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and the notion of mutuality that is seen as a key component in partnership agreements both relate to this. This model will influence HR practices that will be aimed at eliciting high commitment to work. nor does it not prevent the 2 . (6) High compensation contingency on performance (7) Reduction of status differentials / harmonization. There are obviously limits to how much employment security can be guaranteed. The high commitment model has been described as a HRM approach aimed at eliciting a commitment so that behaviour is primary self-regulated rather than controlled by sanctions and pressures external to the individual and relations within the organization based on high levels of trust. learning and development. (1) High commitment model One of the defining hallmarks of HRM is its emphasis on the importance of enhancing mutual commitment. (3) Extensive training. (1) Employment security Employment security fundamentally underpins the other six human resource practices. Components of high commitment model (1) Employment security (2) Selective hiring and sophisticated selection.Question: Discuss the following Human Resource Management Approaches: 1) High commitment 2) High performance. hard work and commitment without some expectation of employment security and concern for their future careers. It does not mean that employees are able to stay in one job for life. 3) High environment Critically discuss their contribution to managing voluntary labour turn over. The contribution of a positive psychological contract contributes to open and trusting employment relationship. information sharing and worker’s voice. (4) Employee involvement. the organization and fellow workmates. (5) Self-managed teams / team working. principally because it is regarded as an unrealistic to ask employees to offer their ideas.

Increasingly. Similarly.. this is nowadays more likely to be systematized through the use of sophisticated selection techniques and taking greater care when hiring. training and developing their workforces. Lay offs put important strategic assets on the streets for the competition to employ. 1. 3 . the following can act as alternatives. there is also a business case for employment security. 4. interpersonal and team working skills in addition to technical skills. a major collapse in the product. Compulsory lay off and downsizing undermine employment security. Proportionately reducing work hours to “spread the pain” of reduced employment costs across the entire workforce.dismissal of staff who fail to perform to the required level. Freezing recruitment to prevent overstaffing. Laying people off too readily constitutes a cost for firms that have done a good job selecting. Market that necessitates reductions in the labour force should not be seen as undermining this principle. The most significant point about including employment security as one of the high commitment HR practices is that it asserts that job reductions will be avoided wherever possible. and that employees should expect to maintain their employment within the HR organization. Employment security can be enhanced by well devised and forward looking systems of human resources planning and an understanding of how organisations may be structured to achieve flexibility. Indeed. 2. 3. Putting production workers into sales to build up demand. Reducing wages to reduce the labour costs. Even though employees have wanted to recruit the best people available. employees are looking for applicants who possess a range of social. (2) Selective hiring and sophisticated selection Recruiting and retaining outstanding people and capturing a stock of exceptional human talent is seen as an effective way to achieve sustained competitive advantage.

structured interviews and work sampling is likely to increase the validity of selection decisions. There is little doubt that there has been a growing recognition of the importance of individual and organizational 4 . Moreover an excessive “cloning” of employees could be problematic if the organization is keen to promote initiative and diversity and counterproductive if business needs and markets change. committed staff is seen as central to “best practice” HRM. Moreover. commitment. drive and persistence and initiative. (3) Extensive training. especially when it focuses on how well new recruits might fit with the prevailing organizational culture.The proxies used to measure ‘selective hiring’ include: Number of applicants per position or as many good applicants as the organization needs. some of them emphasize inputs rather than outputs in terms of the quality of those recruited. On the other hand. there may be situations where it is impossible to attract sufficient applicants due to skills shortages as some professional jobs in the health sector – where the emphasis shifts to generating a pool of potential recruits rather than finding more sophisticated ways to choose between them. For example. flexibility. It is possible that selective hiring. not only in terms of professional expertise and product knowledge but also through working in teams or in interpersonal relations. and the use of psychometric tests. Sophistication of selection process such as the use of psychometric tests and realistic job previews. The proportion administered on employment test prior to hiring. The idea that employees aim to synergise the contribution of talented and exceptional employees should be viewed as one element in “organizational process advantage”. Recruiting high quality. attracting a large number of applicants for a position may indicate poor HR procedures due to failures to define the job and the field adequately prior to advertising. Competencies to be sought at selection stage include trainability. learning and development Having recruited “outstanding human talent”. These measures capture quite different components of the selection process and on whether the focus is on the overall approach taken by employers or the precise techniques they may use. employees need to ensure that these people remain at the forefront of their field. can lead to under-presented groups being excluded from employment.

