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# Lab 5: Linear Momentum Experiments Purpose The purpose of this lab is to demonstrate the momentum theorem.

Considerations here will be restricted to linear momentum concepts. The lab will consist of two parts, one with water and the other with air as the flowing medium. The relevant theory is covered in your textbook by the linear momentum equation, Eq. 5.22, and Section 5.2.2, Application of the Linear Momentum Equation. Experiment with water flow Figure 1 shows a diagram of the apparatus that will be used to study a linear momentum application using water as the flowing medium. The pump delivers water to a nozzle flow meter that creates a jet that impinges on the moveable plate assembly shown.

Fig. 1 Apparatus for linear momentum experiments with water as the fluid. The flow through the system is controlled by the flow-control valve and the speed of the variable-speed motor. Within limits and with the proper water flow rate, the impingement of the water jet on the plate will cause the assembly consisting of impingement plate, platform plate, and the weights to "float" on the water jet. As described below, the flow rate through the system can be calculated from static pressure readings for the flow meter and knowledge of the flow meter type and geometry. Figure 2 shows the nozzle flow meter and the computer-aided pressure measurement system. Because of the elevation difference between sections (1) and (2), it is important to examine in detail the flow in the vertically oriented nozzle meter and the interpretation of pressure transducer readings of the differential pressure across the meter.

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Fig. 2. Nozzle flow meter and pressure measurement system. Consider Bernoulli's equation written between (1) and (2) in Fig. 2. p1 V1 2 p 2 V2 2 + + z1 = + + z2 [1] 2g 2g and the mass conservation statement for incompressible flow, V1A1 = V2A2, from which A V1 = 2 V2 [2] A1 By substituting Eq. [2] into [1], the following is obtained. 2 p1 p 2 V2 2 2 V2 + (A 2 / A1 ) + z1 = + + z2 [3] 2g 2g Solving for V2, 2g[(p1 / ) (p 2 / ) + (z1 z 2 )] [4] V2 = 1 (A 2 / A1 ) 2 The actual flow rate through the nozzle meter is given by Q = CvQideal = Cv V2A2 [5] Thus, 2g[(p1 / ) (p 2 / ) + (z1 z 2 )] Q = CvA2 [6] 1 (A 2 / A1 ) 2 The next task is to interpret pressure transducer reading. Since there is no flow in the water tubes that connect from the nozzle meter to the pressure transducer, the hydrostatic equation is applicable. Noting from the diagram that the z values for the z reference chosen are negative, the following equations can be written. p1 + z1 - zH = pH and p2 + z2 - zL = pL [7] Since zH and zL are the same, Eq. [7] reduces to (p1/) - (p2/) + (z1 - z2) = (pH - pL)/ Eq. [8] substituted into Eq. [6] yields

[8]

