSvniT davkmayofildeT: im iZulebasTan SedarebiT, romelic misalmebis Cvevis ugulebelyofas mosdevs, samarTali gacilebiT mZlavrad, uxeSad da mkveTrad mogveCveneba. warmovidginoT aseTi viTareba: viRacam saaTi moi para da daiWires in fraganti (danaSaulis adgilas); policieli maSinve akavebs damrRvevs da Zalis gamoyenebiT iq mihyavs, sadac jer ars. am SemTxevevaSi romeliRac kerZo piris borot qmedebaze sazogadoebis pasuxi fizikuri xasiaTisaa, maqsimalurad intensiuri da swrafi. es magaliTi kidev erTxel gvaTqmevinebs, rom Cveuleba SeiZleba davyoT Zlierad da sustad. CvevavaTa intensivobiT miTiTebuli ori xarisxi ganisazRvreba

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saiZuleblad gamoyenebuli Zalis odenobiT. misalmeba da yovelive isic, rasac znes veZaxiT, sust CveulebaTa saxeobania. samarTali, piriqiT, Zlieri Cveulebaa. da vimedovneb giCvenoT, misi yvelaze xSiri forma da prima facie (aq: sawyisi saxe, Taursaxe) ratomaa sxva CveulebebTan SedarebiT gansakuTrebuli; swored ukanasknelma garemoebam SeuSala xeli iuristebsa da samarTlis filosofosebs samarTalSi is ganeWvritaT, rac sinamdvileSia: samarTali mravalTagan erT-erTi Cveulebaa. ukve giTxariT: ramdenadac Cveni garemocva socialuria, Tavs avlens, rogorc mudmivi da sayovelTao iZuleba. ai, dadga xelsayreli momenti sityvis uTqmelad gamovasworoT gavrcelebuli mcdari Sexeduleba socialur da koleqtiur iZulebaze! Cveulebriv miiCneven, rom koleqtiuri iZuleba igulisxmeba sxvebis mier Cvendami gamoxatul dadebiT Tu uaryofiT qmedebaSi. es ase ar aris. sinamdvileSi es im iZulebis erT-erTi formaa, romlis ori saxeoba ukve ganvixileT: sxvebis aRSfoTeba, roca maT ar vesalmebiT (rac megobruli damokidebulebis, pativiscemisa da urTierTobis survilis ubralo ugulebelyofaa) da meorec, policielis energiuli Careva maSin, roca viRacam, vTqvaT, saaTi moi para an anderZi gaayalba. savsebiT bunebrivad meCveneba Cems saqcielze iZulebiT zemoqmedebad ganvixilo nebismieri mZime Sedegi, rac imiT iqneba gamowveuli, rom me ise ar moviqeci, rogorc es Cems socialur garemocvaSia miRebuli. magaliTad, Wabuks surs siyvarulSi gamoutydes satrfos, magram uarobs romelime cnobili enis gamoyenebas. ra Tqma unda, es policiis Carevis sababi ar aris, magram erTi ram ki ueWvelia: am SemTxvevaSi misi mijnuri Wabukis zraxvebs ver amoicnobs da verc Wabuki etyvis sawadels. Cveuleba, romelsac ena warmoadgens, mSvidad, auRelveblad, yovelgvari gareSe Zalis gamouyeneblad zemoqmedebs adamianebze, aiZulebs maT am Cveulebis ubralo da, amave dros, pirwmindad avtomatur da ucilo gamoyenebas. am Cveulebaze uaris Tqmisas ena SeuZlebels xdis gagebas da gagebinebas, ZirSive adamblavebs nebismier nayofier da normalur Tanagancdas. aq Cvens winaSea iZuleba, romelic ar Seicavs visime pozitiur Tu negatiur qmedebas (es, ase vTqvaT, winaswarganzraxuli utyvobaa), radganac Cven qmedebad ver movixseniebT gaugebrobas an raRacas, rac uindividod xorcieldeba. amgvarad, iZuleba yovelgvar pirobebSi formalurad unda miviCnioT, roca ki Cven dausjelad ZalgviZs qcevis im wesis arCeva, romelic sayovelTaod miRebulisgan gansxvavdeba. dasja an SurisZieba sxvadasxva zomas an xarisxs gulisxmobs. magaliTad, imis

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Seusrulebloba, rac Cvens garemocvaSia miRebuli, gacilebiT Znelia, vidre _ misi Sesruleba. ai, erTi martivi da, amdenad, Zalze TvalsaCino magaliTi: sakmarisia sauzmeze imisgan gansxvavebuli ram moviTxovoT, rac Cvens yoveldRiur meniuSia, rom udides winaaRmdegobebs wavawydeT. ramden xaTabalas ukavSirdeba am trivialuri moTxovnilebis dakmayofileba mogzaurobisas an adgilis Secvlisas! piriqiT, sazogadoeba gvaTavisuflebs sauzmis Cven mierve mogonebis movaleobisagan da gvTavazobs windawin aprobirebul meniuTagan erT-erTs. yovelive es _ dramatizebis gareSe _ mxolod wvrilmania da mainc, sazogadoebis arsebobis, ufro sworad, misi simyaris gadamwyvet mizezad gvevlineba. xom yvela Cvengans mondomebia, erTxel mainc gahqceoda sazogadoebas! Tumc sakmarisi iyo im Zalisxmevis warmodgena, rac marto yofnas dasWirdeboda _ roca sruliad marto unda gaisarjo _ rom gaqcevisadmi vneba maSinve Cagvekla. naTqvamia, adamiani bunebiT sazogadoebrivi arsebaao. es gansazRvreba sakmaod bundovania, magram drois uqonlobis gamo mis kritikas ver Sevudgebi. sabolood, mzadac ki var daveTanxmo mas, Tu erT rames davamatebdi: adamiani bunebiT martoxelacaa da masSi gamudmebiT xan Tvlems, xan iRviZebs sazogadoebisgan gaqcevis survili. periodulad es survili istoriuli masStabiTac gamovlenila. ukanasknel xans _ xan erT, xan meore qveyanaSi _ mTels msoflioSi ifeTqa gaqcevis avadmyofuri swrafvis epidemiam, wyurvilma, miatovo sazogadoeba, romelSic cxovrob da SeZlebisdagvarad _ yovelive sxvac. magaliTad, am wlebis ganmavlobaSi uamrav evropels uocnebia ukacrieli kunZulis binadrobaze. roca napoleoni germaniaSi SeiWra da misi jari veimars miuaxlovda, goeTem Tqva: netav yovelive amis miRma vyofiliyavi!, magram aseTi miRma ar arsebobs. romis imperiis pirvel saukuneebSi yovelgvari kulturuli da samoqalaqo cxovrebiT ganxibluli adamianebi udabnoSi garbodnen, raTa CaZiruliyvnen sasowarkveTil martoobaSi. qristiani berebi rodi arian martoobis gamomgonebelni. isini mxolod baZavdnen maT, vinc siriasa da egvi pteSi jer kidev ori aswleulis win gamxdariyo meudabnoe da gandegili, raTa eqadagaT mone _ martooba. amitomac daarqves maT monakhoi _ monazvnebi. cxovrebis aseTma wesma maT uzarmazari popularoba SesZina da warmoqmna erTgvari epidemia. udabnoebi aivso aTasobiT gandegiliT, romlebic amis gamo ukve aRar iyvnen martoxelebi da daarses Temi _ kinovia, monasteri (sityvidan koinos saerTo). maT ki, vinc ufro radikalur ganmartoebas eswrafoda, gadawyvites, vertikalis meSveobiT

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Camoscilebodnen axloblebs _ aSenebdnen maRal svets, romlis mwvervalzec cxovrobdnen. maT mesveteebi uwodes. Tumc arc aman uSvelaT. imperatori Tavis kariskacebs rCevisTvis agzavnida wminda simonTan. isini qvevidan asZaxodnen da TavianT Txovnas acnobdnen mas. ena, romelic ufro rTuli warmonaqmnia, vidre _ misalmeba, sxvebze mkafiod da zustad agnebs socialuri relobis niSanTvisebebs. amitomac masSi yvelaze naTlad vlindeba socialuri yofa. sazogadoeba arsebiTad Tanacxovrebaa, gansazRvruli koleqtiuri erTobis uwyveti da udreki arseboba. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, es aris Tanarsebobis gansakuTrebuli forma, romelic gansxvavdeba sxva koleqtiuri gaerTianebebisa da erTobebisagan. rogorc ki adamianTa romelime jgufi gamoeyofa koleqtiur erTobas, romelSic sxvebTan erTad cxovrobs, imave wams avtomaturad visime nebisgan damoukideblad icvleba ena, romelzec esa Tu is jgufi adre laparakobda da TandaTanobiT yalibdeba gansxvavebuli, axali ena. Tuki romelime tragikuli mizezis gamo darbazSi msxdomni sxva espanelebs movwydebodiT da ramdenime wlis Semdeg kvlav SevuerTdebodiT Cvens Tanamemamuleebs, didad gagvikvirdeboda, rom, SeumCnevlad, zogadmosaxmari espanurisgan gansxvavebul enaze avmetyvelebulvarT! am gansxvavebas SevamCnevdiT zogi sityvis warmoTqmisas, gansxvavebuli iqneboda zogis semantika, sintaqsuri forma, frazeologizmebi. Cven mier warmosaxuli SesaZlebloba araerTxel gansxeulebula istoriaSi. aq Tavs iCens sapirispiro damokidebulebac: es araerTxel gameorebuli faqti adasturebs, rom romeliRac erTobis arsebobas win ucilod uZRvis romeliRac gancalkeveba. es ukanaskneli SeiZleba sxvadasxva mizezebma warmoSvas. maTgan yvelaze naTelia geografiuli winaRobebi, romlebsac jgufis izolaciamde mivyavarT. dro rom mqondes, giambobdiT axali gvineis erT xalxze, romelic axlaxan aRmoaCines da Seiswavles. saukuneTa wiaRSi, Soreul warsulSi moxda geologiuri katastrofa, ris Sedegadac mTis xeobebSi momwyvdeuli es xalxi samyaros mowyda. magram gankerZoebis mizezi SeiZleba iyos mxolod politikuric an aixsnas sxva, ufro rTuli motivebiT. sociologiuri kvlevebi saTanadod rom mimdinareobdes, uTuod Rrmad Seiswavlidnen izolaciis gavlenas koleqtiur cxovrebaze _ rogorc warsulSi, ise _ awmyoSi. am sakiTxis gansavrcobad davumatebdiT, rom warsulSic da momavalSic SesaZlebelia mkafiod mivadevnoT Tvali sxvadasxva kerZo magaliTs, uaRresad fersavse suraTs. es didad gvargebda,

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Tanac imaze metad, vidre warmogvidgenia. magaliTad, Setyobinebis Tanamedrove saSualebaTa ganviTarebam iqamde migviyvana, rom adamianTa umravlesoba Zalze xSirad midis mSobliuri qveynidan sxva, maT Soris, yvelaze dacilebul adgilas _ da es istoriaSi pirvelad iqca normad. es movlena, albaT, kvlavac intensiurad ganviTardeba. sakiTxi mxolod sivrceSi moZraobiT rodi amoiwureba. presis wyalobiT SegviZlia sazRvargareT mimdinare yvelaze mniSvnelovani movlenebis Tanamonawileni gavxdeT. bunebrivia, Cndeba kiTxva: ras moutans es sazogadoebriv cxovrebas? jer xom isev gaurkvevelia, upirobod keTilad imoqmedebs Tu ara es? xom SeiZleba am procesis daCqarebam Tundac droebiTi, yvelaze ufro mZime da sabediswero Sedegi mogvitanos? sociologebsa da eTnografebs am problemisTvis saTanado yuradReba ar miuqceviaT. isini arasodes dafiqrebulan, vTqvaT, aseT faqtze. erTmaneTisgan rasobrivi niSniT _ eniT, C v e u l e b e b i T a da sxv. _ sruliad gansxvavebuli nigeriis mravalricxovani tomebi iseT siviwroeSi cxovroben, rom gadauWarbeblad SeiZleba Tqma: erTmaneTs Tavze asxedan. miuxedavad amisa TiToeuli tomis warmomadgeneli mijaWvulia Tavis konkretul sazogadoebas da mkafiod acnobierebs sxvebis ucxo tomTaTvis mikuTvnebulobas. da radgan wminda dolebi sakuTari tomisa da sakuTari sazogadoebrivi Cveulebis gamomxatvelia, velurebi nebismieri ucxoelis gamoCenisas amboben: sxva dolis xmaze cekvavs, rac niSnavs: sxva rwmena, ena, tabu da a.S. aqvs. rogor avxsnaT, rom gansxvavebulobis amgvar TanagancdaSi ar ikargeba tabusa da sxva fenomenebis msgavseba, romlebic am tomTa SigniT mWidro socialur erTianobasa da darazmulobas uzrunvelhyofs? tabus erTgvaroba iwvevs socialur erTobas, romelic ganmakerZoebel gavlenas axdens yvelaze aqtiurad Tanamcxovreb xalxebzec. imis wyalobiT, rom ena Zalze zustad reagirebs socialur pirobebze, Tvals vadevnebT enobriv sxvaobas ara marto gansxvavebul sazogadoebaSi, aramed _ gansxvavebul socialur jgufebSic. uZvelesi cnobis Tanaxmad, romelic daaxl. Cv. w-mde 3000 wliTaa daTariRebuli, Sumerul-aqadur qalaqebSi ori gansxvavebuli ena arsebobda: erTi _ mamakacTa _ eme-ku , meore _ qalTa _ eme sal, romelsac, amave dros, frTxilTa enasac eZaxdnen. mainc ram ganapiroba, rom am kacebma da qalebma erTmaneTs ver gauges? msgavs Sexedulebas

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icavda TviT eduard meieri! magram ramdenime wlis winaT, roca hroznim gaSifra xeTuri lursmuli warwera da xeTebis monaTesave sxva xalxis ieroglifuri warwerac, am daskvnas wyali Seudga. gaugebrad rCeba, ratom ver Seegua am movlenas es SesaniSnavi enaTmecnieri: axlac xomaa xalxi, romelSic arsebobs kacTa da qalTa enebi! karlo alberto bernuli, kerZod, yuradRebas amaxvilebs iseT qalur enaze, romlis gageba arc erT mamakacs ar ZaluZs da romelic gamoiyeneba mxolod qalTa saidumlo wes-CveulebaTa aRsrulebisas (magaliTad, suahilis enaSi). am enis Taviseburebebi da gavrcelebis areali Seiswavla flora krausmac. Cveni espanuri, im formiT, _ nawilobriv idealurad an utopiurad, magram sabolood, sakmaod safuZvlianad _ romliTac ZalgviZs mas normatiuli vuwodoT, gansxvavebuli socialuri klasebis TanamSromlobis meqanikuri Sedegia. rogorc cnobilia, yovel klass aqvs Tavisi ena. amis mizezia ara SemTxveviTi sxvaoba maT Soris, aramed _ erTgvari fundamenturi garemoeba, romelic sxvadasxva sazogadoebriv klasebs erTgvar organoebad aqcevs, romelTagan TiToeuli gansakuTrebul rols TamaSobs normaluri enis myofobaSi. klasebi, romelTac Sesabamisad, saxalxos, saSualos da umaRless uwodeben, laparakoben savsebiT gansxvavebul enebze. rogorc lerxi aRniSnavs, laparakis manera, anu enis gamoyeneba sam gansxvavebul, socialur jgufad iyofa; magaliTad, arseboben adamianebi, romlebic laparakisas ar msjeloben TavianT maneraze; isini enas daudevrad iyeneben da haiharad epyrobian _ es saxalxo jgufia. arseboben iseTebic, romlebic gansjian sakuTar metyvelebas, magram es refleqsia mcdaria; mas mivyavarT salaRobo dawindvamde, roca natifi ganaTlebiT Tavmomwone romeliRac qalbatoni acxadebs, rom misi qmari importul enebs flobs. da bolos, arsebobs umaRlesi jgufi, romelic mkacrad adevnebs Tval-yurs Tavis metyvelebas. angariSSi nu CavagdebT saSualo jgufs, romelic iSviaTad axerxebs normatiul enaze zemoqmedebas. rCeba xalxi da kulturuli aristokratia. maTi damokidebuleba enisadmi mxolod kerZo gamovlinebaa saerTo, cxovrebiseuli mdgomareobisadmi. mxolod ori saSualebaa, rom cxovrebisadmi damokidebuleba gamoxato. erTi imas gulisxmobs, rom Tavi ar SeizRudo da nebismieri survili aisrulo. meore midgoma isaa, rom CaviklaT sulSi swrafvani da miveltvodeT imas, rom Cveni qceva normebSi movaqcioT. lerxi miuTiTebs, kulturuli individi, Cveulebriv, umaRlesi klasebidan, Tu rogor laparakobs alingvisturi normebis, Tavisi enisa da, zogadad, enis

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saxeliT. plebei, piriqiT, ise laparakobs, rogorc RmerTi inebebs. amitomac, lerxi, romantikuli interpretacis sapirispirod, amtkicebs, rom rCeulni (anu aristokratia), normis erTgulni rCebian, amyareben da icaven enas, xels uSlian imas, rom fonetikuri kanonebis amara darCenili ena, sadac ganuyoflad batonobs xalxuri metyveleba, ukiduresad ar gaRaribdes. marTlac didi gavlena iqonia frangulSi Tanxmovnebis dakargvam, vidre umaRlesi klasebi gons ar moegnen da TavianTi mkacri kontroli ar daaweses: pediculum-idan (tili), mxolod pou darCa, parabolare-dan (saubari) _ parler, cathedra-dan (savarZeli) _ craire an chaise, oculus-dan _ (Tvali) _ oeil, augurium- dan (saaTi) _ heur. aqedan gamomdinareobs mravali konvergencia, romlebmac franguli ena orazrovani bgerebiT daxunZles: san momdinareobs iseTi gansxvavebuli laTinuri sityvebidan, rogorebicaa centum (aseuli), sanguem (sisxli), sine (gareSe), se inde (sen) (saidan), sabolood, ecce hoc inde (cen); aqedanve momdinareobs gamoTqma, romlis etimologiis dadgena didi xnis ganmavlobaSi ver xerxdeboda: cendessus dessous (yiramala), romelic sruliad sulelurad gardaqmnila axla sens dessus dessous, ufro adre, voJla da madam de sevinie werdnen: sans dessus dessos. roca is sityvebi mokldeboda, romelTac maxvili boloswina marcvalze moudiodaT: tepidus, tiede (Tbili), rCeboda mxolod maxviliani marcvlebi basri an blagvi maxviliT: portum (porti) port; porta - porte (kari). Tumc, bolo sityvaSi e munjia, da rom ara kulturosanTa Careva, ra Tqma unda, e gaqreboda da porte port-Si agvereoda, ori sityvisagan reducirebul forma port-s miviRebdiT. abstraqtuli sityvebisa da uamravi uaRresad sasargeblo enobrivi saSualebis arsebobas, magaliTad, zogierTi kavSirisa, swored ganaTlebul sazogadoebriv fenebs unda vumadlodeT. XVI saukuneSi franguli enis ganviTareba jer kidev emorCileboda individualuri gamoyenebis kaprizs. XVII saukunis dasawyisSi igrZnoba normis zemoqmedeba, rac maRali klasebisagan momdinareobs. personaJi, romelic am normis gamosaxatad SeirCa, arc brZenia da arc pedanti, romelic mxolod sakuTari saxeliT laparakobs. es gaxlavT Tavazianad moubari adamiani, anu is, vinc msmenelis Tvalsazriss iTvaliswinebs da pasuxs iZleva, radgan laparakobs ara rogorc martosuli mwerali, aramed _ rogorc formalurad saubris monawile. amgvarad, iReben normas, romelsac yvelaze mTavari enobrivi Tavisebureba gvkarnaxobs _ es aris Tanaziaroba. da swored adamiani, rogorc urTierTobiT mcxovrebi

