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Readings

Davis(2010).WorshipandtheRealityofGod. Chapter4(pp.113170) Erickson(1998).ChristianTheology.Chapters5354(pp.10981134) Brand(2004).PerspectivesonSpiritBaptism:5Views. Readcomplete text.

BaptismandtheLordsSupper
Objectives1:
1. Identify the three basic views of baptism as well as articulating the meaning of baptismfortheindividualbeliever. 2. Identifyandexplainthesubjectsforbaptism. 3. Identifyanddescribethepointsofagreementanddisagreementamongdenominationalgroups ontheLordsSupper. 4. ExaminefourmajorviewsoftheLordsSupperandtheimplicationsofeachview.

Outcomes:
The aim of this session is to provide the student with an overview of the two protestant sacraments: baptism and the Lords Supper. The session deliberately stops short of directing the student to a designated view on either subject in order to allow the student to form their own view according to theirowntheologicalperspectiveanddenominationalaffiliation.

Sacrament or Ordinance?
Beforecommencingthesessionwemustfirst(ifeversobriefly)addresstheuseofterm:sacramentand ordinance. The Roman Catholic Church nominates seven sacraments: marriage, holy orders, confession/penance/reconciliation, anointing of the sick/extreme unction, confirmation, baptism and theLordsSupper.
The preference of the Reformation churches is generally to restrict the word sacrament to baptism and eucharist(sincetheseareclearlyNewTestamentritualsinstitutedbyJesus)andtodescribeasordinances theother[five]ritualsinusesincethetimeoftheundividedchurch.(Fahey,2007,p.278)

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1.

Baptism

Virtually allbranches of the Christian church observe the initiatory riteof baptism.TakenfromtheGreektoimmerse(baptiz)(Provance,2009,p. 23) baptism is considered a visible and outward expression of a new believersfaithinJesus;anadvancementfromtheworldintothebodyof Christ. Theologically, one is baptized into Christ (Rom. 6:3; Gal. 3:27) and thereafter is in Christ (Gal. 3:28;2Cor.5:17).Tobebaptizedistobeidentifiedwith,ortoparticipatein,Christsdeath,burialand resurrection(Rom.6:111,esp.35)(pp.2324). TheuniversalpracticeofbaptismisfoundedontheinstructionfromJesustogoandmakedisciplesof all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit (Matt. 28:19). Despite the collective acceptance and practice of baptism three questions concerning its administrationstilldrawconsiderabledebate(Erickson,1998,p.1099): 1. WhatisthemeaningofBaptism;i.e.whatdoesitactuallyaccomplish? 2. Whoarethepropersubjectsofbaptism;i.e.shoulditberestrictedtothosewhoarecapableof exercising conscious faith in Jesus Christ, or may it also be administered to children and even infants? 3. What is the proper mode of baptism? Must it be by dipping (immersion), or other methods (pouring,sprinkling)acceptable? We will now address each of these questions, surveying the range of denominational responses and subsequentpractices.

