13.05.

2011

Bistable Monostable Astable

Astable/Monostable Multivibrators
A multivibrator is an electronic circuit used to implement a variety of simple two-state systems such as oscillators, timers and flip-flops. It is characterized by two transistors cross-coupled by resistors and capacitors. There are three types of multivibrator circuit: astable, in which the circuit is not stable in either state—it continuously oscillates from one state to the other. Due to this, it does not require a input (Clock pulse or other). monostable, in which one of the states is stable, but the other is not—the circuit will flip into the unstable state for a determined period, but will eventually return to the stable state. Such a circuit is useful for creating a timing period of fixed duration in response to some external event. This circuit is also known as a one shot. A common application is in eliminating switch bounce. bistable, in which the circuit will remain in either state indefinitely. The circuit can be flipped from one state to the other by an external event or trigger. Such a circuit is important as the fundamental building block of a register or memory device. This circuit is also known as a latch or a flip-flop.
2

1

13.05.2011

BISTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR - LATCHES
A latch is a temporary storage device that has two stable states (bistable). It is a basic form of memory.

The S-R (Set-Reset) latch is the most basic type. It can be constructed from NOR gates or NAND gates. With NOR gates, the latch responds to active-HIGH inputs; with NAND gates, it responds to active-LOW inputs.
R Q S Q

S

Q

R

Q

NOR Active-HIGH Latch

NAND Active-LOW Latch

LATCHES
The active-HIGH S-R latch is in a stable (latched) condition when both inputs are LOW.

Assume the latch is initially RESET (Q = 0) and the inputs are at their inactive level (0). To SET the latch (Q = 1), a momentary HIGH signal is applied to the S input while the R remains LOW. To RESET the latch (Q = 0), a momentary HIGH signal is applied to the R input while the S remains LOW.

0 R

0 1

Q

10 0 S 0 R

Latch initially RESET
Q

0 1 Q

1 0 0 S

Latch initially SET
Q

2

Never apply an active set and reset at the same time (invalid).2011 LATCHES The active-LOW S-R latch is in a stable (latched) condition when both inputs are HIGH.13. a momentary LOW signal is applied to the S input while the R remains HIGH. To RESET the latch a momentary LOW is applied to the R input while S is HIGH. To SET the latch (Q = 1). Assume the latch is initially RESET (Q = 0) and the inputs are at their inactive level (1). 1 S 1 0 Q 1 0 1 R 1 S 1 0 Latch initially RESET Q Q Latch initially 0 1 SET 1R Q 5 Bistable multivibrator Bistable multivibrator – SR Latch circuit diagram 6 3 .05.

the circuit for Q2 OFF condition is shown.13. Q2 is driven into saturation. the collector voltage of Q2 will drive Q1 into cutoff (reverse bias). the collector voltage of Q2 will supply current to the base of Q1 via R2 ensuring Q1 to stay in ON condition. If a momentary voltage of +VCC (logic 1) is applied to the R input. If a momentary voltage of +VCC (logic 1) is applied to the S input.2011 Bistable multivibrator – SR Latch Q S=0 R We should analyse the cutoff and saturation conditions for Q2 for momentary SET or RESET input. As Q2 is cutoff. When R input is logic 0. In the figure part (a). output condition does not change.05. The OFF voltage at the base is: R3 (VCE ) SAT R2 + R3 If Q1 is ON. If +VCC is applied to both R and S inputs. the collector voltage will be VCE.SAT. The saturation condition is calculated as follows: I1 = VCC − (VBE )ON R1 + R2 (V ) I 2 = BE ON R3 I B = I1 − I 2 R3 S (b) R=0 IC = VCC − (VCE ) SAT R1 IC IB hFE > 7 In the figure part (b). Q1 is driven into saturation and Q2 into cutoff. the base current will drive Q2’yi into saturation. If Q1 is OFF. When Q2 is ON. then two transistors are driven into saturation causing the two complementary outputs to 8 become indeterminant. the circuit for Q2 ON condition is shown. If RESET or SET inputs are changed to logic 0. Q2 will stay in ON and Q1 will stay in OFF condition. (VBE ) OFF = 4 . The low voltage at the base of Q2 will drive Q2 into cutoff.

The output changes state when it receives a valid input trigger signal.CMOS SR Latch Gate-level Schematic : NOR-based set-reset S S Q S R R Q Q Q 0 1 0 1 Forbidden State 0 0 1 1 Q 1 0 0 Q 0 1 0 Truth Table R Q Q Transistor schematic 9 Bistable Multivibrators Bistable multivibrator – A switching circuit with two stable output states. Also referred to as a flip-flop. 5 .13. and remains in that state until another valid trigger signal is received.2011 Cross-Coupled Pairs .05.