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arseba, daadgens kanons. magram TviT am cnebis sazRvrebSic ki upiratesoba eniWeba imgvar Tanaziar adamians, romlisTvisac metyveleba _ saubari _ pirwminda formalobaa, sakuTari TavisTvis ganxorcielebuli, anu upiratesoba eniWeba Tavazian maRali wris adamians _ Ihonnete homme, Ihomme de bonne compagnie. samarTliania, rom zepiri saubrisas, roca mTavaria sworad gagigon, metyvelebis formas ganapirobebs swored aseTi ti pis adamiani, vinaidan is ise laparakobs, rogorc saWiroa. werilobiTi metyvelebisas, piriqiT, formas is irCevs, vinc wers. roca metyveleba fonetikuri kanonebis amara rCeba, iseTi ena warmoiqmneba, romelSic Zalze bevri orazrovani Tanabrad rTuli gamoTqma iyris Tavs; zogi maTgani emsgavseba erTmaneTs, miuxedavad imisa, rom es sityvebi sxvadasxva sityvidan arian warmoqmnilni. ase daemarTa inglisur da Cinur enebs. aqedan momdinareobs es sevdiani xvedri inglisuri enisa, romelic avalebs mis matarebelT xSir spelling-s (asoebiT gamoTqma sityvisa), roca xan erTma, xan meore Tanamosaubrem Tavis adresats unda gauSifros warmoTqmuli sityva. xandaxan eWvic ki ibadeba, rom erT inglisels meorisa mxolod imdenad esmis, ramdenadac maTi saubari yvelaze xSirad saerTo adgilebisagan Sedgeba da TiToeulma windawin icis, ras upasuxeben. CinurSi gamoTqmis rTuli problema gadaiWra gansxvavebuli simaRlis tonebiT, romlebmac aqcies es ena arc Tu amod sasmen musikad da xeli SeuSales mis laTinuri asoebiT transkri pcias anda nebismieri sxva araideografiuli anbaniT Caweras. Cemo siyvarulo! arc Tu cudi dasawyisia! kidev kargi, SeuZlebelia imis gaTvla, kerZod vis miemarTeba es sityvieri amooxvra! roca am sityvebs aTaskaciani auditoriis winaSe warmovTqvam, am Tavxedur gamoTqmas arqimoridebulobad vaqcev xolme; moridebuloba, rogorc cnobilia, imas gulisxmobs, rom gamotovo is, razec laparaki ar egebis. amgvari Tavmdabloba mainc gulisxmobs im pirobas, rom uTqmelis Tqma namdvilad SeiZleboda, radgan is gacnobierebulia. magram ori zemonaxsenebi sityva, imis miuxedavad, rom maT sityvis saxe da ganusazRvreli mniSvneloba aqvT, ar warmogvidgeba gamoTqmad, anu arafers amboben. ratom? maTi Semadgeneli bgerebi xom srulad da sworad gamoiTqva? isini arafers amboben, radgan aravis miemarTebian, maT hyavT gamgzavni _ me _, _magram ar Cans adresati da amitomac, roca bageebs amoscdebian im mtrediviT, romelsac daaviwyda, saiT mifrinavs da caSi trialebs, es sityvebi ar misdeven sakuTar biliks, aravisTan midian, arafers amboben. Cems mier warmoTqmuli

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Cemo siyvarulo! axla haers gamoekida; ise arsebobs, TiTqos leqsikonSi iyoso. leqsikonSi moTavsebuli sityvebi ki mxolod SesaZlo mniSvnelobebia, magram arafers gamoTqvamen. uCveulod sqelkaniani wignebi, romelTac leqsikonebs veZaxiT, sakmaod saintereso fenomenia: maTSi Tavmoyrilia enis yvela sityva da mainc, leqsikonis avtori erTaderTi adamiania, romelmac es sityvebi Cawera, magram imave dros, ar gamoTqva isini. zedmiwevniT Cawerili iseTi sityvebiT, rogorebicaa, vTqvaT suleli, briyvi, igi aravis mimarTavs, maT aravis usabamebs da aravin hyavs mxedvelobaSi. ai, moulodneli paradoqsi _ ena, anu sityvaTa krebuli, leqsikoni pirdapir upirispirdeba metyvelebas. xolo sityvebi aseTebi mxolod maSin arian, roca isini viRacam viRacas uTxra. mxolod konkretuli qmedebisas, sxvagvarad _ cocxali qmedebisas, romelsac erTi adamiani meoris mimarT axorcielebs, sityvebi Tavis realobas iZenen. vinaidan adamianebi, romlebic erTmaneTs esityvebian, adamianuri sicocxleebia. yvela adamianuri sicocxle ki nebismier wams gansazRvrul situaciasa Tu garemoebaSia. savsebiT mkafioa, rom imgvari realoba, rogoric sityvaa, ganuyofelia mTqmelisagan, romelic mas warmoTqvams. nebismieri sxva midgoma imTaviTve abstraqciad aqcevs sityvas, amputacias utarebs mis mniSvnelobas, ris Sedegadac misgan mxolod usicocxlo nasxepi rCeba. amgvarad, Tu vambob Cemo siyvarulo da amasTan, am sityvebs aravis vusabameb, aravisken mivmarTav, ar iqmneba gamoTqma, rac imas niSnavs, rom am sityvebSi ar aris WeSmariti sityvieri qmedeba. Cvens winaSe mxolod bgeraa, is, rasac lingvistebi fonemas uwodeben. miuxedavad amisa, mocemul bgeras, rogorc Cans, mniSvneloba mainc aqvs. ra mniSvnelobas vgulisxmob? rasakvirvelia, Cven ar vcdilobT sarisko amocanis gadaWras _ ganvsazRvroT siyvarulis Semadgeneli realoba. sabolood, Cveni mizania _ vi povoT am gamoTqmis sazrisi, anu ganvsazRvroT gageba, romelic myisierad warmoiqmneba Cvens gonebaSi, roca ki vambobT Cemo siyvarulo! da Tuki mainc vecdebodiT am sakiTxis gadaWras, aRmovaCendiT, rom Cveni gonebrivi mzeris winaSe metnaklebad mkafiod warmoiqmneba sxvadasxva konkretuli mniSvnelobebi, romlebiTac es sityvebi warmoiTqmis vinmes mier da vinmes mimarT. amgvar SemTxvevaSi maTi mniSvnelobebi gansxvavebulia imis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tu ra situaciaSi imyofebian misi monawileni. magaliTad, SegviZlia warmovidginoT, rom sityvebiT Cemo siyvarulo! deda mimarTavs Svils an Seyvarebuli _ satrfos. dedobrivi

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siyvaruli gansxvavdeba qalisa da mamakacis grZnobisgan. es naTelia da Cveni ganxilvis sagans ar warmoadgens. ufro sainteresoa am ori mniSvnelobis Sedareba: imisi, romelsac iZens sityva siyvaruli, roca is marTlac konkretul cxovrebiseul situaciaSi warmoiTqmis da imisi, romelic mas hqonda, roca is pirvelad amovTqvi. Tu saqme exeba dedaSvilur siyvaruls an satrfoTa urTierTobas, sityva siyvaruli migviTiTebs qmediT, realur, yovlismomcvel grZnobaze, misTvis niSandoblivi arsebiTi Tu meorexarisxovani niSan-TvisebebiT. uxeirod gamovTqvi: saqme isaa, rom orive SemTxvevaSi es sityva warmoadgens an aRniSnavs ara erT realur grZnobas, aramed or erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebuls. amgvarad, gamodis, rom erTi sityva gamoiyeneba ori da Tanac, Zalze gansxvavebuli realobis aRsaniSnad. msgavsi movlena araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar unda gavaigivoT orazrovan sityvaTa arsebobis faqtTan, romelTaTvisac niSandoblivia lingvistebis mier polisemiad wodebuli termini anu mravalmniSvnelovneba. bgeraTa erTi da igive SeTanxmeba sityvaSi Leon aRniSnavs afrikul mtacebelsac, espaneTSi mdebare qalaqsac, romis mraval papsac da or skulpturasac, romlebic Cveni parlamentis Senobis kibes icaven. is faqti, rom erTi da igive fonema leon Cvens mier moyvanil magaliTSi aRniSnavs yvela am realobas, _ wminda SemTxveviTobaa da yoveli damTxveva aixsneba raRac gansakuTrebuli da konkretuli mizeziT. saxeli Lleon (lomi) cxovelis saxelwodebis SemTxvevaSi, ubralod, warmodgeba laTinuri Ziridan Leon-Leo-Leonis, xolo qalaq leonis saxelwodeba momdinareobs laTinuri sityvidan Llegio (romauli samxedro SenaerTi), rac imaze mianiSnebs, rom am adgilas iyo romis jarebis samxedro da administraciuli sardloba. Sesabamisad, Leon, rogorc cxovelisa da qalaqis saxelwodeba, erTi da igive sityva ki ar aris, aramed erTmaneTisgan sruliad gansxvavebuli ori sxvadasxva sityvaa. ubralod, ori fonetikuri rigis gamoTqmisas momxdari SemTxveviTi transformaciis Sedegad, romlebiTac iwyeboda Leon da Legio, isini gaigivdnen da marTlac warmoqmnes orazrovneba. visargebleb SemTxveviT da davumateb axlandel dakvirvebas. zemomoyvanili magaliTi naTlad adasturebs: fonetikur cvlilebaTa anabara mitovebuli ena sabolood ivseba msgavsi orazrovnebiT, rac SeuZlebels xdis urTierTgagebas, vinaidan laparaki wminda sityvier TamaSad gardaiqmneba. rac Seexeba Leon-ebs, romlebic parlamentis win gamouqandakebiaT, aq metaforam Secvala sityvis mniSvneloba da imis nacvlad, rom aReniSna sisxlxorcieli cxoveli, brinjaos an

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marmarilos naWers ewoda, rac ramdenadme Tu mogvagonebs loms (Leon). Tumc, lingvistTa azriT, sityva Cemo siyvarulo, romelsac warmoTqvams deda da sityvebi, warmoTqmuli satrfos mier, igiveobrivia. saqme exeba erTsa da imave gamoTqmas daEerTsa da imave mniSvnelobas. miuxedavad amisa, orive am gamoTqmis SemTxvevaSi sityvebi udavod sxvadasxva grZnobebs gamoxataven _ sityva siyvaruli TavisTavad da, rogorc aseTi, unda niSnavdes an dedobriv siyvaruls, an satrfoTa urTierTobas. rogor unda gamoxatavdes orive am grZnobas erTdroulad, Zalze gaugebaria. magram yovelive naTeli gaxdeba, rogorc ki yurad viRebT, rom sityva siyvaruli, calke aRebuli, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, im cxovrebiseuli situaciisagan moSorebuli, sadac iTqva, sinamdvileSi, arc erTs, arc meores, arc romelime realur, konkretul da, Sesabamisad, srulyofil siyvaruls ar niSnavs, is aRniSnavs mxolod TvisebaTa nakrebs, romlebic aucileblad unda arsebobdes yovelgvar siyvarulSi _ adamianebis, sagnebis, RmerTis, samSoblos, mecnierebis siyvarulis da a.S., _ Tumc im pirobiT, rom am Tvisebebis arseboba sakmarisi ar aris siyvarulisaTvis. igive exeba sityva samkuTxedsac. mniSvnelobebi, romlebsac Cveulebriv, Seicavs es sityva, sulac ar aris sakmarisi dafaze romeliRac samkuTxedis dasaxazad. amisaTvis saWiroa, TviTonac daumato kidev ramdenime Tviseba, romelnic cnebaSi ar arian CarTulni, magaliTad, iseTebi, rogorebicaa _ gverdebis zusti sigrZe da kuTxeebis zusti sidide; mxolod es damatebebi aqcevs samkuTxeds samkuTxedad. sityvebs _ siyvaruli, samkuTxedi _ xistad rom mivudgeT, ar gaaCniaT mniSvneloba, Cvens winaSe mxolod maTi Canasaxi, azrobrivi sqemaa. es erTgvari algebraistuli formula gaxlavT, romelic, rogorc aseTi, jer kidev ar aris angariSi, aramed SesaZlo varaudis sqemaa, _ sqema, romelSic asoebis nacvlad unda Caisvas gansazRvruli ricxvobrivi mniSvneloba. ar vici, SevZeli Tu ara, Tqvenamde mometana es ucnauri Taviseburebebi, romlebic axasiaTebs sityvebs da, Sesabamisad, mTels enas, rom aviRoT sityva, rogorc aseTi (siyvaruli, samkuTxedi), aRmoCndeba, rom mas sakuTari mniSvneloba ar gaaCnia, aramed mis mxolod erT fragments gamoxatavs. is mxolod maSin SeiZens namdvil da srul mniSvnelobas, roca Cven mas gamovTqvamT. Tumc, saidan iZens sityva da ena im raRacas, romlebic saWiroa maTi Cveuli rolis gansasaxiereblad, kerZod ki, mniSvnelobis, azris qonisaTvis? Cans, rom es Tviseba sityvebs sxva sityvebis saSualebiT ar gadaecema da

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ar momdinareobs imidan, rasac aqamde ena erqva da rac preparirebuli saxiT arsebobs leqsikonSi da gramatikaSi. enis es Tavisebureba ibadeba TviT enis farglebs miRma, is momdinareobs am eniT moubari adamianebisagan, adamianebisagan, romlebic gansazRvrul viTarebaSi laparakoben. adamianebi, wesisamebr, sityvebs saWiro toniT warmoTqvamen, saxis ama Tu im gamometyvelebiT, maT metyvelebas sdevs esa Tu is _ TavSekavebuli Tu sarisko _ Jestikulacia, romelic Tavis mxriv, laparakobs da gamoTqvams. e.w. sityvebi realobis rTuli kompleqsis mxolod erTi nawilia da aseTni mxolod imdenad arian, ramdenadac monawileoben am realur kompleqsSi da mas ar scildebian. magaliTad, bgeraTSeTanxmeba wiTeli asxivebs SesaZlo mniSvnelobaTa gansxvavebul rigs, magram namdvili arc erTi ar aris. Tumc, sakmarisia, am sityvam duqanSi gaiJReros, rom es sivrce aivseba usityvo momentebiT, duqnisTvis damaxasiaTebeli atmosferoTi da msgavsi sityva mxolod maSin asrulebs Tavis funqcias, mizanSi maSin axvedrebs zust mniSvnelobas. mag., am frazaSi: dausxi wiTeli! naTqvams udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs swored banalobis gamo, radgan mWevrmetyvelurad adasturebs, rom situaciis yvela sxva gansxvavebuli komponenti, romlebic verafriT CaiTvleba sityvebad da romlebic sensu stricto saerTod ar ukavSirdebian enas. ena gamoTqmis ganusazRvreli SesaZleblobebiTaa savse, amitom metyveleba Sedgeba ara mxolod imisagan, rasac TavisTavad ambobs, aramed am SesaZleblobebis aqtualizaciisagan, gamoTqvas rame mTeli situaciis mniSvnelobis gacnobierebiT. warmogidgeniaT: sityva, rogorc aseTi, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, roca is Tavis ZiriTad rols asrulebs _ gamoiTqmis _, garduvalad erwymis MmTel situacias, sagnebsa da adamianebs, anu yovelive imas, rac TavisTavad utyvia. sityva TavisTavad Zalze cotas niSnavs, misi roli zemoqmedebis moxdenaa, rogorc uZlieresi detonatorisa, romelic gamayruebeli gruxuniT afeTqebs yvela danarCenis kvazisityvier muxts. ra Tqma unda, werilobiT enaSi saqme ramdenadme sxvagvaradaa. es arc ise mniSvnelovania, radgan werilobiTi metyveleba zepirs emorCileba, mTlianad mas efuZneba. jer kidev goeTem Tqva, rom werili zepiri sityvis mkrTali aCrdili da uRirsi memkvidrea. rogorc ukve davrwmundiT, me, Sen, aq da iq _ gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobis mqone sityvebia, romlebic damokidebulia gamoTqmis subieqtsa da mis adgilmdebareobaze. magaliTad, gramatikaSi aseT sityvebs okazionaluri mniSvnelobis sityvebi hqviaT. kidev erTxel gavxazavT, rom swored am punqtSi SeiZleba lingvistebTan SekamaTeba.

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Cemi azriT, ufro swori iqneboda gvefiqra, rom msgavs sityvebs aqvT ara mxolod erTi okazionaluri mniSvneloba, aramed _ uTvalavi. moyvanili magaliTebi araorazrovani daskvnis gakeTebis uflebas gvaZlevs: swored es Taviseburebebi aRmoaCens yvela sityvas, anu nebismieri sityvis zusti mniSvneloba ganisazRvreba im garemoebebiT, im situaciiT, romlebSic isini gamoiTqva. amgvarad, TiToeuli sityvis saleqsikono mniSvneloba WeSmariti azris mxolod ConCxia; sityvis azri yoveli gamoyenebisas raRaciT gansxvavebulia da axalia, misi ConCxi konkretuli mniSvnelobis cocxali xorciT metyvelebis swrafmaval da marad cvalebad nakadSi imoseba. rac Seexeba saleqsikono mniSvnelobas, termin ConCxis nacvlad, albaT, unda gvesaubra Wedadi masaliT Seqmnil namzadze, romelic Tavis Stampirebul formas maSin iRebs, rodesac sityvebi TavianT Tavs ubrundebian anda rodesac maT vinme gamoTqvams da vinmes mimarTavs, aseve, rodesac gansazRvruli mizezebis gamo da konkretuli miznis misaRwevad gamoiTqmis. lingvistikam imiT daiwyo, rom realur enaSi gamoyo zemoT naTqvami sqematuri da abstraqtuli momenti. amis Sedegad SesaZlebeli gaxda gramatikisa da leqsikonis Seqmna _ amocana, romelic enaTmecnierebam brwyinvaled Seasrula, magram, rogorc ki pirveli siZnele gadalaxa da Cvens winaSe leqsikoni da gramatika aRmoCnda, naTeli gaxda, rom es mxolod dasawyisia, radgan WeSmariti metyveleba da wera sruliad ewinaaRmdegeba yvelafers, rasac ki leqsikoni da gramatika gvaswavlian. es dakvirveba, ucilod, marTalia da Cven sruli ufleba gvaqvs, vamtkicoT: metyvelebis arsi swored gramatikul wesTa da saleqsikono normebis mudmiv darRvevaSia. mkacrad formaluri mniSvnelobiT, kargi mwerloba, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, sakuTari stilis qona niSnavs, xSirad da mudmivad SeiWra leqsikasa da gramatikaSi. swored amitom cnobili lingvisti vandriesi mkvdars im enas uwodebs, sadac Secdomis daSvebis ufleba aravisa aqvs. cocxali ena ki, sapirispirod, Tavisi SecdomebiT cocxlobs. swored am garemoebiT aixsneba is saxaliso mdgomareoba, romelSic dRes lingvistikaa: adre mis mier Seqmnili gramatika da leqsikoni garduvalad ivseba im gamokvlevaTa farTo speqtriT, romlebic SecdomaTa mizezebsa da maTi daSvebis SesaZleblobebs eZRvneba, vimeoreb, Secdomebisa, romelTac, rasakvirvelia, sadReisod dadebiTi roli iTamaSes. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, msgavsi gamonaklisebi imgvaradve niSandoblivia enisaTvis, rogorc _ wesebi. tradiciul lingvistikas Semokruli kvlevaTa es velia stilistika. moviyvan

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mxolod yvelaze gasageb da trivialur magaliTs. roca viRac yviris xanZari! _ is gramatikas Seuracxyofs da ai, ratom: msgavsi amoZaxiliT Cven yovelTvis raRacas gamovTqvamT. yvela gramatikulad swori gamoTqma ki, Cveulebriv, realizaciisaTvis iTxovs srul frazas (rogorc jer kidev aristotele SeniSnavda, calkeuli sityva arafers gamoxatavs). Cvens magaliTSi motanili fraza, SesaZloa, asec amoeTqvaT: cecxlma gamoiwvia xanZari da saxli iwvis. magram panikam da sicocxlis uSualo safrTxem, rac am situacias mohyveba xolme, aiZula adamiani, uari eTqva im grZeli frazuli formis gamoyenebaze, romelsac tradiciuli lingvistika iTxovs. amis Sedegad, mTeli winadadeba erT sagangaSo sityvad SeikumSa. rogorc vxedavT, stilistikam, gramatikisagan gansxvavebiT, samecniero kvlevis sferoSi CarTo iseTi utyvi elementi, rogoricaa emociuri mdgomareoba da konkretuli situacia, romelSic viRac laparakobs, sxvagvarad, swored is, rac, rogorc adre davrwmundiT, sruliad ganuyofelia sityvisagan da amis miuxedavad, mas ZaliT mowyvites leqsikonebsa da gramatikaSi. es ki niSnavs, rom stilistika, moaruli azris sapirispirod, sulac ar aris gramatikis erTgvari danamati. piriqiT, is axladaRmocenebuli lingvistikaa, romelmac gabeda, enas konkretul realobasTan miaxloebuli poziciiT midgomoda. gavriskavdi kidec da vivaraudebdi, rom mTavari daniSnuleba stilistikisa, romelic cota xnis win warmoiSva leqsikisa da gramatikis ucnaur damatebad, isaa, rom SeiTavsos es ori disci plina da barem, mTeli lingvisturi problematikac xelyos. didi xnis ganmavlobaSi me vaviTareb axali filologiis debulebas, romlis ucilo upiratesobas vxedav enis erTian realobad SeswavlaSi. anu im saxiT, rogorSicaa, roca cocxali, WeSmariti gamoTqma ganixileba da ara _ mkvdari, Tavis cocxal sxeuls dacilebuli anasxepi. axali filologia, magaliTad, movalea, formalur lingvistur princi pad Camoqnas erTi Zveleburi wesi (aq is mxolod misi SedarebiT simartivis gamo momyavs), romelic yovelTvis praqtikuli hermenevtikis orientiri iyo da romelic ase JRers: Duo si idem dicunt, non est idem _ roca orni erTsa da imaves gamoTqvamen, sinamdvileSi sxvadasxva rames amboben. lingvistikam _ fonetika iqneba es, gramatika Tu leqsika _ enis, rogorc aseTis Seswavlis niRbiT, gamoikvlia erTgvari abstraqcia, romelsac ena uwoda. ena ki, Tuki misi formalurad dasazRvris nebas mogvcemen, sulac ar aris abstraqcia, aramed rogorc giTxariT, namdvili saswaulia, romelsac unda Cawvde, vidre adamianTa da