TheMeaningofBaptism
The Roman Catholic tradition holds to the doctrine of baptismal regeneration: baptism effects a transformation,bringingapersonfromspiritualdeathtolife(pp.10991100).Themostextremeform of this view (observed in medieval theology2) is found in traditional Catholicism. The classic Lutheran position shares many features in common with Catholicism. The Lutheran position differs from the Catholicpositioninsomuchasthesacramentisconsideredineffectualunlessfaithisalreadypresent (p.1100).InsodoingtheLutheranviewarguesthatfaithisarequisiteforthesuccessfulapplicationof the rite whereas the Catholic view holds to the selfsufficiency of the sacrament. Erickson (1998) summarisesthemeaningofbaptismwriting,
It is a symbol rather than merely a sign, for it is a graphic picture of the truth it conveys. There is no inherent connection between a sign and what it represents. It is only by convention,forexample,thatgreentrafficlightstellustogoratherthantostop.Bycontrast, thesignatarailroadcrossingismorethanasign;itisasymbol,foritisaroughpictureof what it is intended to indicate, the crossing of a road and a railroad track. Baptism is a symbol,notmerelyasign,foritactuallypicturesthebelieversdeathandresurrectionwithChrist.(p.1110)
Medievaltheologywastemptedintoatwofoldisolationthatofthebelieversregenerationfromthesubstitutionary workofChrist,andthatofthebaptismalritefrombaptisminitsfullandbasicsense(Bromiley,2001a,p.135). Page2 BaptismandtheLordsSupper 2012DrDanielK.Robinson
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TheSubjectsofBaptism
The next logical question is directed to who might be considered the proper subject of baptism. Accordingly,thediscussiontypicallysettlesintotwoviews:infantbaptismandbelieversbaptism.Itis importanttonoteherethatourdifferentiationisnotbetweeninfantandadult,forthosewhoreject infantbaptismstipulatethatcandidatesforbaptismmustactuallyhaveexercisedfaith(Erickson,1998, p.1111);regardlessofage. Infant Baptism: There is neither direct instruction nor prohibition supporting or discountingthepracticeofinfantbaptism.ThepracticeisfoundedontheOTpracticeof Goddealingwithfamiliesratherthanindividuals.Forexample,whenNoahissavedfrom the flood, his whole family is received with him into the ark (cf. 1 Pet. 3:2021) (Bromiley,2001b,p.133).OtherOTexamplesincludethecovenantalsignofcircumcision given to Abraham (Gen. 17) which was administered to all the male members of his family and Israels (men, women and children) crossing of the red sea which foreshadowsnotonlythesignofbaptismbuttheworkofGodbehindit(cf1Cor.10:1 2)(p.133). Similarly the NT holds a number of supportive texts for the practice of infant baptism. NoteworthypointsincludeJesusbeingconceivedofthe HolySpiritandChristreceiving andblessingchildren(Matt.19:1314),correctingthose(inthiscase,hisdisciples)who try and dismiss them (Mark 10:14). Children also receive mention in Ephesians, Colossians, and probably 1 John. We also have the important statement in 1 Corinthians 7:14 in which Paul speaks of the children of marriages that have becomemixedthroughconversionasholy(p.133). Importantly, many of those who advocate for infant baptism similarlyarguethatthosewhogrowtomaturity[adult]should maketheirownconfessionoffaith(p.133). Believers Baptism: Those who subscribe to baptism as a rite preservedonlyforthosewhoprofessafaithinChrist,contend thatthecommandtobaptizefollowsthecommandtodisciple (Matt. 28:19) (Erickson, 1998, p. 1106). Similarly, John the Baptist(Matt.3:2,6)andPeter(Acts2:3741)conjoinedrepentancewithbaptism.Paul alsodevelopsthecontentionoffaiththroughrepentanceinRomans6.
Twoadditionalobservationsneedtobemadehere.First,thosewhoholdthatbaptismis essentiallyasignandsealofthecovenantclaimthatitisnotlegitimatetoimposeupona childtherequirementsincumbentuponanadult.Second,theyemphasizetheobjective aspectofthesacrament.Whatreallymattersisnotonessubjectivereaction,butones objectiveinitiationintothecovenantwithitspromiseofsalvation.(p.1104)
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TheModeofBaptism
Thefinalconsideration,themodebywhichparticipantsarebaptised,hastwomainpositions:thatonly immersionislawfulandthatthemodeisamatterofindifference(Rayburn,2001,p.134).Whilemany concedethatimmersionwastheprimarypracticeoftheearlychurchthereareequallyasmanyscholars whocontendthatothermodeswerepermittedandthatsomeoftheinfluencescontributingtothe popularityofimmersionwellmaynothavebeenhealthy(p.135). Of the three points (meaning, subject and mode) discussed in this session, mode receives the least debate. Nonetheless, lets briefly outline the two arguments as presented by Rayburn (2001) in the EvangelicalDictionaryofTheology(pp.134135): Immersionists: Those how hold to full immersion as the only allowable mode found their argumentonthreepoints: i. The word baptizein means to immerse. Therefore, immersionists maintain, the commandtobaptiseisinherentlyacommandtoimmerse. ii. In order to properly symbolise the death and resurrection of Christ in the rite, immersionistsholdthatonlythedramaofplungingunderthewaterandreemerging adequatelyrepresentsthescripturaltruths(Rom.6:4;Col.2:12). Immersionists lay claim to the testimony of the early church, for which immersion wastheprimarymode.EvenMartinLutherandJohnCalvinacknowledgeimmersion tobethebasicmeaningofthetermandtheoriginalformofbaptismpracticedbythe earlychurch(Erickson,1998,p.1113).

