# CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K.

Au
1
Shear wall structures

1. Introduction

• Shear walls are often continuous down to based of building to form
a vertical cantilever

• Shear walls behave predominately in ‘bending’ instead of ‘shear’
(in spite of its name)

• The floor slab usually does not have large enough out-of-plane
stiffness to make the walls deform as a group. As a result, each
wall bends individually with its own neutral axis.

• Examples of shear walls: lift shaft, stairwell, structural wall
partition

• Commonly suited for buildings up to about 35 stories

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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A simple problem: Single wall

The wall is modeled as a cantilever fixed at its base, as shown in
Figure 1.

The governing differential equation is the familiar one from beam
bending theory:

EI
x q
x y
) (
) (
) 4 (
· (1)

Figure 1

QUIZ:
Say whether each of the following is assumed in equation (1).

1) Linear stress-strain relationship
2) Elastic material
3) Plane-section remains plane in bending
4) Small deformation

EXERCISE:
Derive (1) from scratch.

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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To make things simple, let’s solve this DE for uniformly distributed
load, i.e., · ) (x q constant not dependent on x .

To do that, we need to integrate (1) four times (why?). This will result
in 4 integration constants, which can be determined by requiring ) (x y
to satisfy the boundary conditions of a cantilever:

a) 0 ) 0 ( · y
b) 0 ) 0 ( ' · y
c) 0 ) (
) 2 (
· H y
d) 0 ) (
) 3 (
· H y

QUIZ:
What do the boundary conditions a)-d) mean?

The resulting solution for ) (x y is
1 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 4 5
H x
H
x
H
x
H
x
EI
qH
x y
/ with Variation
] ) (
3
1
3
4
2 [ ) (
m) (e.g., nt displaceme of
unit ith quantity w
8
) (
2 2
4
+ − · × (2)

DO NOT MEMORIZE FORMULA WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING
IT

QUIZ:
1. What is the deflection at the top of the cantilever?
2. What is the highest power of H x / appearing in (2)?

EXERCISE:
1. Verify that ) (x y given by (2) satisfies the boundary conditions
1)-4)
2. Sketch the deflection shape of the cantilever.

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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The moment ) (x M and shear force ) (x V of a section at x from the base
are given by:

) ( ' ' ) ( x y EI x M · (3)
) ( ) (
) 3 (
x y EI x V − · (4)

QUIZ:
Say whether each of the following is assumed in equations (3)
and (4).

1) Linear stress-strain relationship
2) Elastic material
3) Plane-section remains plane in bending
4) Small deformation

EXERCISE:
Sketch the moment and shear diagram.

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2. Basic considerations

• When there are more than one wall acting together, the lateral
load is distributed among the walls.

• The amount of load shared by each individual wall depends on
their ‘stiffness.’

Wind blows, pushes the external wall of building. Wind load is
transferred to floor slabs, then from slabs to shear walls, eventually
from shear walls to the base.

Two important phenomena:

• Proportionate VS non-proportionate structures

Proportionate: the ratio of flexural stiffness among the walls is
constant with height.

• Twisting vs non-twisting deformation

When either the load distribution or lateral stiffness of structure is not
symmetric in plan, twisting or torsional deformation will occur, in

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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Non-twisting Twisting
Proportionate

1. Quantitative by hand
calculation
2. Quantitative by
hand
Non-proportionate

3. Qualitative or
Quantitative by FEM
(equivalent 2-D)
4. Qualitative or
3-D FEM

QUIZ:
Decide whether the following structures are proportionate or
non-proportionate. Also decide whether they will twist when

Figure 2

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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3. Proportionate non-twisting structures

Assumptions:

1) Shear walls deform in flexural (bending).

2) Rigid floor assumption - Slab is rigid in-plane. This implies
a) If there is no twisting deformation, the lateral displacement of
all walls will be the same
b) If there is twisting, the displacement of any point on the slab can
be described in terms of a common translational and rotational
component (see later)

Equivalent 2-D models
Assumption 2a allows us to use an ‘equivalent 2-D model’ to study a
shear-wall structure (which is originally a 3-D problem):

OR

OR …

Figure 3

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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Notes to equivalent 2-D model:

1) The rigid link means that the displacement of two walls at the same
floor are the same

2) The rigid link is hinged at the two walls so it does not provide any
bending resistance

3) The position of the wall is immaterial (why?)

4) Which wall the external lateral load acts on is immaterial (why?)

5) The walls bend individually, although they all have the same
displacement at any given level. This means each wall has its own
neutral axis, rather than having a common neutral axis for a group
of walls (c.f. tubular structures later). For example:

Figure 4: Wall bending with strain and neutral axis shown

QUIZ:
Draw an equivalent 2-D model for the situation in Figure 4.

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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Method for computing shear and moment in walls (e.g., Smith &
Coull, p.186):

• Distribute shear and moment proportional to the flexural rigidity
of the wall

Why?

The following exercise helps you conclude that:

For proportionate non-twisting structures, the distribution of shear
does not depend on the level.

Note that this does not mean that the shear taken by each wall does
not depend on the level. Only the ratio among them does not.

EXERCISE: Distribution of shear based on a ‘continuum
approach’

Figure 6

Referring to the figure, we note that, from beam bending theory, for
Wall 1,

dx
x dM
x V
) (
) (
1
1
− ·
(the minus sign is necessary but unimportant; don’t let it disturb you)
and
) ( ' ' ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1 1
x y x I x E x M ·
which means
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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)] ( ) ( ) ( [ ) (
' '
1 1 1 1
x y x I x E
dx
d
x V − ·
Note that ) ( ' ' ' ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1 1
x y x I x E x V − ≠ because ) ( ) (
1 1
x I x E is in general a function
of x .

If we do the same thing for Wall 2, we have
)] ( ) ( ) ( [ ) (
' '
2 2 2 2
x y x I x E
dx
d
x V − ·

1) Is there any relationship between ) (
1
x y and ) (
2
x y ? If so, what is it?
2) By substituting ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1 1
x I x E c x I x E · into the expression for ) (
1
x V and
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 2
x I x E c x I x E · into the expression for ) (
2
x V , show that
2
1
2
1
) (
) (
c
c
x V
x V
·
and hence the shear distribution does not depend on the level x .
3) Hence verify that
constant
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
) (
2 2
1 1
2
1
2
1
· · ·
x I x E
x I x E
c
c
x V
x V

The previous exercise shows that the shear shared by a given wall at a
given level x is proportional to EI of the wall.

This means that for a proportionate non-twisting building, if we know
the total shear of a give level of the building, we can calculate the
amount of shear shared by the wall by just proportioning based on EI
of the wall.

The same is also true for sharing of moment among the walls (why?).

Suppose the structure is proportionate. There are n walls with EI
equal to ) (
1 1
x I E , …, ) (x I E
n n
. From previous discussions, we know that
the shear force ) (x V
i
taken by Wall i ( n i ,..., 1 · ) is proportional to
) ( ) ( ) ( x I x E c x I E
i i i
· , so we can write
) ( ) ( x I E K x V
i i i
× ·
for some constant K independent of i .
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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QUIZ:
Does K depend on x ? Why?

Since the sum of the shear taken by the walls must balance the total
shear V at the section of the building, we have

V x V x V x V
n
· + + + ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
6

V x I E K x I E K x I E K
n n
· × + + × + × ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 1 1
6
and so

·
·
+ + +
·
n
i
i i
n n
x I E
x V
x I E x I E x I E
x V
K
1
2 2 1 1
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
6

Thus, the shear taken by Wall i is given by

1
group by wall taken
shear total
) (
i for Wall
factor on distributi
) (
) (
) (
1
x V
x I E
x I E
x V
n
i
i i
i i
i
× ·

·
23 24 5

The same is true for the moment taken by the wall.

YOU DON’T NEED TO REMEMBER THIS FORMULA IF YOU
UNDERSTAND ITS MEANING.

The following exercise helps you illustrate that the ‘equivalent’ EI of
the group of walls is equal to the sum of the EI of the walls.

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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Equivalent stiffness of wall group based on a continuum approach

The following shows that the ‘equivalent lateral stiffness’ of a wall
group is equal to the sum of the stiffness of all the walls.

We first write down the beam equation for each wall individually
(note the indices):
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( : Wall
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( : 1 Wall
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( : 3 Wall
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( : 2 Wall
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( : 1 Wall
1
) 4 (
1 2
) 4 (
1 1
3 2
) 4 (
3 3
2 1
) 4 (
2 2
1
) 4 (
1 1
x w x y x I x E n
x w x w x y x I x E n
x w x w x y x I x E
x w x w x y x I x E
x w x q x y x I x E
n n n
n n n n

− − − −
·
− · −
− ·
− ·
− ·
7 7 7 7

Note that the term ) (x q is the external loading and the terms
) ( ),..., ( ), (
1 2 1
x w x w x w
n−
arise from the interaction between the walls.
Summing the above n equations, and noting that the terms
) ( ),..., ( ), (
1 2 1
x w x w x w
n−
are all canceled in the summation, we obtain

) ( ) ( )] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( [
) 4 (
2 2 1 1
x q x y x I x E x I x E x I x E
n n
· + + + 6

that is,

·
·
n
i
i i
x I x E
x q
x y
1
) 4 (
) ( ) (
) (
) (
Note that this equation is identical to that of a single wall with an
‘equivalent stiffness’ equal to

·
n
i
x I x E
1
1 1
) ( ) ( , and hence we conclude that:

When multiple walls are connected through rigid links, the equivalent
lateral stiffness of the group of walls is equal to the sum of the
individual stiffness.

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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The following exercise helps you get a better feel of the above result
based on what you have learnt from elementary beam formulae.

EXERCISE:

Figure 7

1) Give an expression for
1
∆ in terms of P , Q,
1
E and
1
I (Hint:
look it up from a text book)
2) Give an expression for
2
∆ in terms of Q,
2
E and
2
I
3) Note that
2 1
∆ · ∆ (why?). By eliminating Q in the expressions
obtained in 1) and 2), find an expression for
1
∆ (or
2
∆ ) in
terms of P ,
1
E ,
1
I ,
2
E and
2
I .

By rearranging the answer for 3), you should be able to get

1
3
2 2 1 1
stiffness equivalent
) ( 3

+
·
2 2 3 2 2 4 5
H
I E I E
P

The middle term is the ‘equivalent stiffness’ of this group of
walls. Note that if Wall 2 is absent, the stiffness is
3
1 1
/ 3 H I E , and
similarly, if Wall 1 is absent, the stiffness is
3
2 2
/ 3 H I E .

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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QUIZ:
Assume the walls are of the same material and thickness, and
the lateral loads are the same in both cases. Which one has a
greater horizontal displacement at point A?

(a)

(b)
Figure 5

QUIZ:
According to our ‘shear wall theory,’ assuming the walls are all
the same, arrange the following wall configurations in ascending
order of lateral stiffness.

Figure 8

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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QUIZ:
According to our ‘shear wall theory,’ assuming the walls are all of the
same thickness and material, arrange the following wall
configurations in ascending order of lateral stiffness.

(a)

(b)

(c)
Figure 9

Walls acting together
When walls are connected (e.g., through concrete and reinforcement),
they act together, providing much greater lateral stiffness.

For example, in Fig. 9(b) above, when the walls are not connected,
the equivalent lateral stiffness of the wall group is just the sum of the
individual stiffnesses, i.e.,

6
1
6 12
2
12
2 ) (
3 2 3 3 3
) ( 9 .
b t
b
t
t b t b b t
EI
b Fig

1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ · × + × · since
b
t
is small

However, when the four walls are connected as shown in Fig.9(c),
they act as a ‘section’. The approximate equivalent EI should then be
calculated as

) ( 9 .
3 2 3
) ( 9 .
) ( 4
6
4
2
2
12
2 ) (
b Fig c Fig
EI
b t
b
t b
b t
EI × · × ·
,
_

¸
¸
× × + × ≈

The above suggests that a significant amount of stiffness can be
gained by ‘couple’ the walls, or in general lateral systems, together so
that they deform as a whole. Later, we will see one form of structural
system, called ‘tubular structures’, which stems out from this idea.
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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4. Proportionate shear wall structures with twisting

QUIZ:
Decide whether the following structures are proportionate or
non-proportionate. Also decide whether they will twist when

Figure 10

Two common situations where twisting will occur:

1) the load distribution is symmetric but the structure (wall
configuration) is not symmetric

2) the load is not symmetric but the structure is symmetric

In general, twisting will occur when the ‘stiffness center’ does not
coincide with the ‘section resultant center’.

Strictly speaking, twisting is NOT a property of a structure. It depends
on BOTH the load pattern and the structural configuration.

However, the load distribution is symmetric in quite many situations
(e.g., unit-directional wind load), and so ‘twisting’ may often be
associated with the structure, e.g., ‘twisting structure’ or ‘non-
twisting structure’. It is OK to use these terms, but bear in mind that

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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Method :
E.g., see Smith & Coull, p.188-190

In what follows, we will illustrate WHY and HOW a building twists
in Case 1). Case 2) will be left as an exercise. The general case
follows from superposition.

Consider the portion of a building above a certain level. In general,
the resultant shear acting on a section at any level must balance the
load resultant (in terms of force and twisting moment).

Figure 11
• The section resultant originates from the stresses at the section
of the connecting members (i.e., columns).

• The stresses are caused by deformation (strains).

• Assuming the floor is rigid in-plane, the variation of the
deformation at different walls must be linear.

• Just as a line b x a y + · can always be written as a constant b plus
a linear variation x a , such linear variation of deformation can
always be decoupled into two components

1) translational (i.e., every wall moves by the same amount in
the same direction)

2) rotational (the walls move around a common point by the
same angle).
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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Figure 12

Figure 13

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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• The lateral displacement of each wall causes stresses in the
section, which give rise to a sectional resultant of shear force.