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sazogadoebis Semswavleli mecnierebis romelime fenomens Seswavlide. Tumc, lingvistebi enas jer mxolod miuaxlovdnen, radgan is, rasac isini am cnebaSi gulisxmoben, sinamdvileSi ar arsebobs, aramed mxolod erTgvari xelovnuri da utopiuri sqemaa, TviT enaTmecnierebisave mier Seqmnili. sinamdvileSi ena arasodesaa raRac Seqmnili, dasrulebuli, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, faqti, radgan is arasodes uqmniaT, arasodes sruluyviaT. ena mudmivad qmnis sakuTar Tavs, qmnis da amave dros, angrevs, spobs. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, ena, erTsa da imave dros mudmivad TviTqmnadobis procesSicaa da TviTganadgurebasac ganicdis. ai, ratomaa, rom didi inteleqtualuri gmiroba, gansaxierebuli Tanamedrove lingvistikis mier, avalebs am ukanasknels _ keTilSobilebas xom Tan sdevs movaleoba _ amjerad meored, energiulad da zustad miuaxlovdes enis realobas. es disci plina amas mxolod maSin miaRwevs, roca Tvisi sagnis seriozul Seswavlas daiwyebs, magram ara rogorc mzadmyofisa da dasrulebulisa, aramed, rogorc Camoyalibebis procesSi arsebulisa, anu myofisa in statu nansendi. es imas niSnavs, rom lingvistikam ena Seiswavlos Tavisi siRrmiT, romelic mis ZirebSia mimaluli. Secdoma iqneboda imis fiqri, rom dasaxuli miznis misaRwevad lingvistikisTvis sakmarisi iqneboda yvela winamavali enobrivi formis rekonstruqcia anda _ ufro zogadad _ formebis aRdgena maTi gansazRvruli ti pis kvalobaze, romelic odesRac Camoyalibda. es amocana lingvistikam warmatebiT gadaWra da didad faseuli codnac daagrova. amasTan mTeli es e.w. enis istoria mxolod gramatikaTa da leqsikaTa im formiT mocemuli wyebaa, romelic enis yvela adreuli mdgomareobisaTvis iyo niSandoblivi. arsebiTad, enis istoria mxolod enaTa rigia, romelic erTmaneTs mosdevs. Camoyalibeba, rac enas, rogorc aseTs, axasiaTebs, sruliad ukvlevi darCa. am problemis SeswavlisaTvis saWiro ar aris warsulSi CaRrmaveba, Tumc es yovelTvis uaRresad sasargebloa. ena mudmivad qmnis sakuTar Tavs da TviTve anadgurebs. amitom misi Camoyalibebis mikvleva Tanabari warmatebiTaa SesaZlebeli rogorc warsulSi, ise _ awmyoSi. erTi ram udavoa: warsuli mTavaria, magram umTavresi isaa, rom lingvistikam Tavs idos enis macocxlebeli Zirebis mikvleva, im momentebisa, sadac TviT sityva jer ar srulqmnila, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, mikvleva misi genezisisa. Cemi axali lingvisturi moZRvrebis SekumSulad warmodgena ase ZalmiZs: laparaki _ ZiriTadad niSnavs (Tu ratom ZiriTadad,

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mogvianebiT vnaxavT) enis ise Senaxvas, rogorc _ Cveulebisa. magram enis dacva, rogorc Cveulebisa, adasturebs, rom ena ukve srulqmnilia da Tavs Cvens garSemo arsebulma sazogadoebam mogvaxvia. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, ena ukve Seqmnilia. magram qmnadoba ar aris ubralo laparaki. piriqiT, qmnadoba enis gamogonebas gulisxmobs, misi axali modusebis aRmoCenas da, Sesabamisad, misi absoluturi, Tavdapirveli qmnadobis mikvlevas. axali modusebi da gamoyenebis saSualebebi warmoiqmneba mxolod imitom, rom enis gankargulebaSi arsebuli ukve arsebuli modusebi sakmarisi ar aris yvelafer aucileblis gamosaxatad da gamosaTqmelad. gamoTqma anu TviTgamoxatvis, axsnaganmartebis neba gansakuTrebuli moRvaweobaa, is funqciaa, romelic win uswrebs TviT laparaks, TviT metyvelebasa da enis im arsebobas, romelSic is warmodgeba. gamoTqma qmnis yvelaze Rrma enobriv fenas, romelic laparakze gacilebiT Rrmaa. da am uRrmesi plastebis moZieba lingvistikis pirdapiri amocanaa. adamiani, arsebiTad, gamomTqmeli arseba rom ar iyos, anu is, visac eTqmis, maSin araviTari ena ar iarsebebda. amitom gTavazobT axali disci plinis Seqmnas, romelic enis Sesaxeb yvela arsebuli codnis qvakuTxedad unda iqces, da mimaCnia, rom kvlevis am sferos unda ewodos gamoTqmis Teoria. magram mainc ratom uCndeba adamians gamoTqmis moTxovnileba, ratom ar dums, rogorc sabolood duman sxva danarCeni cocxali arsebebi da ifarglebian mxolod signalis micemiT msgavsTa mimarT yvirilis, simReris, Rmuilis saSualebiT, signalTa erTianobiT praqtikul situaciebSi, bunebam erTxel da samudamod rom dausazRvraT? magaliTad, fon friSma sakmaod zustad moaxerxa naxatebis seriis Seqmna, romelnic gamoisaxeba haerSi futkrebis frenisas da romelTac Tan sdevs sruliad gansazRvruli bzuili da xmauri. am qmedebaTa erTianobis SemweobiT futkari mocemuli situaciis Sesabamis signals aZlevs sxva futkrebs. Tumc, mocemuli signalebi SeuZlebelia futkris gamonaTqvamebad miviCnioT, saqme gvaqvs mxolod sxvadasxva situaciebiT gamowveul avtomatur refleqsebTan. erTi im dabrkolebaTagani, romelic nebas ar gvaZlevs vilaparakoT gamoTqmis, rogorc sakuTriv adamianuri funqciis Sesaxeb, is midgomaa, romlis drosac ena ganixileba imis gamoxatulebad, ris Setyobinebaca da sityvebiT gadmocema gvsurs, maSin, roca didi nawili imisa, ris Setyobinebasa da sityvebiT gadmocemas vlamobT, ori ganzomilebiT gamouTqmeli rCeba. pirveli ganzomileba TviT enobrivi moRvaweobis zemoTaa, meore _ qvemoT. zemoTaa yovelive is,

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risi gamoTqmac ar SeiZleba, anu rac ar gamoiTqmis. qvemoT _ yovelive is, rasac ar vambobT da TavisTavad igulisxmeba. da swored maSin msgavsi TavSekaveba mudmivad moqmedebs enaze, mis axal formebs warmoqmnis. jer kidev humboldti aRniSnavda: nebismier enaSi erTi misi nawili yovelTvis eqspresiuladaa aRniSnuli da mkafiod gamoxatuli, meore ki, damatebiTi, yovelTvis ganze rCeba, igulisxmeba. Cinur enaSi pirvelsa da meores Soris urTierTSesabamoba Zalze mcirea. da Semdeg ganagrZobda: nebismier enaSi sametyvelo konteqsti win uswrebs gramatikas. CinurSi is saerTo safuZvelia urTierTgagebisa da, xSirad, TviT konstruqcia mxolod misgan momdinareobs. TviT zmnac ki SesaZlebelia gagebul iqnas zmnis Sesaxeb arsebuli cnebis wyalobiT. anu zmna ibadeba zmnuri qmedebebis ideidan, romelic, Tavis mxriv, konteqstidan momdinareobs. mxolod zemomoyvanili daskvnebis gaTvaliswinebiT SeiZleba uqvemdebareo winadadebis gageba, daaxloebiT, am ti pisa: cris!, aseve, aseTi wamoZaxilebisa: xanZari!, qurdebi!, wavediT! magram Tu adamiani gamomTqmeli arsebaa, sruliad aucilebelia imis garkveva, kerZod ras gamoTqvams, agreTve, ra aiZulebs, gamoTqvas, an _ piriqiT, gamoTqmisagan Tavi Seikavos, dadumdes. aSkaraa, rom gamoTqmis swored aseTma moTxovnilebam _ Tanac es moTxovnileba savsebiT garkveuli da konkretulia, radgan qmnis imis mkafio sistemas, ris gamoTqmac egebis, _ Seqmna da Semdgomad ganaviTara enebi. da mxolod axla ZalgviZs adamianis mier Seqmnili gamoTqmis am iaraRis gansja. yovelTvis, roca adamiani laparaks iwyebs, Tan sdevs Segneba, rom SeZlebs nafiqralis gamoTqmas. magram es iluziaa, radgan amisTvis mxolod ena ar kmara. ena xom, ase Tu ise, imis mxolod mcire nawils gadmoscems, rasac Cven vfiqrobT da qmnis dabrkolebebs sxva danarCenis gadmosacemad. magaliTad, ena vargisia maTematikur TeoriaTa da mtkicebaTa gadmosacemad. magram rogorc ki saubari fizikas exeba, is maSinve amCnevs sakuTar orazrovnebas da naklulobas. da rac ufro savse, adamianuri da realuri xdeba Tema, miT intensiurdeba enobrivi uzustoba, idumaleba da ugergiloba. Cven SeveCvieT damkvidrebul crurwmenas, TiTqos, saubrisas erTmaneTis gvesmis, da imdenad gvjera yvelaferi Tqmulis, rom sabolood iseTi motyuebulni vrCebiT, sjobda, saukunod davmunjebuliyaviT da ubralod, sxvaTa azrebis kiTxva SegvZleboda. metic: radgan TviT azrovneba didwilad enas efuZneba _ Tumc, sxvaTagan gansxvavebiT, es damokidebuleba absoluturi ara mgonia _ sabolood gamodis, TiTqos, fiqri sakuTar TavTan laparaks niSnavdes da, Sesabamisad,

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sakuTari Tavis cudad gagebas. sakuTari Tavis gaugebrobas ki sabediswero Sedegebi mosdevs. 1922 wels parizSi Sedga filosofosTa sazogadoebis Sekreba, romelic enis ganviTarebis problemebs mieZRvna. senis napirebis mkvidri filosofosebis garda monawileobdnen franguli lingvisturi skolis, msoflioSi erT-erTi yvelaze avtoritetuli organizaciis wevrebic. da ai, vkiTxulob diskusiis mokle mimoxilvas da SemTxveviT wavawydi meies zogierT gamoTqmas _ meie Tanamedrove lingvistikis Seudarebeli korifea _, romelTac pirdapir Tavzari damces. yvela ena, _ amtkicebs meie, _ gamoxatavs sazogadoebisaTvis yovelive aucilebels; ena am sazogadoebis organoa. nebismieri fonetikuri wyoba da gramatika vargisia imisTvis, rom is gamoTqva, rac saWiroa. miuxedavad meies xsovnisadmi didi pativiscemisa, am sityvebSi bevri ram gadaWarbebulia. ra aZlevs uflebas meies, Tavisi kategoriuli msjeloba WeSmaritebad miiCnios. TviT problemac ki scdeba lingvistikis viwro sazRvrebs. lingvistma xom ama Tu im xalxis mxolod ena icis da ara _ azrovneba. msgavsi dogma rom amtkico, saWiroa, jer erTi, azrovneba enebiT gansazRvro da, meorec: maTi igiveobis konstatireba moaxdino, magram am pirobis Sesrulebac ki imis samtkiceblad, TiTqos, nebismieri eniT nebismieri azris gamoTqma SeiZlebodes, sulac ar aris sakmarisi. aucilebelia imis damtkicebac, rom es erTnairi sisadaviTa da uSualobiT ZaluZs yvela enas. ena ki aramxolod xels uSlis zogi azris gamoTqmas, aramed amave mizezis gamo arTulebs sxvis mier maT gagebas, gagebis zogi mimarTulebis paralizebas axdens. jadosnuri realobis wvdoma, ena rom hqvia, SeuZlebelia im ueWveli faqtis sruli gacnobierebis gareSe, rom metyveleba swored TavSekavebidan, siCumidan ibadeba. arsebas, romelsac ar ZaluZs bevri ramis gamoxatvaze uaris Tqma, saerTod arafris Tqma ar SeuZlia. amgvarad gansxvavebuli enebi SesaZloa sxvadasxvagvarad warmodgnen gamoxatulsa da gamouxatavs Soris gaTanabrebis TvalsazrisiT. yvela xalxi raRacas malavs, raRacis gamoTqmisgan Tavs ikavebs, raTa danarCeni Tqvas. radgan absoluturad yvelafris gamoxatva SeuZlebelia. amitomaa gansakuTrebiT Zneli nebismieri Targmani, radgan swored esaa cda, gamoxato romeliRac enaze is, risi Tqmisganac sxva ena Tavs ikavebs. yvela gamoTqmis Sesaxeb gamoTqmis Teoria unda iqces aseve Teoriad im gansakuTrebul miCumaTebaze, romelic sxvadasxva xalxisTvisaa niSandoblivi. magaliTad, ingliselebi bevr iseT rames ar amboben, rac Cven, espanelebs, gamudmebiT pirze gvakeria.

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da piriqiTac! Tumc arsebobs bevri ufro seriozuli mizezi, romelTa gamoc lingvistika gamoTqmis Teorias unda miubrundes. aqamde lingvistika arsebul enas swavlobda, anu iseTs, rogoric warmogvidga. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, lingvistika swavlobda enas, rogorc momxdar faqts. magram ena, xistad rom vTqvaT, arasodesaa rame dasrulebuli, is yovelTvis qmnis Tavis Tavs da TviTonve angrevs, radgan es zogadad, kacobriobis Taviseburebaa. lingvistebs swamT: es sakiTxi ise unda gadawydes, rom Seswavlil iqnas enis aramxolod Tanamedrove mdgomareoba, aramed ganxilul iqnas misi evolucia, istoriuli ganviTareba. saqme exeba sosiuris mier lingvistikis danawilebas, anu dayofas sinqroniad, romelic sistemas Camoyalibebuli saxiT ikvlevs da, diaqroniad, romelic yuradRebas apyrobs droSi enobrivi movlenebis transformacias. magram msgavsi dayofa didad utopiuria da veranairad ver gvakmayofilebs. utopiuria Tundac imitom, rom enis Semadgenloba arasodesaa dune, usicocxloo. xistad rom vTqvaT, enaSi saerTod ar SeimCneva misi yvela komponentis sinqronuli suraTi. meorec, utopiuria imitomac, rom igive diaqronia sxva araferia, Tu ara rekonstruqcia enis sxva SefardebiTi Tanamedroveobebisa Tanac im saxiT, rogoriTac isini warsulSi arsebobdnen. amgvarad, diaqronia gviCvenebs mxolod enobriv cvlilebebs da, Sedegad, Cven vamCnevT mxolod erTi axlandeli drois meoriT Secvlas, anu TvalnaTliv vxedavT enis zog statikur suraTs, romelTa Sedareba SeiZleba romeliRac filmTan, sadac erTmaneTis monacvle uZravi saxeebi mayurebels moZraobis iluzias aRuZraven. saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, diaqronias ZaluZs, gvacnobos enis kinematuri xedva da ara misi dinamikuri gageba, romelTan erTadacaa SesaZlebeli cvlilebaTa wvdoma. nebismieri cvlileba _ zemoT aRniSnuli qmnadobisa da ganadgurebis mxolod Sedegia, enis mxolod garegnuli mxare. CvenTvis ki aucilebelia enis Sinagani koncefciis Seqmna, sadac aRmovaCendiT ara dasrulebul enobriv formebs, aramed _ uSualod mis mamoZravebel Zalebs. enis warmoSobis sakiTxs lingvistebma tabu daades. es gamarTlebulia, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT Zveli enobrivi monacemebis srul ararsebobas. magram ena, simarTle rom vTqvaT, arasodesaa raime dasrulebuli, datum (mocemuli), dasrulebuli lingvisturi formebi, ufro piriqiT, is gamudmebiT qmnis sakuTar Tavs. am Tu im saxiT enis cxovelmyofeli SesaZleblobani amJamadac arsebobs. amitomac rezonulad ZalgviZs am enobrivi SemoqmedebiT potenciis gamoyofa Tanamedrove enaSi da maTi aRwera. winaswar uaris TqmiT,

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amgvari cdebisagan TavSekavebiT, TviTonve vagebT Seuval winaaRmdegobebs enis genezisis ramdenadme wvdomis gzaze. am mizezis gamo enis warmoSobis yvela Teoria or ukiduresobas Soris meryeobda: erTi mxriv, miiCnevdnen, rom ena saRvTo madlia, meore mxriv _ cdilobdnen cocxali arsebisTvis niSandoblivi moTxovnilebebisagan mis gaTavisuflebas. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi adamianTa ena uTanabrdeboda an yvirils, oxvras, mowodebas (swored amas amtkicebda arc Tu didi xnis winaT g. reveSi), an _ simReras, Citebis analogiiT (darvini, sfenseri). amave ideas adasturebs TiTqos iseTi movlenebi, rogorebicaa Sorisdebulebi, bgeraTa mibaZva da sxv. am SemTxvevaSi iseve, rogorc sxva dros, Teologiuri axsna yvela axsnis sawinaaRmdegoa, rameTu mtkiceba, TiTqos, RmerTma adamiani gonier cxovelad Seqmna anu ubralod mianiWa mas e.w. racionaloba, romelic Tavis mxriv, enis flobasac niSnavs, an ufro martivad , debuleba, TiTqos, ena adamians RmerTma uboZa _ imis tolfasia, aRiaro: arc racionaloba saWiroebs raimenair ganmartebas da arc _ ena. sinamdvileSi gadauWarbeblad SeiZleba iTqvas: TviT adamiani arasodes yofila racionaluri da arc axla SeiZleba aseTad misi miCneva. arsebiTad, laparakia romeliRac biologiur saxeobaze, romelic warmoiSva _ ukanaskneli monacemebiT _ daaxloebiT milioni wlis winaT. udavoa, evoluciisas, anu Tavisi istoriis ganmavlobaSi, adamiani daadga gzas, romelmac aTaswleulebis Semdeg, SesaZloa, WeSmarit racionalobamde miiyvanos. magram sadReisod mxolod Zalze primitiuli inteleqtualuri SesaZleblobebiT unda davkmayofildeT, romlebic, vimeorebT, mxolod fardobiTad SeiZleba racionalurad CaiTvalos. amasTan enis warmoSobis axsnis cda, gamomdinare cxoveluri Taviseburebebidan, uxeS Secdomad miiCneva, radgan am SemTxvevaSi sruliad gaugebaria, sxva danarCenma biologiurma saxeobebma ratom ver miaRwies ganviTarebis iseT safexurs, roca sakuTari enis Seqmnas TviTve SeZlebdnen. faqtobrivad, msgavsi biologiuri Teoriebi miaweren adamianuris tolfas Taviseburebebs yvela sxva arsebas, magram sulac ar aris aucilebeli, rom cocxal arsebaTa amgvari SesaZlo enebi aseve danawevrebul sametyvelo sistemas warmoadgendnen. princi pSi, amas yvirilis enac SeZlebda. cxovelTa bevr saxeobas xom _ ara marto primatebs _ aqvT tvinis erTgvari eleqtronuli mowyobiloba, romelsac dauZabavad ZaluZs mexsierebaSi SeinarCunos aTasgvari yvirilis sistema, Tanac iseTi rTulisac, romelic Tavisuflad SeiZleba enas SevadaroT, Tumc,

