MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY

Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. 

PROJECTED TECHNIQUES:

Projective test is a personality test designed to let a person respond to

ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hiddenemotions and internal conflicts

Thematic Apperception Test
The Thematic Apperception Test is an example of a projective test. Historically, TAT was developed by Henry Murray, a psychologist at Harvard (1938). the Thematic Apperception Test or TAT has been among the most widely used, researched, and taught projective psychological tests. Its adherents claim that it taps a subject's unconscious to reveal repressed aspects of personality, motives and needs for achievement, power and intimacy,and problem-solving abilities Procedure The TAT is popularly known as the picture interpretation technique because it uses a standard series of provocative yet ambiguous pictures about which the subject must a story. The subject is asked to tell as dramatic a story as they can for each picture presented, including:
   

What has led up to the event shown? What is happening at the moment? What the characters are feeling and thinking? What the outcome of the story was?

If these elements are omitted, particularly for children or individuals of limited cognitive abilities, the evaluator may ask the subject about them directly. There are 31 cards in the standard form of the TAT.

Drawing Test:
This test involves drawing of various figures like man, animal, etc. This requires only paper and a pencil to draw the figure sometimes they use colors also. The rationale behind this is that the subjects projects into the picture, how he perceives his own body, his own self, the attitude he has developed towards his own body. These tests are useful in clinical diagnosis for detection of conflicts and complexes. They have therapeutic value because they provide outlet for pent up emotional energy and conflicts. The repressed anger, hatred, jealously, etc against persons, specially within the family circle may be expressed in & through drawing.

Rorschach test
The Rorschach test ; also known as the Rorschach inkblot test or simply the Inkblot test) is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex scientifically

derived algorithms, or both. Some psychologists use this test to examine a person's personality characteristics and emotional functioning. It has been employed to detect an underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly. The test takes its name from that of its creator, Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach (in 1922). In a national survey in the U.S., the Rorschach was ranked eighth among psychological tests used in outpatient mental health facilities. It is the second most widely used test by members of the Society for Personality Assessment

Goal of Rorschach test The general goal of the test is to provide data about cognition and personality variables such as motivations, response tendencies, cognitive operations, affectivity, and personal/interpersonal perceptions. Method The tester and subject typically sit next to each other at a table, with the tester slightly behind the subject. There are ten official inkblots, each printed on a separate white card, approximately 18x24 cm in size. Each of the blots has near perfect bilateral symmetry. Five inkblots are of black ink, two are of black and red ink and three are multicolored, on a white background. After the test subject has seen and responded to all of the inkblots (free association phase), the tester then presents them again one at a time in a set sequence for the subject to study: the subject is asked to note where he sees what he originally saw and what makes it look like that (inquiry phase). The subject is usually asked to hold the cards and may rotate them. Whether the cards are rotated, and other related factors such as whether permission to rotate them is asked, may expose personality traits and normally contributes to the assessment. As the subject is examining the inkblots, the psychologist writes down everything the subject says or does, no matter how trivial. Analysis of responses is recorded by the test administrator using tabulation and scoring sheet and, if required, a separate location chart.

PERSONALITY INVENTORIES:

A personality inventory is an assessment tool used to determine which of these personality types a person falls into: extroverted, introverted, thinking, feeling, sensing, intuitive, judging, and perceptive. It is used as part of a self assessment done for career planning purposes.

Bell Adjustment Inventory: The well known and widely used personality inventory is the Bell’s adjustment Inventory which measures four areas of adjustment home, health, social, emotional, separately as well as composite scores. Total numbers of items are 80.
o Do you have many headaches? o Is your mother the dominant member of the family? o Have you ever felt that someone was hypnotizing you and making you act against your will? o Do you embarrassed when you have to enter a public assembly after everyone else has been seated? o Do you feel there has been a lack of real affection and love in your home? o Do you day dream frequently?

o Is either of your parents very easily irritated? o Do you dread the sight of a snake? o Do you get discouraged easily? o Do you often feel fatigued when you get up early in the morning?

Eysenk's personality questionnaire:
Eysenck's theory is based primarily on physiology and genetics.. He is, therefore, primarily interested in what is usually called temperament. Temperament is that aspect of our personalities that is genetically based, inborn, there from birth or even before. A).Extraversion/Introversion Extraversion is characterized by being outgoing, talkative, high on positive affect (feeling good), and in need of external stimulation. According to Eysenck's arousal theory of extraversion, there is an optimal level of cortical arousal, and performance deteriorates as one becomes more or less aroused than this optimal level. At very low and very high levels of arousal, performance is low, but at a more optimal mid-level of arousal, performance is maximized. Extraverts, according to Eysenck's theory, are chronically under-aroused and bored and are therefore in need of external stimulation to bring them up to an optimal level of performance. Introverts, on the other hand, are chronically over-aroused and jittery and are therefore in need of peace and quiet to bring them up to an optimal level of performance. E.g.

When climbing stairs do you usually take them two at a time? Yes* | Maybe | No || Score:

Do you often need understanding friends to cheer you up? Yes* | Maybe | No || Score:

Generally, do you prefer reading to meeting people? Yes | Maybe | No* || Score:

B-Neuroticism or emotionality : It is characterized by high levels of negative affect such as depression and anxiety. Neuroticism, according to Eysenck's theory, is based on activation thresholds in the sympathetic nervous system or visceral brain. This is the part of the brain that is responsible for the fight-or-flight response in the face of danger. Activation can be measured by heart rate, blood pressure, cold hands, sweating and muscular tension (especially in the forehead). Neurotic people, who have low activation thresholds, and unable to inhibit or control their emotional reactions, experience negative affect (fight-or-flight) in the face of very minor stressors - they are easily nervous or upset. Emotionally stable people, who have high activation thresholds and good emotional control, experience negative affect only in the face of very major stressors - they are calm and collected under pressure. E.g.