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[9] [1 (A 2 / A1 ) 2 ] Thus, the elevation term does not enter into the final equation for Q; the pressure difference indicated by the pressure transducer is used directly in Eq.[9] to find the volume flow rate through the nozzle meter. The value for Cv for the water flows encountered here is 0.95. Thus, with the density and the geometry of the nozzle are known, the water volume flow rate Q in the test apparatus can be determined by measuring the pressure difference pH - pL for the nozzle meter. Then m = VA = Q can be found. For the nozzle: inlet diameter = D1 = 2.067 inches, exit diameter = D2 = 0.994 inches. The weight of the impingement plate assembly without weights added (Fig. 1), is noted on the apparatus. Computer-aided Pressure Measurement System The pressure measurement system used in this experiment, Fig. 2, is essentially the same as was used in Lab 4, Comparison of Pipe flows With and Without Losses. The main features are as follows. a. The pressure transducer is PT1. Recall that it reads the difference in the pressures applied to its H (high) and L (low) pressure inputs. The PT1 calibration equation is of the form: P/ = A*(i, amps)+ B, inches H2O where A, and B are constants. These values will be given to you in lab. b. The LabView VI named K196P.vi will be used in this lab. It will be found in the ME335 folder of the C drive of the lab computers. It operates a Keithley 196 Digital MultiMeter (DMM) to read the transducer current and through the calibration equation entered in an equation node, it delivers the average pressure difference imposed on the transducer. The following software codes are required to configure the multimeter for use in this lab. F3R3G1X The explanation of these codes is as follows. F3 = DC amps, R3 = 0 - 30 milliamp range, G1 = readings are output without prefixes, and X is a required terminator. (See Table 3, which is found on the last page of Section 4.) The VI requires that you choose the number of current readings to be taken and that you modify the calibration equation in the equation node. As data points are acquired, they are displayed on a graph on the front panel of the VI. When the specified number of readings has been taken, the average of the pressure readings (in inches of water) will be displayed. Set the VI to read 100 values with 100 ms wait time. Experiment with water flow (Log all data on an Excel worksheet.) 1. Start the flow system with no weights on the platform. Regulate the flow rate by the motor speed control and the flow control valve until the movable plate assembly is suspended on the water jet. Observe the flow pattern of the water as it impinges on the plate. Take data to determine the flow rate and record the height h (Fig. 1). 2. Based on your observations, develop a model based on linear momentum concepts that will yield the theoretical result for the flow described above. Recall that a control volume must be defined prior to application of the momentum theorem. Include in

Q = CvA2

2(p H p L )

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3. 4.

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your equation the effect of the height h. (This model will be similar but not identical to that for air impinging on the plate, as illustrated in Fig. 3.) Apply the model developed in item 2 above to the flow as described in item 1 above. Compare your theoretical and experimental results. Add a weight to the platform and obtain a flow so that the movable plate assembly with the added weight is suspended on the water jet. Take data for this flow condition. Use the scale provided to determine the weight of the added weight. Apply the model developed in item 2 above to the flow as described in item 4 above. Compare your theoretical and experimental results. Repeat items 4 and 5 above using an additional weight.

Fig. 3 Apparatus for linear momentum experiments with air as the fluid. Experiment with air flow (Log all data on an Excel worksheet.) Figure 3 shows the apparatus to be used for linear momentum experiments with air as the fluid. Since small pressure differences are involved throughout, the airflow can be treated as incompressible. As shown in the figure, an air jet is created that impinges on a plate a distance h above the air nozzle exit face. With no airflow and with no weights added to the beam, the beam balancing screw can be adjusted to level the beam. When weights are added, the airflow can be adjusted to cause the beam to become level again. The air reservoir below the nozzle is large in cross section and can be considered a stagnation region. With a given nozzle discharge coefficient and nozzle geometry, the velocity and the mass rate of flow for the air jet can be calculated. Since for air is very small, all elevation changes can be ignored for the airflow. The air nozzle exit diameter is 0.995 inches, and since the air-flow nozzle is well contoured, use Cv = 1 for air calculations. 1. Develop a model based on linear momentum concepts that will yield the theoretical result for the airflow described. Recall that a control volume must be defined prior to

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application of the momentum theorem. (This model will be similar but not identical to that for water impinging on the plate assembly, as illustrated in Fig. 1.) 2. Develop the expression for the air jet velocity at the nozzle exit face in terms of the manometer reading. Note: the manometer reads directly in inches of water. Also, you will have to read the barometric pressure and determine the jet air temperature. 3. Using different combinations of the weights supplied to provide increasing weight values, add weights to the apparatus and take data to describe the flow required to cause the beam to take a horizontal orientation for each weigh added. 4. Apply the model developed in item 1 above to the flows in item 3. above. Compare your theoretical and experimental results. Report Prepare a short form report on the two experiments. Take care with control volume definitions and with units. Carefully describe the models you develop. Discuss and try to explain any differences between the theoretical results predicted from your models and experimental results. Indicate what you consider to be the most significant causes of any differences that exist.
L5momF01.doc, Airmomrg.bmp, pumprig2.bmp, momnoz.bmp RO=K196P.vi

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