open communications about financial performance. workers require information in order to provide a basis from which to offer their suggestions and contribute to improvements in organizational performance. First. Quite a number of studies have looked solely at the financial or quantitative aspects – in terms of money or time invested in training – and ignored the quality or relevance of training and learning that is provided. it also conveys a symbolic and substantive message that they are to be trusted in an open and positive manner. There exists problems in trying to measure and evaluate the concentration of training and learning. The use of the word “learning” is crucial as it demonstrates employee willingness to encourage and facilitate employee development rather than just providing specific training to cover short term crisis. There have been incidences where workers are overqualified for the job they do. strategy and operational matters not only ensures workers are informed about organizational issues. information sharing and worker voice There are a number of reasons why employee involvement is an essential component of the high commitment paradigm. it is also crucial to identify the type of training which is provided and who has responsibility for managing this. all of which are designed to increase the involvement of individual employees in the work place. upward problem-solving groups and project teams. Third. and as such training may add little to organizational performance or worker skills. (4) Employee involvement. While it is clearly important to establish how much time and resources employees invest in formal training. Information sharing can include downward communications. 5 .learning as a source of sustained competitive advantage as employees introduce more skills – specific forms of training and experience continuing skills shortages in some areas. for teamworking to be successful. Second. participation can provide management with some legitimacy for its actions on the ground that ideas have been put forward by workers and/or at least considered by them before decisions are ultimately made. and whether or not this covers the entire workforce.

this needs to be at the level in excess of that for comparable workers in skill organizations so as to attract and retain high quality labour. This can be seen through egalitarian symbols. Team work is especially seen as leading to better decision-making and the achievement of more creative solutions.Employees voice is essential as it provides the workers with opportunity to express their grievances openly and independently. It is also one of the key attributes that employees look for in new recruits. not least as a way of pooling ideas and improving work processes it has been identified as a fundamental component of organizational success. rewards should reflect different levels of worker contribution. (7) Reduction of status differences / harmonization Symbolic manifestations of egalitarianism seen in the HR practices of some companies are meant to convey messages to manual workers and lower grade staff that they are valuable assets who reserve to be treated in a similar way to their more senior colleagues. To be effective. Employee voice may be achieved through trade union representation and collective bargaining as well as through formally established grievance and dispute procedures. (5) Self managed teams / team working This practice has become more prevalent over the last decade for a variety of reasons. sick-pay schemes. The principal point behind moves to single status and harmonization is that it seeks to break down artificial barriers between different groups of staff. pension and hours of work. It is also seen as a way to encourage employees to offer ideas within an “open” management culture. but it is also underpinned by the harmonization of many terms and conditions of employment – such as holidays. (6) High compensation contingent on performance There are two elements to this practice – higher than average compensation and performance related reward – although both send a signal that they deserve to be rewarded for superior contributions. Evidence suggests that employees who work in teams generally report higher levels of satisfaction that their counterparts working under more “traditional” regimes. in addition to being able to contribute to management decision-making on task-related issues. In addition. shared canteen and car-parking facilities. such as staff uniforms. thus encouraging and 6 .

the delivery of increased shareholder value. Self managed teams or autonomous working groups are established. High performance management practices include rigorous recruitment and management development activities. Extending employee share ownership to the workforce as a whole is a further way through which status differences can be reduced. Managers and team leaders adopt a supportive rather than an autocratic style (this is the most difficult part of the system to introduce). 1. Multi-skilling is encouraged – that is job demarcation lines are eliminated as far as possible and encouragement and training are provided to acquire new skills. levels of customers service. High Performance Model The high performance model originated from the US high performance work practices aimed at making an impact on the performance of the firm through its people in areas such as productivity. Thorough training is carried out on the basis of an assessment of training needs. • Management clearly defines what it needs in the form of new methods of working and the results expected from their introduction: Management sets goals and standards for success. ultimately. The new system is introduced with great care by means of involvement and communication programmes. requires the following steps. growth. High performance work design as described by Buchanan (1987). The payment system is specially designed with participation of employees. to fit their needs as well as those of management. There is some overlap between this concept and that of high commitment management.supporting teamwork and flexibility. Support systems are provided that help the teams to function effectively as operating units. growth. 7 . levels of customer service. High performance management aims to make an impact on the performance of the firm through its people in such areas as productivity. incentive pay systems and performance management processes. quality. quality. profits and ultimately the delivery of increased shareholder value. profits and.

