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VCE Chemistry Unit 4 Notes

Edward&Cliff&
eddie@connecteducation.com.au-

Exothermic%&%Endothermic% ReacJons%
If the forward reaction is exothermic, the back reaction is endothermic

H(products)<H(reactants)0
H'='nega8ve' Exothermic% Total'chemical'energy' decreases' Total'heat'energy'increases' Temperature'increases' Heat'used'breaking'bonds'<' heat'gained'forming'bonds'

H(products)>H(reactants)'
H0='posi8ve' Endothermic% Total'chemical'energy' increases' Total'heat'energy'decreases' Temperature'decreases' Heat'used'breaking'bonds'>' heat'gained'forming'bonds'
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Energy%Change%

More stable

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Catalysts%%
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Addi8on'of'catalyst'
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Unchanged'overall'rate'of'collision' Much0higher'probability'of'fruimul'collision'as'reac8on'pathway'is' altered'(lower'ac8va8on'energy)'

Catalysts''substances'which'increase'the'rate'of'a'chemical' reac8on'by'lowering'the'ac8va8on'energy'through'provision'of' an'alternate'reac8on'pathway.'


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Increase'rate'of'forward'and'rate'of'back'reac8on'by'the'same' amount' Do'not'aect'equilibrium''only'cause'reac8on'to'reach'equilibrium' faster' Homogeneous''same'state'as'reactants' Heterogeneous''dierent'state'to'reactants'


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Catalysts%
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Understanding'the'rela8onship'between'dierent'graphs'

Distribu8on'doesn t'change'
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Equilibrium%Constant %
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%K%

It'is'only'at'equilibrium'that'Q'has'a'constant'value' ! An'equilibrium'constant,'K,'is'the'value'of'Q'at' equilibrium'of'a'specic'reac8on'at'a'specic' temperature%%if%you%don t%change%Temperature,%% K%remains%CONSTANT!!!!% ! A'reac8on'mixture'always'moves'towards'K' ! Equilibrium'Constants''use'CONCENTRATIONS!% Watch%out%for%number%of%mole!!% ! Equilibrium'constant'vs.'expression'
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Equilibrium%Constant%
If' Then'to'reach' Net'reac8on'as' Shin' Amount'of' Amount'of' equilibrium'Q'must' eqm'reestablished' products'' reactants' Forward' backward' "' hh' #' Increase' hh' Decrease' Decrease' hh' Increase'

Q<K' Increase' Q>K' Decrease'

Q=K' No'change'''At'eqm' hh'

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Energy%Sources%and%Fuels%
!

All'energy'transforma8ons'are'not'100%'ecient'as'energy' is'lost'as'heat,'so'the'greater'the'number'of'energy' transforma8ons,'(generally)'the'less'ecient'the'process' A'nonkrenewable'energy'source'is'a'fuel'that'is'nite'and' will'run'out'at'some'point'as'it'is'consumed'faster'than'it' can'be'produced' A'renewable'energy'source'is'con8nuously'replaced'or' produced'by'natural'processes.' Factors'inuencing'choice:'environmental'eect'/'pollu8on,' waste'products,'costs,'transport,'safety,'eciency'
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Energy%Sources%and%Fuels%
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Learn'the'specics''in'the'textbook.' My'notes'are'arached'
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Need'to'understand'the'process'and'its'advantages%and% disadvantages%

Nonhrenewable'Energy'Sources:'Coal,'Oil,'Natural'Gas,' Petroleum,'Nuclear'Fission'and'Fusion'' Renewable'Energy'Sources:'Solar,'Wind,'Tidal,'Geothermal,' Hydroelectricity,'Biomass,'Biochemical'fuels,'fuel'cells' Again,'consider'all'of'the'above'in'terms'of'the'5'ideas'I'gave' at'the'start'of'the'lecture'


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ElectrolyJc% %Cell%

How'and'why'is'it' dierent'to'a' galvanic'cell?'


Diagram: Neale Peters
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Electrolysis%
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Consider:'
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Solute' Solvent' Electrode'materials''watch'out'for'metallic'anodes'

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