• The shear force in the walls can be considered as contributed
from translational and rotational deformation.

The distribution of the shear forces in the shear walls must be such
that
1) the force is balanced
2) the moment is balanced

The translation contribution of shear force in the walls can be easily
determined from 1). Since the deformation is pure translational, there
is no twisting, and so we can use the results about proportionate non-
twisting structures, which says that the shear force is distributed
proportional to the EI of the wall:

V
I E
I E
Q
n
j
j j
i i
i
× ·

·1
twisting) (no

The less-trivial task lies in the determination of the twisting
component, which is essentially what you need to learn in this section.
First of all, we need to know where the walls rotate about. How can
we determine that? What law/principle/assumption, etc helps us find
that?

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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Center of rotation

To invoke your thinking, let’s look at what happens if the center of
rotation is (arbitrarily) assumed to be at the left end, that is, all the
walls rotate about the point C in Fig. 12, by an angle θ clockwise,
say. Then, to the first order, Wall 1 will not translate, Wall 2 will
move by θ
2
x and Wall 3 will move by θ
3
x . Anything wrong?

Figure 14

QUIZ:
Anything wrong?

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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The center of rotation has to be such that the corresponding
distribution of shear force in the walls must have a zero resultant.

So let’s use this principle to find the location of the center of rotation.
In particular, suppose the center of rotation is at a distance x from the
left end, as shown in Figure 13.

Figure 15: Center of rotation.

The displacements at Wall 1, 2, …, n will be given by

) ( ) ( ) (
1 1
z x x z y θ − · ,
) ( ) ( ) (
2 2
z x x z y θ − · ,

) ( ) ( ) ( z x x z y
n n
θ − ·

The corresponding shear force in Wall 1, 2, …, n will be given by

[ ] [ ] ) ( ' ' ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1 1
' '
1 1 1 1
z z I z E
dz
d
x x z y z I z E
dz
d
z Q θ − − · − · ,
[ ] [ ] ) ( ' ' ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 2
' '
2 2 2 2
z z I z E
dz
d
x x z y z I z E
dz
d
z Q θ − − · − · ,

[ ] [ ] ) ( ' ' ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
' '
z z I z E
dz
d
x x z y z I z E
dz
d
z Q
n n n n n n n
θ − − · − ·
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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Since the structure is proportionate,
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( z I z E c z I z E
i i i
·

for some ) ( ) ( z I z E which does not depend on i .

Substituting into the expression for ) (z V
i
gives
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ' ' ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( z g x x c z z I z E
dz
d
x x c z Q
i i i i i
− · − − · θ

where [ ] ) ( ' ' ) ( ) ( ) ( z z I z E
dz
d
z g θ − · .

This means, at a given level z , the shear (due to rotation) shared by a
wall is proportional to

• the distance of the wall from the center of rotation and
• the flexural rigidity of the wall (why?)

Summing the shear forces in all the walls and setting it to zero:
0 ) ( ) (
1
· −

·
z g x x c
n
i
i i

which yields (since 0 ) ( ≠ z g )

·
·
·
·
· ·
n
i
i i
n
i
i i i
n
i
i
n
i
i i
z I z E
x z I z E
c
x c
x
1
1
1
1
) ( ) (
) ( ) (

If we recall the definition of the center of mass of a group of masses
1
m ,
2
m , …,
n
m :

·
·
·
n
i
i
n
i
i i
m
m
x m
x
1
1

then it is natural to call x the ‘center of rigidity’.
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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QUIZ:
What law/principle/assumption/requirement, etc., is used to find
the location of the center of rigidity?

QUIZ:
Considering the rotational component of shear forces in the
walls. Is the distribution necessarily linear among the walls?

The following exercise shows that the center of rigidity is indeed the
location where the resultant of the translational component of the
shear forces of the wall system acts.

EXERCISE:
Find the location where the resultant translational component of
the shear forces of all the walls acts and verify that it coincides
with the center of rotation.

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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The walls twist about the center of rigidity of the wall system.

Now that we know center of rotation, we can pursue further to find
the amount of shear shared by the walls due to twisting action. Recall

23 4 5 3 4 5 23 24 5
rigidity of
center from
i Wall of
arm moment
i wall
of rigidity
) determined be (to
given for constant
) ( ) ( component) l (rotationa
to related
x x c z g Q
i i i
z
− × × ·

So far ) (z g is unknown, and we have to determine its value. This is
accomplished by considering the moment equilibrium of the building
section.

Referring to Fig. 15 showing the forces acting on a building section.
For convenience the location of the walls are measured from the
center of rotation.

The distance of the load resultant from the center of rigidity is
commonly called ‘eccentricity’, and is denoted by e here.

Recall that the center of rotation coincides with the center of rigidity,
and therefore the resultant of the translational component of wall
shears passes through the center of rotation. Summing moments about
the center of rotation, we have:

3 4 5
23 24 5 23 24 5
2 2 3 2 2 4 5
rotation of center
from resultant
section at
rotation of center from
arm moment
i Wall of force shear
of component rotational
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1
e z V x x x x c z g
i
n
i
i i
× · − × − ×

·

After some algebra, we obtain

·
− ×
·
n
i
i i
x x c
e z V
z g
1
2
) (
) (
) (

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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and so
1
2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 4 5
factor
on distributi
shear
total
1
2
1
2
) ( ) ( ) (
) )( ( ) (
) (
) (
) (
) ( l) (rotationa
∑ ∑
· ·
− ×

× ·

× ·
n
j
j j j
i i i
n
j
j j
i i
i
x x z I z E
e x x z I z E
z V
x x c
e x x c
z V Q

We are almost done. The shear force taken by each wall is a sum of
the translational and rotational component, that is,

2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 5 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 4 5
component
twisting
component
nal translatio
1
2
1
l) (rotationa onal) (translati
) ( ) ( ) (
) )( ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
(z) (z) ) (
∑ ∑
· ·
− ×

× + × ·
+ ·
n
j
j j j
i i i
n
j
j j
i i
i i i
x x z I z E
e x x z I z E
z V
z I z E
z I z E
z V
Q Q z Q

1) the shear shared by a given wall is a sum of translational and
rotational component

2) the translational component is proportional to EI of the wall

3) the rotational component is related to
ty eccentrici arm moment × × EI
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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QUIZ: In each configuration in Table 1, say which of the
following statements is true (note that the statements exhaust all
possibilities):
1) twisting must occur
2) twisting must not occur
3) twisting may or may not occur, depending on the actual
dimensions

Structure
Symmetric Not symmetric
Not symmetric
Table 1

QUIZ:
What law/principle/assumption, etc., is used to find the twisting
component of shear shared by each wall?

QUIZ:
What law/principle/assumption, etc., is used to find the
translational component of shear shared by each wall?

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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In summary, to determine the shear shared by each wall in a given
level of a proportionate shear wall structure that may twist under the

1) determine the total shear at the level of the building

2) find the translational component of the shear shared by each wall

3) compute the location of the center of rotation, which coincides with
the location where the resultant of the translational components
acts

4) compute the twisting component of shear shared by each wall

5) sum the translational and twisting component of shear to give the
shear force shared by each wall

The summary only serves to clarify what we have learnt so far, and
should not be taken as a recipe. The equations involved in the
calculations are deliberately omitted in the summary. You should
have a good idea of what they look like.

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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5. Non-proportionate structures

• the shear force shared by each wall is not necessarily
proportional to its rigidity, even in the absence of twisting.

• the determination of shear shared by each wall requires more
sophisticated analysis methods, such as finite element method.

• When no twisting occurs, 2-D equivalent models may be used
(which requires finite elements)

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
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Effect of opening at the base

Opening on the edge of wall

3
3 3
edge
1
12 12
) (

,
_

¸
¸
− × ·

·
b
d wb d b w
I

Opening in the center of wall
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ +
,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
− × ·
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸ +

,
_

¸
¸ −
+

× ·
2 2
3
2
3
center
1 3 1 1
4
1
12

4 2 12
)
2
(
2
b
d
b
d
b
d wb
d b d b
w
d b
w
I

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
b d /
12 /
3
edge
wb
I
12 /
3
center
wb
I

Figure 16

As b d / increases,
edge
I decreses in a cubic manner (quite fast!) while
center
I decreases in a much slower fashion, although both correspond to
the same reduction in section shear area. This means that taking out
material in the center will have a less severe effect on the flexural
resistance than from the edge.

The ratio of
center
I to
edge
I is given by:
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

+
+ ·
2
edge
center
/ 1
/ 1
3 1
4
1
b d
b d
I
I

Note that the ratio depends only the the ratio of d to b . As an
illustrative example, if 2 / 1 / · b d , then 7 /
edge center
· I I , that is, opening at
the center rather than at the edge gives 6 times stiffer base!

12 /
3
edge
wb
I
12 /
3
center
wb
I

b
2 / d 2 / d

b
d
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
30
2-D Finite Element Models

• The walls are divided and modelled as beam elements (other
types of elements are also possible)

• The nodes specify the geometrical layout of the model

• Elements are formed among nodes

• An element is characterized by its
o Element type, e.g., beam, plate, shell; specifies the
behaviour of the element
o Connectivity (“which” and “how” the nodes form the
element; determines the geometry of the element, e.g.,
length, orientation)
o Material/sectional property (e.g., E, I)

• Each node associated with a beam element has 3 displacement
responses, or degree-of-freedom (DOF):
o DX: horizontal displacement
o DY: vertical displacement
o DZ: rotation (how much the element has rotated at the
node)

• Each node associated with a beam element has 3 element
forces:
o FX: horizontal force
o FY: vertical force
o MZ: moment

• Results (displacement, internal force) are computed AT THE
NODES ONLY

• Intuition can help understand sign convention adopted
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
31
Illustrative example (Smith & Coull, p.192)

QUIZ:
Is the shearwall structure proportionate? Will it twist?

QUIZ:
Draw an equivalent 2-D model for the shearwall structure.

Finite element model for the 2-D equivalent model

Wall 1 Wall 2

1

2

3

20

21

22

23

40

41

42

43

60
1/F
2/F
3/F
20/F
Roof
1
2
3
20
19
21
22
23
40
39
41
42
43
59
60
FY1
FX1
M1
FY2
FX2
M2
1
st
node
2
nd
node
(b) Element force definition
Wall 3
(half)
4/F
(a) Finite element model
y
x

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
32
FEM RESULTS: NODAL DISPLACEMENTS
================================
Node DX (m) DY (m) DZ (rad)
1 2.77e-004 0.00e+000 -1.55e-004
2 1.07e-003 0.00e+000 -2.95e-004
3 2.33e-003 0.00e+000 -4.21e-004
4 4.00e-003 0.00e+000 -5.32e-004
5 6.04e-003 0.00e+000 -6.29e-004
6 8.40e-003 0.00e+000 -7.21e-004
7 1.12e-002 0.00e+000 -8.64e-004
8 1.44e-002 0.00e+000 -9.92e-004
9 1.81e-002 0.00e+000 -1.10e-003
10 2.21e-002 0.00e+000 -1.19e-003
11 2.64e-002 0.00e+000 -1.26e-003
12 3.09e-002 0.00e+000 -1.32e-003
13 3.56e-002 0.00e+000 -1.36e-003
14 4.04e-002 0.00e+000 -1.41e-003
15 4.54e-002 0.00e+000 -1.44e-003
16 5.05e-002 0.00e+000 -1.46e-003
17 5.56e-002 0.00e+000 -1.47e-003
18 6.08e-002 0.00e+000 -1.47e-003
19 6.59e-002 0.00e+000 -1.48e-003
20 7.11e-002 0.00e+000 -1.48e-003
21 2.77e-004 0.00e+000 -1.55e-004
22 1.07e-003 0.00e+000 -2.95e-004
23 2.33e-003 0.00e+000 -4.21e-004
24 4.00e-003 0.00e+000 -5.31e-004
25 6.04e-003 0.00e+000 -6.33e-004
26 8.40e-003 0.00e+000 -7.06e-004
27 1.12e-002 0.00e+000 -8.69e-004
28 1.44e-002 0.00e+000 -9.90e-004
29 1.81e-002 0.00e+000 -1.10e-003
30 2.21e-002 0.00e+000 -1.19e-003
31 2.64e-002 0.00e+000 -1.26e-003
32 3.09e-002 0.00e+000 -1.32e-003
33 3.56e-002 0.00e+000 -1.36e-003
34 4.04e-002 0.00e+000 -1.41e-003
35 4.54e-002 0.00e+000 -1.44e-003
36 5.05e-002 0.00e+000 -1.46e-003
37 5.56e-002 0.00e+000 -1.47e-003
38 6.08e-002 0.00e+000 -1.47e-003
39 6.59e-002 0.00e+000 -1.48e-003
40 7.11e-002 0.00e+000 -1.48e-003
41 2.77e-004 0.00e+000 -1.55e-004
42 1.07e-003 0.00e+000 -2.95e-004
43 2.33e-003 0.00e+000 -4.21e-004
44 4.00e-003 0.00e+000 -5.32e-004
45 6.04e-003 0.00e+000 -6.30e-004
46 8.40e-003 0.00e+000 -7.18e-004
47 1.12e-002 0.00e+000 -8.65e-004
48 1.44e-002 0.00e+000 -9.91e-004
49 1.81e-002 0.00e+000 -1.10e-003
50 2.21e-002 0.00e+000 -1.19e-003
51 2.64e-002 0.00e+000 -1.26e-003
52 3.09e-002 0.00e+000 -1.32e-003
53 3.56e-002 0.00e+000 -1.36e-003
54 4.04e-002 0.00e+000 -1.41e-003
55 4.54e-002 0.00e+000 -1.44e-003
56 5.05e-002 0.00e+000 -1.46e-003
57 5.56e-002 0.00e+000 -1.47e-003
58 6.08e-002 0.00e+000 -1.47e-003
59 6.59e-002 0.00e+000 -1.48e-003
60 7.11e-002 0.00e+000 -1.48e-003
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
33
FEM RESULTS: ELEMENT FORCE
==========================

