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Chemistry Data Booklet Standard Grade and Intermediate 2

For use in National Qualification Courses leading to the 2007 examinations and beyond.

Published date: January 2007 Publication code: BB3573 ISBN: 978 1 85969 696 5 Published by the Scottish Qualifications Authority The Optima Building, 58 Robertson Street, Glasgow G2 8DQ Ironmills Road, Dalkeith, Midlothian EH22 1LE www.sqa.org.uk

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Contents

Page

Electron Arrangements of Main Group Elements ....................................................... 1 Densities of Selected Elements ................................................................................... 2 Melting and Boiling Points of Selected Elements ........................................................ 3 Names, Symbols and Relative Atomic Masses of Selected Elements ........................... 4 Flame Colours ........................................................................................................... 4 Formulae of Selected Ions containing more than one kind of Atom ............................. 4 Solubilities of Selected Compounds in Water ............................................................. 5 Melting and Boiling Points of Selected Inorganic Compounds .................................... 6 Melting and Boiling Points of Selected Organic Compounds ....................................... 6 Electrochemical Series (Reduction Reactions) .............................................................. 7 Periodic Table of the Elements showing Symbol and Date of Discovery ...................... 8

ELECTRON ARRANGEMENTS OF MAIN GROUP ELEMENTS


Atomic number Name of element Symbol Electron arrangement
Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group 0
2 Helium He 2 4 Beryllium Be 2, 2 12 Magnesium Mg 2, 8, 2 20 Calcium Ca 2, 8, 8, 2 38 Strontium Sr 2, 8, 18, 8, 2 56 Barium Ba 2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 2 88 Radium Ra 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2 5 Boron B 2, 3 13 Aluminium Al 2, 8, 3 31 Gallium Ga 2, 8, 18, 3 49 Indium In 2, 8, 18, 18, 3 81 Thallium Tl 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 3 6 Carbon C 2, 4 14 Silicon Si 2, 8, 4 32 Germanium Ge 2, 8, 18, 4 50 Tin Sn 2, 8, 18, 18, 4 82 Lead Pb 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4 7 Nitrogen N 2, 5 15 Phosphorus P 2, 8, 5 33 Arsenic As 2, 8, 18, 5 51 Antimony Sb 2, 8, 18, 18, 5 83 Bismuth Bi 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5 8 Oxygen O 2, 6 16 Sulphur S 2, 8, 6 34 Selenium Se 2, 8, 18, 6 52 Tellurium Te 2, 8, 18, 18, 6 84 Polonium Po 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 9 Fluorine F 2, 7 17 Chlorine Cl 2, 8, 7 35 Bromine Br 2, 8, 18, 7 53 Iodine I 2, 8, 18, 18, 7 85 Astatine At 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 10 Neon Ne 2, 8 18 Argon Ar 2, 8, 8 36 Krypton Kr 2, 8, 18, 8 54 Xenon Xe 2, 8, 18, 18, 8 86 Radon Rn 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8

Key

Group 1 1 Hydrogen H

1
3 Lithium Li 2, 1 11 Sodium Na 2, 8, 1 19 Potassium K 2, 8, 8, 1 37 Rubidium Rb 2, 8, 18, 8, 1 55 Caesium Cs 2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 1 87 Francium Fr 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1

The elements on this side of the dark line are metals.

The elements on this side of the dark line are non-metals.

DENSITIES OF SELECTED ELEMENTS


Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group 0
2 Helium 0.0002 5 Boron 2.34 13 Aluminium 2.70 24 Chromium 7.20 42 Ruthenium 12.3 76 Osmium 22.5 22.4 Iridium 77 78 Platinum 21.5 12.4 12.0 Rhodium Palladium 43 44 45 46 47 Silver 10.5 79 Gold 19.3 7.20 7.86 8.90 8.90 8.92 Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc 7.14 48 Cadmium 8.64 80 Mercury 13.6 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Gallium 5.90 49 Indium 7.31 81 Thallium 11.8 * 14 Silicon 2.33 32 Germanium 5.35 50 Tin 7.28 82 Lead 11.3 Carbon 6 7 Nitrogen 0.0013 15 Phosphorus 1.82 33 Arsenic 5.73 51 Antimony 6.68 83 Bismuth 9.80 8 Oxygen 0.0014 16 Sulphur 2.07 34 Selenium 4.81 52 Tellurium 6.25 84 Polonium 9.4 9 Fluorine 0.0017 17 Chlorine 0.0032 35 Bromine 3.12 53 Iodine 4.93 10 Neon 0.0009 18 Argon 0.0018 36 Krypton 0.0037 54 Xenon 0.0059