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am SemTxvevaSi metyvelebis organo ara imdenad enaa, ramdenadac _ yeli. savaraudoa, rom adamianSi adamianurobis gaCenis wamidan warmoiqmna urTierTobis dauokebeli moTxovnileba, romelic absoluturad aRemateba yvela sxva cxovelis msgavs survils. da es sagangebod im cxovelSi unda Casaxlebuliyo, romlidanac mogvianebiT adamiani warmoiSva, vinaidan swored am cxovels surda Zalian bevris, aranormalurad bevris Tqma. amgvarad, adamianSi mkvidrobda raRac, rac ar gaaCnda romelime sxva cxovels: es avsebda mis Sinagan samyaros, romelic mas raRacnairad unda gamoexata, gamoeTqva. migaCndes, rom es racionaluri samyaro iyo _ uxeSi Secdomaa. xistad rom vTqvaT, amJamindel racionalobaSi garduvalad aRwevs inteleqtualuri Cvevebi, romlebic kacobriobis mTeli istoriis ganmavlobaSi kolosaluri daZabulobis Sedegad gamomuSavda da romlebic, radgan Tavdapirvelad ar arsebobdnen, uSualod mohyvnen gadarCevas, aRzrdas, Sinagan disci plinas. im cxovelSi, romelic Semdeg adamianad iqca, unda warmoqmniliyo gansakuTrebiT mdidari da uCveulod ganviTarebuli warmosaxvis originaluri funqcia anu fantazia. istoriulad mtkicdeboda swored es funqcia, viTardeboda, xangrZliv savarjiSoebs uZlebda, ramac, Tavis mxriv, fantazia imad gadaaqcia, rasac Cven rixiT gonebad vixseniebT. ra Zalam amoxeTqa am romeliRac zoologiur saxeobaSi fantaziis uSreti wyaro anu gansakuTrebiT ganviTarebuli warmosaxva _ amaze gakvriT visaubre wina leqciaze, amasTan, Cems erT-erT SromaSic. am Temis gasaSlelad axla ubralod dro ara gvaqvs. da mainc mcired gadavuxvev saTqmels da mogaxsenebT: Teologebis sapirispirodac, romlebic adamians RvTis gansakuTrebul qmnilebad miiCneven da, zoologiuri koncefciisgan gansxvavebiTac, romelic cxoveluri samyaros normalur farglebSi cdilobs Cvens CaduRabebas, adamians erTgvar aranormalur cxovelad miviCnev. adamianis aranormaluroba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom igi aRsavsea xat-saxeebiT, fantaziiT, romelmac moicva igi, mZlavr nakadad mimoiqca masSi, Seqmna is, rasac Sinagani samyaro ewodeba. ai, ratomaa adamiani _ am sityvis sxvadasxva mniSvnelobiT _ fantastikuri cxoveli. am saunjem, romelsac adamiani atarebs da sxva cxovelTaTvis ucxoa, mianiWa adamianur Tanagancdas, adamianuri urTierTobebis ti ps sruliad axali xasiaTi. amieridan laparakia ara mxolod situaciidan gamomdinare utilitarul signalTa miRebasa da gacemaze; saqme exeba gadaudebel moTxovnilebas, gamoxatos sakuTari sanukvari

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samyaro, romelic Sinaganad xeTqs adamians, simSvides stacebs, aRagznebs da SfoTiTa da ZrwoliT avsebs. es Sinagani samyaro adamianisagan daJinebiT iTxovda gareT gasaRwevs, masSi urTierTobis WeSmariti monawileobis _ erTi sityviT _ axsna-ganmartebis wyurvils Sobda. enis genezisis gasagebad zoologiuri utilitarizmi sakmarisi ar aris. aq ar SeiZleba Semofargvla ubralo signalebiT, romlebic asocirdeba raRac Cvens miRma momxdarTan, anu situaciasTan, romlis aRqmac ZalgviZs. absoluturad aucilebelia, warmovidginoT, rom yvela idumal arsebaSi sakuTari sulis sxvisTvis Cvenebis uzarmazari vnebaa, imis Tqmis Jinia, rac SigniT momwifda da, kerZod _ sanukvari warmosaxviTi samyaro; erTi sityviT, iq suldgmulobda aRsarebis didi lirikuli moTxovnileba, magram radganac Sinagani samyaros xat-saxeni uSualo aRqmas ar eqvemdebareba, maTi gadmocema signaliT SeuZlebelia; vinmes Sinagani samyaro meoremde rom miitano, signali Tavisi wminda saxiT, garduvalad unda iqces garkveul gamoxatvad, sxva sityvebiT, amgvari niSani TviTve unda gulisxmobdes raRac azrs, raRac mniSvnelobas. mxolod cxoveli, romelsac marTlac surda bevris Tqma, da swored imaze, rac aq ar aris, garesamyaroSi ar arsebobs, ambobs uars signalTa ubralo erTianobaze, radgan zustad esmis misi SezRuduloba. am aRmoCenam, uciloa, es cxoveli aiZula kavSiri gaewyvita komunikaciis msgavs naklul saSualebasTan da ecada misi gadalaxva. sainteresoa, rom aRniSnuli wyveta, rogorc Cans, ara mxolod uSualod ukavSirdeba enis gamogonebas, aramed udavod dRemde grZeldeba da mcire qmnilebaTa seriad gardaiqmneba. esaa individis maradiuli konfliqti, romelic eswrafis raRac axlis gamoTqmas, rac mis sulSi iSva da sxvaTaTvis ucxoa; esaa pirovnebis konfliqti ukve dadgenil da winaswargansazRvrul enasTan, an ara da, gamoTqmis nayofieri Sejaxeba metyvelebasTan. am garemoebebma momaniWes ufleba, winaswar meTqva, rom enis warmoSobis problema nawilobriv, axlac SeiZleba vikvlioT. ena, metyveleba, an is, rac gamoiTqmis, _ kolosaluri sistemaa im sityvier CveulebaTa, romlebsac gansazRvruli sazogadoeba aRiarebs. individi, pirovneba am CveulebaTa saxiT imTaviTve ganicdis enobriv iZulebas. amitom mSobliuri enaa yvelaze naTeli da ti puri sazogadoebrivi movlena. swored is aZlevs saSualebas sxvebs, SemoaRwion CvenSi da saukunod dafuZndnen, rac TiToeul individs xalxis kerZo SemTxvevad aqcevs. mSobliuri metyveleba axdens Cveni sanukvari samyaros uRrmes fenaTa socializacias, da amitomac nebismieri

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individi, am sityvis xisti mniSvnelobiT, sazogadoebas ekuTvnis. ra Tqma unda, calkeul adamians SeuZlia im sazogadoebidan gaqceva, romelSic daibada da aRizarda, magram maSinac ki sazogadoeba gaafTrebiT daedevneba ltolvils, radgan yvela individi sazogadoebis maradiuli matarebelia. ai, WeSmariti arsi debulebisa, romlis Tanaxmadac, adamiani sazogadoebrivi cxovelia (Tumc, aristotelem Tqva politikuri cxovelia da ara sazogadoebrivio;). adamiani socialuria, sazogadoebas ekuTvnis maSinac ki, roca mas didad ar xiblavs urTierToba. misi socialoba, anu ama Tu im sazogadoebisadmi kuTvnileba mis gulRiaobaze ar aris damokidebuli. mSobliuri ena saukunod tvifravs adamians. da radganac yvela ena gulisxmobs samyaros absoluturad TviTmyof suraTs, is garduvalad ajildoebs adamians ramdenime gansazRvruli SesaZleblobiT, da amasTan, arsebiTad zRudavs kidec mas. ai, sad vxedavT mkafiod, Tu rogor xdeba movlena _ esa Tu is adamiani umaRlesi klasis abstraqcia! yovelive, rac adamianSi sanukvaria, winaswar aris gansazRvruli da formulirebuli ama Tu im sazogadoebiT. magram esec simarTlea: is, visac uaRresad pirovnulisa da, Sesabamisad, sruliad axlis gamoxatva surs, wesisamebr, adamianTa metyvelebaSi, enaSi ver poulobs im sityvier Cvevas, adekvaturad rom eTanadebodes mis gamoTqmas. maSin individi axal gamoTqmas qmnis. da Tu gaumarTla da sxva bevric gaimeorebs, es gamoTqma, SesaZloa, axal enobriv Cvevad Camoyalibdes. amgvarad, yvela sityva da frazeologiuri saqcevi imTaviTve iyo calkeul adamianTa mier Seqmnili, romlebic Semdgom meqanikur yofiT Cveulebad gardaisaxnen. msgavsi degradacia aucilebelia, radgan sityvaTa da saqcevTa enaSi Semosvlis mTavar pirobad gvevlineba da mainc, am pirovnul aRmoCenaTa didi nawili Sedegs ver aRwevs, anu ramdenadme SesamCnev kvals ar tovebs enaze: pirovnuli Semoqmedebis es aqtebi bevrisTvis gaugebaria. pirovnuli gamoTqmebisa da adamianTa metyvelebis es brZola enis yofis normad iqca. calkeuli adamiani yovelTvis sazogadoebis tyvea, Tumca ki, xandaxan, misgan gaqcevis SesaZleblobiT suldgmulobs, raTa cxovrebis damoukidebel, sakuTar formas misdios. amgvar cdaTagan cota Tu sruldeba warmatebiT _ da maSin sazogadoeba auqmebs ama Tu im Cvevas da pirovnebis mier gamomuSavebul axal formebs aitacebs xolme. Tumc, xSirad, Cven mainc msgavs pirovnul sasoebaTa msxvrevis mowmeni vxdebiT; amgvarad enaSi Cven vxedavT nebismieri socialuri faqtis paradigmas. eTnografTa monacemebis

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Tanaxmad, velurebSi, axlac pirvelyofili wyobiT rom cxovroben, xSirad gvxvdeba iseTi movlena, roca romelime axali situacia individisagan moiTxovs mSobliur enaSi ararsebuli fonemebis warmoqmnas. es fonemebi Semoqmedebis Sedegia, radgan maTi bgeriTi forma warmoTqmis momentSi srulad upasuxebs imas, rasac ganicdis da ris gamoTqmasac lamobs esa Tu is individi. kacobriobis ganviTarebis adreul etapze es fenomeni, savaraudod, ufro xSirad gvxvdeboda, radgan adamianuri metyveleba mxolod maSin idgamda fesvs da arsebobda enis, rogorc aseTis _ Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas _ Savi monaxazi. magram gvaqvs ki safuZveli vamtkicoT, rom swored fonetikuri formaa mTavari, gadamwyveti momenti sityvaTqmnadobis zemoaRniSnul procesSi, rogorc amas dRevandeli lingvistika varaudobs. sinamdvileSi, myarad mwams: TviT fonetikac ki ucilod enis uRrmes Sreebs unda efuZnebodes. enis dayvana sityvamde _ sensu stricto, anda _ mis bgeriT mxaremde abstraqciaa, anu raRac, konkretul realobas rom ar emTxveva. Tanamedrove lingvistikis safuZlad qceuli es abstraqcia dabrkolebad ar aRmarTula im farTomasStabiani da erTgvarad, mkacrad sanimuSo kvlevisas, enad rom movixseniebT. magram enaTmecnierebis udavo warmatebebi im plastis Rrma damuSavebasa da detalur Seswavlas gvavalebs, romelic sul axlaxan ganxiluli abstraqciis farglebs miRmaa. lingvistikam, rogorc davrwmundiT, ucilod unda CarTos metyvelebis analizSi imis nawili, rac TviT masSi ar gamoixata, gamouTqmeli darCa. da aq araorazrovnad msurs ganvacxado! Cveni metyveleba Sedgeba ara mxolod sityvebisagan, bgeraTSeTanxmebaTagan an fonemaTagan. danawevrebul bgeraTa warmoTqma xom metyvelebis mxolod erTi nawilia. misi meore mxare moicavs mTeli adamianuri sxeulis srul Jestikulacias, romelic TviTgamoxatvas eswrafis. da es Jestikulacia, bunebrivia, Sedgeba ara mxolod mkafiod gamoxatul moZraobaTagan, aramed, magaliTad, Tvalebis, Rawvebis da a.S. tonusis SesamCnev cvlilebaTagan. enaTmecnierebi msgavsi movlenebis faseulobaTa aRiarebisTvis didi xania mzad arian, magram amis miuxedavad, maT seriozulad ar aRiqvamen. gana umjobesi ar iqneba simarTles Tvali gavusworoT da vaJkacurad vaRiaroT: metyveleba Jestikulirebas niSnavs? am frazis arsi ufro konkretuli da pirquSia, vidre SesaZloa, erTi SexedviT mogveCvenos. calkeulma xalxma, didwilad, dasavleTis mkvidrebma, praqtikulad ori aswleulis ganmavlobaSi mkacrad disciplinuri gaxades TavianTi

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metyveleba, ris Sedegadac maT imas miaRwies, rom arsebiTad SezRudes, gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi ki, saerTod akrZales yvelaze TvalSisacemi Jestebis gamoyeneba. magaliTad moviyvanT ingliselebs. Merry England-is (keTili, mxiaruli inglisi) xanaSi saubrisas isini im simSvidiTa da udrtvinvelobiT ver daikvexnidnen, dRes rom maT NniSandobliv Taviseburebad miaCniaT. falstafsa da mister idens ufskruli acilebT, romelmac uamravi Jesti STanTqa. rogor imoqmeda aman gamoxatvaze, arafers vityvi. magram Tu istoriuli ganviTarebis adreul etapebs davubrundebiT, Jestikulaciis intensiur matebas SevamCnevT. afrikaSi dResac SexvdebiT pirvelyofil xalxebs, romelTac ar esmiT eTnografebisa da misionerebisa, arada, maT srulyofilad ician iqaurTa enebi, Tumc metyvelebas gamZafrebul Jestikulacias ar urTaven. metic: centraluri afrikis zogi tomi SebindebasTan erTad saubars wyvets. ar laparakoben, radgan erTmaneTs ver xedaven _ vinaidan ukanaskneli garemoeba Jestikulacias sabolood aucxoebs metyvelebisagan. magram moyvanili magaliTebi jer kidev ar aris sakmarisi safuZveli formulisa: metyveleba Jestikulacias niSnavs. gasuli saukunis dasawyisSi, romelsac kantma mecnierebis saimedo gza uwoda, lingvistika maSinve Seudga enis im mxriv Seswavlas, romelic ufro sasurveli gaxldaT zusti kvlevebisaTvis. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, yuradReba miapyres kacobriobis ZiriTad sametyvelo aparats, romelic bgerebis artikulacias axdenda. ase warmoiSva fonetika. mkacri mniSvnelobiT, es termini WeSmaritebas ar Seesabameba. TviTon gansajeT _ es mecniereba sulac ar swavlobs enobriv bgerebs, rogorc aseTs; mxolod sametyvelo organoebis muSaobas ikvlevs. amitom klasifikaciisas enobriv bgerebs aniWebdnen moqmedi organos saxels; ase gaCnda qveynad bagismieri, kbilismieri da sxv. bgerebi. sruliad ueWvelia, rom am meTodma brwyinvale Sedegebi mogvca. da mainc, artikulaciisTvis sruli upiratesobis miniWeba arasakmarisad gaazrebulia, radgan enaze dakvirveba mTqmelis planSi mimdinareobs da ara _ msmenelisa. magram Cven mSvenivrad gvesmis: sityva amgvari maSin ki ar xdeba, roca iTqmis, aramed mxolod maSin, roca esmiT, roca mas yurmaxvili adamiani igebs. TviT mTqmelic ki mudmivad cdilobs sruliad garkveuli bgeris mkafio artikulirebas, swored im fonemis gamoTqmas, romelic man Tavdapirvelad ucxo bageTagan moismina. winaswar gansazRvrul da mza enaSi sityvebis smeniT moxelTebis samuSao yovelTvis pirveladia; Sesabamisad, ena, uwinaresad, akustikuri faqtia. roca ocdaTxuTmetiode

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wlis winaT Tavadma trubeckoim metyvelebis bgerebis, rogorc aseTTa, Seswavla daiwyo imis gasarkvevad, Tu fonemis kerZod romeli nawili aqcevs bgerebs ganmasxvavebel, madiferencirebel, anu sametyvelo moRvaweobis yvelaze efeqtur Tvisebad, _ TavSi marjve azrma gauelva (radgan imjerad termini adekvaturi aRmoCnda), Tavisi disci plinisTvis fonologia daerqmia. udavoa, trubeckois meTodma, gansxvavebiT tradiciuli fonetikisagan, SesaZlebeli gaxada bgeris pirvelsawyisTan ufro miaxloeba. da mainc, rogorc Cans, arc Tu didi xnis winaT SemoTavazebuli arc es Tvalsazrisia sakmarisi enis mTavari, sawyisi daxasiaTebis misakvlevad. fonologia swavlobs bgerebs, rogorc aseTT. magram mza enaSi damkvidrebuli es bgerebi Tavdapirvelad odesRac ucilod viRacis mier warmoiTqva. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, gamoTqma xelaxla iqceva pirveladad, magram fonetikasTan SedarebiT, sruliad gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobiT. saqme elementaruli gamoTqma rodia, romelic mTlianad emyareba winaswargansazRvruli, winaswar cnobili bgeris warmoTqmis swrafvas an, rom gavamartivoT, mibaZvaze damyarebul gamoTqmas. am SemTxvevaSi im artikulacias vgulisxmobT, romelsac saerTod ar gaaCnia, romelime winaswargansazRvruli bgeriTi modeli, nimuSi... saqme exeba movlenas, romelic ar gaxlavT ubralo mowyobiloba, rodesac moZraoba warimarTeba mTqmelisTvis ukve cnobili sityvis garegani bgeriTi xatis Sesabamisad. da radganac yvela ena fonemaTa gansakuTrebuli sistemaa, fonemaTa miRma garduvalad moiazreba raRac gansakuTrebuli, saartikulacio moZraobis TviTkmari sistema, romelic stiqiuria da ara _ winaswarganzraxuli an mibaZviTi. am TaviseburebebiT aRbeWdili moZraoba iwodeba gamomxatvelad, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, Jestebad. es sruliad ewinaaRmdegeba im moZraobebs, romelTa SemweobiT, ama Tu im miznis miRwevas vlamobT. ra gasakviric unda iyos, veWvobT, rom enis nebismieri bgera marTlac metyvelebis aparatis organoTa Sinagani Jestikulaciisagan warmodgeba, maT Soris _ bageebisac. yvela xalxSi iyo gavrcelebuli da axlac gavrcelebulia winaswarganuzraxveli, arasaCvenebeli, magram sruliad gansazRvruli artikulaciis ti pi, romelic gamoxatavs misTvis damaxasiaTebel da yvelaze xSirad, TviTmyofi Sinagani samyaros Taviseburebebs. da vinaidan sametyvelo aparatis mier artikulirebul bgerebs yovelTvis Tan axlavs Cveni sxeulis Jestebi, yvela enis bgeriTi sistema garkveuli proeqciiT garduvalad gulisxmobs am enaze molaparake xalxis suls. TviT lingvistebi gvkarnaxoben:

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romelime enis saswavlad jer sxeulis sruliad konkretuli poza unda miviRoT. magaliTad, inglisur enaze sasaubrod, pirvel rigSi, nikapi win unda wamovwioT da kbili kbils davaWiroT, Semdeg ki vcadoT bageTa praqtikulad uZrav mdgomareobaSi moyvana, amgvarad, da mxolod amgvarad yalibdeba ingliselebSi is naklebgamomxatveli da zizRiani knavili, risganac Sedgeba maTi mSobliur enaze metyveleba. amis sapirispirod, Tu frangulis swavlas gadawyvetT, saWiroa mTeli sxeuli erTgvarad bageebisken midrikoT, TiTqos vinmes kocnas apirebdeT, da mxolod mere asrialoT tuCebi ise, rom erTmaneTs exebodnen. swored ase miiRweva usazRvro TviTkmayofileba, ase niSandoblivi romaa rigiTi frangisaTvis. zedmeti TviTdajerebulobis meore saxesxvaoba gamoixateba nazalizaciiT, romelic inglisurs amerikelebma SesZines. nazalizacia bgeris gadaylapvaa, romelic Tan sdevs zeaweul bgeras (mxolod imitom, rom cxviris RruSi misi mJReri gamoZaxiliT datkbeT). mJReri sityvebis amgvari mopyroba ufro meti TviTmyofadobis SesaZleblobas iZleva, iseTi, TiTqos, sakuTar Tavs Signidan usmende. lingvistTa Sorisac gamoCndeba xolme romeliRac marjve vaJkaci; amerikelebs ar gauWirdebaT imis gageba, rom ingliselma leopold steinma Tavis wignSi metyvelebis Cviloba da Cvilis metyveleba (The Infancy of Speech and the Speech of Infancy) nazalizaciis damkvidreba piTekanTrops daukavSira. amrigad, ena _ dafuZnebuli gamoTqmaze _ adamianuri Jestebis nakrebs (SesaZloa, aq ufro Sesaferisi termin sistemis gamoyeneba iyos) ganekuTvneba. Tumc TiToeuli individis JestTa es krebuli misi pirovnebis mxolod minimaluri nawilia. yvela Cveni Jesti, praqtikulad, sazogadoebisgan warmodgeba, sxvagvarad, es gaxlavT Cven mier gamoyenebuli romeliRac moZraobebi, romlebic miRebulia sazogadoebaSi. amitom sakmarisia ama Tu im adamianis Jestikulaciis danaxva, rom davadginoT, romel ersa Tu xalxs ganekuTvneba. Jestikulacia im CvevaTa erTianobaa, romelic hgavs Cven mier wina leqciebisas ganxilulT. maTi analizisas kvlavac vexebiT ukve nacnob problemaTa wres. da aq nebismieri individi ganicdis garemocvis zegavlenas. da Tu odesme Jestikulaciis istoria daiwereba, isini garduvalad dasruldeba am strofebiT: Jestebis gamoyeneba, daucveloba da gauqmeba CvevaTa arsebobis saerTo kanonebs emorCileba. nebismieri sazogadoeba Tavisi CveulebebiT, Tavisi JestebiT cxovrobs da swored maTSi gamoixateba yvelaze naTlad am sazogadoebis xasiaTi. amitom esa Tu is xalxi uZlieres Soks