Ele. FX1 (N) FY1 (N) MZ1 (Nm) FX2 (N) FY2 (N) MZ2 (Nm)
1 -6.91e+005 0.00e+000 2.47e+007 6.91e+005 0.00e+000 -2.23e+007
2 -6.49e+005 0.00e+000 2.23e+007 6.49e+005 0.00e+000 -2.01e+007
3 -6.38e+005 0.00e+000 2.01e+007 6.38e+005 0.00e+000 -1.78e+007
4 -5.12e+005 0.00e+000 1.78e+007 5.12e+005 0.00e+000 -1.60e+007
5 -8.12e+005 0.00e+000 1.60e+007 8.12e+005 0.00e+000 -1.32e+007
6 4.74e+005 0.00e+000 1.32e+007 -4.74e+005 0.00e+000 -1.48e+007
7 -2.37e+005 0.00e+000 1.48e+007 2.37e+005 0.00e+000 -1.40e+007
8 -6.85e+005 0.00e+000 1.40e+007 6.85e+005 0.00e+000 -1.16e+007
9 -5.07e+005 0.00e+000 1.16e+007 5.07e+005 0.00e+000 -9.85e+006
10 -4.92e+005 0.00e+000 9.85e+006 4.92e+005 0.00e+000 -8.13e+006
11 -4.50e+005 0.00e+000 8.13e+006 4.50e+005 0.00e+000 -6.55e+006
12 -3.56e+005 0.00e+000 6.55e+006 3.56e+005 0.00e+000 -5.31e+006
13 -4.94e+005 0.00e+000 5.31e+006 4.94e+005 0.00e+000 -3.58e+006
14 -3.65e+005 0.00e+000 3.58e+006 3.65e+005 0.00e+000 -2.30e+006
15 -1.77e+005 0.00e+000 2.30e+006 1.77e+005 0.00e+000 -1.68e+006
16 -1.79e+005 0.00e+000 1.68e+006 1.79e+005 0.00e+000 -1.05e+006
17 -1.30e+005 0.00e+000 1.05e+006 1.30e+005 0.00e+000 -5.99e+005
18 -9.54e+004 0.00e+000 5.99e+005 9.54e+004 0.00e+000 -2.65e+005
19 -5.67e+004 0.00e+000 2.65e+005 5.67e+004 0.00e+000 -6.64e+004
20 -1.90e+004 0.00e+000 6.64e+004 1.90e+004 0.00e+000 -2.38e-007
21 -5.11e+005 0.00e+000 1.84e+007 5.11e+005 0.00e+000 -1.66e+007
22 -4.95e+005 0.00e+000 1.66e+007 4.95e+005 0.00e+000 -1.49e+007
23 -4.32e+005 0.00e+000 1.49e+007 4.32e+005 0.00e+000 -1.34e+007
24 -5.40e+005 0.00e+000 1.34e+007 5.40e+005 0.00e+000 -1.15e+007
25 -1.30e+004 0.00e+000 1.15e+007 1.30e+004 0.00e+000 -1.15e+007
26 -1.86e+006 0.00e+000 1.15e+007 1.86e+006 0.00e+000 -4.96e+006
27 -5.41e+005 0.00e+000 4.96e+006 5.41e+005 0.00e+000 -3.07e+006
28 -3.78e+004 0.00e+000 3.07e+006 3.78e+004 0.00e+000 -2.93e+006
29 -1.58e+005 0.00e+000 2.93e+006 1.58e+005 0.00e+000 -2.38e+006
30 -1.11e+005 0.00e+000 2.38e+006 1.11e+005 0.00e+000 -1.99e+006
31 -1.12e+005 0.00e+000 1.99e+006 1.12e+005 0.00e+000 -1.60e+006
32 -8.63e+004 0.00e+000 1.60e+006 8.63e+004 0.00e+000 -1.30e+006
33 -1.21e+005 0.00e+000 1.30e+006 1.21e+005 0.00e+000 -8.74e+005
34 -8.92e+004 0.00e+000 8.74e+005 8.92e+004 0.00e+000 -5.62e+005
35 -4.31e+004 0.00e+000 5.62e+005 4.31e+004 0.00e+000 -4.11e+005
36 -4.37e+004 0.00e+000 4.11e+005 4.37e+004 0.00e+000 -2.58e+005
37 -3.18e+004 0.00e+000 2.58e+005 3.18e+004 0.00e+000 -1.46e+005
38 -2.33e+004 0.00e+000 1.46e+005 2.33e+004 0.00e+000 -6.47e+004
39 -1.38e+004 0.00e+000 6.47e+004 1.38e+004 0.00e+000 -1.62e+004
40 -4.63e+003 0.00e+000 1.62e+004 4.63e+003 0.00e+000 -4.47e-008
41 -8.46e+005 0.00e+000 3.03e+007 8.46e+005 0.00e+000 -2.74e+007
42 -7.99e+005 0.00e+000 2.74e+007 7.99e+005 0.00e+000 -2.46e+007
43 -7.68e+005 0.00e+000 2.46e+007 7.68e+005 0.00e+000 -2.19e+007
44 -6.80e+005 0.00e+000 2.19e+007 6.80e+005 0.00e+000 -1.95e+007
45 -8.02e+005 0.00e+000 1.95e+007 8.02e+005 0.00e+000 -1.67e+007
46 -1.41e+005 0.00e+000 1.67e+007 1.41e+005 0.00e+000 -1.62e+007
47 -6.40e+005 0.00e+000 1.62e+007 6.40e+005 0.00e+000 -1.40e+007
48 -5.90e+005 0.00e+000 1.40e+007 5.90e+005 0.00e+000 -1.19e+007
49 -5.42e+005 0.00e+000 1.19e+007 5.42e+005 0.00e+000 -1.00e+007
50 -4.99e+005 0.00e+000 1.00e+007 4.99e+005 0.00e+000 -8.26e+006
51 -4.36e+005 0.00e+000 8.26e+006 4.36e+005 0.00e+000 -6.73e+006
52 -4.50e+005 0.00e+000 6.73e+006 4.50e+005 0.00e+000 -5.16e+006
53 -1.73e+005 0.00e+000 5.16e+006 1.73e+005 0.00e+000 -4.55e+006
54 -2.28e+005 0.00e+000 4.55e+006 2.28e+005 0.00e+000 -3.75e+006
55 -3.58e+005 0.00e+000 3.75e+006 3.58e+005 0.00e+000 -2.50e+006
56 -2.50e+005 0.00e+000 2.50e+006 2.50e+005 0.00e+000 -1.63e+006
57 -2.05e+005 0.00e+000 1.63e+006 2.05e+005 0.00e+000 -9.09e+005
58 -1.44e+005 0.00e+000 9.09e+005 1.44e+005 0.00e+000 -4.05e+005
59 -8.70e+004 0.00e+000 4.05e+005 8.70e+004 0.00e+000 -1.01e+005
60 -2.89e+004 0.00e+000 1.01e+005 2.89e+004 0.00e+000 1.91e-006
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
34

QUIZ:
Say whether each of the following should hold in the FEM
output. Verify your claim using results from the FEM output.

• For every floor, sum of wall shears = external shear?

• For every floor, sum of wall moments = external moment?

• At the base, displacement = rotation = 0?

• At every floor, all walls have the same DX?

• For each element, FX1+FX2 = 0?

• Top and bottom moment at each node should balance?

• Top and bottom shear at each node should balance?

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
35
-8 -6 -4 -2 0 2
x 10
4
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Wall moment (kN m)
F
l
o
o
r
Wall 1
Wall 2
Wall 3 (half)
External moment

Wall moment distribution
(piece-wise linear)

-500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Wall shear (kN)
F
l
o
o
r
Wall 1
Wall 2
Wall 3 (half)
External shear

Wall shear distribution with floor level
(note the shear at change levels 6 and 13)
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
36
0
5
10
15
20
25
F
l
o
o
r
Wall 1
Wall 2
Wall 3 (half)
(including external force)

Force transferred from Floor slab to walls
(note that adjacent force pairs do not necessarily balance)

QUIZ:
Does the floor slab forces sum to zero at each floor?

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
1
Wall-frame structures

1. Introduction

• In low rise structures (e.g., less than 20 stories), shear walls
take the majority of the lateral load

• As height of structure increases, the lateral load shared by the
frame increases

• Economical up to 50 stories

2. Method of analysis

Case Method
Twisting 3-D FEM
Non-twisting 2-D FEM (equiv. 2-D model)
Non-twisting
structural property)
• equiv. 2-D
• continuum
• analytical

3. Equivalent 2-D model

• Consider non-twisting cases only

• Assume (In-plane) Rigid-floor

• Flexural stiffness of lintel beams (that connects the wall
and the frame) is often (but not always) neglected.

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
2

EXERCISE:
Draw an equivalent 2-D model for the structures in Figures 11.2
(a)-(c) of Smith & Coull (p.256).

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
3
Coupling of wall and frame

QUIZ:
Determine ∆ in the following situations.

Figure 1(a)

Figure 1(b)

QUIZ:
Is the equivalent stiffness of a frame-wall group equal to the
sum of the stiffness of the frames and walls? Why?

In the case of proportionate shear-wall structures, the walls bend
in the same manner, or mathematically, the governing
differential equations for the deflection of the different walls are
of the same form. As a result, the stiffness of the wall-group is
just the sum of the individual stiffness, i.e., their stiffness ADD.

Frames and shear walls deform differently, and as a result their
stiffness DO NOT ADD. That’s why we need this chapter.

See Figure 11.3 of Smith & Coull (p.258).
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
4
4. Continuum approach

Why continuum?

• To gain insights about the structural behavior, which helps
interpret the computer results and detect possible errors.

• An elegant way of describing the behavior of the frame-
wall system in terms of differential equations.

Idealization

Discrete Continuum
Shear wall Flexural beam
Frame Shear beam
At floor level
along beam

Simplification (see later)

• Flexural stiffness of beam (for shear wall) = constant

• Shear stiffness of shear beam (for frame) = constant

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
5
3. Behavior of Wall (flexural beam)

The differential equation for the deflection of the wall is that of
a flexural beam:
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) 2 (
2
2
z w z y z I z E
dz
d
· (1)
If the rigidity ) ( ) ( z I z E is constant with height, that is, does not
depend on x , then
EI
z w
z y
) (
) (
) 4 (
· (2)
The boundary conditions for a fixed-free situation are:
a) 0 ) 0 ( · y
b) 0 ) 0 ( ' · y
c) 0 ) (
) 2 (
· H y
d) 0 ) (
) 3 (
· H y

4. Behavior of Frame (shear beam)

• as shear beam, which deform purely in shear (no bending)

o DOES NOT mean that the columns deform in shear
deformation

o just means that the frame as a whole deforms like a
shear beam, in the sense that the interstory drift is
approximately proportional to the shear force acting
at the story (see later).

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
6

Figure 2: Shear beam

The shear force ) (z Q on a section of a shear beam is
proportional to the slope of the beam (Figure 2(b)):

) ( ' ) ( z y A G z Q · (3)

where G is the (equivalent) shear modulus and A is the
sectional area of the shear beam.

• Note that when we idealize a frame as a shear beam, the
value of G and A is NOT necessarily the corresponding
values of the columns

By static equilibrium (Figure 2(c)), the shear ) (z Q is related to
the distributed load ) (z w by:

) ( ' ) ( z Q z w − · (4)

and so by combing (3) and (4) the governing differential
equation of a shear beam is given by:

A G
z w
z y
) (
) ( ' ' − · (5)

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
7
Since (5) is a second order ODE, there should be two boundary
conditions. For a fixed-free situation, the boundary conditions
are:

a) 0 ) 0 ( · y
b) 0 ) ( ' · H y

QUIZ:
Explain what the boundary conditions a) and b) mean.

QUIZ:
What is order of the differential equation for a shear beam?

5. Wall-frame system

Refer to Figure 11.5 of Smith & Coull (p.261)

For the wall, according to eq. (1),

[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) 2 (
2
2
z u z w z y z I z E
dz
d
− · (6)

For the frame modeled as a shear beam, from eq. (4),

) ( ' ' ) ( z y A G z u − · (7)

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
8
Substituting (7) into (6) yields

[ ] ) ( ) ( ' ' ) ( ) ( ) ( ' ' ) ( ) (
2
2
z w z y z A z G z y z I z E
dz
d
· − (6)

Boundary conditions for fixed-free situation:

a) Zero displacement at the base: 0 ) 0 ( · y
b) Zero slope at the based: 0 ) 0 ( ' · y
c) Zero wall moment at the top: 0 ) (
) 2 (
· H y
d) Zero shear at the top: 0 ) ( ' ) (
) 3 (
· − H y GA H y EI

In order to allow for analytical solution for the governing
differential equations, we assume the properties of the walls and
frames to be constant through their height. That is,

constant ) ( ) ( · · EI z I z E

and
constant ) ( ) ( · · GA z A z G

• This assumption is often NOT met in real situations, since
generally the column sizes decreases up the height of the
building, due to decreasing demand in gravity load
capacity

• For this reason, the results to follow is NOT expected to
structure, but rather to illustrate from the analytical
solution some of the important behavior.