Group 1

Group 2

Hydrogen

0.00009

Key

Lithium

Beryllium

0.53

1.85

Atomic number Name of element Density g/cm3

11

12

Sodium

Magnesium

0.97

1.74

19

20

21

22

23

Potassium

Calcium

Scandium

Titanium

Vanadium

0.86

1.54

2.99

4.50

5.96

37

38

39

40

41

Rubidium 10.2 74 Tungsten 19.4 20.5 Rhenium 75 11.5

Strontium

Yttrium

Zirconium

Niobium

Molybdenum Technetium

1.53

2.60

4.47

6.52

8.57

55

56

57

72

73

Caesium

Barium

Lanthanum

Hafnium

Tantalum

1.93

3.51

6.15

13.3

16.6

* The density of carbon as graphite is 2.25 g/cm3 The density of carbon as diamond is 3.51 g/cm3

MELTING AND BOILING POINTS OF SELECTED ELEMENTS


Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group 0
2 Helium 272 269 5 6 Carbon 3642 Boron 2300 4000 13 Aluminium 660 2467 24 Chromium 1857 2672 42 Ruthenium 2310 3900 76 Osmium 3033 5012 4130 2410 Iridium 77 78 Platinum 1772 3827 3695 2963 1966 1552 Rhodium Palladium 43 44 45 46 47 Silver 962 2212 79 Gold 1064 2856 1962 2750 2927 2913 2567 1244 1535 1495 1453 1083 Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc 420 907 48 Cadmium 321 765 80 Mercury 39 357 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Gallium 30 2403 49 Indium 157 2080 81 Thallium 304 1457 14 Silicon 1410 2355 32 Germanium 937 2830 50 Tin 232 2602 82 Lead 328 1749 7 Nitrogen 210 196 15 Phosphorus 44 280 33 Arsenic *817 613 51 Antimony 631 1750 83 Bismuth 271 1560 8 Oxygen 218 183 16 Sulphur 113 445 34 Selenium 217 685 52 Tellurium 452 988 84 Polonium 254 962 9 Fluorine 220 188 17 Chlorine 101 35 35 Bromine 7 59 53 Iodine 114 184 85 Astatine 302 10 Neon 249 246 18 Argon 189 186 36 Krypton 157 152 54 Xenon 112 107 86 Radon 71 62

Group 1

Group 2

Hydrogen

259

253

Key

Lithium

Beryllium

181

1278

1347

2970*

Atomic number Name of element Melting point/C Boiling point/C

11

12

Sodium

Magnesium

98

649

883

1090

19

20

21

22

23

Potassium

Calcium

Scandium

Titanium

Vanadium

63

842

1541

1660

1890

759

1484

2831

3287

3380

37

38

39

40

41

Rubidium 2623 4639 74 Tungsten 3410 5660 5627 3180 Rhenium 75 4265 2157

Strontium

Yttrium

Zirconium

Niobium

Molybdenum Technetium

39

769

1522

1852

2477

688

1384

3338

4377

4742

55

56

57

72

73

Caesium

Barium

Lanthanum

Hafnium

Tantalum

28

725

921

2227

2996

671

1640

3457

4602

5425

* at 28 atmospheres sublimes

NAMES, SYMBOLS AND RELATIVE ATOMIC MASSES OF SELECTED ELEMENTS


(Relative atomic masses have been rounded to the nearest 0.5) Relative atomic masses are also known as the average atomic masses. Relative atomic mass 27 40 80 40 12 35.5 63.5 19 197 4 1 127 56 207 7 Relative atomic mass 24.5 200.5 20 58.5 14 16 31 195 39 28 108 23 32 118.5 65.5

Element aluminium argon bromine calcium carbon chlorine copper fluorine gold helium hydrogen iodine iron lead lithium

Symbol Al Ar Br Ca C Cl Cu F Au He H I Fe Pb Li

Element magnesium mercury neon nickel nitrogen oxygen phosphorus platinum potassium silicon silver sodium sulphur tin zinc