iii.

NonImmersionists: The second position is less a case of supporting a particular mode (immersion, pouring, and sprinkling) than a rebuttal of immersionist arguments. The following playful discussion between a Baptist and Presbyterian minister illustrates the nonimmersionistview(albeittongueincheek):
AfterabeautifuldissertationonthesubjectbytheBaptistminister,thePresbyterianminister askediftheBaptistconsideredapersonbaptizedifhewasimmersedinwateruptohischin. No,saidtheBaptist.Isheconsideredbaptizedifheisimmerseduptohisnose?asked thePresbyterian.AgaintheBaptistsanswerwasNo.Well,ifyouimmersehimuptohis eyebrows do you consider him baptized? queried the Presbyterian. You dont seem to understand,saidtheBaptist.Hemustbeimmersedcompletelyinwateruntilhisheadis covered.ThatswhatIvebeentryingtotellyouallalong,saidthePresbyterian,itsonly alittlewateronthetopoftheheadthatcounts.(Sourcebook,1996,p.4069)

Whatever [position] be adopted, baptism is not a matter to be taken lightly. It is of great importance, for it is both a sign of the believers union with Christ and, as a confession of that union, and additional act of faith that serves to cement the more firmlytherelationship.(Erickson,1998,p.1114)
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2.

The Lords Supper

BaptismistheinitiatoryriteinstitutedbyJesus;aoneoffactivityof theindividualbeliever.TheLordsSupperisanongoingriteofthe churchcollectively;ariteChristhimselfestablishedforthechurch to practice as a commemoration of his death (Erickson, 1998, p. 1116).Perhapsitistheconnectionoftheritetothecentralgospel event, Jesus death and resurrection, which has ensured the rites practiceinnearlyeverybranchofChristianitythroughouthistory.TheuniversalobservanceoftheLords Supperhasnotalwaysbeenaccompaniedbycompleteagreement.InfacttheLordsSupperhasoften beentheprimarysourceofschism. Inordertounderstandthefootingsonwhichtodayspracticeoftheriteareplaceditisimportantto accountforthephilosophicalpresuppositions(p.1116)thathavehelpedtoshapethedebatearound theimplementationoftheLordsSupper.
InsomecasesthesubjectofthespiritualorpracticalvalueoftheLordsSupperhasbecomelostinthe dispute over theoretical issues. The theoretical questions are important (they affect the spiritual considerations),andsotheyoughtnottobetooquicklydismissed.If,however,wegetboggeddownin the technical issues, and do not move on to deal with the practical meaning, we will have missed the wholepointofChristshavingestablishedtheSupper.(p.1117)

Erickson (1998) has outlined points of agreement (pp. 11171121) and points of disagreement (pp. 11211123) which, respectively, conjoin and distinguish branches of todays church in respect to the practiceoftheLordsSupper.