05.5 KΩ C5 .5 KΩ 16 Ops: Q1 ON Q2 OFF. Q1 C/O Frequency Out 10 KΩ is ½ the Input. Q1 On.001µf R15 1. R11 Output R13 22 KΩ R16 22 KΩ R18 10 KΩ Q1 13 D4 14 R14 & 17 22 KΩ D5 18 17 Q2 T C6 . +VCC 15 R12 1. Q2 C/O Remains in stable state until triggered.001µf FB: Forward Biased RB: Reverse Biased Q1 off Q2 on 12 6 .001µf T Flip-flop Ops Q1 on 11 Bistable Multivibrator Operation Bi Stable multivibrator : Stable State.5 KΩ 16 O 2 Stable States.001µf C7 . +VCC 15 O 2 12 3 Output R13 22 KΩ 2 a R16 22 KΩ R18 10 KΩ 1 13 D4 FB 2 b T 14 D4 4 R14 & 17 22 KΩ D5 17 2 a Q2 RB 18 D5 3 a C8 .2011 Bistable Multivibrators Bi Stable multivibrator : Circuits & Components.5 KΩ 12 C5 .001µf C6 .001µf C7 . Q2 C/O or Q2 On.001µf C8 . Q1 ON.13.001µf R15 1. Q1 R12 1. D4 FB allows trigger R11 to change 10 KΩ conduction.

05.5 KΩ 16 Ops: Q2 ON Q1 OFF. D5 FB allows trigger to change conduction.001µf C6 . Q2 C/O Remains in stable state until triggered.2011 Bistable Multivibrator Operation Bi Stable : Stable State.5 KΩ C5 .13. +VCC 15 O Output 3 2 12 R13 22 KΩ 2 a 3 a R16 22 KΩ R18 10 KΩ 1 13 D4 D4 4 R14 & 17 22 KΩ D5 17 2 a Q2 D5 RB 2 b T 14 FB 18 3 b C8 .001µf C7 . Q1 C/O Remains in stable state until triggered. Q2 On. D4 FB allows trigger to change conduction. Stable State. D5 FB allows trigger R11 to change 10 KΩ conduction. Q1 R12 1. Read Signals: Left to Right Q1 Q2 Output @ 220 KHz Q2 B Q1 B Rectified @ 220 KHz Differentiated @ 440 KHz Input @ 440 KHz Frequency Out is ½ the Input.001µf R15 1.001µf Wave Form 13 Bistable Multivibrator Operation Bi Stable : Wave Form Analysis Stable State. Q2 ON. Q1 ON. 14 7 . Q1 C/O Remains in stable state until triggered.

When triggered. Trigger Q Trigger Q Q tW 8 . Also referred to as a one-shot.13.2011 Monostable Multivibrators Monostable multivibrator – A switching circuit with one stable output state. the length of time in the unstable state (tW) is determined by an external RC circuit. it goes to its unstable state for a predetermined length of time. One-Shots The one-shot or monostable multivibrator is a device with only one stable state. The one-shot produces a single output pulse when it receives a valid input trigger signal. +V REXT CEXT CX RX/CX For most one-shots.05. then returns to its stable state.

17 Monostable multivibrator waveforms: (a) trigger input waveform. (b) differentiator output waveform.13. (c) monostable multivibrator output waveform. 1 Stable State. Q2 Sat. Triggered.2011 Monostable multivibrator Mono Stable. 18 9 .05. Q1 C/O.

Q2 On. 25 R21 2. Q1 On.2 KΩ Ops 19 Monostable multivibrator operation Mono Stable multivibrator : Stable State.2 KΩ 24 O R24 2.2 KΩ Frequency in = Frequency Out.0068 µf 23 Q2 25 R21 2.2 KΩ R22 12 KΩ R23 100 KΩ Output 26 Trigger input 20 C9 500 pf D6 21 Q1 R25 10 KΩ R19 68 KΩ R20 8. Q1 Cutoff. Q1 Cutoff. Stable State. Frequency in = Frequency Out. C10 Charges Stable state Between Triggers 22 C9 500 pf D6 C10 . Triggered 20 10 .05.2011 Monostable multivibrator Mono Stable multivibrator : Circuits & Components One Stable State.13.0068 µf 23 Q2 Ops. 22 C10 .2 KΩ +VCC R22 12 KΩ R23 100 KΩ Output 26 Trigger input 20 21 Q1 R25 10 KΩ R19 68 KΩ R20 8. Changes state.2 KΩ 24 +VCC R24 2. When Triggered. Q2 C/O. Q2 On.

