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**apparent power where
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Active (Real or True) Power is measured in watts (W) and is the power drawn by the electrical resistance of a system doing useful work. Apparent Power is measured in volt-amperes (VA) and is the voltage on an AC system multiplied by all the current that flows in it. It is the vector sum of the active and the reactive power. Reactive Power is measured in volt-amperes reactive (VAR). Reactive Power is power stored in and discharged by inductive motors, transformers and solenoids

Reactive power is required for the magnetization of a motor but doesn't perform any action. The reactive power required by inductive loads increases the amounts of apparent power measured in kilovolt amps (kVA) - in the distribution system. Increasing of the reactive and apparent power will cause the power factor - PF - to decrease.

Power Factor

It is common to define the Power Factor - PF - as the cosine of the phase angle between voltage and current - or the "cosφ".

The power factor defined by IEEE and IEC is the ratio between the applied active (true) power - and the apparent power, and can in general be expressed as: PF = P / S (1) where PF = power factor

A low power factor is expensive and inefficient and some utility companies may charge additional fees when the power factor is less than 0.of the loads is only 0.P = active (true or real) power (Watts) S = apparent power (VA. inductive loads require a current flow to create magnetic fields to produce the desired work. cables. switchgear and UPS could be made considerably smaller. Example . If the power factor . Unlike resistive loads creating heat by consuming kilowatts. volts amps) A low power factor is the result of inductive loads such as transformers and electric motors.only 80 kVA × 0.95. "Leading" or "Lagging" Power Factors Power factors are usually stated as "leading" or "lagging" to show the sign of the phase angle. .PF . A low power factor will reduce the electrical system's distribution capacity by increasing the current flow and causing voltage drops. Any power factor less than 1 means that the circuit's wiring has to carry more current than what would be necessary with zero reactance in the circuit to deliver the same amount of (true) power to the resistive load.Power Factor A industrial plant draws 200 A at 400 V and the supply transformer and backup UPS is rated 200 A × 400 V = 80 kVA. If the power factor is close to 1 (purely resistive circuit) the supply system with transformers.7 = 56 kVA of real power is consumed by the system.7 . Power factor is an important measurement in electrical AC systems because an overall power factor less than 1 indicates that the electricity supplier need to provide more generating capacity than actually required the current waveform distortion that contributes to reduced power factor is caused by voltage waveform distortion and overheating in the neutral cables of three-phase systems International standards such as IEC 61000-3-2 have been established to control current waveform distortion by introducing limits for the amplitude of current harmonics.

amps) Typical Motor Power Factors Power Factor Power (hp) Speed (rpm) 1/2 load 0-5 5 . Power Factor for a Three-Phase Motor The total power required by an inductive device as a motor or similar consists of Active (true or real) power (measured in kilowatts.consumes reactive power with current waveform lagging the voltage. Inductive and capacitive loads stores energy in magnetic or electric fields in the devices during parts of the AC cycles.transformers. kW) Reactive power . motors and wound coils .74 0. Inductive loads .86 0.the nonworking power caused by the magnetizing current. watts) U = voltage (V) I = current (A. kVAR) The power factor for a three-phase electric motor can be expressed as: PF = P / [(3)1/2 U I] (2) where PF = power factor P = power applied (W.84 0.capacitor banks or buried cables . The energy is returned back to the power source during the rest of the cycles.79 3/4 load 0.84 0.20 20 .89 .86 full load 0.100 1800 1800 1800 0.72 0. Capacitive loads . Electrical energy flows in a single direction across the network in each cycle.generates reactive power with current phase leading the voltage. required to operate the device (measured in kilovars. With a purely resistive load current and voltage changes polarity in step and the power factor will be 1.82 0.

one kilovolt ampere .KVA .one watt is the product of one ampere and one volt .in direct current systems the volt ampere is the same as watts or the energy delivered .product of volts and amperes as shown by a voltmeter and ammeter .unit of electrical potential or motive force .Power Factor Power (hp) Speed (rpm) 1/2 load 100 .when synchronous the volt amperes equals the watts on a wattmeter when not synchronous volt amperes exceed watts .7 W Common electrical units used in formulas and equations are: Volt .88 full load 0.unit of resistance .300 3/4 load 0.units of current .one ohm is the resistance offered to the passage of one ampere when impelled by one volt Ampere .potential is required to send one ampere of current through one ohm of resistance Ohm .the volts and amperes may or may not be 100% synchronous .unit of electrical energy or power .ratio of watts to volt amperes Electric Power Formulas W = E I (1a) W = R I2 (1b) W = E2/ R (1c) where W = power (Watts) E = voltage (Volts) I = current (Amperes) R = resistance (Ohms) Electric Current Formulas .in alternating current systems .one ampere is the current which one volt can send through a resistance of one ohm Watt .91 1800 0.000 volt amperes Power Factor .is equal to 1.reactive power Kilovolt Ampere .81 1 hp = 745.one ampere of current flowing under the force of one volt gives one watt of energy Volt Ampere .