PointsofAgreement
Thefollowingpointsarebroadandopenincharacter: 1. Establishment by Christ: The earliest writing which mentions the Lords Supper is Pauls first letter to the Corinthians (11:1734). There has been some dispute, especially during the 19th century, aroundtheauthenticityofJesussstatementsinstitutingtheLordsSupper.Thisbeingsaid,there is now general consensus that the establishment of the Lords Supper goes back to Jesus himself.TheevidenceincludesthefactthatthethreeSynopticGospelsallattributetohimthe wordsinauguratingthepractice(Matt.26:2628;Mark14:2224;Luke22:1920)(p.1117). 2. The Necessity of Repetition: Despite some discussion being entertained around Matthew and Marksgospelsnotincludingthestatement(foundinLukesaccount),dothisinremembrance of me, it is generally accepted that Jesus meant the rite to be practiced beyond the singular momentofthePassoverfeastwhichhecelebratedwiththedisciples.Whatisnotclearishow
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often the rite should be conducted: weekly, monthly, quarterly etc. Perhaps the greatest challengeliesinmakingtheLordsSupperavailableoftenenoughtoavoidlonggapsbetween timesofreflectiononthetruthsitsignifies,butnotsofrequentlyastomakeitseemtrivialorso commonplace that we go through the motions without really thinking about the meaning (Erickson,1998,p.1134). 3. A Form of Proclamation: While there is definite disagreement as to the intrinsic value of the emblems (bread and wine) there is considerable agreement concerning the representational natureoftheriteandtheproclamationofChristsdeaththataccompaniesitspractice.
In participating by the Holy Spirit in the body of Christ, which was offered onceforall on the cross, the members of the church are stimulated and enabled by the same Holy Spirit to offer themselves to the Father in Eucharistic sacrifice, to serve one another in love within the body, andtofulfiltheirsacrificialfunctionasthebodyofChristintheserviceofthewholeworld,which GodreconciledtohimselfinChrist(Rom.12:1;1Cor.10:17).(Wallace,2001,p.705)

