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ROTATION

11.1. Rotational variables

In this chapter we will be dealing with the rotation of a rigid body about a fixed axis. Every point of the body moves in a circle, whose center lies on the axis of rotation, and every point experiences the same angular displacement during a particular time interval.

Figure 11.1. Relation between s and [theta]. Suppose the z-axis of our coordinate system coincides with the axis of rotation of the rigid body. The x-axis and the y-axis are taken to be perpendicular to the z-axis. Each part of the rigid body moves in a circle around the z-axis. Suppose a given point A on the body covers a linear distance s during the rotation (see Figure 11.1). During one complete revolution point A covers a distance equal to 2[pi]r. In that case, the angle of rotation is equal to 2[pi] radians. For the situation shown in Figure 11.1, the angle of rotation can be easily calculated:

In describing the rotation of a rigid body we have to choose a reference line with respect to which the angle of rotation is being measured. In figure 11.1 the reference line connects the origin of the coordinate system and point A. The angle of rotation is the angle between the reference line and the x-axis (as is shown in Figure 11.1). If the angle of rotation [theta] is time dependent, it makes sense to introduce the concept of angular velocity and angular acceleration. The angular velocity [omega] is defined as

The unit of the angular velocity is rad/s. The angular velocity can be positive (counterclockwise rotation) or negative (clockwise rotation). The angular acceleration a is defined as

To solve this problem. In order to describe rotation around a point (rather than a fixed axis) the concept of an angular velocity vector is introduced. write the equations for (a) the angular velocity and (b) the angle turned as function of time. The direction of the velocity vector is parallel to the rotation axis and the right-hand rule needs to be used to determine whether the vector points upwards or downwards.The unit of the angular acceleration is rad/s2. The magnitude of the angular velocity vector is equal to the absolute value of the angular velocity for rotation around a fixed axis (as defined above). we start with looking at the relation between the angular acceleration and the angular velocity This relation can be rewritten as Substituting the given angular acceleration we obtain for the angular velocity The angle of rotation is related to the angular velocity Substituting the derived expression for [omega](t) the angle of rotation can be calculated and therefore . Problem 7P A wheel rotates with an angular acceleration a given by where t is the time and a and b are constants. If the wheel has an initial angular velocity [omega]0.

Constant angular acceleration If the angular acceleration a is constant (time independent) the following equations can be used to calculate [omega] and [theta] at any time t: Note that these equations are very similar to the equations for linear motion. During a certain 3. [omega]0 = 0 rad/s. The time that the wheel has been turning before the time period [Delta]t can be easily calculated The angular velocity of the wheel at the beginning of this period is .0 s interval ? Time t = 0 s is defined as the moment at which the wheel is at rest. Problem 19P A wheel starting from rest. Therefore. (a) How long had the wheel been turning before the start of the 3.11. The rotation angle at any later time is measured with respect to the position of the body at time t = 0 s: [theta]0 = 0 rad.2. What was the angular velocity of the wheel at the start of the 3.0 s interval it turns through 90 rad. the rotation [Delta][theta] during a period [Delta]t is given.0 s interval ? (b). rotates with a constant angular acceleration of 2. The equations of rotation are now given by The angle of rotation during a 3.0 s interval will depend on time: In our problem.0 rad/s2.

The acceleration of point A can be determined as follows The acceleration at is the tangential component of the linear acceleration. . we can rewrite the radial component of the acceleration as follows Figure 11. the tangential component is only present if the angular acceleration is not zero. ar. we have seen that an object carrying out a circular motion also experiences a radial acceleration. is Using the previously derived expression for v in terms of [omega] and r. The magnitude of the radial component.11. covered by point A. The radial component is always present as long as [omega] is not equal to zero. is related to the radius of the circle and the angle of rotation The velocity of point A can be obtained by differentiating this equation with respect to time To derive this equation we have assumed that for rotations around a fixed axis the distance r from point A to the rotation axis is constant (independent of time) which is true for a rigid body.3.2 shows the direction of both the radial and the tangential components of the acceleration of point A. However. Relation between linear and angular variables An example of the relation between angular and linear variables has already been discussed. related to the change in the magnitude of the velocity of point A. Figure 1 illustrates how the distance s.

every part of the body has the same angular velocity [omega] and the same angular acceleration a. We can conclude that when a rigid body is rotating around a fixed axis. we can write the kinetic energy of the rotating object as Note: in many previous problems we have assumed to be dealing with massless pulleys.Figure 11. but points that are located at different distances from the rotation axis have different linear velocities and different linear accelerations.2. This quantity is called the moment of inertia (or rotational inertia) The unit for I is kg m2.4. Using this definition. 11. This assumption assures that by applying conservation of mechanical energy we do not have to consider the kinetic energy related to the rotation of the pulley. The quantity in parenthesis tells us how the mass of the rotating body is distributed around the axis of rotation. . Kinetic energy of rotation The total kinetic energy of a rotating object can be found by summing the kinetic energy of each individual particle: To derive this equation we have used the fact that the angular velocity is the same for each particle of the rigid body. Components of the acceleration of point A.

5. The mass dm of an element of the rod with length dx is The contribution of this mass to the total moment of inertia of the rod is The total moment of inertia of the rod can be determined by integrating over all parts of the rod: The moment of inertia of the rod around its end point (see Figure 11.3). can be found by applying the parallel-axis theorem where Icm is the moment of inertia about an axis passing through the center of mass. and h is the perpendicular distance between the two parallel axes. M is the total mass of the body. the moment of inertia about any other axis. Calculation of rotational inertia To calculate the moment of inertia of a rigid body we have to integrate over the whole body If the moment of inertia about an axis that passes through the center of mass is known.11.4) can now be calculated using the parallel axes theorem . The mass per unit length of the rod is m/L. parallel to it. though its center of mass (see Figure 11. Sample Problem 11-8 Determine the moment of inertia of a uniform rod of mass m and length L about an axis at right angle with the rod.

3.4. Sample Problem 11. A uniform disk has a radius R and a total mass M. Example: Moment of Inertia of Disk Figure 11. Figure 11. The density of the disk is given by To calculate the moment of inertia of the whole disk. we first look at a small section of the disk (see Figure 5).8. Sample Problem 11-8. The area of the ring located at a distance r from the center and having a width dr is .5.Figure 11. Moment of inertia of a disk.

The mass of this ring is The contribution of this ring to the total moment of inertia of the disk is given by The total moment of inertia can now be found by summing over all rings: Substituting the calculated density we obtain .

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