Symbol Mg Hg Ne Ni N O P Pt K Si Ag Na S Sn Zn

FLAME COLOURS
Element barium calcium copper lithium Ion Ba2+ Ca Cu Li
2+ 2+

Flame colour green orange-red blue-green red

Element potassium sodium strontium

Ion K+ Na Sr
+ 2+

Flame colour lilac yellow red

FORMULAE OF SELECTED IONS CONTAINING MORE THAN ONE KIND OF ATOM


one positive Ion Formula
+

one negative Ion ethanoate hydrogencarbonate hydrogensulphate hydrogensulphite hydroxide nitrate permanganate Formula CH3COO HCO3 HSO4 HSO3 OH NO3 MnO4

two negative Ion carbonate chromate dichromate sulphate sulphite Formula CO3 2 CrO4 2 Cr2O7 2 SO4 2 SO3
2

three negative Ion Formula


3

ammonium NH4

phosphate

PO4

SOLUBILITIES OF SELECTED COMPOUNDS IN WATER

The table shows how some compounds behave in water vs means very soluble (a solubility greater than 10 g/l) s means soluble (a solubility of between 1 and 10 g/l) i means insoluble (a solubility of less than 1 g/l) no data chloride vs vs vs vs vs vs vs s vs vs vs vs i vs vs vs vs s vs i vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs vs i i i vs i vs i i i vs i vs i vs vs i vs i vs vs vs i vs vs vs vs s vs vs vs vs vs i s vs vs i i vs vs vs vs vs vs i vs iodide nitrate phosphate sulphate oxide i vs s i i i i vs i i vs i vs i i hydroxide i vs s i i i i vs i i vs vs i i

bromide i i i i i i i i i i i

carbonate

aluminium

vs

ammonium

vs

vs

barium

vs

calcium

vs

copper(II)

vs

iron(II)

vs

iron(III)

vs

lead(II)

lithium

vs

vs

magnesium

vs

nickel

vs

potassium

vs

vs

silver

sodium

vs

vs

tin(II)

vs

zinc

vs

Note Some of the compounds in the table hydrolyse significantly in water.

MELTING AND BOILING POINTS OF SELECTED INORGANIC COMPOUNDS


COVALENT Name of compound ammonia carbon dioxide carbon monoxide nitrogen dioxide silicon dioxide sulphur dioxide water mp/C 78 57 199 11 1700 73 0 bp/C 33 78 192 21 2230 10 100 IONIC Name of compound barium chloride calcium oxide lithium bromide magnesium chloride potassium iodide sodium chloride mp/C 963 2614 547 712 686 801 bp/C 1560 2850 1265 1418 1330 1413

Under normal conditions, carbon dioxide does not melt but sublimes instead. The melting point and boiling point were measured under different conditions.

MELTING AND BOILING POINTS OF SELECTED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS


Name of compound methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptane octane cyclobutane cyclopentane cyclohexane mp/C 182.5 183 190 138 130 95 91 57 50 94 7 bp/C 164 89 42 1 36 69 98 126 12 49 81

For use by Intermediate 2 candidates


Name of compound ethene propene but-1-ene pent-1-ene hex-1-ene methanol ethanol propan-1-ol propan-2-ol butan-1-ol butan-2-ol mp/C 169 185 185 138 140 94 117 127 90 90 100 8 17 21 4 bp/C 104 47 6 30 63 65 79 97 82 117 100 101 118 141 164

For use by Standard Grade candidates


Name of compound ethene propene butene pentene hexene mp/C 169 185 185 138 140 bp/C 104 47 6 30 63

methanoic acid ethanoic acid propanoic acid butanoic acid

These compounds have two or more isomers. Other isomers have slightly different melting points and boiling points. 6

ELECTROCHEMICAL SERIES (REDUCTION REACTIONS)


Metal Reaction

lithium potassium calcium sodium magnesium aluminium zinc iron nickel tin lead

+ Li (aq) + e

Li(s) K(s) Ca(s) Na(s) Mg(s) Al(s) Zn(s) Fe(s) Ni(s) Sn(s) Pb(s) Fe(s) H2(g) SO3 (aq) + H2O( ) Cu(s) 4OH (aq) 2I (aq) Fe2+(aq) Ag(s) Hg( ) 2Br(aq) 2Cl (aq) Au(s)
2