4. ASpiritualBenefittothePartaker:ConsensusexistsaroundtheefficacyoftheLordsSupperto thebeliever.Morethanmereobligation,itcanbeameansoratleastanoccasion,ofspiritual growthintheLord(Erickson,1998,p.1120). 5. RestrictiontoFollowersofChrist:Alldenominationsagreethatthetableandtheelementsthat aredistributedfromitarereservedforbelieversonly.Aboutselfexamination,whichwenoted earlier. It is necessary for a person to examine himself, in order to eat and drink in a worth manner (p. 1120). This being stated, it is important to remind ourselves that in the Lords Supper, we remember Christ, not our sins (1 Cor. 11:24; Luke 22:19), becauseHehasforgottenoursins(Heb.8:12)(Wiersbe,1992,p.703). 6. TheHorizontalDimension:Representedinthebreakingofasingleloaf of bread is the sacrifice of Jesus body broken for us. In 1 Corinthians 10:1517Paularguesthatsinceallpartakeofoneloaf,whichisChrists body, they are all one body (Erickson, 1998, p. 1120). Simply, the sharing of Christs body should remind us of our oneness with one another;Itcannotbeappropriatelypracticedbyseparateindividualsin isolation(p.1121). TheEucharist,Communion,ortheLordsSupper,isthecentralactofChristianWorship. ItisthecelebrationofcommunionwiththerisenChristandthetruefellowshipofthe saints.EveryChristiangroupobservesitatdifferenttimes,andeveryChristiangrouphas liturgyofsomekindinordertomakeitpartoftheworship.Buteverycongregationmust beconstantlyseekingwaystomakesurethatitisthemeaningfulandpowerfulpartof worshipitwasintendedtobe.(Ross,2006,p.468)
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PointsofDisagreement
Despite the many points of agreement connecting the body of Christ a numberofdisagreementscontinuetoexistconcerningtheLordsSupper: 1. The Presence of Christ: Perhaps the most contentious issue surrounding the Lords Supper is the manner in which the presence of Christ is (or is not) experiencedinandthroughtheelementsemployedbytherite.Therearefourmaingroupings underwhichdenominationscongregate(Erickson,1998,p.1121): a. ThebreadandwinearethephysicalbodyandbloodofChrist. b. Thebreadandwinecontainthephysicalbodyandblood. c. Thebreadandwinecontainspirituallythebodyandblood. d. Thebreadandwinerepresentthebodyandblood. 2. The Efficacy of the Rite: Considerable debate continues as to the value of the Lords Supper. Some suggest that the rite conveys grace to the communicant. A second view holds that the communicant is brought into contact with the living Christ. He is present spiritually, and we benefitfrom(p.1121)theencounter.Thethirdpositionmaintainsthattheriteservesmerely asareminderofthetruththattheLordispresentandavailable.Itspotentialforspiritualbenefit ismuchthesameasthatofasermon(pp.11211122). 3. TheProperAdministrator:Perhapsduetothelackofscripturaldirectiveastowhoshould(or shouldnot)administertheLordsSupper(Leonard,1993,p.171),contentionremainsastowhat constitutesproperordination.Specifically,thismatterconcernsitselfwithsacerdotalismwhichis thereligiousbeliefemphasizingthepowersofpriestsasessentialmediatorsbetweenGodand humankind(MerriamWebster,2003).TheRomanCatholicsholdthatonlyaCatholicpriestcan administer the elements. They contend that if laity where to try administering the rite the elements would remain merely bread and wine; not achieving the transformation into the physicalbodyandbloodofChrist.Attheotherendofthespectrumisthosegroupswhobelieve thatanybelievercanpresideoftheLordsSupperaslongastheproperintentionisheld. 4. TheAppropriateRecipients:WherealldenominationsagreethatthosepartakingintheLords Supper are believers, some debate remains as to what constitutes a believer. Some groups insistthattheparticipanthavebeenproperlybaptized.Somelocalcongregationsdistributethe elements only to their own members. Others specify a minimum age. A particular state of readiness is often required, at least tacitly or informally (Erickson, 1998, p. 1122). Nearly all denominationsdenyparticipationtobelieversknowntobelivinginseveresin;oftenrequiringa timeofconfessionbeforepartakingoftheelements. 5. The Elements to be Used: The final issue which invites discussion is whether the elements should be the same as those used at the first observance: bread and wine. Is grape juice acceptable?Canthewinebedistributedinminicupsorfromacommunalcup?
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FourMajorViews
TherearefourmajorviewsregardingtheLordsSupper.Muchofthedistinctionbetweeneachofthe fourviewsisdrawnfromthetheologysurroundingChristspresence(realorotherwise)duringtherite. Letsoutlinethefourmajorviews: TheTraditionalRomanCatholicView:FormalisedduringtheCouncilofTrent(AD154563),the official Roman Catholic view of Holy Eucharist applies the doctrine of transubstantiation. Transubstantiationisthedoctrinethatastheadministeringpriestconsecratestheelements,an actualmetaphysicalchangetakesplace3.ThesubstanceofthebreadandwineintoChristsflesh andblood,respectively(Erickson,1998,p.1124).Therearearangeofothersubtletiesapplied alongsidetransubstantiation(Erickson,1998,p.1124;Osterhaven,2001,p.705):
Concomitance: both the body and blood of Christ are in each element. Thus when the cup is withheldfromthelaitythewholeChrist,bodyandbloodisreceivedinthebreadalone. o Consecration:ThehighpointoftheEucharistisnotthecommunionwithChristbutthechangeof theelementsbytheirconsecrationintotheverybodyandbloodofChrist. o Sacerdotalism:Onlytheordainedpriestmayconsecratethehost(elements). o Sacrificial Act: The propitiatory sacrifice of Christ, offered again on behalf of the worshippers servestoatoneforvenialsins. o