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
9
With the simplification mentioned, the governing differential
equation becomes
I E
z w
z y
I E
A G
z y
) (
) ( ' ' ) (
) 4 (
· − (8)
If we define
I E
A G
·
2
α (9)
then (6) becomes
I E
z w
z y z y
) (
) ( ' ' ) (
2 ) 4 (
· −α (10)
For uniformly distributed load, that is, ) (z q = constant, then the
solution to the ODE in (10) satisfying the boundary conditions
a)-d) is given by (see eq.(11.29) on p.268 of Smith & Coull):

1 2 3
1 2 3
factor
variation
uniformly under beam
cantilever a of top
at the nt displaceme
ess dimensionl
1
4
) (
8
) ( z K
EI
wH
z y × ·
where

( )
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
− + − −
+
·
2
2
4
1
2
1
) ( sinh 1 cosh
cosh
1 sinh
8
) (
H
z
H
z
H z H z
H
H H
H
z K α α α α
α
α α
α

See Figure 11.8(a) on p.270 or Figure A2.1 on p.504 of Smith
& Coull for the shape of ) (
1
z K .
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
10

QUIZ:
Explain, without any calculation, why 1 ) (
1
· H K if 0 · α (Hint:
imagine what the wall-frame model will look like if 0 · α ).

• The reason I put the (complicated) formula for ) (
1
z K is not
to let you memorize it, nor do I expect you to use it
frequently. It is just to let you have an idea of the form and
its complexity. It is more important to understand and
develop insights into the formula than to memorize it.

• You can look up Smith and Coull for the solution for other
turns out that the results do not differently qualitatively
from those for the uniformly distributed load.

6. Forces in the wall and frame

Wall moment
) (
2
) ( ' '
8
) ( ' ' ) (
3
2
1
4
z K
wH
z K
H w
z y EI z M
b
· · ·

QUIZ:
Explain, without any calculation, why 1 ) 0 (
3
· K if 0 · α .

See Figure 11.8 on p.270 or Figure A2.3 on p.505 of Smith &
Coull

• wall moment becomes negative near top of wall as α
increases (i.e., there exist ‘hinge-point’)
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
11

Wall shear
) ( ) (
8
) ( ) (
4
) 3 (
1
4
) 3 (
z K wH z K
H w
z y EI z Q
b
× · − · − ·

QUIZ:
Explain, without any calculation, why 1 ) 0 (
4
· K if 0 · α .

See Figure 11.8 on p.270 or Figure A2.4 on p.505 of Smith &
Coull

• wall shear becomes negative near top of wall as α
increases

QUIZ:
Does this contradicts the boundary conditions?

At the top, boundary condition d) says

0 ) ( ' ) (
) 3 (
· − H y GA H y EI

So, concentrated force at the top of the wall is given by

) ( ' ) (
) 3 (
H y GA H y EI Q
H
− · − ·

If 0 ) ( ' > H y (which is often the case), 0 <
H
Q , i.e.,
H
Q acts
opposite to the direction of load.

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
12
Frame moment
The frame moment can be obtained as the external moment
minus the wall moment:
) (
2 2
) (

) (
2
) (
) (
3
2 2
2
z K
H w z H w
z M
z H w
z M
b s

·

·

Frame shear
The frame shear is equal to the external shear minus the wall
shear at that level:
) ( ) ( ) ( z Q z H w z Q
b s
− − × ·

QUIZ:
Can we use the following formula for the frame shear? Is it
consistent with the previous formula?

) ( ' ) ( z y A G z Q
s
·

See Figure 11.10 on p.274 of Smith & Coull

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
13
7. Determination of parameters for continuum model

Equivalent value of I E

• Just the I E of wall.

Equivalent value of A G

For a shear beam,
dz
dy
A G Q ·
that is,
dz dy
Q
A G
/
·

Figure 3
• force needed to produce a unit slope of the shear beam

• force acting needed to cause a unit slope of a story of the
frame

We need to analyze the frame such as shown in Figure 3 (for
single bay) subjected to a lateral force Q and compute the
resulting lateral displacement ∆. The resulting ‘slope’
(analogous to the term dz dy / ) of the frame is then given by h / ∆
where h is the height of the story. The equivalent value of GA
is then obtained as

·

·
h Q
h
Q
GA
/

It is difficult to analyze the frame as it is a highly indeterminate
structure. The resulting expression for ∆ would be very
complicated and not amicable for use or getting insight. Instead,
we make some assumptions to reduce the structure to a
determinate one and obtain an approximate expression for h / ∆ .
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
14
Simplifying assumptions

• The hinges at the mid length of the columns and girders.

• Neglect axial deformation

With these assumptions, the result is

g c
EI
l Ph
EI
Ph
) ( 24 ) ( 24
2 3
+ · ∆

and hence
1
2
) ( 24 ) ( 24

1
1
]
1

¸

+ ·

·
g c
EI
l h
EI
h Ph
GA

• The factor
c
EI ) ( 24 comes from
c
EI ) ( 12 2× , and ‘ × 2 ’
comes from the fact that we have got 2 columns acting.

c
EI ) ( 12 is the familiar term appearing in the lateral
stiffness of a fixed-fixed end beam. Similarly for
g
EI ) ( 24 .

EXERCISE:
Derive the expression for ∆. (Hint: virtual work method)

For multiple bays, the expression for GA is analogous:

1
) / 12 ( ) / 12 (

1
1
]
1

¸

+ ·
∑ ∑ g g c
l EI
h
h EI
h
GA

where
∑c
sums over all columns and
∑g
sums over all
girders in the story, where l represents the length of each girder.
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
1
Tubular structures

1. Introduction

• Lateral load predominantly resisted by perimeter rigid-jointed
structural frame

• Perimeter frames act together to give substantially greater
lateral resistance than acting alone

• Deep spandrel girders at the perimeter frame are needed for
strong coupling

• Suitable for both steel and reinforced concrete construction

• 100+ stories possible (e.g., WTC in NYC: 110 stories, 411m
high, aspect ratio 6.5:1)

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
2
2. Basic cantilever behavior and discrepancies

• cantilever in bending (plane section remains plane).

1) The elongation of a column is proportional to its
perpendicular distance from the common neutral axis of
bending

2) The perimeter frames perpendicular to the wind direction act
as the ‘flange’ part of the section, and resist primary the
moment resultant of the building section. For this reason,
they are called ‘flange frame’.

3) The perimeter frames parallel to the direction of the wind act
as the ‘web’ part of the section, and resist primary the shear
resultant of the building section. For this reason, they are
called ‘web frame’.

Fig. 1: Idealized behavior of tubular structure

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
3
Separate perimeter frames

To understand the interaction between the web-frames and
flange-frames, first consider four perimeter frames without
connections, but connected by (in-plane) rigid floors only. In
this case,

1) The frames act individually

2) The web-frames are bending in their strong direction while
the flange frames in their weak direction

3) As a result, the web-frames provide the majority of the lateral
resistance, while the lateral resistance from the flange frames
is negligible.

4) The columns of the flange-frames bend with their own
neutral axis.

Fig. 2: Perimeter frames acting individually
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
4
Perimeter frames connected together (Tubular structures)

For tubular structures, the four perimeter frames are connected
through the common columns.

1) The corner columns transmit vertical shear force from the
web-frames to the flange frames

2) The corner columns on the windward side are pulled up.
Through the spandrel girders, the inner columns of the
flange-frames on the pulled up also, but the extent depends
on the bending stiffness of the spandrel girders.

3) The phenomenon that the inner columns do not deform the
same degree as the corner columns due to flexibility of the
spandrel beams is known as shear lag.

Fig. 3: Perimeter frames acting together to form a tubular
structure

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
5
3. Equivalent 2-D model for tubular structures

• Illustrated using the tubular structure shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
6

Fig. 5(a): Equivalent 2-D model for Fig. 4
(based on left-right symmetry)

Notes to Fig.5(a):

1) based on considering left portion of building

2) the sign represents that the vertical displacement of the
nodes connected by the sign are constrained to be equal; it
models the connection between flange-frame and web-frame

3) apply wind load to the web-frames, but not the flange-frames

4) symmetric B.C. at mid girder of flange-frames

5) apply wind load to web-frame, but not flange-frames

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
7

Fig. 5(b): Equivalent 2-D model for Fig. 4
(based on left-right skew symmetry of Fig. 5a)

Notes to Fig.5(b):

1) skew-symmetric B.C. at mid column imposed by

a) 2 /
c
I I · to represent half column and

b) ∞ · A (or setting 0 · DY at the node)

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
8

Fig. 6(a): Equivalent 2-D models for Fig. 4
(based on top-bottom skew symmetry)

Notes to Fig.6(a):

1) Based on considering lower half of building

2) skew-symmetrical boundary condition (B.C.) at mid column
of web-frame imposed by a) 2 /
c
I I · to represent half
column and b) ∞ · A (or setting 0 · DY at the node)

3) wind load to the two web-frames acts in opposite direction to
be consistent with the direction of wind load in the original 3-
D model

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
9

Fig. 6(b): Equivalent 2-D models for Fig. 4
(based on left-right symmetry of Fig. 6a)

Notes to Fig.6(b):

1) symmetric B.C. at mid girder imposed by

a) zero horizontal displacement and

b) zero rotation

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
10
Interpreting FEM results

The equivalent 2-D model can be analyzed using any available
frame analysis program. The results should be interpreted
carefully. The followings are noteworthy:

1) The horizontal displacement of the web-frame in the 2-D
model represents the horizontal displacement in the load
direction of the 3-D model.

2) In the 2-D model, the axial force of the columns, bending
moment and shear force of the spandrel beams represent
those of the 3-D model.

3) The horizontal displacement of the flange-frame in the 2-D
model DOES NOT represent the horizontal displacement of
the 3-D model in the load direction. Rather, the latter is
assumed to be equal to the horizontal displacement of the
web-frame in the 2-D model, as a result of the rigid floor
assumption.

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
11

QUIZ:
Decide whether the following 2-D models can be used for
studying the structure subjected to the load as shown.

Fig. 7(a)

Fig. 7(b)

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
12
4. Reconciliation between tubular and frame model

Suppose we are given a floor plan of columns and beams. In
constructing an equivalent 2-D model, there are two natural
choices:

1) model the building as an assembly of frames connected with

2) model the building as a tubular structure

• Which one should we adopt? What factors tell us which

Suppose spandrel girders are planned to actuate the tubular
action, then what should the equivalent 2-D model for Fig.7(b)?
Let see what goes wrong with the 2-D model in Fig.7(b). In the
2-D model for Fig.7(b),

1) frame action in subframes 1, 2, 3 and 4 are modelled

2) rigid floor assumption is enforced through the rigid links

However, the effect of the spandrel girders in promoting tubular
action is not modeled. For example, the vertical movement of
columns A, B, C and D are not related directly. In summary,

Tubular action is NOT modeled in the 2-D model of Fig.7(b)

The inner columns and spandrel girders help promote tubular
action. With tubular actions enforced, the structure shown on the
left of Fig.7(b) is often known as bundled tube structure.
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
13
5. Equivalent 2-D model for bundled tube structure

EXERCISE:
Draw an equivalent 2-D model for the structure shown in
Fig.7(b), enforcing tubular action.

6. Couple with other lateral systems

If there are other lateral structural systems in the building that
bend with their own neutral axis, they can be represented in the
equivalent 2-D model by rigid links (rigid floor assumption),
assuming no twisting.
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
14

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
15

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au
16

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au

1
Miscellaneous topics

Creep/Relaxation

• Creep: deformation under constant load

• Relaxation: reduction of stress under constant strain

• Scientific origin of creep:
According to statistical/quantum mechanics atoms have a non-zero
strain rate even under constant load, at nonzero absolute temperatures
( 15 . 273 + ° · ° C K ).

• Creep in RC depends on

1. Temperature (higher temp., higher creep)

2. Steel ratio (higher steel ratio, lower creep)

3. Volume to surface area ratio (higher V/S ratio, lower creep)

• Creep effects are especially important in the design of structures
operating at elevated temperatures, e.g., engines, furnaces, structural
members against fire.

• Shear walls usually have a higher creep than columns since

1. it has a smaller steel ratio

2. it has smaller V/S ratio
CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au

2
Temperature effects under normal conditions (e.g., < 100 C ° )

• Essentially elastic under normal working conditions; may assume, e.g.,
E constant

• Induce deformation but no stress in determinate structures

• Induce deformation and stress in indeterminate structures

• Often serviceability concerns, e.g., cracks in in-filled panels, exterior
facet.

Thermal strain is often described by

Coefficient of thermal expansion, α = strain induced per C ° rise

In general, α depends on temperature, but average values may be used

C
C
C
° ×
¹
;
¹
° × ·
° × ·

/ 10 1 ~
/ 10 7 . 11
/ 10 9 . 9
5
6
steel
6
concrete
α
α

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au

3
Thermally-induced axial deformation

QUIZ:
Determine the strain, stress and displacement induced by the
temperature changes as shown.
T ∆ T ∆

T ∆ T ∆

T ∆ T ∆

(a) (b) (c)

Notes:

• Strictly speaking, there is no stress associated with thermal strain (which
is obvious in unrestrained situations).

• When there is mechanical restraints (e.g., axial expansion/contraction of
column is restricted), however, some mechanical strain will be induced
to compensate for the thermal strain in order to satisfy the restraint.

• The stress associated with such mechanical strain is often called thermal
stress.

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au

4

QUIZ:
Determine the axial force and top displacement for the followings.

T ∆ T ∆

EA T P ∆ ·α

(a) (b)

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au

5

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au

6
Thermally-induced flexural deformation

• Due to temperature gradient across section
• Temperature gradient often assumed linear across section
• Flexural effect may be superimposed with axial effect

2
2 1
T T
T
+
·
1
T
= +
Axial Flexural
2
T ∆

2
T ∆

2
T
Original

What is the curvature induced by the thermal gradient?

For any fibre at a distance r from the neutral
axis,

) ( ' ' / ) ( z y r R r r · · ε (1)

so at face 2 where 2 / b r · ,

) ( ' '
2
2
z y
b
· ε (2)

On the other hand,

2
2
T ∆
· α ε (3)

Combining (2) and (3) gives

b
T
z y

·
α
) ( ' ' (4)

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au

7

QUIZ:
Determine the moment and top lateral displacement for the following
siutations.