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ganicdis, roca sxva xalxis TviTmyofad Jestikulacias awydeba. xSirad msgavsi Soki dauokebel siZulvilSi gadaizrdeba xolme, ris Sedegadac iseTi wvrilmani, rogoric gansazRvruli adamianuri sazogadoebis gamomsaxveli moZraobebia, xdeba urwmunobis, siZulvilisa da, xandaxan mtrobis, Zlieri faqtori. adamianTa gamoTqmani. sazogadoebrivi azri. socialuri moTxovnilebani, samoqalaqo Zalaufleba mSobliuri ena yovelTvis arsebobs. is aq aris, Cvens uSualo sazogadoebriv garemocvaSi da bavSvobidanve meqanikurad iWreba CvenSi, roca adamianTa laparaki gvesmis. Tu sityva laparaki, mkacri mniSvnelobiT, gansazRvruli enis gamoyenebas aRniSnavs, metyveleba enis aTvisebis mxolod meqanikuri Sedegia. sametyvelo aqti, ubnoba moqmedebaa, romelic garedan SigniT moemarTeba. garedan iracionalurad da meqanikurad aTvisebuli metyveleba gareTve brundeba. amis sapirispirod, gamoTqma _ qmedeba, romelic safuZvels TviT subieqtidan iRebs _ raRac sanukvaris gamocxadebis cdaa. am racionaluri da Segnebuli miznis misaRwevad adamiani yvela xelmisawvdom saSualebas iyenebs, romelTagan ena mxolod erTerTia. magaliTad, natifi xelovneba sxva araferia, Tu ara _ gamoTqmis saSualeba. laparakis SesaZlebloba individs ase Tu ise dadgenili aqvs, Tu igi ase Tu ise flobs erT an ramdenime enas. metyveleba gramofonis firfitaTa erTgvari seriaa, romelsac Sinaarsis gaTvaliswinebiT ukravs adamiani. aseTi dapirispireba uflebas gvaZlevs, naTlad davinaxoT, rom Tu gamoTqma an gamoTqmis ganzraxva sakuTriv adamianuri, an individis, rogorc aseTis, qmedebaa, metyveleba Cvevaa, romelic sxva CvevaTa msgavsad individidan ar iRebs saTaves da ar aris srulad gacnobierebuli. is arc nebayoflobiTi aqtia. is sazogadoebis mier CvenTvis Tavs moxveuli aqtia. da amitomac, metyvelebis saxiT, romelsac Zvelad ratio-s da logos-s uwodebdnen, Tvalwin warmogvidgeba sxva socialuri faqtebiviT ucnauri realoba; igi marTlac saocaria, vinaidan Cvens winaSea rogorc adamianuri realoba _ mas qmnian da iyeneben TviTon adamianebi, romlebsac es sruliad Segnebuli aqvT; da amave dros, rogorc _ araadamianuri realobac, vinaidan TviT sametyvelo aqtebs meqanikuri xasiaTi aqvT. magram Tu vecdebiT, piruku SeviswavloT TiToeuli sityvis istoria, piruku gavadevnoT Tvali TiToeul sintaqsur konstruqcias, SegveZleba _ Tanac araerTxel _ mainc mivakvlioT maT warmoSobas.

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davinaxavT, rom nebismieri sityva an saqcevi, romelTac ki mniSvneloba aqvT maTi Semqmnelisa da uSualo msmenelisaTvis, warmoSobiT, etimologiurad SemoqmedebiTi aqtia. Sesabamisad, sityvebica da gamoTqmebic odesRac adamianur qmedebas gamoxatavdnen, romlebmac enaSi Cvevad damkvidrebisas dakarges TavianTi pirvandeli mniSvneloba da iqcnen gramofonis erTgvar firfitebad, erTi sityviT, dehumanizeba ganicades, sulisgan daicalnen. espaneTis samoqalaqo omisas viRacam moigona sityva zedmetad marTavs (mandamas). vfiqrob, am gamoTqmis SemoqmedisTvisac ki ar iyo naTeli, ratom moxda, rom cneba marTva maincdamainc sityva mandamas-iT gamoixata. arc isaa gasagebi, Tu ratom gadmoicema mniSvneloba meti sityviT mas.1 da mainc, ori sityvis amgvari Sewyoba viRacis Semoqmedebis originaluri produqtia, romelsac mniSvneloba hqonda rogorc avtoris, ise _ msmenelisaTvis. is naTels hfenda sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis romeliRac faqts, romelic maSin arsebobda. metic, es sityva marjved SerCeulicaa, raSic iolad davrwmundebiT, Tu ase Tu ise zustad aRvwerT mis tragikomikur arss: xazs vusvam, am sityvis orive komponentis aRweras vgulisxmob. maS, Tu amas vizamT, miviRebT im situaciis yvelaze zust gansazRvras, romelSic maSin espaneTis samoqalaqo xelisufleba Cavarda. am mdgomareobis dasrulebisTanave _ es iseTi aranormaluri situacia gaxldaT, rom misi metnaklebi stabilizeba, gamyareba SeuZlebeli iyo _ sityva mandamas-is xmarebac gaiSviaTda da savsebiT mosalodnelia, male saerTod gaqres kidec. amgvarad, Cvens winaSe Cvevis magaliTia _ zemoT moyvanili sityva ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi lingvisturad dakanonda da praqtikulad, ukve modidan gadis. Tumc, isic warmovidginoT, rom es sityva ama Tu im mizeziT adamianTa metyvelebas SerCes, ramdenime Taobas gauZlos... savsebiT SesaZlebelia, rom gamoTqma manda-mas gardaiqmnas gamoTqmad malmas an raRac amgvarad. maSin am sityvis jiutad gamomyenebeli saerTod ver mixvdeba, mas, vinc areul droSi sxvebze metad irjeba (metad marTavs, metad ganagebs), ratom hqvia malmas.
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sityva mandar espanurSi polisemiuria da niSnavs: mbrZaneblobas, meTaurobas, anderZis micemas (uanderZa), uaryofas, dapirebas, marTvas (cxenis gaZRola), davalebas, gadawyvetas, dartymas, miwvevas, aRZvras, gamowvevas, signalis micemas, batonobas, Zirs dagdebas, mosrolas, gagzavnas, CamoTvlas, instruqtaJs da a.S. mas uaryofiTi nawilakia. amgvarad, mandamas-ma uneblieT miiRo aseTi mniSvneloba: umarTaoba, uxelmZRvaneloba (is, vinc ar marTavs, ar ganagebs) (mTargmn. SeniSvna)

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adamianurma qmedebam Cveni Tanamemamulisa, romelmac es sityva gamoigona, malmas wminda enobriv Cvevad aqcia, enis WanWikad gardaqmna, misi dehumanizeba moaxdina. igive ram mosdiT dRes sityvebs mandar da malmas. es procesi ise garTulda, rom TviT gamoCenilma lingvistma meiemac ki bolomde ver gaigo zemoT naxsenebi gamoTqmis arsi. aucilebeli mgonia am procesisaTvis yuradRebis mi pyroba, radgan zemoT moyvanili sityva ara marto sulisgan daclis kidev erTi magaliTia, aramed miSvnelovan problemaze saubris nebasac gvaZlevs. espanuri mas warmodgeba laTinuri sityvidan magis, romlis mniSvnelobas maSin gavigebT, Tu, magaliTad, vityviT magis esse (metad yofna). igive fuZe aqvs sityvas magnus (didi). meie aq damatebiT or SeniSvnasac gvTavazobs, Tumc, es, mgoni, misTvis umniSvneloa. yovel SemTxvevaSi, isini mas araviTari daskvnisken ar ubiZgeben. meie ambobs: cneba meti-s (mas) gadmosacemad laTinurSi kidev ori sityva gamoiyeneboda: grandis , romelic sivrcis sidides ukavSirdeboda, da plus, romelic raodenobriv, ricxvobriv siWarbeze miuTiTebda. da piriqiTac, ganagrZobs meie, magnus da, Seabamisad magis, xSirad Zalis, Zalauflebis damatebiT mniSvnelobebsac iTavseben, rac ar gaaCniaT arc grandis-s, arc _ plus-s. meie sxvas aras ambobs, magram Tqmuli saSualebas gvaZlevs fuZeebSi mag da mai raRac mniSvnelovans mivakvlioT. magis esse (metad yofna) safuZvels udebs sityvas magister (magisteros), misgan ki sityvebs _ magisteratus, magistratus. magram romSi magistrati mmarTvels, ZalauflebiT aRWurvil adamians niSnavda. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, magistrati isaa, vinc sxva moqalaqeebze mniSvnelovania, vinaidan is marTavs, is ganagebs. zemoT ukve vnaxeT, rom mandar, romelic warmodgeba sityvidan manu-dare, romelic im SesaZleblobas gulisxmobs, roca sxvisTvis sakuTari nebis Tavs moxveva ZalgiZs: viRac Zalis mflobelia, Zalisufalia. meies Secdoma, rogorc aq, ise _ sxvagan, isaa, rom igi ganixilavs sityvadqceul sagans, movlenas, rogorc _ arsebuls. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, meies ar esmis is naTeli WeSmariteba, rom yvela sagani mxolod Sedegia misi warmomSobi energiisa; platonis TqmiT, imisa, rac mis myofobas ganapirobebs. magistrati sxvaze metobas aRniSnavs, magram sxvaze metoba met Zalauflebazec miuTiTebs. swored es migviZRvis fuZe mag-is Tavdapirveli mniSvnelobebisaken sityvebSi magnus da magis. es fuZe krTeba sityvaSic majestad (didebuleba). marTlac, germanulSi igive fuZe miuTiTebs ara mxolod imaze, rom viRac metia, aramed cinikurad da orazrovnad aRniSnavs TviT Zalauflebas _ magcht. zemogermanulSi magan-s Seesatyviseba Zala, ZvelfrankulSi

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amoier (SeSineba, Zrwolis mogvra) gadasxvaferda sityvad esmoi, ris Sedegadac Tanamedrove frangulSi damkvidrda emoi. inglisurSi gvaqvs may SeZleba da might Zala. sasaubro germanulSi mogen aRniSnavs Zalas, SeZlebas, moglich _ SesaZleblobas, mas, visac SeuZlia iyos an mas, rasac yofna ZaluZs. berZnulSic ki gvxvdeba analogiuri magaliTebi: megale ara mxolod didi zomisa da raodenobis aRmniSvnelia, aramed raRacis keTebis SesaZleblobacaa; mechane meqanizmicaa, meqanikac da manqanac. yovelive es imis konstatirebis saSualebas gvaZlevs, rom indoevropuli evoluciis romeliRac etapze mag-nas Zlierebas, Zalas niSnavda, da vinaidan gansazRvrul Zalasa da Zlierebas nebismieri adamiani flobs, SegviZlia vamtkicoT, rom es fuZe aRniSnavda Zlierebas an potencias, rac aRemateboda sxva danarCen Zalasa da Zlierebas da, Sesabamisad, aRniSnavda upiratesobas, met SesaZleblobas. radgan Zalaufleba Zlierebaa, gamodis, rom magistrat zemoT Tqmuli manda-mas-ia. am sityvis sxva garegnul niSnebze mogvianebiT mogaxsenebT. sityvis magistrat gamoTqmisas Cven ar vfiqrobT zemoTqmulze, magram dRes damtkicebulia, rom sityvebi pirvandel mniSvnelobaTa gaqvavebuli gvamebia. Tu vimsjelebT ara sityvaze, aramed realobaze, romelsac ewodeba magistrat, ufro sworad im rolze, romelsac dRes es sityva asrulebs, maSinve gagvaxsendeba, rom magistrati aseTi imitomaa, rom swored mas emorCileba policia; rom aRaraferi vTqvaT Zvel romze, sadac magistrati, konsuli, imave dros, umaRlesi mTavarsardalic gaxldaT. aq raime saxaliso TamaSi gamoricxulia, radgan etimologia TiTqmis yovelTvis aSiSvlebs adamianuri cxovrebis mkacr realobas, romelic ufro midrekilia SeniRbvisa da farisevlobisaken da Cvengan bevr rames aidumalebs. Tavs ufleba miveci, dro dameTmo morigi etimologiuri analizisaTvis ara mxolod imitom, rom aman saSualeba mogvca, TvalnaTliv dagvenaxa, Tu gansazRvruli individis Semoqmedebas dacilebuli da enobriv sistemaSi CarTuli sityvebi rogor kargaven TavianT mniSvnelobas da sulierebadaclilni, rogor ganagrZoben meqanizmis detalad yofnas. ase mxolod imitom moviqeci, rom Semexsenebina: yvela es fenomeni gvexmareba im kidev ufro mniSvnelovani problemis gaazrebaSi, romelic aralingvisturia da romelsac axla ganvixilavT. am meqanikuri detalebis anu im sityvebis SemweobiT, romelTac TavianTi zedmiwevniTi mniSvneloba dahkarges, Cven ase Tu ise gamovxatavT imas, rasac vfiqrobT. marTlac, socialuri garemo,

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adamianebi, romlebic bavSvobidanve gvatexinebdnen sazogadoebaSi miRebul enas, im ideebiTac gvavseben, romlebic sityvebs am enisave saSualebiT gamoxataven: ideebi arsze, imaze, Tu rogorebi arian sxvebi da rogorebi varT Cven _ erTi sityviT, imaze, Tu ra aris cxovreba _ Cveni siRrmiseuli Semadgeneli nawilebia da, Tu sagnebs TavianT saxelebs davarqmevT, am ideebSia is, rac sinamdvileSi varT. sicocxle dramaa da, rogorc aseTi, yovelTvis emorCileba gansazRvrul siuJets, romelic, Tavis mxriv, aseve icvleba samyarosa da xalxze Cveni Sexedulebebis Sesabamisad. ueWvelia, morwmunis cxovrebis siuJeti usazRvrod gansxvavdeba misi cxovrebis siuJetisagan, vinc darwmunebulia, rom mxolod materia arsebobs. amgvarad, azrebis umravlesoba, romlebiTac da romelTa gulisTvisac vcxovrobT, ar aris Cven mier mogonili da kargad gaazrebuli. maT meqanikurad viyenebT, vsesxulobT im sazogadoebisagan, romlebSic vcxovrobT; swored misgan, misi zegavleniT SemoaRwies CvenSi, iseve, rogorc sapoxi aRwevs avtomobilSi. saintereso iqneboda, dagveTvala (sinamdvileSi amis saSualeba ara gvaqvs) sazogadoebis, Tu gnebavT, mTeli naciis ramdeni wevri dafiqrebula erTxel mainc _ am sityvis namdvili mniSvnelobiT _ ratomaa ors + ori oTxi da amova Tu ara xval mze. am gamoTvlis Sedegad miviRebdiT, rom Cveni ideebis umravlesoba, miuxedavad imisa, rom isini ideebia anu rwmenac, absoluturad iracionaluria. isini iseTive Cvevebia, rogorc _ ena an misalmeba. sabolood, maT ver vacnobierebT, aramed meqanikurad gvaqvs akviatebuli. magram udavoa: Cven yurad viRebT gamoTqmis mxolod zedapirul mniSvnelobas, romelsac Cvens irgvliv usasrulod imeoreben; varCevT orians samianisagan da, es gvaZlevs Zalze gaugebar warmodgenas imaze, rac zemoT moxmobil frazaSi imaleba. oRond, yuradReba miaqcieT, rom gamoTqma 2+2 = 4, ideas Seicavs, radgan am ricxvebze raRac azrs gvawvdis, Sesabamisad, iseTs, romelsac WeSmaritebis pretenzia aqvs. idea yovelTvis raRacis an raRacaze idea anu mosazrebaa (mcdari Tu marTali). amrigad, idea mxolod maSin SeiZleba aseTad CavTvaloT, misi uSualo mniSvnelobis miuxedavad, Tu sxva Sexedulebebsac gaviTvaliswinebT, romelTac emyareba misi WeSmariteba an piriqiT _ mcdaroba, araadekvaturoba. idea racionaluri mxolod maSinaa, roca yvela es Sexeduleba dasabuTebulia. ase rom, msgavsi arafris Tqma ar ZalgviZs im ideebze, Cven rom yoveldRiurad gamovTqvamT. yvelaferze vlaparakobT, azrebs vsesxulobT garSemo myofTagan, TiTqos bankidan usasrulod gamogvqondes fuli, romlis angariSi

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TvaliTac ki ar gvenaxos. ineteleqtualur urTierTobaSi adamiani Cveulebriv sargeblobs im sazogadoebis kreditiT, romelSic cxovrobs da es inteleqtualuri krediti misTvis problemas arasodes warmoadgenda. es ki niSnavs, rom adamiani sazogadoebrivi avtomatia. mxolod ama Tu im ganyenebul sakiTxze msjelobisas vinebebT xolme sabanko angariSis Semowmebas, aTvisebuli ideis gakritikebas, rom mere an uarvyoT, an kvlav avitacoT, Tumc, amjerad mxolod imitom, rom yvelam yovelmxriv gaiazra, skrupulozurad Seiswavla misi safuZvlebi. Cveni socialuri garemo aRsavsea sityvebiT, gamoTqmebiT anu SexedulebebiT. roca ganvixilavT uazrod daxvavebul ideebsa da azrebs, romlebic adamianuri metyvelebis skidan gamofrenili futkrebiviT dagvzuzuneben Tavs, vacnobierebT, rom maTi or did klasad dayofa SeiZleba. erTT Cven gamovTqvamT, rogorc _ TavisTavad nagulisxmevT; aq mniSvnelovani isaa, rom qveynad yvela ase fiqrobs; meore klasSi CvenTvis mniSvnelovani is metnaklebad gamoxatuli raRacaa, rac sazogadod miRebul azrs ar emTxveva da xandaxan, piriqiT, ewinaaRmdegeba kidec. pirvel SemTxvevaSi, visaubroT gabatonebul Sexedulebebze, meoreSi ki kerZo azrebze. ama Tu ima adamianis gamoTqmis maneris gaanalizebisas ucebve vityviT, rom kerZo azrebi, rogorc wesi, ufro mgznebared gamoiTqmis, TiTqos, maTi yovelnairad gaZliereba, maTi mniSvnelobis xazgasma surdeT; anda piriqiT, maT gamoTqvamen undilad, frTxilad, TiTqos, Tanamosaubris riTime ganawyenebas eridebiano, magram mainc _ damajereblad, mimzidvelad; aris maT Soris iseTi msjelobac, romelic gakvriT, magram mainc yovelTvis gamoxatavs imas, rac mas safuZvlad udevs. is, vinc msgavs gansakuTrebul azrs gamoTqvams, srulad acnobierebs, rom mis kerZo Sexedulebas, vidre sayovelTaod gaqveyndebodes, mtkiceba da mxardaWera sWirdeba. Tanac, Tavis TanamoazreTa mxardaWeris, dacvisa da propagandis msgavsi. naTqvams naTeli rom movfinoT, bolo SemTxveva SevadaroT sayovelTaod aRiarebuli azrebis gamoTqmas. TavSic ki aravis mouva, rom isini sakuTrad gaasaRos an mxardaWeras da dadasturebas daelodos. aseT zogad, saerTo nawils Cven energiulad, mRelvared rodi gamovTqvamT, ubralod _ mas veyrdnobiT, ufro sworad, masze mivuTiTebT. mokled imis nacvlad, rom damcvelis poza miviRoT, piriqiT viqceviT: saerTo, zogad azrebs gamovTqvamT da maTve veyrdnobiT, WeSmaritebis ukanasknel instanciasaviT viyenebT, TiTqos, romelime brZanebulebas, kodeqssa Tu kanons movixseniebdeT.

