Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

25 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Dynamics Chapter 2. Kinetics of Particles ENGG1010 2014 2015
- Dynamics - Chapter 11 [Beer7]
- Boxing Punch
- - Forced Vortex Flow
- BeerVM11e_PPT_Ch11b
- L2 - 321Anthropometrics_Lec2
- Chapter 2
- 2431PracticeTest2
- Dynamics Revision
- Test Motion 10
- Appendix - Blade Element Momentum Theory
- Serway - Resource Integration Guide
- MIT16_07F09_Lec02
- GATE 2013 Test Series -1
- 100343-b ER_4u_1
- Elman's Displacement
- FSMQ Area Under a Graph
- Graphs for Lab
- 21 feb 2014
- Engineering Mechanics QB

You are on page 1of 8

ROTATION

11.1. Rotational variables

In this chapter we will be dealing with the rotation of a rigid body about a fixed axis. Every point of the body moves in a circle, whose center lies on the axis of rotation, and every point experiences the same angular displacement during a particular time interval.

Figure 11.1. Relation between s and [theta]. Suppose the z-axis of our coordinate system coincides with the axis of rotation of the rigid body. The x-axis and the y-axis are taken to be perpendicular to the z-axis. Each part of the rigid body moves in a circle around the z-axis. Suppose a given point A on the body covers a linear distance s during the rotation (see Figure 11.1). During one complete revolution point A covers a distance equal to 2[pi]r. In that case, the angle of rotation is equal to 2[pi] radians. For the situation shown in Figure 11.1, the angle of rotation can be easily calculated:

In describing the rotation of a rigid body we have to choose a reference line with respect to which the angle of rotation is being measured. In figure 11.1 the reference line connects the origin of the coordinate system and point A. The angle of rotation is the angle between the reference line and the x-axis (as is shown in Figure 11.1). If the angle of rotation [theta] is time dependent, it makes sense to introduce the concept of angular velocity and angular acceleration. The angular velocity [omega] is defined as

The unit of the angular velocity is rad/s. The angular velocity can be positive (counterclockwise rotation) or negative (clockwise rotation). The angular acceleration a is defined as

The unit of the angular acceleration is rad/s2. In order to describe rotation around a point (rather than a fixed axis) the concept of an angular velocity vector is introduced. The magnitude of the angular velocity vector is equal to the absolute value of the angular velocity for rotation around a fixed axis (as defined above). The direction of the velocity vector is parallel to the rotation axis and the right-hand rule needs to be used to determine whether the vector points upwards or downwards. Problem 7P A wheel rotates with an angular acceleration a given by

where t is the time and a and b are constants. If the wheel has an initial angular velocity [omega]0, write the equations for (a) the angular velocity and (b) the angle turned as function of time. To solve this problem, we start with looking at the relation between the angular acceleration and the angular velocity

Substituting the given angular acceleration we obtain for the angular velocity

Substituting the derived expression for [omega](t) the angle of rotation can be calculated

and therefore

If the angular acceleration a is constant (time independent) the following equations can be used to calculate [omega] and [theta] at any time t:

Note that these equations are very similar to the equations for linear motion. Problem 19P A wheel starting from rest, rotates with a constant angular acceleration of 2.0 rad/s2. During a certain 3.0 s interval it turns through 90 rad. (a) How long had the wheel been turning before the start of the 3.0 s interval ? (b). What was the angular velocity of the wheel at the start of the 3.0 s interval ? Time t = 0 s is defined as the moment at which the wheel is at rest. Therefore, [omega]0 = 0 rad/s. The rotation angle at any later time is measured with respect to the position of the body at time t = 0 s: [theta]0 = 0 rad. The equations of rotation are now given by

In our problem, the rotation [Delta][theta] during a period [Delta]t is given. The time that the wheel has been turning before the time period [Delta]t can be easily calculated

An example of the relation between angular and linear variables has already been discussed. Figure 1 illustrates how the distance s, covered by point A, is related to the radius of the circle and the angle of rotation

The velocity of point A can be obtained by differentiating this equation with respect to time

To derive this equation we have assumed that for rotations around a fixed axis the distance r from point A to the rotation axis is constant (independent of time) which is true for a rigid body. The acceleration of point A can be determined as follows

The acceleration at is the tangential component of the linear acceleration, related to the change in the magnitude of the velocity of point A. However, we have seen that an object carrying out a circular motion also experiences a radial acceleration. The magnitude of the radial component, ar, is

Using the previously derived expression for v in terms of [omega] and r, we can rewrite the radial component of the acceleration as follows

Figure 11.2 shows the direction of both the radial and the tangential components of the acceleration of point A. The radial component is always present as long as [omega] is not equal to zero; the tangential component is only present if the angular acceleration is not zero.

Figure 11.2. Components of the acceleration of point A. We can conclude that when a rigid body is rotating around a fixed axis, every part of the body has the same angular velocity [omega] and the same angular acceleration a, but points that are located at different distances from the rotation axis have different linear velocities and different linear accelerations.

The total kinetic energy of a rotating object can be found by summing the kinetic energy of each individual particle:

To derive this equation we have used the fact that the angular velocity is the same for each particle of the rigid body. The quantity in parenthesis tells us how the mass of the rotating body is distributed around the axis of rotation. This quantity is called the moment of inertia (or rotational inertia)

The unit for I is kg m2. Using this definition, we can write the kinetic energy of the rotating object as

Note: in many previous problems we have assumed to be dealing with massless pulleys. This assumption assures that by applying conservation of mechanical energy we do not have to consider the kinetic energy related to the rotation of the pulley.