2
T ∆

2
T ∆

b
T
EI M

·
α

(a) (b)

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au

8

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au

9
Temperature effects at elevated temperatures (e.g., >100 C ° )

• A fire engineering problem

• RC column behavior is considerably nonlinear. The following effects
should also be considered:

o temperature dependence of E , α

o creep effects

o spalding (air inside concrete expand and burst off surface concrete)

CV415: Tall Buildings

Lecture Notes

S. K. Au

A simple problem: Single wall The wall is modeled as a cantilever fixed at its base, as shown in Figure 1. The governing differential equation is the familiar one from beam bending theory:
y ( 4) ( x) = q ( x) EI

(1)

Figure 1

QUIZ: Say whether each of the following is assumed in equation (1). 1) Linear stress-strain relationship 2) Elastic material 3) Plane-section remains plane in bending 4) Small deformation

EXERCISE: Derive (1) from scratch.

2

CV415: Tall Buildings

Lecture Notes

S. K. Au

To make things simple, let’s solve this DE for uniformly distributed load, i.e., q(x) = constant not dependent on x . To do that, we need to integrate (1) four times (why?). This will result in 4 integration constants, which can be determined by requiring y(x) to satisfy the boundary conditions of a cantilever: a) b) c) d)
y ( 0) = 0 y ' ( 0) = 0

y ( 2) ( H ) = 0 y ( 3) ( H ) = 0

QUIZ: What do the boundary conditions a)-d) mean?

The resulting solution for
y ( x) =
4

y (x)

is

qH 8 EI 1 quantity with unit of displacement (e.g., m)

×

x 4 x 1 x 2 ( )2 [2 − + ( ) ] H 5222 342222 2H 3 H 3 Variation with x / H

(2)

DO NOT MEMORIZE FORMULA WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING IT

QUIZ: 1. What is the deflection at the top of the cantilever? 2. What is the highest power of x / H appearing in (2)?

EXERCISE: 1. Verify that y (x) given by (2) satisfies the boundary conditions 1)-4) 2. Sketch the deflection shape of the cantilever.
3

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au The moment M (x) and shear force V (x) of a section at are given by: M ( x) = EI y ' ' ( x) x from the base V ( x) = − EI y (3) ( x) (3) (4) QUIZ: Say whether each of the following is assumed in equations (3) and (4). 4 . 1) Linear stress-strain relationship 2) Elastic material 3) Plane-section remains plane in bending 4) Small deformation EXERCISE: Sketch the moment and shear diagram.

pushes the external wall of building. Au 2. eventually from shear walls to the base.’ Wind blows. twisting or torsional deformation will occur. Two important phenomena: • Proportionate VS non-proportionate structures Proportionate: the ratio of flexural stiffness among the walls is constant with height. then from slabs to shear walls. K.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. in addition to translational deformation. Basic considerations • When there are more than one wall acting together. Wind load is transferred to floor slabs. the lateral load is distributed among the walls. 5 . • Twisting vs non-twisting deformation When either the load distribution or lateral stiffness of structure is not symmetric in plan. • The amount of load shared by each individual wall depends on their ‘stiffness.

Qualitative or Quantitative by FEM (equivalent 2-D) Twisting 2. K.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. Quantitative by hand 4. Au Non-twisting Proportionate Non-proportionate 1. Quantitative by hand calculation 3. Figure 2 6 . Qualitative or 3-D FEM QUIZ: Decide whether the following structures are proportionate or non-proportionate. Also decide whether they will twist when subjected to the load indicated.

the displacement of any point on the slab can be described in terms of a common translational and rotational component (see later) Equivalent 2-D models Assumption 2a allows us to use an ‘equivalent 2-D model’ to study a shear-wall structure (which is originally a 3-D problem): OR OR … Figure 3 7 . Au 3.Slab is rigid in-plane. the lateral displacement of all walls will be the same b) If there is twisting. K. This implies a) If there is no twisting deformation.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. Proportionate non-twisting structures Assumptions: 1) Shear walls deform in flexural (bending). 2) Rigid floor assumption .

although they all have the same displacement at any given level. K. This means each wall has its own neutral axis.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. For example: Figure 4: Wall bending with strain and neutral axis shown QUIZ: Draw an equivalent 2-D model for the situation in Figure 4.f. 8 . tubular structures later). Au Notes to equivalent 2-D model: 1) The rigid link means that the displacement of two walls at the same floor are the same 2) The rigid link is hinged at the two walls so it does not provide any bending resistance 3) The position of the wall is immaterial (why?) 4) Which wall the external lateral load acts on is immaterial (why?) 5) The walls bend individually. rather than having a common neutral axis for a group of walls (c.

. don’t let it disturb you) and M 1 ( x) = E1 ( x) I1 ( x) y ' ' ( x) which means 9 . we note that. Au Method for computing shear and moment in walls (e. for Wall 1. p. the distribution of shear does not depend on the level. EXERCISE: Distribution of shear based on a ‘continuum approach’ Figure 6 Referring to the figure.g. V1 ( x) = − dM 1 ( x) dx (the minus sign is necessary but unimportant. Smith & Coull. from beam bending theory.186): • Distribute shear and moment proportional to the flexural rigidity of the wall Why? The following exercise helps you conclude that: For proportionate non-twisting structures. Note that this does not mean that the shear taken by each wall does not depend on the level.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Only the ratio among them does not.

we have V2 ( x) = − d ' [ E2 ( x) I 2 ( x) y2' ( x)] dx 1) Is there any relationship between y1 ( x) and y2 ( x) ? If so. show that V1 ( x) c1 = V2 ( x) c2 and hence the shear distribution does not depend on the level x . From previous discussions. if we know the total shear of a give level of the building. what is it? 2) By substituting E1 ( x) I1 ( x) = c1E ( x) I ( x) into the expression for V1 ( x) and E2 ( x) I 2 ( x) = c2 E ( x) I ( x) into the expression for V2 ( x) . En I n (x) . n ) is proportional to Ei I i ( x) = ci E ( x) I ( x) .. Suppose the structure is proportionate. This means that for a proportionate non-twisting building. 3) Hence verify that V1 ( x) c1 E ( x ) I1 ( x ) = = 1 = constant V2 ( x) c2 E2 ( x) I 2 ( x) The previous exercise shows that the shear shared by a given wall at a given level x is proportional to EI of the wall. There are n walls with EI equal to E1I1 ( x) ... 10 . we know that the shear force Vi (x) taken by Wall i ( i = 1. so we can write Vi ( x) = K × Ei I i ( x) for some constant K independent of i . The same is also true for sharing of moment among the walls (why?). Au Note that of x . we can calculate the amount of shear shared by the wall by just proportioning based on EI of the wall. d [ E1 ( x) I1 ( x) y1'' ( x)] dx V1 ( x) ≠ − E1 ( x) I1 ( x) y ' ' ' ( x) because E1 ( x) I1 ( x) V1 ( x) = − is in general a function If we do the same thing for Wall 2.. ….CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K.

K. we have V1 ( x) + V2 ( x) + 6 + Vn ( x) = V K × E1I1 ( x) + K × E2 I 2 ( x) + 6 + K × En I n ( x) = V and so K= V ( x) = E1I1 ( x) + E2 I 2 ( x) + 6 + En I n ( x) V ( x) ∑ E I ( x) i =1 i i n Thus. the shear taken by Wall i is given by Vi ( x) = Ei I i ( x) 5 42 2 3 distribution factor total shear for Wall i taken by wall group The same is true for the moment taken by the wall. YOU DON’T NEED TO REMEMBER THIS FORMULA IF YOU UNDERSTAND ITS MEANING. Au QUIZ: Does K depend on x ? Why? Since the sum of the shear taken by the walls must balance the total shear V at the section of the building. The following exercise helps you illustrate that the ‘equivalent’ EI of the group of walls is equal to the sum of the EI of the walls. ∑ E I ( x) i =1 i i n × V ( x) 1 11 .CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.

.... and noting that the terms w1 ( x ). K. 12 . the equivalent lateral stiffness of the group of walls is equal to the sum of the individual stiffness.. Summing the above n equations. y ( 4) ( x) = q( x) ∑ E ( x) I ( x) i =1 i i n Note that this equation is identical to that of a single wall with an n ‘equivalent stiffness’ equal to ∑ E1 ( x) I1 ( x) ... w2 ( x).CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.. wn−1 ( x) arise from the interaction between the walls. and hence we conclude that: i =1 When multiple walls are connected through rigid links. Au Equivalent stiffness of wall group based on a continuum approach The following shows that the ‘equivalent lateral stiffness’ of a wall group is equal to the sum of the stiffness of all the walls. We first write down the beam equation for each wall individually (note the indices): Wall 1 Wall 2 Wall 3 7 Wall n : : E1 ( x) I1 ( x) y ( 4) ( x) E2 ( x ) I 2 ( x ) y ( x ) (4) ( 4) = = 7 q ( x) − w1 ( x) w1 ( x) − w2 ( x) 7 : E3 ( x) I 3 ( x) y ( x) 7 : En ( x ) I n ( x ) y ( 4 ) ( x ) = w2 ( x) − w3 ( x) Wall n − 1 : En −1 ( x) I n −1 ( x) y ( 4) ( x) = wn − 2 ( x) − wn −1 ( x) = wn −1 ( x) Note that the term q(x) is the external loading and the terms w1 ( x ). w2 ( x). we obtain [ E1 ( x) I1 ( x) + E2 ( x) I 2 ( x) + 6 + En ( x) I n ( x)] y ( 4) ( x) = q ( x) that is. wn−1 ( x) are all canceled in the summation.

Note that if Wall 2 is absent. E2 and I 2 3) Note that ∆1 = ∆ 2 (why?). find an expression for ∆1 (or ∆ 2 ) in terms of P . you should be able to get P= 3 ( E1I1 + E2 I 2 ) 52 H 22 2 4 3 equivalent stiffness 3 ∆1 The middle term is the ‘equivalent stiffness’ of this group of walls. 13 . EXERCISE: Figure 7 1) Give an expression for ∆1 in terms of P . if Wall 1 is absent. Q . K. By rearranging the answer for 3).CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. and similarly. the stiffness is 3E1I1 / H 3 . I1 . the stiffness is 3E2 I 2 / H 3 . E2 and I 2 . Au The following exercise helps you get a better feel of the above result based on what you have learnt from elementary beam formulae. E1 . By eliminating Q in the expressions obtained in 1) and 2). E1 and I1 (Hint: look it up from a text book) 2) Give an expression for ∆ 2 in terms of Q .

Figure 8 14 . Which one has a greater horizontal displacement at point A? (a) Figure 5 (b) QUIZ: According to our ‘shear wall theory. arrange the following wall configurations in ascending order of lateral stiffness. and the lateral loads are the same in both cases. Au QUIZ: Assume the walls are of the same material and thickness.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K.’ assuming the walls are all the same.

when the four walls are connected as shown in Fig. Au QUIZ: According to our ‘shear wall theory. i.. For example. they act together. they act as a ‘section’. The approximate equivalent EI should then be calculated as ( EI ) Fig .’ assuming the walls are all of the same thickness and material. when the walls are not connected. through concrete and reinforcement). the equivalent lateral stiffness of the wall group is just the sum of the individual stiffnesses. ( EI ) Fig . together so that they deform as a whole.9( c ) 2 t b3 b ≈ 2× + 2×b t ×  = 4× = 4 × ( EI ) Fig .g.e. in Fig. 9(b) above.9(c). which stems out from this idea. called ‘tubular structures’.9( b ) b t 3   t 2  t b3 = 2× + 2× = 1 +    ≈ 12 12 6  b  6   t b3 b t3 since t b is small However. 15 . or in general lateral systems.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. we will see one form of structural system.. Later. arrange the following wall configurations in ascending order of lateral stiffness. providing much greater lateral stiffness. (a) (b) Figure 9 (c) Walls acting together When walls are connected (e.9( b ) 12 6 2 t b3 The above suggests that a significant amount of stiffness can be gained by ‘couple’ the walls.

twisting is NOT a property of a structure. However.. It is OK to use these terms. Strictly speaking.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. e. Proportionate shear wall structures with twisting QUIZ: Decide whether the following structures are proportionate or non-proportionate. Also decide whether they will twist when subjected to the load indicated. twisting will occur when the ‘stiffness center’ does not coincide with the ‘section resultant center’. K. the load distribution is symmetric in quite many situations (e. unit-directional wind load).g. 16 .. It depends on BOTH the load pattern and the structural configuration.g. and so ‘twisting’ may often be associated with the structure. ‘twisting structure’ or ‘nontwisting structure’. but bear in mind that twisting in general depends on both the loading and structure. Figure 10 Two common situations where twisting will occur: 1) the load distribution is symmetric but the structure (wall configuration) is not symmetric 2) the load is not symmetric but the structure is symmetric In general. Au 4.

.188-190 In what follows. Au Method : E.g. • Assuming the floor is rigid in-plane. the variation of the deformation at different walls must be linear. we will illustrate WHY and HOW a building twists in Case 1). Consider the portion of a building above a certain level. 17 .e. Case 2) will be left as an exercise.. see Smith & Coull. In general. such linear variation of deformation can always be decoupled into two components 1) translational (i. columns). p.. The general case follows from superposition. K. the resultant shear acting on a section at any level must balance the load resultant (in terms of force and twisting moment).CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. every wall moves by the same amount in the same direction) 2) rotational (the walls move around a common point by the same angle). Figure 11 • The section resultant originates from the stresses at the section of the connecting members (i. • Just as a line y = a x + b can always be written as a constant b plus a linear variation a x . • The stresses are caused by deformation (strains).e.