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da marTlac, aseTi Sexedulebebi dadgenili Cvevebia. sityva dadgenili ki imas niSnavs, rom isini ar saWiroeben individTa romelime nawilisa an gansazRvruli jgufebis mxardaWeras da dacvas. piriqiT, yvelas Tavs exvevian da yvelaze zemoqmedeben. swored es maiZulebs, maT socialuri moTxovnilebebi vuwodo. am moTxovnilebaTa xarisxs _ xandaxan didi gaavebiT _ mkafiod xvdeba yvela, vinc ki maTTan SewinaaRmdegebas gabedavs. koleqtiuri arsebobis nebismier momentSi socialur moTxovnilebaTa Zala Sobs uamrav aseT gavrcelebul Sexedulebas, romelTac Cven saerTo, zogad adgilebs veZaxiT. sazogadoebas an adamianTa erTobas ar gaaCnia azrebi, zustad da mkafiod gaazrebuli ideebi. sazogadoebas aqvs mxolod saerTo, zogadi adgilebi da TviTonac maT efuZneba. amiT imas ki ar vamtkiceb, TiTqos, es ideebi mcdari iyos _ isini SesaZloa genialuradac ki mogveCvenos. ubralod, roca es azrebi iqcevian socialur moTxovnilebad, gavrcelebul Sexedulebebad, saerTo, zogad adgilebad, verafriT SeZleben TavianTi gamorCeuli SesaZleblobebis ganxorcielebas. mTeli maTi aqtivoba daiyvaneba individebze meqanikur zemoqmedebamde, sulgamoclil Zaladobamde. sainteresoa, rom yoveldRiur enaSi amgvar azrebs gabatonebul Sexedulebebs uwodeben. maTi sazogadoebrivi yofis modusi Zalze magonebs mTavrobiseuls: mbrZanebloben, anu batonoben. ai, ra aris sazogadoebrivi azri, romelic, paskalis TqmiT, marTavs samyaros da mainc ar SeiZleba Tanamedrove cnebad miviCnioT. jer kidev qristeSobamde V saukuneSi protagora iyenebs zustad aseT gamoTqmas: dogma poleon (sityvasityviT: qalaquri azrebi) (es faqti imitom momyavs, rom naklebcnobilia); IV saukuneSi mas imeorebs demosTene, romelic Tavis XVIII sityvaSi acxadebs, rom arsebobs samSoblos sazogado xma. amrigad, szogadoebrivi azri imgvaradve gvmarTavs, rogorc _ misalmeba da sxva Cvevebi, rogorc gvmarTavs ena. is, rac WeSmaritad socialuria, rogoricaa _ Cagvra, iZuleba da, Sesabamisad, batonoba, yovelTvis zeindividualuria. amrigad, arsebobs princi puli gansxvaveba, romeliRac jgufsa da sazogadoebriv azrs Soris, anu imas Soris, romelic Camoyalibebulia da momTxovni. mniSvneloba ara aqvs, es jgufi Tavis azrs energiulad da Semtevad gamoxatavs Tu ara. sazogadoebrivi azris gansamtkiceblad saWiro ar aris sxvebis ramdenadme gansakuTrebuli mxardaWera. is ZalauflebiTaa aRWurvili da TviTve batonobs gonebaSi, ganagebs sxva azrebs. sxva damcveli mas ar sWirdeba. kerZo mosazrebebi ki,

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piriqiT, mxolod imdenad arseboben, ramdenadac ama Tu im raodenobis adamianebi uWeren mxars. wignebSi, narkvevebSi da, upirvelesad, aTasgvar anketebSi, romlebsac gansazRvruli institutebi inglisurenovani qveynebis sazogadoebrivi azris Sesaswavlad iyeneben, sazogadoebrivi azri, wesisamebr, adamianTa mcire an msxvili gaerTianebebis SexedulebebSia areuli. iseTi fundamenturi movlena, rogoricaa socialuri moTxovnileba, romelsac vamCnevT ara mxolod azris sferoSi, aramed yovelgvar CveulebaSi da romelic am mizezis gamo uarsebiTesi daxasiaTebaa sazogadoebrivi faqtisa da sazogadoebisa, rogorc faqtebis erTobliobisa, ar daiyvaneba ama Tu im raodenobis adamianTa ubralo mxardaWeramde. Tu sociologias sizuste surs, es naTlad unda warmoadginos. Cveuleba individebis mier misi mxardaWeriT rodi mtkicdeba; piriqiT, es imitomacaa Cveuleba, rom TviTon imorCilebs yvelas. swored amitom, yovelive socialuri is realobaa, romelic didad gansxvavdeba yovelive individualurisagan. roca misalmebas ganvixilavdiT _ Cvevas, magaliTad rom aviReT _ ganvacxade, rom yvela stumrad mowveuli adamiani in pectore (sulSi) xelis CamorTmevis winaaRmdegic rom yofiliyo, es Cveva mainc ibatonebda maTze, vidre aSkarad ar SeTanxmdebodnen TavianT garemoSi mis gauqmebaze. magram vinaidan Cveva yalibdeba ara am mcirericxovani erTobisagan, aramed adamianTa uzarmazari masis mier, ismis kiTxva: nuTu mis gasauqmeblad an piriqiT, romelime Cvevis gansamtkiceblad, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, misi ZlierebisaTvis aseve saWiroa mocemuli sazogadoebis yvela wevris Tanxmoba? ra Tqma unda, ara. Tu asea, sazogadoebis romel nawils ZaluZs Cvevis dadgena? maSin vTqvi, rom Cvevis dadgena ar ganisazRvreba umravlesobis azrTa erTianobiT da xSirad, arcaa amis Sedegi. Cven aq erTgvari optikuri tyuilis msxverpli vxdebiT, romelsac migvaCvia praqtikulad mTeli saukunis ganmavlobaSi gabatonebuli azris moqmedebam. laparakia sxva Tvalsazrisze mobatone saerTo adgilze, maJoritarul sawyisze, romlebisac briyvulad swamdaT Cvens papebsa da peperebs _ maT es idea garduvalad demokratiidan momdinare egonaT. amgvarad, Cvens winaSea problema, romelic TviTve iZleva gansjis sababs, radgan unda ganisazRvros piroba, romlis ZaliTac raRac _ azri Tu sxva romelime Cveva _ socialuri moTxovnilebis specifikur xasiaTs iZens. samwuxarod, iZulebulni varT, am sakiTxis ganxilva gadavdoT. arafriT vamcirebT mis mniSvnelobas, magram mainc unda aRvniSno, rom CvenTvis ufro arsebiTia socialuri

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moTxovnilebis sworad gageba, romelic, udavod, mTeli sociologiis alfa da omegaa. masze dakvirveba Zalze Znelia, radgan yovelTvis Cvengan gasxltomas cdilobs. amitom, uwinares yovlisa, davasaxeleb nebismieri socialuri moTxovnilebis uarsebiTes Taviseburebebs. 1. socialuri moTxovnileba, rogoric unda iyos misi genezisi, warmogvidgeba, rogorc Cveni mowonebisa Tu dawunebisagan raRac damoukidebeli (is Cvens winaSea, iZulebulni varT, angariSi gavuwioT da amitomac gvaiZulebs. iZuleba xom is ubraloa faqtia, roca _ gvinda es Tu ara _ iZulebulni varT, gaviTvaliswinoT). 2. da piriqiT, Cven yovelTvis SegviZlia mivmarToT socialur moTxovnilebas, rogorc Zalauflebis im instancias, romelsac daveyrdnobiT. gamoTqma socialuri moTxovnileba iuridiul terminologias ganekuTvneba, sadac erTmaneTisagan ganirCeva moqmedi da gauqmebuli kanonebi. moqmedi kanonis arsi isaa, rom Tu adamianebs dasWirdaT, avtomaturad amoqmeddeba, rogorc _ Zalauflebis meqanikuri mowyobiloba. miaqcieT yuradReba: ara mxolod gamoTqma socialuri moTxovnileba, aramed misTvis miwerili ori Taviseburebac pirdapir emTxveva imas, rac tradiciulad yovelTvis samarTalsa da saxelmwifo funqciebs eTanadeba. es garemoeba kidev erTxel adasturebs samarTlis filosofosTa saerTo Secdomas _ mosazrebas, rom mxolod samarTals axasiaTebs piradi monawileobis gareSe Cvenze zemoqmedeba. an TiTqos, is koleqtiuri instancia iyos, romelsac mivmarTavT an SegviZlia mivmarToT. sinamdvileSi es Taviseburebebi warmoCnda Cvens mier ganxilul pirvelive CveulebaSi _ arada, sakiTxi exeboda sust Cveulebas _ misalmebis martiv ceremonias. amgvarad, Cven vsaubrobT nebismieri socialuri faqtebis krebiTobaze. sazogadoeba, rogorc CvevaTa erTianoba, erTi mxriv, sakuTar arsebobas gvaxvevs Tavs da meore mxriv, sakuTar Tavs gvTavazobs im instanciad, romelsac SegiZlia mimarTo dacvisa da mxardaWerisaTvis. erTica da meorec, mxardaWeraca da iZulebac, imas gulisxmobs, rom sazogadoeba, arsebiTad, Zalauflebaa, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT _ individis mowinaaRmdege gadaulaxavi Zala. sazogadoebrivi azri anu gabatonebuli Sexeduleba swored am Zalas eyrdnoba da aiZulebs, imoqmedos sruliad gansxvavebuli formebiT, romlebic Seesabameba koleqtiuri arsebobis sxvadasxva doneebs. da es koleqtiuri Zalaa swored samoqalaqo Zalaufleba. miuxedavad amisa, srulad ar gamqrala da zemoqmedebas ganagrZobs ubadruki inteleqtualuri crurwmena, romelic xels uSlis sazogadoebrivi fenomenebis naTlad gagebas. laparakia imaze, rom

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ver varCevT romelime sazogadoebriv funqcias, Tu ar arsebobs misi Semsrulebeli socialuri organo. magaliTad, sul axlaxan, eTnografebi, romlebic im primitiul sazogadoebebs swavlobdnen, romelTac ar gaaCndaT arc sakanondeblo organoebi, arc mosamarTleTa korpusi, arc calkeuli kanonmdeblebi, miiCnevdnen, rom iq samarTali ar arsebobda, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, iq ar SeimCneoda arc iuridiuli, arc saxelmwifoebrivi funqciis arsebobis faqtebi. igive ram xdeba samoqalaqo ZalauflebasTan dakavSirebiT. mas manam ver amCneven, sanam socialuri evoluciis ufro gviandel etapze samoqalaqo Zalaufleba ar SeiZens mbrZaneblebisadmi srulad damorCilebuli mxedarTmTavrebiTa da wesdebiT aRWurvili sagangebo samxedro organizaciis elfers. Tumc, marTali rom vTqvaT, samoqalaqo Zalaufleba mudmivad zemoqmedebs nebismieri sazogadoebis individebze; warmoSobisTanave axdens zegavlenas adamianTa nebismier gaerTianebaze. ase rom, am SemTxvevaSic, misi gavlena udavoa, yuradRebac rom ar mivaqcioT Cvens cxovrebaSi armiisa da policiis Carevis faqtebs. aseT yvelganmyof da maradiul Zalauflebas Cven ver vgrZnobT. am TvalsazrisiT, is SeiZleba SevadaroT atmosferul wnevas an fexqveS _ niadagis simyares, rasac Cveulebriv, ver vamCnevT xolme. samoqalaqo Zalauflebis qmediToba TandaTan aisaxeba Cvens qcevaze, radgan es ukanaskneli TviTonve regulirdeba swored samoqalaqo Zalauflebis mier. Tanac ise, rom sakmarisia, Cveni nebiT, daudevrobisa Tu SemTxveviTobis wyalobiT, gavcdeT Semofarglul sivrces, rom maSinve Tavs dagvatydes garSemomyofTa mZvinvare protesti. maT is aRaSfoTebT, rom Cveulebas ar vicavT. pirvelyofil adamianebs, ra Tqma unda, ar hyavT policia, romelic maT unda akvirdebodes, Tvalyuri adevnos. nuTu es imas niSnavs, rom sazogadoeba Tavis funqciebs ar asrulebs? swored piriqiT _ es funqciebi zedmiwevniT zustad sruldeba da bevrad ufro mkacradac, vidre amas policia SeZlebda. erT Tavis wignSi melaneziis binadarTa gaqroba (The depopulation of Melanesia) sfeiseri aRniSnavs, rom kunZulTa jguf axal hebridebze yvela mamakaci dRes erTad atarebs, qalebisagan gancalkevebiT. saxlis erTi nawili qalebs uWiravT, meore _ kacebs. Tu kacebi TavianT adgilas ar imyofebian, yovelTvis SesamCnevia da, Sesabamisad, rogorRac Tavi unda imarTlon, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT qalTa Soris maT yofnaze. ucnobia, ratom moixsenieben zne-Cveulebebs yovelTvis keTilad. adamianTa sazogadoeba dauRalavad akvirdeba _ ise, rom adamians azrsac ar ekiTxeba _ Tavisi wevrebis piradi cxovrebis yvela

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xose ortega i gaseti

gaelvebas. aseT dros ra saWiroa policia? roca evropelebis mosvlasTan ertad melaneziis kunZulebze pirvelyofili sazogadoebebi daiSala da mamakacebs industriasa Tu soflis meurneobaSi muSaoba SesTavazes, koleqtiuri erTobis stiqiuri meTvalyureoba policiiT Canacvlda. da ra miviReT? kunZulis zemoT aRwerili zne-Cveulebani maSinve dagonjda. sxva magaliTebis moyvanac SemeZlo, magram mgoni, erTic sakmarisia, rom naTlad warmovidginoT is funqciebi, romelTac ganuxrelad da uCumrad asrulebda nebismieri sazogadoeba. amrigad, samoqalaqo Zalufleba sxva araferia, Tu ara sazogadoebrvi azris energiuli emanacia, romelSic moiazreba da romelsac efuZneba yvela sxva Cveva Tu moTxovnileba. iZulebis forma da xarisxi, romlebiTac sazogadoebrivi Zalaufleba moqmedebs, damokidebulia imaze, ra mniSvnelobas aniWebs sazogadoebrivi azri CvevaTa rRvevas. Tanamedrove afrikel xalxebSi, romlebic bantus enaze laparakoben, cneba danaSaulis gamomxatveli sityva iTargmneba, rogorc yovelive is, rac toms sZags. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, yovelive is, rac sazogadoebriv azrs ewinaaRmdegeba. magram Tu es mtkiceba sworia, maSin sawinaaRmdego mosazrebac swori yofila. kerZod: nebismieri samoqalaqo Zalaufleba yovelTvis efuZneba Sexedulebas, romelic marTla sazogadoa, anu yvelasaTvis saerToa da zemoqmedebis uzarmazari Zala aqvs. Tu es ar SeimCneva, Tu sazogadoebrivi azris nacvlad mxolod kerZo da jgufur Sexedulebebs vawydebiT, romlebic, wesisamebr, urTierTsawinaaRmdego TvalsazrisTa or konglomerats qmnis, sazogadoeba ixliCeba, iSleba, samoqalaqo Zalaufleba arss kargavs da partiebad nawevrdeba. dgeba revoluciebisa da samoqalaqo omebis Jami. TvalsazrisTa aseTi gansxvavebuloba im faqtis ukiduresi gamoxatulebaa, romelic nebismier sazogadoebaSi SeimCneva da am ukanasknelis ganuyreli niSan-Tvisebaa; vgulisxmob zogi individis _ saxeldobr, qurdebis, gamcemebis, moZaladeebis, uwesrigobaTa momwyobebis _ antisocialur xasiaTs; roca amas SevignebT, imasac garduvalad mivxvdebiT, rom adamianTa Tanarsebobis sazogadoebad monaTlva niSnavs evfemizmis gamoyenebas. e.w. sazogadoeba arasodes Seesabameba imas, rasac saxelmwifo gvpirdeba. asea Tu ise, sazogadoeba, imave dros, gaTiSuloba da mtrobacaa. da vinaidan es warmonaqmni mainc acxadebs pretenzias sawinaaRmdego Tvisebebze, sruli pasuxismgeblobiT unda ganvacxadoT, rom sazogadoeba, arsebiTad, sneuli, nakluli realobaa; is marTlac mudmivi, uwyveti brZolaa qcevis im sawyisebisa da ti pebisa, romelTac gamaerTianebeli,

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socialuri xasiaTi aqvT da im Tvisebebs Soris, romlebic gaTiSulobisa da antisocialurobis tendenciebs avlenen. da am samyaros simSvidis minimumi rom gavunaRdoT, romlis wyalobiTac sazogadoeba, rogorc aseTi, sakuTar myofobas inarCunebs, absoluturad aucilebelia sazogadoebis Sinagani samoqalaqo Zalauflebis Zaladobis formiT gamoyeneba. dabolos, rodesac sazogadoeba viTardeba da Zlevs sakuTar primitivizms, iZulebulia Svas sagangebo warmonaqmni, romlis mTavari movaleobaa, uzrunvelhyos am Zalis gamoyeneba yvelaze aucilebeli formiT. swored am warmonaqmns veZaxiT saxelmwifos. Targmna gia joxaZem mTargmnelis SeniSvnebi: eduard meieri (1855-1930) _ germaneli istorikosi, siZveleTmcodne; uaRresad rTul da mravalsaxa arqeologiur, epigrafikul, literaturul, numizmatikur da sxva wyaroebze dayrdnobiT Seiswavla Zveli aRmosavleTi, saberZneTi da romi. misi yvelaze cnobili naSromia xuTtomeuli uZvelesi drois istoria. meieri iyenebda modernizmis ciklurobis Teorias. bedrJih hrozni (1879-1952) _ Cexi xeTologi, Zveli aRmosavleTis xalxTa da enaTa mkvlevari; Seiswavla Sumeruli miTologia, Zveli babilonis kultura da ekonomika, Sumeruli da aqaduri enis lursmuli Zeglebi. xeTur enaSi indoevropuli xasiaTi SeamCnia. Targmna da gamoaqveyna xeTuri teqstebi. karlo alberto bernulisa da flora krausis moRvaweobis damadasturebel cnobebs ver mivakvlieT. feliqs sfeiseri (1880-1949) _ amerikeli eTnologi. Jozef vandriesi (1875_1960) _ frangi lingvisti, keltologi da indoevropeisti. antuan meie (1866_1936) _ frangi lingvisti. aRsaniSnavia misi naSromebi SedarebiT-istoriul enaTmecnierebaSi, indoevropeistikaSi, slavistikaSi, laTinur da berZnul enebSi, iranistikaSi, armenistikaSi. karl riter fon friSi (1886_1982) _ avstrieli eTologi, nobelis premiis laureati (1973w.). nikolai trubeckoi (1890_1938) _ rusi lingvisti, eTnologi, kulturologi. leopold sTeini _ amerikeli fsiqoanalitikosi.

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leo kvaWaZe 100 wlisaa!