TheLutheranView:Aspreviouslynoted,manyofthecontroversiesoftheReformationcentred on the Lords Supper. Luther did not seek to bring dramatic change to the established Roman Catholicnormsoftransubstantiation.LutherretainedthecentraltenantthatChristsbodyand blood are physically present in the elements, but denied that the bread and wine actually changed into flesh and blood arguing the body and blood of Christ are present in, with, and under the bread and wine (Erickson, 1998, p. 1125). Consubstantiation is the term given by

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manytoLutherspositioneventhoughitwasatermthatLutherdidnotfavour.Lutherrejecteda numberofthefacetsassociatedwiththeRomanCatholicEucharist;namelysacerdotalismand theideathattheMassisasacrifice.Lutherreasoned,sinceChristdiedandatonedforsinonce andforall,andsincethebelieverisjustifiedbyfaithonthebasisofthatonetimesacrifice,there is no need for repeated sacrifices (p. 1125). Despite some commentators accusing Luthers positionasencouragingsuperstition(Duffield&Cleave,1983)itwasLuthersdesiretobreak thebondageofsuperstitioninwhichthechurchwasheld(Osterhaven,2001,p.706).ForLuther the rite was regarded as a sacrament; by virtue of taking the elements believers receive a spiritual benefit they otherwise would not experience. The Christian ought therefore to take advantage of the opportunity for grace afforded by the sacrament of the Lords Supper (Erickson,1998,p.1126). The Reformed View: The third major view is the Calvinistic or Reformed view. The Reformed viewmaintainsthatChristispresentintheLordsSupperbutnotphysicallyorbodily(p.1127). Superficially,CalvinspositionseemstobemerelyamiddlegroundbetweenLutherandZwingli (thefourthmajorviewwhichwewilllookatnext);butitisanindependentposition.Specifically, CalvinrejectedLuthersmonstrousnotionofubiquity(p.4.17.30)andarguedagainstZwinglis staunchpositionofmemoralism(p.4.17.30).CalvinheldthattheessenceofChristsbodywas itspower.Initselfitisoflittlevaluesinceithaditsoriginfromearth,andunderwentdeath(p. 4.17.24),buttheHolySpirit,whogaveChristabody,communicatesitspowertoussothatwe receivethewholeChristincommunion(Osterhaven,2001,pp.707708).Thefollowingfigure illustratestheEucharisticdividebetweentheprotestantunderstandings:

TheGreatEucharistDivide (Hannah,2004,p.15)

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The Zwinglian View: Initially Luthers main opponent was Ulrich Zwingli. While reviewing the ZwinglianviewitisimportanttocontextualisetheinfluenceofhumanismuponZwingli,withits aversion to the medieval mentality and its adulation of reason (Osterhaven, 2001, p. 706). Essentially,Zwinglisviewisheavilyreductionist;strippingtheriteofallmystery.Thisisnotto say that the service of the Lords Supper is void of importance in theZwinglian interpretation. Whilst the rite is reduced to a commemoration of Christs death the value of the sacrament, accordingtothisview,liessimplyinreceivingbyfaiththebenefitsofChristsdeath(Erickson, 1998,p.1128).ThispositionisfoundedonthedenialthattheglorifiedChrist,nowinheaven,is presentinanywaythatthewordsbodily,physically,orlocallywouldfit(Packer,1995).

Eachofthefourviewsisinpracticetoday,butitisimportanttonotethatwiththepassageoftimethere has been the development of hybrids; if not in practice, certainly in theology. Osterhaven (2001) summarisesoursurveyofthefourmajorviewswriting,
Calvinspositionhasreceivedwidestacceptancewithintheuniversalchurch.Moreover,itistheposition closest to the thinking of contemporary theologians within both the Roman Catholic and Lutheran traditions.ItisapositionthatseestheLordsSupperasariteinstitutedbyJesusChristinwhichbreadis broken and the fruit of the vine is poured out in thankful remembrance of Christs atoning sacrifice, having become, through their reception and the sacramental blessing given by the Holy Spirit, the communionofthebodyandthebloodofChristandananticipationoffullfuturesalvation.(p.708)