13. Q1 On. 25 R21 2.2011 Monostable multivibrator operation Mono Stable multivibrator : Triggered. 11 . Also referred to as a free-running multivibrator. Changes state. Q2 C/O.0068 µf 23 Q2 Ops.2 KΩ 24 O R24 2.2 KΩ Frequency in = Frequency Out. 21 Astable Multivibrators Astable multivibrator – A switching circuit that has no stable output state. The astable multivibrator is a rectangular-wave oscillator. C10 Discharges R23 100 KΩ 22 C9 500 pf D6 C10 .05.2 KΩ +VCC R22 12 KΩ Output 26 Trigger input 20 21 Q1 R25 10 KΩ R19 68 KΩ R20 8. Triggered.

005 µf 5 7 CR3 FB 3 4 9 .8 KΩ R7 5.1 KΩ R8 5. C3 Charge.8 KΩ R3 15 KΩ R6 100 KΩ O +VCC 100 KΩ R9 15 KΩ R10 6.8 KΩ R3 15 KΩ R6 100 KΩ O +VCC 100 KΩ R9 15 KΩ R10 6.005 µf 5 7 9 Q Output Q1 Q2 Charge & Discharge 23 Astable multivibrator operation Astable multivibrator : Q2 on. 8 R5 R1 6.005 µf Q1 + C4 DisChg Q2 C3 Chg C4 Discharge Symmetry 24 - C3 C4 - Q Output CR1 CR3 Q Output - 12 . Q1 C/O.8 KΩ R7 5.2011 Astable multivibrator Astable multivibrator: Circuits & Components 8 R5 R1 6.1 KΩ C4 CR3 Q Output 3 CR1 4 C3 .13.05.1 KΩ 6 .1 KΩ R8 5. C4 Discharge.005 µf 6 .

005 µf Q Output Q1 6 .1 KΩ C4 CR3 3 4 C3 .005 µf 6 .1 KΩ R8 5. 8 R5 R1 6.005 µf 5 7 9 Q Output Q2 Q1 On.8 KΩ R3 15 KΩ R6 100 KΩ O +VCC 100 KΩ R9 15 KΩ R10 6. Q1 C/O C3 Discharge Symmetry 25 Astable multivibrator operation Astable multivibrator : Symmetry control.005 µf 5 7 9 Q Output Q1 Q2 Q2 On.8 KΩ R7 5.1 KΩ CR1 R8 5.2011 Astable multivibrator operation Astable multivibrator : Symmetry control. 8 R5 R1 6. C3 Dis-Chg. CR1 FB.8 KΩ R7 5.13. Q2 C/O Wave Form 26 13 .1 KΩ C4 CR3 Q Output CR1 3 4 C3 . C3 Discharge. C4 Dis-Chg. C4 Discharge. CR3 FB.05.8 KΩ R3 15 KΩ R6 100 KΩ O +VCC 100 KΩ R9 15 KΩ R10 6.

05.2011 Internal functional diagram of a 555 timer Comparator Input / Output Relationships 14 .13.

1(10 kΩ)(2.1R1C1. (6) (2) THRES OUT C1 TRIG CONT GND (1) tW = 1.2 µF TRIG CONT GND (1) tW = 1.1R1C1 C2 15 .05.1R1C1 C2 Determine the pulse width for the circuit shown. including as a one-shot. A basic one shot is shown. +VCC R1 (4) (7) RESET (8) VCC (3) (5) DISCH The trigger is a negative-going pulse.2 ms R1 10 kΩ (4) (7) RESET (8) VCC (3) (5) DISCH (6) (2) THRES OUT C1 2.1R1C1 = 1.2011 The 555 timer connected as a one-shot. The pulse width is determined by R1C1 and is approximately tW = 1. tW = 1.13.2 µF) = +VCC +15 V 24. The 555 timer can be configured in various ways.

Decoupling capacitor – A capacitor connected between the supply voltage and ground pins of an IC to prevent intermittent highfrequency operation. 16 .05. The 555 timer connected as an astable multivibrator (oscillator).2011 One-shot operation of the 555 timer.13.

13. Astable Multivibrator Waveforms 17 .05.2011 Operation of the 555 timer in the astable mode.

13. In this circuit C1 charges through R1 and R2 and discharges through only R2. The output frequency. duty cycle and pulse width are given by: f = duty cycle% = 1.44 ( R1 + 2 R2 )C1 R1 + R2 × 100 R1 + 2 R2 R1 (4) +VCC tW = 0. duty cycle% = pulse width ×100 period Astable Multivibrator Relationships The 555 can be configured as a basic astable multivibrator with the circuit shown.693( R1 + R2 )C1 The frequency and duty cycle are set by these components. (8) RESET (7) DISCH (6) (2) VCC (3) (5) R2 C1 THRES OUT TRIG CONT GND (1) C2 18 .05.2011 Duty Cycle Duty cycle – The ratio of pulse width (tW) to period (T). measured as a percentage.