To calculate the moment of inertia of a rigid body we have to integrate over the whole body

If the moment of inertia about an axis that passes through the center of mass is known, the moment of inertia about any other axis, parallel to it, can be found by applying the parallel-axis theorem

where Icm is the moment of inertia about an axis passing through the center of mass, M is the total mass of the body, and h is the perpendicular distance between the two parallel axes. Sample Problem 11-8 Determine the moment of inertia of a uniform rod of mass m and length L about an axis at right angle with the rod, though its center of mass (see Figure 11.3). The mass per unit length of the rod is m/L. The mass dm of an element of the rod with length dx is

The contribution of this mass to the total moment of inertia of the rod is

The total moment of inertia of the rod can be determined by integrating over all parts of the rod:

The moment of inertia of the rod around its end point (see Figure 11.4) can now be calculated using the parallel axes theorem

Figure 11.5. Moment of inertia of a disk. A uniform disk has a radius R and a total mass M. The density of the disk is given by

To calculate the moment of inertia of the whole disk, we first look at a small section of the disk (see Figure 5). The area of the ring located at a distance r from the center and having a width dr is

The contribution of this ring to the total moment of inertia of the disk is given by

The total moment of inertia can now be found by summing over all rings:

- Dynamics Chapter 2. Kinetics of Particles ENGG1010 2014 2015Uploaded byAnee Waelli
- Dynamics - Chapter 11 [Beer7]Uploaded byapi-3709496
- Boxing PunchUploaded byMahdicheraghi
- - Forced Vortex FlowUploaded byKhairil Ikram
- BeerVM11e_PPT_Ch11bUploaded byMike Fal
- L2 - 321Anthropometrics_Lec2Uploaded byAnan Aghbar
- Chapter 2Uploaded byapi-3724831
- 2431PracticeTest2Uploaded byKieu Phuong Pham
- Dynamics RevisionUploaded by地雷
- Test Motion 10Uploaded byskibbi
- Appendix - Blade Element Momentum TheoryUploaded bySinggih Satrio Wibowo
- Serway - Resource Integration GuideUploaded byNelson Enrique Bolivar
- MIT16_07F09_Lec02Uploaded byNipuna Wanninayake
- GATE 2013 Test Series -1Uploaded byraj0001delhi
- 100343-b ER_4u_1Uploaded byPeru Haya
- Elman's DisplacementUploaded byerousions1
- FSMQ Area Under a GraphUploaded byGaneshKanna
- Graphs for LabUploaded bylider203
- 21 feb 2014Uploaded byAnandraj Govindaraj
- Engineering Mechanics QBUploaded byVinay Kandula
- Lab Report VinhUploaded byanon_6314611
- 1.06 Position, Velocity and Acceleration VectorsUploaded by011100111
- x 14 PendulumUploaded bykebarcla
- derivative chartUploaded byapi-327768386
- fhdfghfdghUploaded byKokipro Kokipro
- acceleration word problemUploaded byapi-384072296
- 259636858-Physics-First-Year.pdfUploaded byAshok Pradhan
- basics- of physicsUploaded bySombir Ahlawat
- nsep1Uploaded byB.K.Sivaraj raj
- Sample_Paper_1_Question..pdfUploaded byTWINKLE TRIPATHI

- GOST 8509-93Uploaded bybhavin26570
- 04-Nvh Modal Response Part IIUploaded byGreen_Beret_8
- Din 1249 Part 12 Glass for Use in Building Construction Toughened GlassUploaded byreddytln
- Rhodes Solutions Chaptr7Uploaded byCharlton Dave Aranas
- shock absorbersUploaded byRavi Kiran Meesala
- Phy 10th Numericals SolutionUploaded byJahangeerSchool
- chemistry ch 16 whitten 10th editionUploaded byGabriel Williams
- Search for New Physics with Atoms and MoleculesUploaded byAnonymous 2ZtL2IL2
- RadiativeAndCombustionModelingForTurbomachineryApplications~1Uploaded byMehdi Afzali
- ps2Uploaded byHenrique Mariano Amaral
- FULLTEXT01_11Uploaded byapi-19660619
- Qualiscapes a1 a2 b1 b2Uploaded byDamião Oliveira
- Acoustics and Architecture.paul E Saul 1932Uploaded bycolordiamonds
- EIA STANDARD FOR OPGWUploaded byAnonymous P2Kij3LjHg
- TNB255 - VertiFlow Assist on AIS_0Uploaded bykamikaza123
- jacobian.pdfUploaded bySyed Zain Mehdi
- Dispersive Power of PrismUploaded byprateekjain01
- Cosmetics Legisl Metd for AnalUploaded byVioleta Grigoras
- Moving CepstrumUploaded byJuan Pablo Palma Pizarro
- Forensic Sci Bibliography, ExplosivesUploaded bySusan Coleman
- 35953584-NozzleUploaded byJasonChong212
- Glasscon Glas Static Analysis Sample Egypt 1Uploaded byatalayy
- Principles of the Self-Organizing System (Ashby)Uploaded bytelecult
- Reaction PaperUploaded byboxboxboxboxbox
- Determination of Sulfur in Natural Gas by Pulsed Flame Photometric Detector PfpdUploaded byAditya Rizky Pratama
- ASME BTH-1-2011_QMCUploaded bycesquimon
- MAE 4171: Principles of Heat Transfer Solution-Assignment #1Uploaded byBo
- CDLC Accurate EOS AF Quick GuideUploaded bydangaftone
- Sistemas de EcuacionesUploaded byFranklin Garcia
- Wind SpeedUploaded bybasum mat