`gariJraJidan dabindebamde~

_ batono leo, maqvs pativi, saukunis mecniers mivmarTo da gkiTxoT, rogoria samyaro Tqveni gadasaxedidan? fsiqologiurad Tu icvleba rame, Tu guli arasodes berdeba? M _ adamianis TvalTaxedva asakTan erTad icvleba. sibere sikvdil-sicocxlis gayris maaxloebeli macnea. Tu ra tkiviliania moxucebuloba, amis naTelsayofad davimowmeb Cvens did winaparTa gamonaTqvamebs: `me gardasrulvar, sibere mWirs, WirTa ufro Znelia~(SoTa), `sibere yvela Wirze ufro Zneli Wiria~(ilia), `am WirisWirma siberem SeWama guli, tvinia, ar mosdevs Rone, arc muxli, rom miT movikla Jinia~(vaJa). davsZen, rom moxucebuloba erTpirovnuli sasamarTlocaa, sadac bralmdebeli, braldebuli, damcveli da mosamarTle erTi da igive pirovnebaa. _ gaixseneT Tqveni bavSvoba, siWabuke, Tqveni pirveli nabijebi mecnierebaSi... rodis da rogor daiwyo es yvelaferi?
_ Tu rodis da rogor daiwyo Cemi pirveli nabijebi mecnierebaSi, rTuli Temaa, radganac igi dakavSirebulia im gulSemzarav faqtebTan, romlebic saqarTveloSi XX saukunis I naxevarSi moxda. Cemi bavSvobis sami weli damoukidebel da Tavisufal saqarTveloSi gavatare. 1921 wels saqarTvelos didi ubedureba

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daatyda Tavs. `TeTri daTvis~ me-11 armiam `sasaxelo~ qarTvelTa TanagrZnobiTa da gverdSi dgomiT dai pyro saqarTvelo. saqarTvelos `saamayo~ Svilma sergo orjonikiZem moskovs acnoba, rom `Tbilisze frialebs sabWoTa xelisuflebis wiTeli droSa~. wuxdnen ufrosebi da vwuxdiT Cvenc, bavSvebi. 1923 wels obolaZem guriaSi sisxlis tba daayena da zogisac saxlic daawvevina Tavis razmelebs. Ggogia Rlontma mokla obolaZe da xelisuflebam sapasuxod 91 patrioti patimari daxvrita, maT Soris, erT-erTi skolis gamge Tu maswavlebeli, gvarad TargamaZe. Amas mohyva 1924 wlis ajanyebis damarcxeba da xelisuflebis mier ajanyebulTa xocva_Jleta, Sorapnis sadgurSi vagonebSi gamoketil patriotTa daxvreta. gvesmoda, ilias disSvili, vaJas, kita abaSiZis Svilebi daxvriteso. mezoblebma sTxoves orjonikiZes, vaJas Svils nu gaswiravT dasaxvretado. Ppasuxi iyo gulSemzaravi: vaJas Svili ki ara, TviTon vaJa rom iyos, imasac davxvretTo. ai, aseTi saSineli ambebi gvesmoda cxrawledis moswavleebs, ramac mtrulad da siZulviliT gangvawyo moswavleTa umravlesoba xelisuflebis mimarT. Ddasaxelebul faqtebs Soris piradad CemTvis mniSvneloba hqonda Semdegs: mamaCems Tofi ar sWeria xelSi, magram ajanyebulTa TanamgrZnobi iyo, moxsnes maswavleblobidan. zemo svaneTSi wavida da iq ganagrZo pedagogiuri moRvaweoba. cxrawledis me-8 klasis moswavle viyavi, 1925 wlis gazafxulze skolis ezoSi ori ufrosklaseli movida CemTan, SemomTavazes, rom axalgazrda marqsistTa aralegaluri organizaciis wevri gavmxdariyavi. daveTanxme... Cekam gaigo am organizaciis arseboba, zafxulSi ramdenime vaJi mowafe dagvapatimres, wagviyvanes ozurgeTSi (lanCxuTi da Coxatauri ozurgeTis mazraSi Sedioda), dagvacalkeves da Cekas kamerebSi Cagvsves... ar davukiTxivar. 33 dRe vijeqi ozurgeTis CekaSi da gamaTavisufles. Cemi lanCxuTSi darCena aRar SeiZleboda. Zmam wamomiyvana TbilisSi, Caviricxe Tbilisis me-2 cxrawledis me-9 klasSi. 1926_30 wlebSi vswavlobdi universitetSi, 1928 wels daapatimres Cemi Zma da 6 wliT gadaasaxles cimbirSi. sti pendias maSin swavlis mixedviT ar uniSnavdnen studentebs, moTxrobili Tavgadasavlisa da Zmis represirebis gamo CemTvis stipendiis daniSvna da aspiranturaSi Caricxva gamoiricxa, miuxedavad imisa, rom kargad vswavlobdi. TbilisSi fexi ver movikide. sadac mivedi, yvelgan uariT gamomistumres da raionSi wasvlas mirCevdnen. asec moxda, wavedi zemo svaneTSi. erT weliwads mSobliuri soflis _ laxamu-

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lis arasruli saSualo skolis direqtori viyavi, sam saswavlo wels _ mestiis pedagogiuri saswavleblis gamge. vaswavlidi ramdenime sagans. 1936 wels ganaTlebis saministrom (maSin komisariatma) daakmayofila Cemi Txovna da gamaTavisufla pedsaswavleblis saswavlo nawilis gamgis Tanamdebobidan da damniSna qarTuli enisa da literaturis maswavleblad Tbilisis 55-e saSualo skolaSi. imedi momeca, rom aspiranturaSi Caviricxebodi, magram Cvens ojaxs ubedureba daatyda Tavs (1937 wels Zma isev daapatimres) da imedi gamicruvda. 1959 wels daibeWda akaki SaniZis `qarTuli enis gramatika~. 1944 wels Tbilisis pirveli saSualo skolis SenobaSi Catarda qarTuli enis saxelmZRvaneloebis garCeva. Ddasaxelebul gramatikaze moxsenebis dawera me damevala. moxsenebam kargi STabeWdileba datova da ganaTlebis saministrom SemomTavaza, qarTuli enisa da literaturis saxelmZRvaneloebis kontrolior_redaqtorad memuSava saxelmwifo gamomcemlobaSi skolaSi gakveTilebis datovebiT. davTanxmdi, kargi samuSao iyo da raRac imedi momeca, rom umaRlesi saswavleblis aspiranti gavxdebodi. es imedic gamicruvda da ratom: erT kvira dRes Sin vkiTxulob romeliRac saxelmZRvanelos da viRacam dareka, gavaRe kari, idga erTi saxelgatexili filologi. oTaxSi rom SevediT, Tvalebs aqeT-iqiT acecebda, raRac wigni mTxova da wavida. gamikvirda da ver amexsna, risTvis movida CemTan. biZamiss Cemze meti wigni aqvs da ratom imasTan ar mivida, Tu marTla wigni undoda meTqi. marTlac, gavida ori kvira da diliT Tavs damadga sami kaci, erTi axalgazrda Cekisti da ori _ xanSiSesuli. Ddajeqio, _ mibrZana Cekistma, wignebs dauwyo burjgna. Oori wigni aiRo da waiRo. wamiyvanes im avadsaxsenebel organoSi, sadac `usazRvro pativiscemiT~ gamimaspinZldnen da mxolod 5 dRis Semdeg gamaTavisufles. im xanebSi Tbilisis universitetSi adgili gaCnda aspiranturaSi qarTuli enis specialobiT. movikribe Zala da Sevitane gancxadeba. konkurenti aravin iyo. qarTul enaSi gamomcades akaki SaniZem da varlam Tofuriam. Bbatonma akakim miTxra, somxuri ena unda iswavloo. es naTqvami CemTvis sabediswero gaxda. ori Tu sami dRis Semdeg universitetis derefanSi reqtoris kabinetis maxloblad mxvdeba somxuri enis specialisti, romlis mimarT pativiscemiT viyavi ganmsWvaluli. mkiTxa, rogoraa saqmeo. vupasuxe: gamocdebi yvela sagamocdo saganSi Cavabare da ukve aspiranti var-meTqi. Aar moulocavs.

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saubrisas isic vuTxari, rac batonma akakim miTxra (somxuri unda iswavloo!). mereda, visTan unda iswavloo? Tqvenze ukeTesi vin aris-meTqi? Ees rom vuTxari, saSinlad gabrazda da Tqva: `axlave Seval proreqtorTan(reqtori ar iyo TbilisSi)~, batono, ar damRupoT, ar damRupoT-meTqi... magram ar mismina da Sevida proreqtorTan (xaWapuriZesTan). gavida ramdenime dRe da meubnebian, aspiranturaSi ara xar Caricxulio. ra unda meqna? Carxi ukuRma datrialda da misi waRma gadmomtrialebeli veravin aRmoCnda. Semdeg daiwyo II msoflio omi. 1942 wlis SeTqmulTa Soris iyo erTi Cemi uaxloesi megobari, ZmasaviT sayvareli zurab misabiSvili. erT-erT SeTqmuls, romelTanac Cemi urTierToba salams ar gascilebia, gamomZiebel marqarovisaTvis miucia Cveneba, rom leo kvaWaZe zurabma Caaba SeTqmulebaSio da damapatimres. 1942 wlis seqtemberSi amierkavkasiis samxedro tribunalma gagvasamarTla 33 braldebuli. samxedro tribunalma 17 braldebuls (maT Soris, Cems megobars) daxvreta miusaja. patimrobidan ganTavisuflebis Semdeg daviniSne Tbilisis me-8 saSualo skolis qarTuli enisa da literaturis maswavleblad. 1944_47 saswavlo wlebSi viyavi Tbilisis qalTa me-7 saSualo skolis saswavlo nawilis gamge, Tan vaswavlidi qarTul enasa da literaturas. 1945 wels Caviricxe pedagogiur mecnierebaTa institutSi aspirantad qarTuli enis swavlebis meTodikis specialobiT. 1948 wels davamTavre aspirantura da 1949 wels davicavi sakandidato disertacia Temaze: `rTuli winadadebis swavlebis Tanamimdevroba~ da momeniWa pedagogikur mecnierebaTa kandidatis samecniero wodeba. aqve davsZen imasac, rom amave periodSi iwyeba Cemi pedagogiuri moRvaweoba umaRles saswavlebelSi.

_ rogor SeafasebdiT mecnierebis dRevandel mdgomareobas, ras TvliT, ra unda gakeTdes da rogor, rom qarTuli gramatikuli azrovneba CixSi ar Sevides... rogorc sintaqsis aRiarebul mkvlevars, rogor warmogidgeniaT am dargis Tanamedrove problematika da ganviTareba?
_ mecnierebis Tanamedrove mdgomareoba rom saTanadod Sefasdes, amisTvis saWiroa detalurad vicnobde yvela Sromas, romlebic bolo wlebSi gamoica. rac CvenTvis aris cnobili, imis mixedviT

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SeiZleba iTqvas, rom damakmayofilebelia, oRond erTi mokrZalebuli SeniSvna mainc gvaqvs: kargi iqneba sakiTxebis ganxilva maRalfardovani eniT ar damZimdes da ucxourTan mimarTebaSi zomiereba davicvaT. rac Seexeba sintaqsis sakiTxebs, sasurvelad mimaCnia, saTanado doneze warimarTos teqstis sintaqsis sakiTxebis Seswavla, rac ramdenadme gaTvaliswinebulia Cveni sintaqsis bolo gamocemaSi, romelic male ixilavs dRis sinaTles.

_ vici, rom amJamadac ganuwyvetliv muSaobT sintaqsis sakiTxebze, kerZod, romelia es sakiTxebi?
_ saqarTveloSi predikatul gansazRvrebaze saubari Cveni gamokvleviT daiwyo. TandaTan gamoikveTa da dazustda misi Tavisebureba qarTul enaSi. Ddadginda, rom igi winadadebis damoukidebeli wevria, romelic Semasmenlis mewyvilea da brunvasa da ricxvSi eTanxmeba pirmimarT wevrs. Tu Semasmeneli erTpiriani zmniT aris gadmocemuli, saxelobiTSi dgas da eTanxmeba qvemdebares brunvasa da ricxvSi, orpiriani gardauvali zmniT gadmocemul SemasmenelTan _ saxelobiTSi an micemiTSi; orpiriani gardamavali zmniT gadmocemul SemasmenelTan _ pirveli sami brunvidan erTerTSi. gamoyenebis sixSiriTa da sizustiT sxvadasxvaoba SeiniSneba axali da Zveli qarTuli enis mixedviT, es sakiTxi ganxiluli gvaqvs Cvens SromebSi. zogma SemTxvevam interesi aRZra, gamogverkvia, Tu rogori viTarebaa am mxriv saSual qarTulSi. amas mieZRvna Semdegi gamokvlevebi: predikatuli gansazRvreba `vefxistyaosanSi~; predikatuli gansazRvreba `visramianSi~; predikatuli gansazRvreba `amirandarejanianSi~. garda dasaxelebulisa, daiwera vrceli gamokvleva Semdegi saxelwodebiT: predikatuli gansazRvrebis Seswavlis istoriidan. vfiqrobT am naSromebis gamoqveynebas. amJamad vmuSaob avtobiografiul wignze `gariJraJidan dabindebamde~. erT TveSi albaT davamTavreb.

_ Tqven brZandebiT agreTve gamorCeuli pedagogi, romelic yovelTvis fiqrobs im gzebsa da meTodebze, romelTa meSveobiT codna myarad miva msmenelamde... iqmneba uamravi axali saxelmZRvanelo, maT Soris, qarTul enaSic... rogor fiqrobT, aris princi pulad axali midgoma gramatikis swavlebisas, Tu ubralod, interpretaciebia da sxva araferi, Tu gamoarCevdiT romelime saxelmZRvanelos am mxriv...

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_ iyo dro, roca vfiqrobdi im gzebsa da meTodebze, romelTa meSveobiT codnas advilad daeuflebodnen axalgazrdebi. SeZlebisadagvarad ganvaxorciele kidec saSualo skolis V_IX klasebis qarTuli enis saxelmZRvaneloebSi, romlebic 1964 wlidan gamodis (drodadro mniSvnelovani cvlilebebiT). rac Seexeba sxvaTa saxelmZRvaneloebs, maTgan zogierTs vicnob da zogadad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom isini ufro samuSao wignebia, vidre saxelmZRvaneloebi.

_ batono leo, amas winaT, kerZo saubarSi gaixseneT, rom axlac guli gtkivaT imis gamo, 6 wlis asakSi kaklis xes rom qva esroleT kaklis Camosagdebad da iqidan ki mkvdari Citi Camovarda... vici, rom Tqvens cxovrebaSi bevri mZime da emociuri wuTi iyo... axla kidev ras gaixsenebdiT? minda, rom sasiamovno wuTebic gaixsenoT...
_ Cemi bavSvobis periodidan bevri ram maxsovs, rac aravisTvis ar miTqvams, drodadro wamoyofs xolme Tavs da ar maviwydeba, mravalTagan gagimxelT or SemTxvevas: oTxi Tu xuTi wlisa viyavi. erT saRamos, dabindebisas, raRac SemTxvevis gamo naRvliani Sevedi oTaxSi... marto var... mivujeqi Tunuqis Rumels da yofna_aryofnis sakiTxma SemaSfoTa. var da aRar viqnebi! sikvdil_sicocxlis problemam amatira. cremlma loyebi damisvela, minda davwynarde, magram rogor? Tavi odnav imiT davimSvide, rom es satkivari marto me ar mexeboda da mas, sxvebsaviT, mec unda Sevurigde-meTqi. sofelSi WaRara moxucebi iyvnen, sanam maTsaviT gavxdebi, didi dro gava-meTqi. avdeqi, logins mivaSure, davweqi da daviZine. erTi Savi cxeni gvyavda _ dabali, Casuqebuli. Svidi Tu rva wlisam hamaSSi (adgilis saxelia sofel laxamulaSi) fafarSi xelCakidebulma, gavaWene. cxeni moulodnelad gaCerda da me zRarTani gavadine, cotaTi daviJeJe, magram tkeniT araferi mtkenia. cxens ki im adgilidan fexi ar moucvlia. mivedi, Sevajeqi da Sin mSvidobiT mimiyvana. maxsovs, Zalian gamikvirda, ratom ar daiZra, roca Camomagdo. sasixarulo da sasiamovno bevri ganmicdia bavSvobisas da Semdegac. me tkbilad vigoneb mowafeobis xanas, universitetSi

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gamocdebis warmatebiT Cabarebas. baton ivane javaxiSvils, universitetidan rom gaaZeves, gamocda Sin, Tavis samuSao magidasTan Cavabare. dResac vgrZnob im siTbosa da siamovnebas, rac maSin ganvicade. Semdeg iyo daojaxeba, Svilebis SeZeniT gamowveuli sixaruli... damsaxurebuli maswavleblisa da mecnieris damsaxurebuli moRvawis wodebaTa moniWeba, saxelmwifo premiis miReba da sxva.

_ batono leo, ra aris Tqveni yvelaze didi saTqmeli, romelsac gagvimxeldiT axla?
_ yvelaze didi saTqmeli, satkivari amJamad saqarTvelos bed_iRbalia. Cveni eris istoria sisxliTa da cremliT iwereboda. samwuxarod, axlac ase iwereba. Eeri gadaurCa katastrofis momaswavebel qartexilebs, SeinarCuna TavisTavadoba, erovnuli suli da mdidari kulturuli memkvidreoba. DdRevandeli mdgomareoba ki SemaSfoTebelia... ZmaTa Soris mtroba da Suri, ciliswameba, skamebisTvis brZola da bilwsityvaobaa. ganukiTxaoba mZlavrobs. yovelive es Rirseul mamuliSvilTa satkivaria. naTqvamia, kaci imediT cxovrobso, vimedovneb, rom Cveni niWieri eri yvelafers gaisigrZeganebs, goniereba gaimarjvebs, daWrili erovnuli suli ganikurneba.

_ didi madloba, batono leo, saintereso da gulisxmieri saubrisaTvis, bavSvobis saidumlos gamxelisaTvis, imisTvis, rom arsebobT amqveyanaze da Tqveni samuSao oTaxidan isev sikeTis da siyvarulis msaxurad rCebiT... imisTvis, rom Tqven Tqveni cxovrebiT, SromiTa da moRvaweobiT namdvili nimuSi da magaliTi brZandebiT garSemomyofTaTvis, kolegebisTvis, axalgazrdebisTvis... Jurnal `semiotikis~ saredaqcio kolegia kidev erTxel gilocavT saukunovan iubiles da simbolurad aRiqvams TqvenTan Sexvedras da intervius, saukunis mecnierTan gasaubrebis pativs. E esaubra cira barbaqaZe

leo kvaWaZe 100 wlisaa!

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milocvebi

Rvawlmosili mecnieri
qarTuli enis did moamages, TvalsaCino mecniersa da sazogado moRvawes, profesor levan (leo) kvaWaZes 100 weli Seusrulda. Tavisi samecniero, pedagogiuri da sazogadoebrivi saqmianobiT man Rirseulad ganagrZo da dResac agrZelebs saxelovani maswavleblebis _ akaki SaniZis, giorgi axvledianis, varlam Tofurias da sxvaTa gzas. 60 welze metia, rac batoni levani intensiur samecniero muSaobas eweva. nayofic am muSaobisa metad STambeWdavia _ ramdenime monografia da asze meti sxva gamokvleva qarTuli enaTmecnierebis saganZurSi. qarTuli enis gramatikuli struqtura prof. l. kvaWaZis kvlevaZiebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebaa. gansakuTrebulia misi Rvawli Tanamedrove qarTuli enis sintaqsis Seswavlis saqmeSi. yvela is ZiriTadi sakiTxi, rac sintaqsTan dakavSirebiT daismis, mecnieris gamowvlilviTi da safuZvliani analizis sagania: iqneba es martivi Tu rTuli winadadebis agebuleba, winadadebis tipebi Tu winadadebis wevrebi... amasTan, saTanado yuradReba eTmoba sintaqsis swavlebis sakiTxebs. sintaqsis sferoSi Catarebuli kvlevis Sedegebi Sejamebulia prof. l. kvaWaZis cnobil monografiaSi `Tanamedrove qarTuli enis sintaqsi~, risTvisac avtors damsaxurebulad mieniWa saqarTvelos saxelmwifo premia. aqve unda aRiniSnos umaRlesi saswavleblebisaTvis gankuTvnili saxelmZRvanelo `qarTuli ena~, romlis ramdenime gamocemam samecniero sazogadoebis maRali Sefaseba daimsaxura. sruliad gansakuTrebulia prof. l. kvaWaZis roli qarTuli enis gramatikis saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebis Seqmnis saqmeSi. mis mier akad. a. SaniZesTan da prof. i. imnaiSvilTan erTad Seqmnili saxelmZRvaneloebi wlebis ganmavlobaSi aZlevda moswavleebs qarTuli enis agebulebis safuZvlian codnas. prof. l. kvaWaZe qarTuli saSualo da umaRlesi skolis gamorCeuli pedagogia. igi mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi moRvaweobda saSualo skolaSi, rogorc qarTuli enisa da literaturis saukeTeso maswavlebeli, xolo Semdeg, 60 wlis ganmavlobaSi, rogorc qarTuli

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umaRlesi skolis gamorCeuli leqtori. baton levans savsebiT samarTlianad aqvs mopovebuli moswavleebis, studentebisa da kolegebis gulwrfeli pativiscema da siyvaruli. prof. l. kvaWaZes friad nayofieri saqmianobisaTvis miniWebuli aqvs saqarTvelos mecnierebis damsaxurebuli moRvawisa da respublikis damsaxurebuli maswavleblis wodeba. dasafasebelia prof. l. kvaWaZis marTali da mtkice moqalaqeobrivi pozicia, romelsac is avlens cxovrebis yovel etapze. vusurvebT baton levans kidev mravali wlis sicocxles, mxneobasa da nayofier cxovrebas. arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instituti ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis profesorebi ivane javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitaruli fakultetis profesorebi

batono leo! mTeli suliTa da guliT gilocavT am uaRresad mniSvnelovan saiubileo TariRs _ dabadebis 100 wlisTavs. Tqven brZandebiT amJamad qarTuli enaTmecnierebis nestori; Cven yvelas gveamayeba, rom qarTvel mecnierTa Soris mtkice burjad dgaxarT cocxali mematiane qarTuli lingvisturi skolisa, qarTuli enis gramatikis cnobili mkvlevari, romelic warmatebiT uTavsebT erTmaneTs nayofier samecniero da aqtiur pedagogiur moRvaweobas. minda didi madloba mogaxsenoT Tqveni RvawlisaTvis qarTuli mecnierebisa da qarTveli eris winaSe. mowiwebiT gixriT Tavs da saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis saxeliT kidev erTxel mogilocavT saukunovan saiubileo TariRs, gisurvebT simxneves, janmrTelobasa da kidev didxans, didxans sicocxles! Tamaz gamyreliZe

saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis prezidenti, akademikosi

leo kvaWaZe 100 wlisaa!