05.7k Schmitt Triggers Schmitt trigger – A voltage-level detector.44 = ( R1 + 2 R2 )C1 (3k + 2 × 2.13.033µF ≅ 5.44 1. SOLUTION: f = 1.7k × 100 = × 100 ≅ 68% R1 + 2 R2 3k + 2 × 2. 19 . The output of a Schmitt trigger changes state when When a positive-going input passes the upper trigger point (UTP) voltage.2kHz duty cycle% = R1 + R2 3k + 2. When a negative-going input passes the lower trigger point (LTP) voltage.2011 EXAMPLE: Determine the output frequency and duty cycle of the 555 oscillator.7 k )0.

and are opposite in polarity. Hysteresis Hysteresis – A term that is often used to describe the range of voltages between the UTP and LTP of a Schmitt trigger. 20 .05.13.2011 Trigger Point Voltages Trigger point voltages may be equal or unequal in magnitude.

Q1 will not conduct. The resistors R1+R3 and R4 will perform a voltage divider. we will analyse a basic Schmitt Trigger circuit with two NPN transistors: The operation of this circuit is simple. Suppose that the input voltage is zero.05. The output from this voltage divider will determine the state of the transistor Q2.2011 Schmitt Trigger Vou t In Out V OH •VTC with hysteresis •Restores signal slopes V OL VM– VM+ Vi n 41 Schmitt trigger with transistors Since a transistor implementation of a Schmitt Trigger is rather important due to the single voltage supply that requires to operate.13. 42 21 .

As the input voltage is increased.VBE(on) The Schmitt trigger circuit uses emitter coupled logic. as soon as VB1 is larger than VE1. Therefore VE = VE1 = VE2. Q2 is opening at the same time keeping the emitter voltage more or less stable at a value of Vin . 43 More current will start to flow through transistor Q1. a very small current will start to flow through transistor Q1. For a silicon transistor where current is flowing. and therefore the base voltage of Q2 will gradually be decreased. Also the emitter voltage of Q2 will be decreased. the system has changed state. Although Q1 is closing. This current also passes resistor R1.13.VBE. and Q1 will be ON. As the emitters of Q1 and Q2 are connected together.61 Volt. The output will change to the HIGH state because resistor R2 pulls the output to the power supply. the voltage difference VBE1 of Q1 will be increased (VB1 ↑&VE1↓). the VBE voltage can be estimated at roughly 0.05.VBE(on) 44 22 . When Q1 is totally closed (ON) and Q2 has opened (OFF). because of the VBE voltage difference between the base and emitter. The trigger voltage where this effect starts to happen is called the high trigger voltage and can be approximately calculated as VHIGH(UTL)=VCC* R4/(R1+R3+R4) . Note that the emitter voltage over resistor RE won't fall to zero.2011 Calculation of the high trigger level The base voltage of Q2 can then be calculated as VB2 = VCC * R4/(R1+R3+R4) The emitter voltage of Q2 will be less.VBE2 = VCC* R4/(R1+R3+R4) . The emitter voltage can be calculated as: VE2 = VB2 .

and so does the current IC. This will cause the emitter voltage to be increased. There will be a point that input voltage will be very low. Because the voltage difference between the base and the emitter of Q1 will become smaller. The base current of Q1 is decreased.05. This will increase the base voltage VB on Q2. This loop will cause Q2 to start conducting. less current will flow through Q1 and the base voltage of Q2 will be further increased.13. and the base voltage of Q2 will become slightly higher than the emitter voltage. 46 23 . and thus an emitter current that will flow through RE. and Q1 to be sent to cut-off almost simultaneously.2011 Calculation of the low trigger level Now let's assume that the input voltage is decreasing. There is only a very narrow voltage area where this shift is done. VLOW (LTL) = VCC x R4 / (R1 + R3 + R4 + R1 x R4 / RE) + VBE (on) 45 Basic astable multivibrator using a Schmitt trigger. This will cause a small base current to flow through Q2.

low Vth • SPICE simulated VTC waveforms with increasing and decreasing input voltage are shown at right. shown at left. has a dc transfer characteristic like an inverter. but with different switching thresholds depending on whether Vin is increasing or decreasing Hysteresis effect If Vin is increasing. high Vth If Vin is decreasing.4 V 48 24 .13. • increasing Vin Vth = 3.5 V • decreasing Vin Vth = 1.05.2011 CMOS Schmitt Trigger V DD M2 Vin X M4 Vout M1 M3 Moves switching threshold of first inverter 47 CMOS Schmitt Trigger Circuit The Schmitt Trigger circuit.

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