K+(aq) + e Ca2+(aq) + 2e Na+(aq) + e Mg2+(aq) + 2e Al3+(aq) + 3e Zn2+(aq) + 2e Fe2+(aq) + 2e Ni2+(aq) + 2e Sn2+(aq) + 2e Pb2+(aq) + 2e Fe3+(aq) + 3e

hydrogen

2H+(aq) + 2e
+ SO4 (aq) + 2H (aq) + 2e 2

copper

Cu2+(aq) + 2e
2H2O( ) + O2(g) + 4e

I2(s) + 2e Fe3+(aq) + e silver mercury Ag+(aq) + e


2+ Hg (aq) + 2e Br2( ) + 2e

Cl2(g) + 2e gold Au+(aq) + e

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS SHOWING SYMBOL AND DATE OF DISCOVERY


Group Group Group Group Group 3 4 5 6 7
2 Helium He 1862 5 6 Carbon C
Prehistoric

Group Group 1 2

Group 0

Hydrogen

Key

1766 7 Nitrogen N 1772 15


Phosphorus

3 Boron

Atomic number Name of element Symbol Date of discovery


8 Oxygen O 1774 16 Sulphur P 1669 32
Germanium

9 Fluorine F 1771 17 Chlorine S Cl

10 Neon Ne 1898 18 Argon Ar

Lithium

Beryllium

Li

Be

1817 1808 13 Aluminium Al 1827 23 26 27 29 30 Zinc Zn Gallium Ga 1875 49 Indium In 1817 80 Mercury Au Hg 1863 81 Thallium Gold Tl 1861 Copper Cu
Prehistoric 16th century

1798 14 Silicon Si 1823

TRANSITION METALS

11

12

Sodium

Magnesium

Na

Mg

1807 24 28 31 Nickel Ni 1751 46 47 Silver Ag


Prehistoric

1775 25 Iron Cobalt Co 1735 45 48 Cadmium Cd Rhodium Rh 1803 77 78 79 Platinum Pt Iridium Ir 1804 109 1803 Pd Palladium Fe
Prehistoric

Prehistoric

1774 33 Arsenic Ge 1866 50 Tin Sn As ~1250 51 34 Selenium Se 1817 52 Antimony Tellurium Sb Te 35 Bromine Br 1826 53 Iodine I

1894 36 Krypton Kr 1898 54 Xenon Xe

19 Vanadium Chromium Manganese V 1830 41 43 44 Niobium


Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium

20

21

22

Potassium Cr 1797 42 1774 Mn

Calcium

Scandium

Titanium

Ca

Sc

Ti

1807

1808

1879

1791

37

38

39

40

Rubidium Strontium Nb Mo 1778 74 76 Osmium Os 1804 108 Hassium Meitnerium Hs* 1964 1992 Mt* Tungsten W 1783 106 107 1925 Re Rhenium 75 1937 1844 Tc Ru 1801 73 Tantalum Ta 1802 105 Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Db* 1970 1974 1981 Sg* Bh*

Yttrium

Zirconium

Rb

Sr

Zr

1861

1790

1794

1789

Prehistoric

~1450 82 Lead Pb
Prehistoric

1782 83 Bismuth Bi 1753 84 Polonium Po 1898

1811 85 Astatine At* 1940

1898 86 Radon Rn 1900

55

56

57

5871

72

Caesium

Barium

Lanthanum

Hafnium

Cs

Ba

La

1860

1808

1839

Hf

1923

16th century Prehistoric Prehistoric

87

88

89

90103

104

Francium

Radium

Actinium

Rutherfordium

Fr*

Ra

Ac

1939

1898

1899

60 61 62 Samarium Sm 1879 94 Plutonium Np* 1940 Pu* 1940 63

Rf*

1964

The elements on this side of The elements on the dark line are metals. this side of the dark line are non-metals.
64 Europium Eu 1896 95 Americium Am* 1944 Gadolinium Gd 1880 96 Curium Cm* 1944 65 Terbium Tb 1843 97 Berkelium Bk* 1949 66 Dysprosium Dy 1886 98 67 Holmium Ho 1879 99 Californium Einsteinium Cf* 1952 Es* 1953 68 Erbium Er 1843 100 Fermium Fm* 1955 69 Thulium Tm 1879 101 Mendelevium Md* 1957 70 Ytterbium Yb 1907 102 Nobelium No* 1961 71 Lutetium Lu 1907 103 Lawrencium Lr* 1969

58

59

Nd Pm 1947 93 Neptunium 1885 92 Uranium U 1789

Cerium

Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium

Ce

Pr

1803

1885

90

91

Thorium

Protactinium

Th

Pa

1828

1917

* = element which is not found in nature either as the element or in a compound, but has been made by scientists