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batono leo! g. wereTlis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis mTeli koleqtivi, gansakuTrebiT ki aRmosavlur enaTa ti pologiis ganyofileba, didi sixaruliT gilocavT saukunovan saiubileo TariRs! Tqven bevri Cvenganis maswavlebeli da ufrosi kolega brZandebiT. ganuzomelia Tqveni Rvawli qarTuli gramatikuli azris Camoyalibebisa da ganviTarebis saqmeSi. TqvenTan yoveli Sexvedra, Tqveni yoveli sityva Tu SeniSvna dauviwyari da sasargebloa TiToeuli CvenganisaTvis. mTeli guliT gvixaria, rom dRevandeli molocvis SesaZlebloba gvaqvs da vimedovnebT, rom kidev araerTxel mogilocavT saiubileo TariRebs. didi siyvaruliTa da uRrmesi pativiscemiT, institutis TanamSromelTa saxeliT, giorgi sanikiZe g.wereTlis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis direqtori, istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori eTer soselia aRmosavlur enaTa ti pologiis ganyofilebis gamge, filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori

batono leo! Cemo Zvirfaso da sayvarelo, gamorCeulo! var amayi, rogorc kolega, var amayi, rogorc Tanamemamule, var amayi, rogorc erTi axlobelTagani, amayi da bednieri var imiT, rom 100 weli SegisruldaT. gmadlobT imisTvis, rom yovelTvis giyvardaT adamiani. RmerTi gfaravdeT! Mmarad Tqveni guCa kvaracxelia

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Zvirfaso batono leo! rogor mogilocoT Tqveni, kavkasielisTvisac ki uCveulo, dabadebis dRe, romliTac Tqvens Zvel TanamoRvawes, akaki SaniZes, warmatebiT baZavT? radgan Sesabamisi Tamadiseuli sityva ar vici, ubralod getyviT, rom Cven, enaTmecnierebs, Zalze gvixaria, Cven Soris rom brZandebiT da amdeni wlis ganmavlobaSi amSvenierebT Cvens mecnierebas. Ppiradad me ki gansakuTrebuli madlobis mizezi maqvs, vinaidan mec im Tavisebur samyaroSi vmuSaob, romelSic Tqven mefobT. rodesac sintaqsuri sakiTxi mainteresebs, Tqveni saxelmZRvanelo yovelTvis pirveli wyaroa, saidanac solidur informacias vRebulob, da kiTxva: qarTuli tradicia ras ambobs? upirveles yovlisa TqvenTan momiyvans. batono leo, suliTa da guliT gisurvebT yovelive kargs, kidev idRegrZeleT da ixareT da icodeT, rom am dResaswaulSi germaneli qarTvelologi TqvenTanaa Tavisi fiqrebiT. Tqveni vinfrid boederi

Zvirfaso batono leo! mogesalmebiT gamoCenil mecniers, pedagogs, sazogado moRvawes, gilocavT didebul saiubileo TariRs da gisurvebT janmrTelobas, dRegrZelobas, bednierebas, did warmatebebs pirad cxovrebaSi, samecniero_pedagogiur moRvaweobaSi. Kkvlavac didxans Rirseulad, energiulad, mxned da SemarTebiT gekeTebinoT WeSmaritad didi mamuliSviluri saqme, ramac sayovelTao siyvaruli, pativiscema da aRiareba mogitanaT saSualo da umaRlesi saswavleblebis pedagogTa, moswavleTa da studentTa Soris. Tqveni umcrosi kolegebisaTvis, romlebsac aqvT pativi da bedniereba, TqvenTan erTad emsaxuron qarTul enas, saqarTvelos awmyosa da momavals, Tqven SesaniSnavi magaliTi da orientiri brZandebiT: fizikuri da sulieri aqtivobis xangrZlivobiTa da intensivobiT optimizmsa da xaliss unergavT maT. RmerTma Zalian didxans gamyofoT aseT orientirad! miiReT Cemi gulwrfeli siyvaruli da saukeTeso survilebi!

Tqveni guram kartozia

leo kvaWaZe 100 wlisaa!

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Zvirfaso batono leo! Tqveni wignebiT ganiswavlebian qarTvelTa Taobebi saSualo da umaRles saswavleblebSi, Tqven SeqmeniT samagido wignebi qarTuli enis momxmarebelTaTvis Sin da gareT. batono leo, Rvawlmosilo da madlmosilo mamuliSvilo, gilocavT didebul iubiles, gisurvebT xangrZliv sicocxlesa da kvlavac mraval warmatebas mecnierebaSi. Tqveni Tedo uTurgaiZe kidev didxans sicocxles vusurveb friad iSviaTi SemTxvevaa, roca TvalsaCino moRvawe, mwerali Tu mecnieri Tavisi dabadebis asi wlis TariRs mxned egebeba da piradad iRebs milocvebs kolegebisa da mowafeebisagan. swored aseT iSviaT SemTxvevasTan gvaqvs saqme amJamad, roca SesaZlebloba gveZleva piradad mivulocoT dabadebis asi wlisTavi Cvens maswavlebels da ufros kolegas, mecnierebis damsaxurebul moRvawes, ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis profesors, leo kvaWaZes. zemo svaneTis maRalmTian sofelSi dabadebulma axalgazrdam umaRlesi ganaTleba Cvens deda-universitetSi miiRo, ris Semdegac kargaxans pedagogiur asparezze moRvaweobda Tavis mSobliur mxareSi. Semdeg profesor varlam Tofurias xelmZRvanelobiT gaiara aspiranturis kursi qarTuli enis meTodikis specialobiT, daicva sakandidato da sadoqtoro disertaciebi da im droidan dRemde, rogorc ityvian, muxlCauxrelad emsaxureba qarTuli enis mecnieruli kvlevisa da swavlebis saqmes. gansakuTrebiT didia leo kvaWaZis damsaxureba qarTuli sintaqsis kvlevis saqmeSi. Mmisi wigni `Tanamedrove qarTuli enis sintaqsi~, romelic ramdenjerme gamoica, marTlac samagido wignia rogorc qarTuli enis SemswavlelTaTvis, ise mkvlevarTaTvis. Aam wignisaTvis avtorma savsebiT damsaxurebulad miiRo saqarTvelos saxelmwifo premia. meTodikuri xasiaTis naSromebidan gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania monografia `qarTuli winadadebis swavlebis meTodika~ (1950w.).

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aqve aRsaniSnavia isic, rom qarTuli enis gramatika saSualo skolis V_IX klasebSi didi xnis ganmavlobaSi iswavleboda akaki SaniZisa da leo kvaWaZis mier Sedgenili saxelmZRvaneloebiT. sagangebod aRsaniSnavia leo kvaWaZis pirovnuli Rirsebebi _ misi patriotuli SemarTeba da princi puloba. Tavisi princi pebisaTvis mas arc mZime politikuri represiebis dros uRalatia da arc bolo wlebSi, roca damoukideblobisaTvis mebrZol Cvens qveyanas zedized araerTi gansacdeli daatyda Tavs. Mmagondeba misi gamosvlebi televiziiT zviad gamsaxurdias dasacavad (ramdenime sxva enaTmecnierTan erTad). bednierebaa, roca Cven gverdiT cxovroben da kacurkacobis magaliTs gviCveneben iseTi adamianebi, rogoric leo kvaWaZea. maT rac SeiZleba didxans unda icocxlon! zurab WumburiZe

batono leo, Tqven mravalmxriv unikaluri movlena brZandebiT qarTul kulturaSi. Aamis dasturad, Tundac momarTvis es forma ikmarebs, romelic aerTianebs oficialur-Tavaziani mimarTvis batono_s Tqveni saxelis levanis saalerso-kninobiT formasTan leo, rac nebismier sxva SemTxvevaSi funqciuri stilistikis uxeS darRvevad aRiqmeboda, TqvenTan mimarTebaSi ki es gamonaklisia, saerTo_saxalxo siyvarulisa da pativiscemis manifestacias warmoadgens. qarTul enaTmecnierebaSi Tqveni saiubileo TariRiT ixsneba `asianTa klubi~, romlis wevradac jerjerobiT mxolod Tqven da Tqveni maswavlebeli da Tanaavtori didi akaki SaniZe SedixarT namdvili wevris uflebiT (sapatio wevrad 102 wlis wm. grigol xanZTeli ivaraudeba, sapatiod _ raki am didi saeklesio da inteleqtualis sakuTriv lingvisturi naSromebi CvenTvis ucnobia). Aai, aseT sazogadoebaSi migiCinaT RmerTma adgili da mogcaT saSualeba orives aRematoT ganvlil welTa simravliT da sicocxlis xangrZlivobis axali orientiri dausaxoT Tqvens kolegebs. WeSmaritad: vinc azrovnebs, is mTeli sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi cxovrobs! Mmixeil qurdiani

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ABSTRACTS

Manana Kvachantiradze On the Methodology of Semiologic Investigations The paper discusses conceptual and theoretical foundations of semiology as a science for the study of sign systems, a brief history of its inception and development. It presents definitions of sign based on Peirce"s and de Saussure"s theories, and a classification of signs. It provides the structure of a sign, domains of its behavior, and the process of semiosis. The paper describes the structuralist and post-structuralist stages of the development of the sign theory, conceptual contradictions between hermeneutic and post-modernist versions of the sign theory, having emerged in our days. The paper also addresses specific problems of semiotics of literature, as different from those of linguistic semiology, presents specific features of sign behavior in the language of a fiction text, and various approaches to interpretation at the present stage.

Tsira Barbakadze Sign Phenomenon in the Poetry Discourse The sign problem is tremendous in semiotics while researching the sign determination of the word semantics is essential. Lexem meaning is researched according to the language system dealing with dictionary meaning and speech that is rather difficult to identify semantics. Consequently, the word meaning, that is studied due to various discourses while language functioning accordingly the style, appears to represent different meanings or forms lots of connotations. Poetry discourse in this approach is rather difficult and has huge range of space as the language performs various possibilities in the poetry language as well. Language forms the idea, however, each language unit envisages the context. We target to reveal actual language units in the poetry and establish semantic margins that indicates the Georgian language opportunities and thoroughness.

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Winfried Boeder Reflections on the words erti (one) and qvela (all) In the Kartvelian languages, the concepts of one and all have partially parallel semantic structures. It is either an individual object of a corresponding set that is focussed (erti kartveli one Georgian (alone), as different from other Georgians; qoveli kartveli every Georgian in the set of all Georgians), or a corresponding set is viewed, irrespective of its internal composition (erti eri (they are) one nation (together), qvela kartveli all Georgians (together)). In the latter case, it is true, one and all are a set of objects making up an integral whole (one nation consists of its individual members, and all Georgians (together) are opposed to each Georgian, one after the other), but the individual objects of the set in question are not focussed. As for the concept all, both of its aspects are lexicalized as separate lexemes in Modern Georgian, which differentiates qoveli every vs. qvela all. For the concept one, on the other hand, one and the same lexeme is used in most cases (but not always: marto one alone, mxolo single, one, only, cali one of two are forms of the concept one alone). For Proto-Kartvelian, the same opposition may be posited as for Proto-Indo-European one: *oi(no)- one alone (taken separately) vs. *semone together (R. Anttila). Etymology seems to support this approach: ert- seems to belong to the root rt- to unite (cf. m-rt-el-i whole), while Svan exu one corresponds to the Georgian word sxva other, which presupposes an opposition between one (alone) and other(s). The etymology of qvela all also corresponds to its function (all together), since it seems to contain the same root as qvel- cheese, originally meaning (material) put together (Mz. Shanidze). On the assumption that qav/qv- could mean to be, qoveli (*qv-ov-el-i) every can be interpreted as a participle (N. Marr; cf. cx-ov-el-i (someone) who lives) which meant what/who existed (qoveli kartveli every Georgian the Georgians that exist). Similar forms denoting all occur in other languages (for instance, in Lak, Turkic and Finno-Ugric languages, Basque).

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Ketevan Bezarashvili, Tamar Lomidze Structure and Semantics (The Analysis of Galaktion Tabidze"s One Poem) The article touches upon the problem of structural and semantic interpretation of one poem of the most prominent Georgian poet of the 20th century - Galaktion Tabidze. The polisemantic lexics characteristic of the language of symbolists is revealed in this poem that makes the images obscure and enigmatic. Two kinds of obscurity are studied as the peculiarities of this poem. One is linguistic-stylistic, based on the dialectisms, and another is semantic, close to the symbolistic viewpoint. The semantic obscurity is the reason for using the dialectisms in this poem as the images that are equal to the lexics spread in the writings of the symbolists. Thus, the dialectisms as the language of childhood (being the main theme of the poem) functionally are equal to the language of symbolists; though formally the low style of the childish lexics is different from the language and images of symbolist poets. However the viewpoint of child seems also symbolistic revealing the difference of the language of childhood from the language of edaltery. Finally, the unity of the characteristic features of Classical and Medieval aesthetics in Galaktion Tabidze"s poetry and its relation to the aesthetics and poetics of symbolists becomes obvious on the basis of mentioned method of analysis.

Zaal Kikvidze Sociolinguistic Oppositions Revisited The paper addresses the notion of sociolinguistic oppositions and explains it as a set of linguistic variables, contained in a speaker"s verbal repertoire, the choice of which has been socially conditioned; it also distinguishes its types: microand macro-sociolinguistic oppositions. Special attention is paid to sociolinguistic relativity, the consideration of which is necessary to avoid artificial universalizations while addressing such issues. The title of the paper includes the word "Revisited," implying that earlier the issues in point was touched upon as a preliminary note in Kikvidze 1997.

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Tamaz Kochlamazashvili Terms "brdzaneba" ("to order") and "mokhseneba" ("to report") in Social and Situational Contexts In old Georgian literature, the terms "brdzaneba" ("to order") and "moxseneba" ("to report") could have been used in the senses that had nothing in common with "saying" and "reporting". Based on the analyses of literary texts, it has been concluded that "bradzane" (imperative of to order) was used in different situations to refer to various kinds of action (e.g. "come", "go", "sit down", "get up", "eat, help yourself", "give it to me", "take", "put down", etc.) when an individual belonging to a higher social class addressed a representative of a lower status. Hence, "brdzaneba" could have been used in any kind of statement uttered by a person whose social position was inferior to that of an addressee. Corollary, "mokhseneba" ("to report") was used to denote various kinds of action performed by a socially superior individual addressing a socially superior one. The particular denotations of these terms are context-ridden.

Salome Omiadze Natural language and culture _ collective memory of a nation The scholarly study of language has never had and does not have now either a more important aim than the study of language, on the one hand, with respect to the life of a linguistic collective (language is an essential feature of a tribe, people, nation), and, on the other one, in connection with thought (both in statics and dynamics), i.e. in relation to the history of culture, the history of thought, - Arn.Chikobava wrote. The two aspects of the language study singled out by the great scholar cover completely the research sphere of the newest discipline linguoculturology, in which the interaction between culture and language in synchrony and diachrony is studied, and culture proper is viewed as a system of concepts and a generator of thought structures. The study of language with the consideration of the relevant social context represents language not only as code but code plus culture. The well-known culturologist I.Lotman refers to code as structure without memory, for it, as artificial language, does not imply history. Similarly, Arn.Chikobava, viewing

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artificial language as the object of cybernetic linguistics, notes that it [cybernetic linguistics] does not need the history of language at all and in it the question is not posed as to in what relation with thought facts of natural language are. Thus, unlike code, natural language, as well as culture, is the collective memory of a nation, without which the existence of the common culture and the common language is inconceivable. This in its turn necessitates the study of natural language in a broad sociolinguistic context.

ShoTa Bostanashvili, Davit Bostanashvili The Sign and the Built The Built and the Sign are presented, as an issue of semiotics of architecture, and, at the same time as a linguistic play deconstruction of one morpheme. Architecture, being discourse of space, is at the same time discourse of the Interesting. Interest (inter esse) to be between is presented as a paradigm of boundary (between oppositions). Blurring of boundaries is presented as a discursive practice a linguistic fact of the Georgian Language. The problem of space is examined in the context of shifted problematic field. Overwhelming pragmatism in architecture is denoted by new discourse sign of ruins. In order to overcome the problem of deconstruction-reconstruction of phenomenon of architecture and to engage it in the realm of metaculture, two paths are offered: metapoetics and semiotics.

Levan Dalakishvili On Karl Jaspers Approach to the Text of the Bible Based on Karl Jaspers approach, that the Bible can not be viewed as a rationally intelligible text, the paper attempts to detect proper ways of understanding of the Scripture. It has been stated that the Bible speaks of God and human existence in the Universe using figurative language; thus stirring to activity aesthetic consciousness based on "artistic-imaginative" logic. The inner coherence and intelligibility of the Bible has been founded on such logic.

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Khatuna Tavdgiridze "Mythical Age," "Mythical Space," and "Returin to the Origins of the Universe" "Returin to the Origins has been one of the functions of a myth, which in fact is homologous with etiology, whilst the etiology, as the main characteristic feature of a myth, makes sense of it rather extensively. "The Myth of the Origins" makes us return to the origins of the Universe, to the "mythical age" and gives us sacral-magic, vital power by means of our participation in original events. Owing to its purposeful influence, it is possible to achieve goals and rule over various realms of the Universe. "The Myth of the Origins always repeats cosmology models structurally, despite of the variety of themes, as the cosmology myth is an archetypal model of all kinds of the Universe Origin(M.Eliade). "The Myth of the Origins" is mainly declaimed by magic poetry in Georgian mythical space. It does not lose its magic substance and purposefulness even when it occurs in the texts of other genres (hanting, labour, child-birth). The cosmology rudiment of Georgian magic poetry (charm), forming mythic ritual models of "Return to the Origins", makes it possible to comprehend myth, ritual and magic in context.

Irakli Mchedlishvili Abelo-Cainian Symbolism and Opposition of Cultures The problem of "opposition of cultures" has recently received such an overwhelming influence, that some "experts" attempt to conceive of destructive moments of contemporary policy and economy based solely on this factor. Departing from the assumption, that the cultural and traditional unity characteristic of a certain society originates from primary human intuitions, that is, leant as symbolic forms, the problem of "opposition of cultures" should be viewed from the level of collision early "human worlds." Both in the present paper and the author"s earlier ones, the starting point has been the standpoint, based on the assumption of "the primary division" in two, "Abelian" and "Cainian" mental traditions, having generated various symbolic forms with respect of spatial and temporal attitudes.

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Obviously enough, since that pre-civilization period till our days, the occurrence of various, sometimes mutually impenetrable cultural-mental areas explains the existence of such, differing in terms of basic attitudes, language and meaning-forming symbolic forms. Only in the so-called, metaphysical, that is, in the existential-contemplate dimension, both non-communicating symbolic forms and, respectively, the context of "opposition" acquire an insignificant, peripheral-superficial value. In such cases, particularly human destiny, deep experiences and thought have been expressed by means of both symbolic forms. For instance, the Georgian Cainian symbol "life circle" (Rustaveli) and the Bedouin Abelian one "a blind camel" have the same referent destiny.

Thamar Otkhmezuri From the History of Medieval Georgian Thinking: Ephrem Mtsires Scholion on the Geocentric Vision of the Universe The article represents analysis of the Scholion by the well-known eleventhcentury Georgian translator Ephrem Mtsire. The Scholion is appended to the Georgian translation of the tenth-century Byzantine scholar Basilius Minimus Commentary on Oratio 43 by Gregory of Nazianzus. In the Scholion the ~ ~ definition of the Greek lexical units sfaira and hJmisfaira is given, as these terms are rendered into Georgian text of the Commentary without translation (sferi, imisferon); In the Scholion Ephrem also provides a geocentric, so called Aristotelian world-view on the structure of the universe - one of the most popular outlooks among the intellectuals of the Medieval times. The main sources for Ephrem while composing the Scholion were Basilius Minimus Commentary itself (43, 188) and John of Damascus Dialectica (Chapt. 20, De Coelo). The multilingual and multicultural environment of the eleventh-century Near East - the crossroad of Christian and Muslim cultures - must have also played a big role in forming the progressive world-view of the Georgian scholar.

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Gia Joxadze The Body Adventure: Georgian Version The body has a history. In societies of different epoch the relation to it was ambiguous. Its role in society was various also. In due course varied also an image of a body in imagination of people and its place in a reality - both in an everyday life, and during the special moments of history. There is a change in time - It means, there is also a history. So the body history is an essential part of global history of the Middle Ages. Article is devoted to research intersexual relationship, junctures between the body"s outside and inside, questions of sexuality and love in medieval Georgia (13 century). The text of the anonymous Georgian historian gives the chance to see, how political and social functions tend to make the bodies of the persons filling them the organs of a larger body the social body or the universe as a whole.