Do you think you are able to do things as well as most other people? Yes* | Maybe | No || Score:

Do you blush when people are all looking at you? Yes* | Maybe | No || Score:

C-Psychoticism/Socialisation Psychoticism is associated not only with the liability to have a psychotic episode (or break with reality), but also with aggression. Psychotic behavior is rooted in the characteristics of toughmindedness, non-conformity, inconsideration, recklessness, hostility, anger and impulsiveness. The physiological basis suggested by Eysenck for psychoticism is testosterone, with higher levels of psychoticism associated with higher levels of testosterone.

If someone does you a bad turn do you feel obliged to do something about it? Yes* | Maybe | No || Score:

Do you try to get your own way regardless of opposition? Yes* | Maybe | No || Score:

The following table describes the traits that are associated with the three temperaments in Eysenck's model of personality: Psychoticism Aggressive Assertive Egocentric Unsympathetic Manipulative Achievement-oriented Dogmatic Extraversion Sociable Irresponsible Dominant Lack of reflection Sensation-seeking Impulsive Risk-taking Neuroticism Anxious Depressed Guilt Feelings Low self-esteem Tense Moody Hypochondriac

Masculine Tough-minded

Expressive Active

Lack of autonomy Obsessive

Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2; MMPI-A) is a written psychological assessment, or test, used to diagnose mental disorders. Purpose The MMPI is used to screen for personality and psychosocial disorders in adults and adolescents. It is also frequently administered as part of a neuropsychological test battery to evaluate cognitive functioning.. It was developed by J.C.McKinley & S.R. Hathway. It consists of 556 statements. The subject has to classify the statements into 3 categories-YES, NO, CANNOT SAY. It is one of the most frequently used personality tests in mental health. The test is used by trained professionals to assist in identifying personality structure and psychopathology. Clinical scales 10 Scales of the MMPI The MMPI has 10 clinical scales that are used to indicate different psychotic conditions. Despite the names given to each scale, they are not a pure measure since many conditions have overlapping symptoms. Because of this, most psychologists simply refer to each scale by number. The original clinical scales were designed to measure common diagnoses of the era.

Number

Abbreviati on

Description

What is measured

No. of items

1

Hs

Hypochondriasis

Concern with bodily symptoms

32

2

D

Depression

Depressive Symptoms

57

3

Hy

Hysteria

Awareness of problems and vulnerabilities

60

4

Pd

Psychopathic Deviate

Conflict, struggle, anger, respect for society's rules 50

5

MF

Masculinity/Feminin ity

Stereotypical masculine or feminine interests/behaviors 56

Level of trust, 6 Pa Paranoia suspiciousness, sensitivity 40

7

Pt

Psychasthenia

Worry, Anxiety, tension, doubts, obsessiveness

48

8

Sc

Schizophrenia

Odd thinking and social alienation

78

9

Ma

Hypomania

Level of excitability

46

0

Si

Social Introversion

People orientation

69

Scale 1 – Hypochondriasis: This scale was designed to asses a neurotic concern over bodily functioning. The 32-items on this scale concern somatic symptoms and physical well being. The scale was originally developed to identify patients displaying the symptoms of hypochondria.

Scale 2 – Depression: This scale was originally designed to identify depression, characterized by poor morale, lack of hope in the future, and a general dissatisfaction with one's own life situation. Very high scores may indicate depression, while moderate scores tend to reveal a general dissatisfaction with one’s life. Scale 3 – Hysteria: The third scale was originally designed to identify those who display hysteria in stressful situations. Those who are well educated and of a high social class tend to score higher on this scale. Women also tend to score higher than men on this scale. Scale 4 - Psychopathic Deviate: Originally developed to identify psychopathic patients, this scale measures social deviation, lack of acceptance of authority, and amorality. This scale can be thought of as a measure of disobedience. High scorers tend to be more rebellious, while low scorers are more accepting of authority Scale 5 – Masculinity/Femininity: This scale was designed by the original author’s to identify homosexual tendencies, but was found to be largely ineffective. High scores on this scale are related to factors such as intelligence, socioeconomic status, and education. Women tend to score low on this scale.

Scale 6 – Paranoia: This scale was originally developed to identify patients with paranoid symptoms such as suspiciousness, feelings of persecution, grandiose self-concepts, excessive sensitivity, and rigid attitudes. Those who score high on this scale tend to have paranoid symptoms. Scale 7 – Psychasthenia: This scale was originally used to measure excessive doubts, compulsions, obsessions, and unreasonable fears. Scale 8 – Schizophrenia: This scale was originally developed to identify schizophrenic patients and reflects a wide variety of areas including bizarre thought processes and peculiar perceptions, social alienation, poor familial relationships, difficulties in concentration and impulse control, lack of deep interests, disturbing questions of self-worth and self-identity, and sexual difficulties.

Scale 9 – Hypomania: This scale was developed to identify characteristics of hypomania such as elevated mood, accelerated speech and motor activity, irritability, flight of ideas, and brief periods of depression. Scale 10 – Social Introversion: This scale was developed later than the other nine scales as is designed to assess a person’s tendency to withdraw from social contacts and responsibilities.

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