Au Figure 12 Figure 13 18 .CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K.

we need to know where the walls rotate about. • The shear force in the walls can be considered as contributed from translational and rotational deformation. which give rise to a sectional resultant of shear force. Since the deformation is pure translational. and so we can use the results about proportionate nontwisting structures. there is no twisting.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. which says that the shear force is distributed proportional to the EI of the wall: Qi (no twisting) = Ei I i ∑E I j =1 j n ×V j The less-trivial task lies in the determination of the twisting component. The distribution of the shear forces in the shear walls must be such that 1) the force is balanced 2) the moment is balanced The translation contribution of shear force in the walls can be easily determined from 1). How can we determine that? What law/principle/assumption. Au • The lateral displacement of each wall causes stresses in the section. K. which is essentially what you need to learn in this section. First of all. etc helps us find that? 19 .

by an angle θ clockwise.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. say. Au Center of rotation To invoke your thinking. that is. 12. Anything wrong? Figure 14 QUIZ: Anything wrong? 20 . to the first order. Wall 2 will move by x2 θ and Wall 3 will move by x3 θ . Wall 1 will not translate. let’s look at what happens if the center of rotation is (arbitrarily) assumed to be at the left end. all the walls rotate about the point C in Fig. Then. K.

y 2 ( z) = ( x2 − x ) θ ( z) . Figure 15: Center of rotation. Au The center of rotation has to be such that the corresponding distribution of shear force in the walls must have a zero resultant. …. dz d d ' Q2 ( z ) = − [E 2 ( z ) I 2 ( z ) y 2' ( z )] = −( x 2 − x ) [E 2 ( z ) I 2 ( z )θ ' ' ( z )]. n will be given by d d [E1 ( z ) I1 ( z) y1'' ( z)] = −( x1 − x ) dz [E1 ( z ) I1 ( z )θ ' ' ( z)]. 2. … y n ( z) = ( xn − x ) θ ( z) The corresponding shear force in Wall 1. So let’s use this principle to find the location of the center of rotation. …. K.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. suppose the center of rotation is at a distance x from the left end. as shown in Figure 13. n will be given by y1 ( z ) = ( x1 − x ) θ ( z ) . dz dz … d d ' Qn ( z ) = − [E n ( z ) I n ( z ) y n' ( z )] = −( x n − x ) [E n ( z ) I n ( z )θ ' ' ( z )] dz dz Q1 ( z ) = − 21 . In particular. 2. The displacements at Wall 1.

m2 . K. the shear (due to rotation) shared by a wall is proportional to • the distance of the wall from the center of rotation and • the flexural rigidity of the wall (why?) Summing the shear forces in all the walls and setting it to zero: n ∑c i =1 i ( xi − x ) g ( z ) = 0 which yields (since g ( z ) ≠ 0 ) x= ∑ c x ∑ E ( z) I ( z) i =1 n i i n n ∑ ci i =1 = i =1 i i xi ∑ E ( z) I ( z) i =1 i i n If we recall the definition of the center of mass of a group of masses m1 . dz This means. Substituting into the expression for Vi (z ) gives d [E ( z ) I ( z )θ ' ' ( z )] = ci ( xi − x ) g ( z ) Qi ( z ) = −ci ( xi − x ) dz where g ( z ) = − d [E ( z ) I ( z )θ ' ' ( z )].CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. Ei ( z ) I i ( z ) = ci E ( z ) I ( z ) for some E ( z ) I ( z ) which does not depend on i . Au Since the structure is proportionate. mn : xm = then it is natural to call x ∑m i =1 n i =1 n i xi i ∑m the ‘center of rigidity’. at a given level z . …. 22 .

CV415: Tall Buildings

Lecture Notes

S. K. Au

QUIZ: What law/principle/assumption/requirement, etc., is used to find the location of the center of rigidity?

QUIZ: Considering the rotational component of shear forces in the walls. Is the distribution necessarily linear among the walls?

The following exercise shows that the center of rigidity is indeed the location where the resultant of the translational component of the shear forces of the wall system acts.

EXERCISE: Find the location where the resultant translational component of the shear forces of all the walls acts and verify that it coincides with the center of rotation.

23

CV415: Tall Buildings

Lecture Notes

S. K. Au

The walls twist about the center of rigidity of the wall system. Now that we know center of rotation, we can pursue further to find the amount of shear shared by the walls due to twisting action. Recall

Qi (rotational component) =

g ( z) 543 2 2
constant for given z (to be determined)

×

c × ( xi − x ) 5 i3 4 543 2
related to

rigidity of wall i

moment arm of Wall i from center of rigidity

So far g (z ) is unknown, and we have to determine its value. This is accomplished by considering the moment equilibrium of the building section. Referring to Fig. 15 showing the forces acting on a building section. For convenience the location of the walls are measured from the center of rotation. The distance of the load resultant from the center of rigidity is commonly called ‘eccentricity’, and is denoted by e here. Recall that the center of rotation coincides with the center of rigidity, and therefore the resultant of the translational component of wall shears passes through the center of rotation. Summing moments about the center of rotation, we have:

g ( z) c × − x) ∑ 5224( x 23 × 2
i =1 i i

n

( xi − x ) 543 2 2
moment arm from center of rotation

=

V ( z) × 5 42 2 3

5e3 4
distance of load resultant from center of rotation

rotational component of shear force of Wall i

After some algebra, we obtain

g ( z) =

V ( z) e

∑c
i =1

n

i

× ( xi − x ) 2

24

CV415: Tall Buildings

Lecture Notes

S. K. Au

and so

Qi (rotational) = V ( z ) ×

c i ( xi − x ) e

∑c
j =1

n

= V ( z) ×
2

Ei ( z ) I i ( z )( xi − x ) e

j

(x j − x)

( z)I j ( z) × ( x j − x ) 2 1 j =1 4 3 total 52222 2222
j

∑E

n

shear

distribution factor

We are almost done. The shear force taken by each wall is a sum of the translational and rotational component, that is,
Qi ( z ) = Qi (z)(translational) + Qi (z)(rotationa l) = V ( z) × Ei ( z ) I i ( z )

( z) j =1 5222 222 4 3
j j

∑ E ( z)I

n

+ V ( z) ×

Ei ( z ) I i ( z )( xi − x ) e

( z) × ( x j − x )2 j =1 5222224222223
j j

∑ E ( z) I

n

translational component

twisting component

To help you get a feel for the formula, note that 1) the shear shared by a given wall is a sum of translational and rotational component 2) the translational component is proportional to EI of the wall 3) the rotational component is related to EI × moment arm × eccentricity

25

depending on the actual dimensions Structure Symmetric Not symmetric Load Symmetric Not symmetric Table 1 QUIZ: What law/principle/assumption. is used to find the twisting component of shear shared by each wall? QUIZ: What law/principle/assumption. K. say which of the following statements is true (note that the statements exhaust all possibilities): 1) twisting must occur 2) twisting must not occur 3) twisting may or may not occur. is used to find the translational component of shear shared by each wall? 26 . etc. etc.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.. Au QUIZ: In each configuration in Table 1..

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. to determine the shear shared by each wall in a given level of a proportionate shear wall structure that may twist under the applied load: 1) determine the total shear at the level of the building 2) find the translational component of the shear shared by each wall 3) compute the location of the center of rotation. The equations involved in the calculations are deliberately omitted in the summary. You should have a good idea of what they look like. and should not be taken as a recipe. which coincides with the location where the resultant of the translational components acts 4) compute the twisting component of shear shared by each wall 5) sum the translational and twisting component of shear to give the shear force shared by each wall The summary only serves to clarify what we have learnt so far. 27 . Au In summary. K.

• When no twisting occurs. • the determination of shear shared by each wall requires more sophisticated analysis methods. K.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. Au 5. even in the absence of twisting. such as finite element method. 2-D equivalent models may be used (which requires finite elements) 28 . Non-proportionate structures • the shear force shared by each wall is not necessarily proportional to its rigidity.

4 d /b 0. I edge decreses in a cubic manner (quite fast!) while I center decreases in a much slower fashion. Au Effect of opening at the base Opening on the edge of wall I edge w(b − d ) 3 wb 3  d  = = × 1 −  12 12  b 3 d /2 d /2 b Opening in the center of wall I center  b−d 3  2  w( 2 )  b − d  b + d   = 2×  + w    12  2  4        2 2 3 wb 1  d   d   d  = × 1 −  1 −  + 3 1 +   12 4  b   b  b     1 edge IIcenter wb 33/ 12 wb / 12 d b 0. opening at the center rather than at the edge gives 6 times stiffer base! 29 .CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. As an illustrative example. then I center / I edge = 7 . that is.2 0 0 0. although both correspond to the same reduction in section shear area. d /b As The ratio of I center to 2 I edge is given by: I center 1  1+ d / b   = 1 + 3   I edge 4 1 − d / b     Note that the ratio depends only the the ratio of d to b .4 edge I center wb33 // 12 wb 12 I 0.2 0. This means that taking out material in the center will have a less severe effect on the flexural resistance than from the edge. if d / b = 1 / 2 . K.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 1 Figure 16 increases.

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. orientation) o Material/sectional property (e. plate.. e.g. beam. e.. shell. or degree-of-freedom (DOF): o DX: horizontal displacement o DY: vertical displacement o DZ: rotation (how much the element has rotated at the node) • Each node associated with a beam element has 3 element forces: o FX: horizontal force o FY: vertical force o MZ: moment • Results (displacement. length. specifies the behaviour of the element o Connectivity (“which” and “how” the nodes form the element. K. internal force) are computed AT THE NODES ONLY • Intuition can help understand sign convention adopted 30 . Au 2-D Finite Element Models • The walls are divided and modelled as beam elements (other types of elements are also possible) • The nodes specify the geometrical layout of the model • Elements are formed among nodes • An element is characterized by its o Element type.. E.g. determines the geometry of the element.g. I) • Each node associated with a beam element has 3 displacement responses.

K. Finite element model for the 2-D equivalent model 20 19 20 40 39 40 60 59 60 Roof 20/F 2nd node M2 3 2 1 3 2 1 23 22 21 23 22 21 43 42 41 43 42 41 4/F 3/F 2/F FY2 FX2 y FY1 1/F M1 1 node st x Wall 1 Wall 2 Wall 3 (half) FX1 (a) Finite element model (b) Element force definition 31 . Au Illustrative example (Smith & Coull. p.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.192) QUIZ: Is the shearwall structure proportionate? Will it twist? QUIZ: Draw an equivalent 2-D model for the shearwall structure.

00e+000 -2.00e+000 -1.56e-002 0.47e-003 19 6.36e-003 34 4.56e-002 0.55e-004 22 1.04e-002 0.48e-003 20 7.00e+000 -1.91e-004 49 1.41e-003 35 4.40e-003 0.12e-002 0.04e-003 0.00e+000 -1.00e+000 -4.00e+000 -1.00e+000 -5.44e-003 36 5.44e-002 0.46e-003 37 5.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.00e-003 0.47e-003 59 6.64e-002 0.00e+000 -8.69e-004 28 1.36e-003 14 4.08e-002 0.59e-002 0.26e-003 52 3.12e-002 0.09e-002 0.77e-004 0.00e+000 -1.55e-004 42 1.46e-003 57 5.26e-003 32 3.32e-003 13 3.59e-002 0.00e+000 -7.47e-003 39 6.00e+000 -1.36e-003 54 4.00e+000 -9.48e-003 41 2.04e-003 0.11e-002 0.05e-002 0.26e-003 12 3.00e+000 -1.47e-003 18 6.07e-003 0.00e-003 0.95e-004 43 2.00e+000 -1.00e+000 -9.00e+000 -6.00e+000 -1.55e-004 2 1.21e-002 0.00e+000 -7.90e-004 29 1.00e+000 -1.18e-004 47 1.00e+000 -1.00e+000 -1.10e-003 30 2.00e+000 -1.00e+000 -1.47e-003 38 6.47e-003 58 6.56e-002 0.64e-002 0.05e-002 0.40e-003 0.00e+000 -4.44e-002 0.00e+000 -1.00e+000 -1.21e-004 4 4.04e-002 0.11e-002 0.81e-002 0.00e+000 -1.07e-003 0.95e-004 3 2.00e+000 -1.95e-004 23 2.00e+000 -1.19e-003 51 2.32e-004 5 6.40e-003 0.32e-003 33 3.00e+000 -8.32e-004 45 6.21e-002 0.00e+000 -1.33e-003 0.65e-004 48 1.09e-002 0.08e-002 0.33e-003 0.00e+000 -1.00e+000 -1.00e+000 -1.05e-002 0.30e-004 46 8.00e+000 -1.33e-004 26 8.00e+000 -1.00e+000 -1.07e-003 0.92e-004 9 1.10e-003 50 2.00e+000 -6.48e-003 21 2.64e-004 8 1.00e+000 -7.00e+000 -4.00e+000 -1.33e-003 0.00e+000 -1.21e-004 24 4.00e+000 -2.00e+000 -5.32e-003 53 3.41e-003 15 4.19e-003 31 2.44e-003 16 5.48e-003 32 .19e-003 11 2.04e-002 0.46e-003 17 5.06e-004 27 1.08e-002 0.44e-003 56 5.00e+000 -8.21e-002 0.00e+000 -6.00e+000 -1.54e-002 0.04e-003 0.10e-003 10 2. K.56e-002 0.00e+000 -1.29e-004 6 8.77e-004 0.00e+000 -1.00e+000 -1.64e-002 0.00e+000 -1.81e-002 0.00e+000 -1.81e-002 0.00e+000 -5.00e+000 -1.11e-002 0.54e-002 0.54e-002 0.00e+000 -2.41e-003 55 4.56e-002 0.21e-004 44 4.00e+000 -1.59e-002 0.09e-002 0.48e-003 60 7.00e+000 -1.44e-002 0.00e-003 0.21e-004 7 1.56e-002 0.00e+000 -9.12e-002 0. Au FEM RESULTS: NODAL DISPLACEMENTS ================================ Node DX (m) DY (m) DZ (rad) 1 2.48e-003 40 7.00e+000 -1.31e-004 25 6.77e-004 0.00e+000 -1.