I = E / R (2a) I = W / E (2b) I = (W / R)1/2 (2c) Electric Resistance Formulas R = E / I (3a) R = E2/ W (3b) R = W / I2 (3c) Electrical Potential Formulas .732 E I PF) (5b) . I = (12 Volts) / (18 ohms) = 0.Ohms Law Ohms law can be expressed as: E = R I (4a) E = W / I (4b) E = (W R)1/2 (4c) Example .Ohm's law A 12 volt battery supplies power to a resistance of 18 ohms.67 Ampere Electrical Motor Formulas Electrical Motor Efficiency μ = 746 Php / Winput (5) where μ = efficiency Php = output horsepower (hp) Winput = input electrical power (Watts) or alternatively μ = 746 Php / (1.

single-phase : 14 amps/hp 230 Volts motor .9 6.2 4. Single-Phase Motors .6 4.8 11 13.8 13.4 3.732) / 1.8 16 20 24 34 56 208 V 2.4 7.2 2.3-phase : 1.3-phase : 2.6 8.Electrical Motor .single-phase : 7 amps/hp 230 Volts motor .9 8 10 12 17 28 .0 5.2 9.8 230 V 2.8 7.2 18.9 3.Power W3-phase = (E I PF 1.HP and Full-Load Currents Motor Size (hp) 1/6 1/4 1/3 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/2 2 3 5 Full Load Current (Amps) 115 V 4. wiring and switchgear.4 5.5 amps/hp 460 Volts motor .25 amps/hp Always check nameplate information before designing protective devices.732 E μ PF) (7) where I3-phase = electrical current 3-phase motor (Amps) PF = power factor electrical motor As a "rules of thumb" amps horsepower rating can be estimated as 115 Volts motor .000 (6) where W3-phase = electrical power 3-phase motor (kW) PF = power factor electrical motor Electrical Motor .Amps I3-phase = (746 Php) / (1.7 30.

7 3 9.9 5 15.8 3.6 6.8 3/4 5.4 5.4 1 1/2 10.7 W = 0.6 2. hp) Pin = electric power in to the motor (Watt.and the electrical input power.0139 metric horse power ~= 1.545 Btu/h = 33.000 ft lb/m = 1.1 2 13. efficiency can be expressed as: ηm = Pout / Pin (1) where ηm = motor efficiency Pout = shaft power out (Watt.8 3.6 6.2 2.2 7.Three-Phase Motors . W) Electrical Motor Efficiency when Shaft Output is measured in Horsepower If power output is measured in horsepower (hp).4 2.0 KVA Electrical motor efficiency is the ratio between the shaft output power .6 4.6 1.1 7 1/2 22 11 9 10 28 14 11 15 42 21 17 20 54 27 22 25 68 34 27 53 26 21 30 80 40 32 63 32 26 40 104 52 41 83 41 33 50 130 65 52 104 52 42 60 154 77 62 16 123 61 49 12 75 192 96 77 20 155 78 62 15 100 248 124 99 26 202 101 81 20 1 hp (English horse power) = 745.6 2.1 1 7.2 3.746 kW = 550 ft lb/s = 2. Electrical Motor Efficiency when Shaft Output is measured in Watt If power output is measured in Watt (W).HP and Full-Load Currents Motor Size (hp) Full-Load Current (Amps) Induction Type Synchronous Type Squirrel-Cage and Wound Motor Unity Power Factor 2300 2300 115 V 230 V 460 V 575 V 230 V 460 V 575 V V V 1/2 4 2 1 0. W) Pin = electric power in to the motor (Watt. efficiency can be expressed as: ηm = Pout 746 / Pin (2) where Pout = shaft power out (horsepower.8 1.8 1.4 1. W) .

4 . These energies are dissipated as currents in the copper windings. iron losses and mechanical losses. Primary and Secondary Resistance Losses The electrical power lost in the primary rotor and secondary stator winding resistance are also called copper losses.99 100 .7 92.124 > 125 Minimum Nominal Efficiency1) 78.5 90.and can be expressed as Pcl = R I2 (3) where Pcl = stator winding . leakage in the laminate core.5 88.49 50 . The largest contribution to the stray losses is harmonic energies generated when the motor operates under load. Mechanical Losses Mechanical losses includes friction in the motor bearings and the fan for air cooling.19 20 .8 84.copper loss (W) R = resistance (Ω) I = current (Amp) Iron Losses These losses are the result of magnetic energy dissipated when when the motors magnetic field is applied to the stator core.0 85. harmonic flux components in the iron parts. NEMA Design B Electrical Motors Electrical motors constructed according NEMA Design B must meet the efficiencies below: Power (hp) 1-4 5-9 10 . The copper loss varies with the load in proportion to the current squared . Stray Losses Stray losses are the losses that remains after primary copper and secondary losses.2 91.

