1 Number Theory
Unit 1 Functions and Relations

Concepts and Objectives
Number Theory (Obj. #1)
Identify subsets of real numbers Simplify expressions using order of operations Identify real number axioms Convert between fractions and decimals

Number Systems
What we currently know as the set of real numbers was only formulated around 1879. We usually present this as sets of numbers.

Number Systems
The set of natural numbers (») and the set of integers (») have been around since ancient times, probably prompted by the need to maintain trade accounts. Ancient civilizations, such as the Babylonians, also used ratios to compare quantities. One of the greatest mathematical advances was the introduction of the number 0.

Properties of Real Numbers
For all real numbers a, b, and c: Closure Property
a+b∈» ab ∈ »

Identity Property
a+0=a ai1=a

Commutative Property
a+b=b+a ab = ba

Inverse Property
a + (–a) = 0 1 a i =1 a

Associative Property
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c) (ab)c = a(bc)

Distributive Property
a(b + c) = ab + ac

Properties of Real Numbers
The properties are also called axioms. 0 is called the additive identity and 1 is called the multiplicative identity. Notice the relationships between the identities and the inverses (called the additive inverse and the multiplicative inverse). Saying that a set is “closed” under an operation (such as multiplication) means that performing that operation on numbers in the set will always produce an answer that is also in the set – there are no answers outside the set.

Properties of Real Numbers
The set of natural numbers (») is not closed under the operation of subtraction. Why? 5 – 7 = –2, which is not in ». –20 ÷ 5 = –4. Does this show that the set of integers is closed under division? No. Any division that has a remainder is not in ».

Order of Operations
Parentheses (or other grouping symbols, such as square brackets or fraction bars) – start with the innermost set, following the sequence below, and work outward. Exponents Multiplication working from left to right Division Addition working from left to right Subtraction

Order of Operations
Use order of operations to explain why

( −3) ≠ −32
We can think of –3 as being –1 i 3. Therefore we have


−1 i 3) ≠ −1 i 32 (
It should be easier now to see that on the left side we multiply first and then apply the exponent, and on the right side, we apply the exponent and then multiply.


Order of Operations
Work the following examples without using your calculator.

−2 i 5 + 12 ÷ 3 −4 ( 9 − 8 ) + ( −7 )( 2)

1. –6 2. –60
6 3. − 7



−8 + ( −4 )( −6 ) ÷ 12 4 − ( −3)

Rational Numbers
The Greeks, specifically Pythagoras of Samos, originally believed that the lengths of all segments in geometric objects could be expressed as ratios of positive integers. A number is a rational number (») if and only if it can be expressed as the ratio (or quotient) of two integers. Rational numbers include decimals as well as fractions. The definition does not require that a rational number must be written as a quotient of two integers, only that it can be.

Example: Prove that the following numbers are rational numbers by expressing them as ratios of integers. 1. 2. 2-4 64-½
1 16 1 8

0.9 4. 6.3

1 7 1 61 20 = 3 3 54322986 − 10000000

5. 20.3 6. –5.4322986

4π 3. π


Irrational Numbers
Unfortunately, the Pythagoreans themselves later discovered that the side of a square and its diagonal could not be expressed as a ratio of integers. Theorem: Let n be a positive integer. Then n is either an integer or it is irrational.

Real Numbers
The number line is a geometric model of the system of real numbers. Rational numbers are thus fairly easy to represent:

What about irrational numbers? Consider the following:


Real Numbers
In this way, if an irrational number can be identified with a length, we can find a point on the number line corresponding to it. What this emphasizes is that the number line is continuous—there are no gaps.

Name of Interval finite, open Notation Inequality Description Number Line Representation a b a a a a a a a infinite, open b b b b b b b b

(a, b) [a, b] (a, b] [a, b)

a<x<b a≤x≤b a<x≤b a≤x<b

finite, closed finite, halfopen

(a, ∞) a < x < ∞ (-∞, b) -∞ < x < b

a b b a b

infinite, closed

[a, ∞) a ≤ x < ∞ (-∞, b] -∞< x ≤ b

Finite and Repeating Decimals
If the decimal representation of a rational number has a finite number of digits after the decimal, then it is said to terminate. If the decimal representation of a rational number does not terminate, then the decimal is periodic (or repeating). The repeating string of numbers is called the period of the decimal. a It turns out that for a rational number where b > 0, b the period is at most b – 1.

Finite and Repeating Decimals
Example: Use long division (yes, long division) to find 462 the decimal representation of and find its period. 13

462 = 35.538461 13
What is the period of this decimal? 6

Finite and Repeating Decimals
The repeating portion of a decimal does not necessarily start right after the decimal point. A decimal which starts repeating after the decimal point is called a simple-periodic decimal; one which starts later is called a delayed-periodic decimal.
Type of Decimal terminating simple-periodic delayed-periodic Examples 0.5, 0.25, 0.2, 0.125, 0.0625 General Form

0.d1 d2 d3 ...dt
0.d1 d2 d3 ...dp

( dt ≠ 0)

0.3, 0.142857, 0.1, 0.09, 0.076923 0.16, 0.083, 0.0714285, 0.06

0.d1 d2 d3 ...dt dt +1 dt + 2 dt + 3 ...dt + p

Decimal Representation
If we know the fraction, it’s fairly straightforward (although sometimes tedious) to find its decimal representation. What about going the other direction? How do we find the fraction from the decimal, especially if it repeats? We can state that the decimal 0.d1d2d3…dt can be written as d1d2d3 ...dt . 10t
845 169 Example: 0.845 = = 1000 200

Decimal Representation
For simple-periodic decimals, the “trick” is to turn them into fractions with the same number of 9s in the denominator as there are repeating digits and simplify:
3 1 0.3 = = 9 3 9 1 0.09 = = 99 11 153846 2 0.153846 = = 999999 13

To put it more generally, to convert 0.d1d2d3 ...dp , we can d1d2d3 ...dp write it as . 999...9

Decimal Representation
For delayed-periodic decimals, the process is a little more complicated. Consider the following: What is the decimal representation of
1 ? 12

1 1 1 is the product of what two fractions? i 12 4 3

Notice that the decimal representation has characteristics of each factor (2 terminating digits and 1 repeating digit).

Decimal Representation
It turns out you can break a delayed-periodic decimal into a product of terminating and simple-periodic decimals, so the general form is also a product of the general forms: The decimal 0.d1d2d3 ...dt dt +1dt +2dt +3 ...dt + p can be written
N as the fraction , where N is the integer t p 10 10 − 1



d1d2d3…dtdt+1dt+2dt+3…dt+p – d1d2d3…dt .

Decimal Representation
Example: Convert the decimal 0.467988654 to a fraction.
467988654 − 467 467988187 0.467988654 = = 3 6 999999000 10 (10 − 1)

It’s possible this might reduce, but we can see that there are no obvious common factors (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, or 10), so it’s okay to leave it like this.

Assign. 1 WS
I will post solutions to some of the homework problems on my blog: http://mathblog.wordpress.com. Remember, homework is due at the beginning of class, and I will not give credit for late work.