ScripturalImperatives
It is important to allow Gods Word the final say on the matter of the LordsSupper.Again,scripturestopsshortofofferinganyspecificdirection intheorderingoftherite,butitdoesofferanumberofguidingprinciples that should always be considered; regardless of theological position. JohnSweetman(2012)offersalistofNewTestamentguidepostsforthe administrationoftheLordsSupper(p.8): TakeamomenttoreflectonyourownviewsconcerningtheLordsSupper.Whichof the four major views (Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed and Zwinglian) do you resonate with? Are your views informed by denominational instruction, personal convictionorboth?
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Communion:aparticipationinthebodyofChrist(1Cor.10:16) Proclamation:youproclaimtheLordsdeath(1Cor.11:26) Commemoration:remembrance(Luke22:19) GivingThanks:athankfulrecitalofGodsacts(Acts2:4647;1Cor.11:2324) Anticipation:aforetasteofthingstocomeeschatologically(1Cor.11:26)

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References
Bromiley,G.W.(2001a).Baptismalregeneration.InW.A.Elwell(Ed.),Evangelicaldictionaryoftheology(2nded., pp.135).GrandRapids,MI:BakerAcademic. Bromiley,G.W.(2001b).Infantbaptism.InW.A.Elwell(Ed.),Evangelicaldictionaryoftheology(2nded.,pp.132 134).GrandRapids,MI:BakerAcademic. Calvin,J.(1997).InstitutesoftheChristianreligion.Bellingham,WA:LogosBibleSoftware. Duffield, G. P., & Cleave, N. M. V. (1983). Foundations of Pentecostal theology. Los Angeles, CA: L.I.F.E Bible College. Erickson,M.J.(1998).Christiantheology(2nded.).GrandRapids,MI:BakerAcademic. Fahey,M.A.(2007).Sacraments.InJ.Webster,K.Tanner&I.Torrance(Eds.),Theoxfordhandbookofsystematic theology(pp.267284).Oxford,UK:OxfordUniversityPress. Hannah, J. D. (2004). Charts of reformation and enlightenment church history (Vol. 2). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Leonard,R.C.(1993).WorshipleadershipintheNewTestatment.InR.Webber(Ed.),TheBiblicalFoundationsof ChristianWorship(Vol.1).Nashville,TN:StarSongPublishingGroup. MerriamWebster, I. (Ed.) (2003) MerriamWebster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). Springfield, MA: Merriam WebsterInc. Osterhaven,M.E.(2001).ViewsofLord'sSupper.InW.A.Elwell(Ed.),Evangelicaldictionaryoftheology(2nded., pp.705708).GrandRapids,MI:BakerAcademic. Packer,J.I.(1995).Concisetheology:Aguidetohistoricchristianbeliefs(Almightiness)RetrievedfromLogosBible Software4database Provance,B.S.(Ed.)(2009)Pocketdictionaryofliturgyandworship.DownersGrove,IL:InterVarsityPress. Rayburn, R. S. (2001). Modes of baptism. In W. A. Elwell (Ed.), Evangelical dictionary of theology (2nd ed., pp. 134135).GrandRapids,MI:BakerAcademic. Ross,A.P.(2006).Recallingthehopeofglory:Biblicalworshipfromthegardentothenewcreation.GrandRapids, MI:KregelPublications. Sourcebook, S. s. (Ed.) (1996) Encyclopedia of 7700 Illustrations: Signs of the times. Garland, TX: Bible CommunicationsInc. Sweetman,J.(2012).Definingcorporateworship:Module4.UnpublishedLearningGuide.MalyonCollege. Wallace, R. S. (2001). Lord's Supper. In W. A. Elwell (Ed.), Evangelical dictionary of theology (2nd ed., pp. 703 705).GrandRapids,MI:BakerAcademic. Wiersbe,W.W.(1992).Wiersbe'sexpositoryoutlinesontheNewTestament.Wheaton,IL:VictorBooks.

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