89e+004 0.99e+005 43 -7.11e+005 31 -1.37e+005 0.30e+004 0.00e+000 0.40e+005 48 -5.50e+006 2.19e+007 5.00e+000 0.00e+000 5.49e+007 4.00e+000 1.00e+000 0.68e+006 1.00e+000 1.95e+005 0.00e+000 2.47e+004 -1.00e+000 0.31e+006 4.00e+000 0.00e+000 0.00e+000 0.38e+004 40 -4.00e+000 0.00e+000 0.70e+004 60 -2.02e+005 0.74e+005 7 -2.00e+000 0.78e+004 0.64e+004 1.63e+004 0.00e+000 1.05e+005 58 -1.00e+000 0.00e+000 6.12e+005 0.00e+000 2.00e+000 2.50e+005 12 -3.30e+006 -1.32e+007 -1.00e+000 1.92e+005 0.90e+005 0.00e+000 3.77e+005 0.55e+006 2.15e+007 -4.11e+005 -2.09e+005 1.33e+004 39 -1.94e+005 0.00e+000 0.36e+005 0.00e+000 0.79e+005 0.31e+004 0.84e+007 5.00e+000 0.26e+006 4.00e+000 0.01e+007 6.31e+006 -3.00e+000 5.41e+005 28 -3.21e+005 34 -8.46e+007 -2.00e+000 0.40e+005 0.30e+005 18 -9.19e+007 -1.00e+000 0.55e+006 3.00e+000 0.00e+000 1.00e+000 0.44e+005 0.07e+005 0.00e+000 2.00e+000 1.00e+000 0.03e+007 8.90e+005 49 -5.05e+006 1.13e+006 -6.00e+000 2.00e+000 1.09e+005 -4.00e+000 3.74e+005 8.00e+000 0.11e+005 0.74e+007 -2.32e+007 -4.38e+006 1.60e+006 8.66e+007 4.00e+000 9.00e+000 0.89e+004 FY2 (N) 0.15e+007 1.85e+006 4.16e+007 -9.70e+004 0.63e+003 0.00e+000 1.49e+005 0.99e+006 -1.11e+005 0.11e+005 4.44e+005 59 -8.00e+000 0.47e+007 6.05e+005 0.00e+000 8.00e+000 1.00e+000 0.78e+007 -1.00e+000 6.46e+005 2.00e+000 1.50e+005 0.21e+005 0.50e+005 0.00e+000 2. K.18e+004 38 -2.00e+000 1.46e+005 -6.78e+007 5.38e+005 0.00e+000 1.00e+000 1.62e+007 -1.00e+000 0.58e+006 3.12e+005 0.73e+005 54 -2.00e+000 0.65e+005 0.74e+005 0.00e+000 0.15e+007 -1.00e+000 1.58e+006 -2.79e+005 17 -1.60e+007 8.65e+005 15 -1.46e+005 42 -7.00e+000 0.00e+000 1.42e+005 50 -4.73e+005 0.00e+000 5.63e+004 33 -1.47e+004 1.65e+005 5.00e+000 0.99e+005 9.00e+000 0.00e+000 3.90e+004 21 -5.67e+004 0.00e+000 0.30e+004 26 -1.58e+005 0.00e+000 0.00e+000 0.41e+005 47 -6.75e+006 3.16e+006 1. FX1 (N) FY1 (N) MZ1 (Nm) FX2 (N) 1 -6.00e+000 4.00e+000 1.38e-007 -1.58e+005 30 -1.00e+000 0.00e+000 0.00e+000 0.95e+005 23 -4.30e+005 0.73e+006 4.46e+005 0.50e+005 57 -2.00e+000 1.63e+006 2.63e+006 -9.93e+006 -2.92e+005 11 -4.00e+000 0.00e+000 0.55e+006 -5.30e+006 -8.26e+006 -6.00e+000 2.60e+007 -1.00e+000 2.99e+005 0.62e+005 -4.41e+005 0.40e+007 -1.00e+000 8.63e+003 41 -8.34e+007 5.50e+005 0.58e+005 3.58e+005 -1.46e+007 7.00e+000 0.28e+005 0.41e+005 0.07e+006 -2.01e+007 -1.38e+005 4 -5.00e+000 0.37e+005 8 -6.00e+000 0.00e+000 0.00e+000 2.40e+007 -1.62e+004 4.00e+000 0.30e+006 1.00e+000 1.28e+005 55 -3.00e+000 0.00e+000 0.00e+000 9.00e+000 0.36e+005 52 -4.01e+005 1.86e+006 27 -5.78e+004 29 -1.49e+007 -1.37e+004 37 -3.33e+004 0.00e+000 5.49e+005 3 -6. Au Ele.11e+005 22 -4.48e+007 2.00e+000 0.50e+006 -1.00e+000 0.75e+006 -2.00e+007 4.23e+007 6.00e+000 1.66e+007 -1.94e+005 14 -3.05e+005 -1.00e+000 1.74e+005 -5.93e+006 1.00e+000 0.12e+005 0.00e+000 4.91e-006 33 .00e+000 1.85e+006 -8.13e+006 4.00e+000 0.00e+007 -8.92e+004 35 -4.CV415: Tall Buildings FEM RESULTS: ELEMENT FORCE ========================== Lecture Notes S.68e+005 0.00e+000 1.54e+004 0.77e+005 16 -1.80e+005 45 -8.00e+000 0.91e+005 2 -6.00e+000 MZ2 (Nm) -2.07e+006 3.91e+005 0.40e+005 25 -1.60e+006 -1.30e+006 1.62e+007 6.73e+006 -5.12e+005 6 4.62e+004 -4.67e+004 20 -1.96e+006 5.00e+000 0.00e+000 0.37e+004 0.56e+005 0.15e+007 1.65e+005 -6.16e+006 -4.67e+007 1.32e+005 24 -5.64e+004 -2.74e+007 7.86e+006 0.99e+005 51 -4.23e+007 -2.80e+005 0.99e+006 1.00e+000 0.00e+000 6.67e+007 -1.48e+007 -1.19e+007 6.47e-008 -2.68e+005 44 -6.92e+004 0.32e+005 0.12e+005 32 -8.85e+005 9 -5.56e+005 13 -4.00e+000 6.00e+000 1.00e+000 0.19e+007 -1.00e+000 0.85e+005 0.16e+007 5.50e+005 53 -1.05e+005 8.18e+004 0.00e+000 4.00e+000 2.01e+005 2.95e+007 8.00e+000 8.34e+007 -1.95e+007 -1.58e+005 0.55e+006 -3.40e+007 6.40e+007 5.00e+000 4.54e+004 19 -5.00e+000 1.00e+000 0.99e+005 -2.40e+005 0.00e+000 1.02e+005 46 -1.00e+000 2.05e+006 -5.00e+000 1.00e+000 2.38e+004 0.12e+005 5 -8.68e+006 -1.00e+000 0.31e+004 36 -4.00e+000 3.62e+005 4.38e+006 -1.42e+005 0.99e+005 0.00e+000 0.07e+005 10 -4.96e+006 -3.58e+005 56 -2.00e+000 1.90e+004 0.

FX1+FX2 = 0? • Top and bottom moment at each node should balance? • Top and bottom shear at each node should balance? 34 . displacement = rotation = 0? • At every floor. • For every floor. all walls have the same DX? • For each element. K. Verify your claim using results from the FEM output. Au QUIZ: Say whether each of the following should hold in the FEM output. sum of wall shears = external shear? • For every floor. sum of wall moments = external moment? • At the base.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.

Au 20 18 16 14 12 Floor 10 8 6 External moment 4 2 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 Wall moment (kN m) 0 x 10 2 4 Wall 1 Wall 2 Wall 3 (half) Wall moment distribution (piece-wise linear) 20 18 16 14 12 Floor 10 8 6 4 2 0 -500 0 500 1000 1500 Wall shear (kN) 2000 2500 External shear Wall 1 Wall 2 Wall 3 (half) Wall shear distribution with floor level (note the shear at change levels 6 and 13) 35 . K.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.

Au 25 20 15 Floor 10 5 0 Wall 1 (including external force) Wall 2 Wall 3 (half) Force transferred from Floor slab to walls (note that adjacent force pairs do not necessarily balance) QUIZ: Does the floor slab forces sum to zero at each floor? 36 . K.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.

Method of analysis Case Twisting Non-twisting Non-twisting (assuming simple loading and structural property) Method 3-D FEM 2-D FEM (equiv. K. Au Wall-frame structures 1.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.. Introduction • In low rise structures (e. the lateral load shared by the frame increases • Economical up to 50 stories 2. 1 . Equivalent 2-D model • Consider non-twisting cases only • Assume (In-plane) Rigid-floor • Flexural stiffness of lintel beams (that connects the wall and the frame) is often (but not always) neglected.g. shear walls take the majority of the lateral load • As height of structure increases. less than 20 stories). 2-D • continuum • analytical 3. 2-D model) • equiv.

2 (a)-(c) of Smith & Coull (p.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.256). K. 2 . Au EXERCISE: Draw an equivalent 2-D model for the structures in Figures 11.

their stiffness ADD.. K. or mathematically. Frames and shear walls deform differently.3 of Smith & Coull (p. 3 . and as a result their stiffness DO NOT ADD. i. the stiffness of the wall-group is just the sum of the individual stiffness.e. the walls bend in the same manner. See Figure 11. Figure 1(a) Figure 1(b) QUIZ: Is the equivalent stiffness of a frame-wall group equal to the sum of the stiffness of the frames and walls? Why? In the case of proportionate shear-wall structures.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. As a result. the governing differential equations for the deflection of the different walls are of the same form.258). That’s why we need this chapter. Au Coupling of wall and frame QUIZ: Determine ∆ in the following situations.

Idealization Discrete Shear wall Frame Concentrated load At floor level Continuum Flexural beam Shear beam Distributed load along beam Simplification (see later) • Flexural stiffness of beam (for shear wall) = constant • Shear stiffness of shear beam (for frame) = constant • Distributed load = constant 4 . • An elegant way of describing the behavior of the framewall system in terms of differential equations. which helps interpret the computer results and detect possible errors.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Continuum approach Why continuum? • To gain insights about the structural behavior. Au 4.

in the sense that the interstory drift is approximately proportional to the shear force acting at the story (see later). that is. Au 3. K. 5 . does not depend on x . Behavior of Frame (shear beam) • as shear beam. Behavior of Wall (flexural beam) The differential equation for the deflection of the wall is that of a flexural beam: d2 [E ( z ) I ( z ) y ( 2) ( z )] = w( z ) (1) 2 dz If the rigidity E ( z ) I ( z ) is constant with height. which deform purely in shear (no bending) o DOES NOT mean that the columns deform in shear deformation o just means that the frame as a whole deforms like a shear beam.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. then w( z ) y ( 4) ( z ) = (2) EI The boundary conditions for a fixed-free situation are: a) y ( 0) = 0 b) y ' ( 0) = 0 y ( 2) ( H ) = 0 c) d) y ( 3) ( H ) = 0 4.

the value of G and A is NOT necessarily the corresponding values of the columns By static equilibrium (Figure 2(c)).CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. Au Figure 2: Shear beam The shear force Q(z ) on a section of a shear beam is proportional to the slope of the beam (Figure 2(b)): Q( z ) = G A y ' ( z ) (3) A where G is the (equivalent) shear modulus and sectional area of the shear beam. the shear Q(z ) is related to the distributed load w(z ) by: w( z ) = −Q' ( z ) (4) and so by combing (3) and (4) the governing differential equation of a shear beam is given by: y' ' ( z) = − w( z ) GA (5) 6 . is the • Note that when we idealize a frame as a shear beam. K.

5 of Smith & Coull (p. (1). For a fixed-free situation. according to eq. there should be two boundary conditions. (6) u ( z ) = −G A y ' ' ( z ) (7) 7 . Wall-frame system Refer to Figure 11. (4). QUIZ: What is order of the differential equation for a shear beam? 5. K. from eq.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. the boundary conditions are: a) b) y ( 0) = 0 y' ( H ) = 0 QUIZ: Explain what the boundary conditions a) and b) mean. Au Since (5) is a second order ODE. d2 [E ( z ) I ( z ) y ( 2) ( z )] = w( z) − u ( z ) 2 dz For the frame modeled as a shear beam.261) For the wall.

K. E ( z ) I ( z ) = EI = constant and G ( z ) A( z ) = GA = constant • This assumption is often NOT met in real situations. since generally the column sizes decreases up the height of the building. we assume the properties of the walls and frames to be constant through their height. but rather to illustrate from the analytical solution some of the important behavior. Au Substituting (7) into (6) yields d2 [E ( z ) I ( z ) y' ' ( z )] − G( z ) A( z ) y' ' ( z ) = w( z ) dz 2 Boundary conditions for fixed-free situation: (6) y ( 0) = 0 a) Zero displacement at the base: b) Zero slope at the based: y ' (0) = 0 y ( 2) ( H ) = 0 c) Zero wall moment at the top: EI y (3) ( H ) − GA y ' ( H ) = 0 d) Zero shear at the top: In order to allow for analytical solution for the governing differential equations. due to decreasing demand in gravity load capacity • For this reason. That is. 8 .CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. the results to follow is NOT expected to help you do the calculations for an actual wall-frame structure.