5 10 15 20 25 kW (in lbf) (ft lbf) (Nm) (in lbf) (ft lbf) (Nm) (in lbf) (ft lbf) (Nm) (in lbf) (ft lbf) (Nm) 0.1 20 26 39 53 66 3. Single Speed 1200.1 10.3 39 53 79 36 53 71 107 1891 142 2521 178 3151 1260 105 1576 131 .7 18 27 36 53 71 89 63 95 126 189 315 473 630 945 5.5 2 3 5 7.3 7. Open Drip Proof (ODP) or Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled (TEFC) motors 1 hp and larger that operate more than 500 hours per year Power versus torque and motor velocity in electric motors are indicated below: Motor Velocity (rpm) Power 3450 2000 Torque hp 1 1.1 6.3 7.9 13.1 3. 1800.5 14.6 3. 3600 RPM.1 4.6 11 15 23 30 38 2.5 42. 1) NEMA Design B.5 79 105 158 210 263 71 107 142 214 285 356 1000 500 10.7 5.9 7.6 7.5 2.2 15.7 52.2 3.9 5.5 11 15 19 18 27 37 55 91 137 183 274 365 457 1.3 7.6 5.75 1.4 26.6 7.8 21.2 10 15 21 31 41 52 32 47 63 95 158 236 315 473 630 788 2.4 21.0 28.1 10.8 21.1 1.5 31.3 3.0 4.2 15.5 2.5 14.7 126 189 252 378 630 945 1260 10.

Motor Velocity (rpm) Power 3450 2000 Torque hp 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 125 150 175 200 225 kW (in lbf) (ft lbf) (Nm) (in lbf) (ft lbf) (Nm) (in lbf) (ft lbf) (Nm) (in lbf) (ft lbf) (Nm) 22 30 37 45 52 60 67 75 93 548 731 913 1096 46 61 76 91 62 83 945 79 107 142 178 214 249 285 321 356 445 534 1891 158 2521 210 3151 263 3781 315 4412 368 5042 420 5672 473 6302 525 7878 657 214 3781 285 5042 356 6302 427 7563 499 8823 315 420 525 630 735 427 570 712 855 997 1000 500 1260 105 103 1576 131 124 1891 158 145 2206 184 165 2521 210 186 2836 236 207 3151 263 258 3939 328 310 4727 394 361 5515 460 413 6302 525 465 7090 591 1279 107 1461 122 1644 137 1827 152 2283 190 570 10084 840 1140 641 11344 945 1282 712 12605 1050 1425 891 15756 1313 1781 112 2740 228 131 3197 266 149 3654 304 168 4110 343 9454 788 1069 18907 1576 2137 623 11029 919 1247 22058 1838 2494 712 12605 1050 1425 25210 2101 2850 801 14180 1182 1603 28361 2363 3206 .

Motor Velocity (rpm) Power 3450 2000 Torque hp 250 275 300 350 400 450 550 600 kW (in lbf) (ft lbf) (Nm) (in lbf) (ft lbf) (Nm) (in lbf) (ft lbf) (Nm) (in lbf) (ft lbf) (Nm) 187 4567 381 205 5024 419 224 5480 457 261 6394 533 298 7307 609 336 8221 685 516 7878 657 568 8666 722 891 15756 1313 1781 31512 2626 3562 980 17332 1444 1959 34663 2889 3918 1000 500 620 9454 788 1069 18907 1576 2137 37814 3151 4275 723 11029 919 1247 22058 1838 2494 44117 3676 4987 826 12605 1050 1425 25210 2101 2850 50419 4202 5699 929 14180 1182 1603 28361 2363 3206 56722 4727 6412 410 10047 837 1136 17332 1444 1959 34663 2889 3918 69326 5777 7837 448 10961 913 1239 18907 1576 2137 37814 3151 4275 75629 6302 8549 Electrical Motor Torque Equation Torque can be calculated in Imperial units like T = Php 63025 / n (1) where T = torque (in lbf) Php = horsepower n = revolution per minute (rpm) .

Electrical Motor Torque Torque from an electrical motor with 100 hp and speed 1000 rpm can be calculated as T = (100 hp) 63025 / (1000 rpm) = 6303 in lbf To convert to foot pound-force . .divide the torque by 12.554 / n (1) where T = torque (Nm) PW = power (watts) n = revolution per minute (rpm) Example .Alternatively Tft = Php 5252 / n (1b) where Tft = torque (ft lbf) Torque can be calculated in SI units like T = PW 9.

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