this configuration of practices is narrowly focused and often lack theoretical grounding. The three complementary frameworks i.- Payment may be related to team performance but with skill-based pay for individuals. It is concerned with communication and involvement. High Involvement Model This approach involves treating employees as partners in the enterprise. The aim is to create a climate in which a continuing dialogue between managers and the members of those teams take place in order to define expectations and share information on the organisation’s mission. whose interests are respected and who have a voice in matters that concern them. organizations allow employees to assume several roles and responsibilities and thus exert a greater influence at work while enjoying increased autonomy. Employee discretion and influence through task involvement fosters a great sense of support. it is imperative to discuss each approach’s contribution to management of voluntary labour turn over. First through empowerment. trust and intrinsic motivation and provides work attitudes (Eby. 1999. This increased sense of responsibility also stimulates 8 . Although several sets of innovative HR practices have recently been proved to enhance effectiveness in an organization and to retain talented employees. The high performance model suggests that five distinct. a “peer performance review” process may be used that involves team members assessing one another’s performance as well as performance of the team as a whole.e. values and objectives. Having stated what way management approach 1) Comprised of. high performance and high commitment conceptual frameworks have received much attention in the academic press. In some cases. 2. Freeman. Lance. Rush. high involvement. 1986). supportive HR practices may influence employees’ work related attitudes and performance behaviours. Lawlet. This establishes mutual understanding of what is to be achieved and a framework for managing and developing people to ensure that it will be achieved.

Employees into which such feelings have been inculcated would want to stay with the organisation for long. enhance feelings of mutual trust.more initiative and effort on the part of everyone involved. or both improving productivity of existing employees and sending the employees the signal that decision makers are willing to invest in them beyond short-term returns. mentoring and training. Important components of high performance organizations because the sharing of information on such things as financial performance. This way employees are motivated to remain in the organization.g. Information sharing is one of the easiest and most effective ways to foster employee involvement within organizations. Such highly motivated employees will remain in an organization for a long time. motivational researchers have long acknowledged that the need for recognition is a fundamental driver of human behaviour. much of their motivation ensues from the recognition they get from managers for a job well done and the feeling that they are a pivotal part of the organization. Information sharing also represents an important component at high performance organizations because the sharing of information on such things as financial performance. previous research shows that information sharing practices favour the internalization of organizational goals and values by employees. high-performing firms use competences development practices e. Several scholars found that high performance organizations persistently sought to recognize and reinforce valuable contributions made by employees. strategy and operational resources conveys to the organization’s people that they are trusted. job rotation programs. fair organizational rewards refer to the perceived fairness of various job outcomes. For most highly skilled professionals. Such practices go a long way in retaining employees in an organization. performance evaluations and job assignments. strategy and operational measures conveys to the organization’s people that they are trusted. and make individuals important to the company. Third. Fifth. Fourth. A high level of perceived equity signals to employees that the organization supports them and has 9 . Second. Employees into which such feelings have been inculcated would want to stay with the organization for long. including compensation conditions.

Scholars also have found a negative relationship between continuance commitment and turnover intentions. affective commitment corresponds to an employee’s personal attachment and identification with the organization resulting in a strong belief in and acceptance of the organisation’s goals and values. When employees recognize that availability of comparable alternatives is limited elsewhere. 10 . It is widely accepted that employees’ commitment to the organization can take various forms and that antecedents and consequences of law can be quite different. Affective commitment plays a central role in the turnover literature studies conducted confirm that affective commitment is well established as an important antecedent to withdrawal behaviours. Such practices create a sense of belonging to the employees which all individuals crave for. they will be more predisposed to stay in their current organization to avoid losing their relative advantages or privileges. First. Employees with a strong affective commitment continue employment with the organization because they want to do so.their well being at heart.

Pare G. 32. from Article base: Official website: http://wwwvoluntary-turnover-1228397. 11 . (2009) Retrieved. (2007). October 13. and Citizenship Behaviours on Information Technology Professionals’ Turnover intentions. Avoid The Threat of Mass Voluntary Turnover. Tremblay M. Procedural Justice.References 1. Group & Organization Management 2007.htm. Talent Management. 1177/ 105960110628685.. The Influence of High Involvement Human Resources Practices. 2. 2009. Organizational Commitment. 326’ DOI: 10.

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