9 . q(z ) = constant.268 of Smith & Coull): y( z) = wH 4 8EI 31 2 displacement at the top of a cantilever beam under uniformly distributed load w × K1 ( z ) 31 2 dimensionless variation factor where  z 1  z 2  8 αH sinh αH + 1  2 (cosh αz − 1) − αH sinh αz + (αH )  −     K1 ( z ) =  4  αH  cosh αH  H 2  H      See Figure 11. that is.(11. K.504 of Smith & Coull for the shape of K 1 ( z ) . then the solution to the ODE in (10) satisfying the boundary conditions a)-d) is given by (see eq. the governing differential equation becomes G A w( z ) (8) y ( 4) ( z ) − y' ' ( z) = E I E I If we define G A α2 = (9) E I then (6) becomes w( z ) (10) y ( 4) ( z ) − α 2 y ' ' ( z ) = E I For uniformly distributed load.1 on p.8(a) on p. Au With the simplification mentioned.270 or Figure A2.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.29) on p.

e. there exist ‘hinge-point’) 10 . why K 3 (0) = 1 if α = 0 . It turns out that the results do not differently qualitatively from those for the uniformly distributed load.3 on p. • You can look up Smith and Coull for the solution for other load distributions. K. See Figure 11.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. without any calculation. It is just to let you have an idea of the form and its complexity. such as a triangularly distributed load.. • The reason I put the (complicated) formula for K1 ( z ) is not to let you memorize it. why K1 ( H ) = 1 if α = 0 (Hint: imagine what the wall-frame model will look like if α = 0 ).8 on p.270 or Figure A2. nor do I expect you to use it frequently. Au QUIZ: Explain. 6. It is more important to understand and develop insights into the formula than to memorize it. Forces in the wall and frame Wall moment M b ( z ) = EI y ' ' ( z ) = w H4 8 wH 2 K1 ' ' ( z ) = K 3 ( z) 2 QUIZ: Explain. without any calculation.505 of Smith & Coull • wall moment becomes negative near top of wall as α increases (i.

e. concentrated force at the top of the wall is given by QH = − EI y ( 3) ( H ) = −GA y ' ( H ) If y ' ( H ) > 0 (which is often the case). i.505 of Smith & Coull • wall shear becomes negative near top of wall as increases α QUIZ: Does this contradicts the boundary conditions? At the top. boundary condition d) says EI y (3) ( H ) − GA y ' ( H ) = 0 So.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. See Figure 11. without any calculation. Au Wall shear Qb ( z ) = − EI y ( z ) = − ( 3) w H4 8 K 1 ( z ) = wH × K 4 ( z ) ( 3) QUIZ: Explain. 11 . why K 4 (0) = 1 if α = 0 .270 or Figure A2. K.4 on p.8 on p. Q H acts opposite to the direction of load. QH < 0 ..

274 of Smith & Coull 12 .10 on p.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. Au Frame moment The frame moment can be obtained as the external moment minus the wall moment: w (H − z) 2 M s ( z) = − M b ( z) 2 w (H − z) 2 w H 2 = − K 3 ( z) 2 2 Frame shear The frame shear is equal to the external shear minus the wall shear at that level: Qs ( z ) = w × ( H − z ) − Qb ( z ) QUIZ: Can we use the following formula for the frame shear? Is it consistent with the previous formula? Qs ( z ) = G A y ' ( z ) See Figure 11. K.

13 . The resulting expression for ∆ would be very complicated and not amicable for use or getting insight. Determination of parameters for continuum model Equivalent value of E I • Just the E I of wall. The resulting ‘slope’ (analogous to the term dy / dz ) of the frame is then given by ∆ / h where h is the height of the story. Instead. Au 7. Equivalent value of G A For a shear beam.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. we make some assumptions to reduce the structure to a determinate one and obtain an approximate expression for ∆ / h . Q=G A that is. dy dz G A= Q dy / dz Figure 3 • force needed to produce a unit slope of the shear beam • force acting needed to cause a unit slope of a story of the frame We need to analyze the frame such as shown in Figure 3 (for single bay) subjected to a lateral force Q and compute the resulting lateral displacement ∆ . K. The equivalent value of GA is then obtained as Qh Q GA = = ∆/h ∆ It is difficult to analyze the frame as it is a highly indeterminate structure.

the expression for GA is analogous:   h h GA =  +   ∑ (12 EI / h)c ∑ g (12 EI / l ) g    −1 where ∑ c sums over all columns and ∑ g sums over all girders in the story. the result is Ph3 Ph 2l ∆= + 24( EI )c 24( EI ) g and hence −1 Ph  h 2 hl  GA = = +  ∆  24( EI )c 24( EI ) g    • The factor 24( EI )c comes from 2 × 12( EI )c . Au Simplifying assumptions • The hinges at the mid length of the columns and girders. (Hint: virtual work method) For multiple bays. 14 . EXERCISE: Derive the expression for ∆ . • Neglect axial deformation With these assumptions. K. Similarly for 24( EI ) g . and ‘ 2 × ’ comes from the fact that we have got 2 columns acting. • 12( EI )c is the familiar term appearing in the lateral stiffness of a fixed-fixed end beam.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. where l represents the length of each girder.

411m high. Introduction • Lateral load predominantly resisted by perimeter rigid-jointed structural frame • Perimeter frames act together to give substantially greater lateral resistance than acting alone • Deep spandrel girders at the perimeter frame are needed for strong coupling • Suitable for both steel and reinforced concrete construction • 100+ stories possible (e. WTC in NYC: 110 stories.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. aspect ratio 6. Au Tubular structures 1. K..g.5:1) 1 .

and resist primary the moment resultant of the building section. 3) The perimeter frames parallel to the direction of the wind act as the ‘web’ part of the section. Basic cantilever behavior and discrepancies • cantilever in bending (plane section remains plane). For this reason. For this reason. and resist primary the shear resultant of the building section. Fig. 1: Idealized behavior of tubular structure 2 . K. they are called ‘flange frame’. they are called ‘web frame’. Au 2.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. 1) The elongation of a column is proportional to its perpendicular distance from the common neutral axis of bending 2) The perimeter frames perpendicular to the wind direction act as the ‘flange’ part of the section.

Au Separate perimeter frames To understand the interaction between the web-frames and flange-frames. while the lateral resistance from the flange frames is negligible. 2: Perimeter frames acting individually 3 . K. Fig.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. first consider four perimeter frames without connections. but connected by (in-plane) rigid floors only. 1) The frames act individually 2) The web-frames are bending in their strong direction while the flange frames in their weak direction 3) As a result. 4) The columns of the flange-frames bend with their own neutral axis. the web-frames provide the majority of the lateral resistance. In this case.

Through the spandrel girders. the four perimeter frames are connected through the common columns. 3: Perimeter frames acting together to form a tubular structure 4 . but the extent depends on the bending stiffness of the spandrel girders. the inner columns of the flange-frames on the pulled up also. K. 3) The phenomenon that the inner columns do not deform the same degree as the corner columns due to flexibility of the spandrel beams is known as shear lag. Au Perimeter frames connected together (Tubular structures) For tubular structures. 1) The corner columns transmit vertical shear force from the web-frames to the flange frames 2) The corner columns on the windward side are pulled up. Fig.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.

Au 3. Equivalent 2-D model for tubular structures • Illustrated using the tubular structure shown in Fig. 4 5 . Fig. 4. K.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.

4 (based on left-right symmetry) Notes to Fig. it models the connection between flange-frame and web-frame 3) apply wind load to the web-frames.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. but not the flange-frames 4) symmetric B. K. but not flange-frames 6 .5(a): 1) based on considering left portion of building 2) the sign represents that the vertical displacement of the nodes connected by the sign are constrained to be equal.C. 5(a): Equivalent 2-D model for Fig. at mid girder of flange-frames 5) apply wind load to web-frame. Au Fig.

at mid column imposed by a) I = I c / 2 to represent half column and b) A = ∞ (or setting DY = 0 at the node) 7 .5(b): 1) skew-symmetric B.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. 5(b): Equivalent 2-D model for Fig.C. Au Fig. 4 (based on left-right skew symmetry of Fig. 5a) Notes to Fig. K.

K.6(a): 1) Based on considering lower half of building 2) skew-symmetrical boundary condition (B.) at mid column of web-frame imposed by a) I = I c / 2 to represent half column and b) A = ∞ (or setting DY = 0 at the node) 3) wind load to the two web-frames acts in opposite direction to be consistent with the direction of wind load in the original 3D model 8 . 6(a): Equivalent 2-D models for Fig. 4 (based on top-bottom skew symmetry) Notes to Fig.C.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. Au Fig.

6(b): Equivalent 2-D models for Fig. at mid girder imposed by a) zero horizontal displacement and b) zero rotation 9 .6(b): 1) symmetric B. 6a) Notes to Fig.C. K. Au Fig. 4 (based on left-right symmetry of Fig.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.

10 . 2) In the 2-D model. Rather. Au Interpreting FEM results The equivalent 2-D model can be analyzed using any available frame analysis program. K. The followings are noteworthy: 1) The horizontal displacement of the web-frame in the 2-D model represents the horizontal displacement in the load direction of the 3-D model. the latter is assumed to be equal to the horizontal displacement of the web-frame in the 2-D model. as a result of the rigid floor assumption. 3) The horizontal displacement of the flange-frame in the 2-D model DOES NOT represent the horizontal displacement of the 3-D model in the load direction. The results should be interpreted carefully. bending moment and shear force of the spandrel beams represent those of the 3-D model.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. the axial force of the columns.

K. 7(a) Fig. Fig. Au QUIZ: Decide whether the following 2-D models can be used for studying the structure subjected to the load as shown. 7(b) 11 .CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.

In the 2-D model for Fig. the structure shown on the left of Fig. C and D are not related directly.7(b) is often known as bundled tube structure. For example. Au 4. Reconciliation between tubular and frame model Suppose we are given a floor plan of columns and beams. In constructing an equivalent 2-D model. B. there are two natural choices: 1) model the building as an assembly of frames connected with rigid links 2) model the building as a tubular structure • Which one should we adopt? What factors tell us which choice to adopt? Suppose spandrel girders are planned to actuate the tubular action. 3 and 4 are modelled 2) rigid floor assumption is enforced through the rigid links However. the vertical movement of columns A.7(b).7(b)? Let see what goes wrong with the 2-D model in Fig.7(b). 1) frame action in subframes 1. In summary. 2. Tubular action is NOT modeled in the 2-D model of Fig. With tubular actions enforced. K. 12 . then what should the equivalent 2-D model for Fig.7(b) The inner columns and spandrel girders help promote tubular action.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. the effect of the spandrel girders in promoting tubular action is not modeled.

7(b). K.10 on p. • See also Fig. enforcing tubular action.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. assuming no twisting. 6. 13 . Couple with other lateral systems If there are other lateral structural systems in the building that bend with their own neutral axis.12. they can be represented in the equivalent 2-D model by rigid links (rigid floor assumption). Au 5. Equivalent 2-D model for bundled tube structure EXERCISE: Draw an equivalent 2-D model for the structure shown in Fig.304 of Smith & Coull.

Au 14 . K.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.

Au 15 . K.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.

Au 16 . K.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.

K. lower creep) • Creep effects are especially important in the design of structures operating at elevated temperatures. at nonzero absolute temperatures ( ° K = °C + 273. it has a smaller steel ratio 2.. Steel ratio (higher steel ratio. etc (higher age at loading. Volume to surface area ratio (higher V/S ratio. engines.g.. Age. it has smaller V/S ratio 1 .CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. lower creep) 4. loading history. higher creep) 2. • Shear walls usually have a higher creep than columns since 1. Temperature (higher temp. furnaces. structural members against fire. lower creep) 3. Au Miscellaneous topics Creep/Relaxation • Creep: deformation under constant load • Relaxation: reduction of stress under constant strain • Scientific origin of creep: According to statistical/quantum mechanics atoms have a non-zero strain rate even under constant load.15 ). • Creep in RC depends on 1. e.

α = strain induced per °C rise In general.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. e.g.. but average values may be used α concrete = 9. K. exterior facet.7 × 10 / °C  2 . e.9 × 10 −6 / °C  −5  ~ 1 × 10 / °C −6 α steel = 11. E constant • Induce deformation but no stress in determinate structures • Induce deformation and stress in indeterminate structures • Often serviceability concerns. Thermal strain is often described by Coefficient of thermal expansion. < 100 °C ) • Essentially elastic under normal working conditions... cracks in in-filled panels. may assume.g.g. Au Temperature effects under normal conditions (e. α depends on temperature.

• When there is mechanical restraints (e. axial expansion/contraction of column is restricted). however. there is no stress associated with thermal strain (which is obvious in unrestrained situations). K. • The stress associated with such mechanical strain is often called thermal stress. 3 .g. some mechanical strain will be induced to compensate for the thermal strain in order to satisfy the restraint.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.. stress and displacement induced by the temperature changes as shown. Au Thermally-induced axial deformation QUIZ: Determine the strain. ∆T ∆T ∆T ∆T ∆T (a) (b) (c) ∆T Notes: • Strictly speaking.

P = α ∆T EA ∆T ∆T (a) (b) 4 . Au QUIZ: Determine the axial force and top displacement for the followings.CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K.

K. Au Equivalent load formulation 5 .CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.

(1) ε2 = b y'' ( z) 2 (2) On the other hand. ε2 = α ∆T 2 (3) Combining (2) and (3) gives y'' ( z) = α ∆T b (4) 6 . K. Au Thermally-induced flexural deformation • Due to temperature gradient across section • Temperature gradient often assumed linear across section • Flexural effect may be superimposed with axial effect T1 + T2 2 ∆T 2 ∆T 2 T2 T1 T= = Axial + Flexural Original What is the curvature induced by the thermal gradient? For any fibre at a distance r from the neutral axis. ε (r ) = r / R = r y ' ' ( z ) so at face 2 where r = b / 2 .CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.

Au QUIZ: Determine the moment and top lateral displacement for the following siutations. M = EI ∆T 2 − ∆T 2 α ∆T b (a) (b) 7 .CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K.

CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S. K. Au Equivalent load formulation 8 .

>100 °C ) • A fire engineering problem • RC column behavior is considerably nonlinear.. The following effects should also be considered: o temperature dependence of E . Au Temperature effects at elevated temperatures (e. K.g. α o creep effects o spalding (air inside concrete expand and burst off surface concrete) 9 .CV415: Tall Buildings Lecture Notes S.