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CHAPTER 4

CHAPTER 4: Forces (5 Hours)

SF016

4.1

CHAPTER 4

Basic of forces and free body diagram (3 hours) 4.1.1 Basic of forces 4.1.2 Free body diagram 4.1.3 The forces acting on a body i) Weight ii) Tension iii) Normal force iv) Friction 4.1.4 Static friction and kinetic friction

4.2

Newton’s laws of motion (2 hours) 4.2.1 Newton’s First Law and inertia 4.2.2 The equilibrium of a particle 4.2.3 Newton’s First Law in equilibrium of forces 4.2.4 Newton’s Second Law 4.2.5 Newton’s Third Law

SF016

4.1

CHAPTER 4

Basic of forces and free body diagram (3 hours) 4.1.1 Basic of forces 4.1.2 Free body diagram 4.1.3 The forces acting on a body i) Weight ii) Tension iii) Normal force iv) Friction 4.1.4 Static friction and kinetic friction

4.2

Newton’s laws of motion (2 hours) 4.2.1 Newton’s First Law and inertia 4.2.2 the equilibrium of a particle 4.2.3 Newton’s First Law in equilibrium of forces 4.2.4 Newton’s Second Law 4.2.5 Newton’s Third Law

(dynamic) friction.SF016 CHAPTER 4 4. d) Determine the resultant force. c) Draw free body diagram. static Distinguish between friction and kinetic static and kinetic friction.1 Basic of forces and free body diagram (3 hours) Learning Outcome: Remarks At the end of this chapter. . students should be able to: a) Identify the forces acting Emphasize on the on a body in different direction of the situations : forces. i) Weight ii) Tension iii) Normal force iv) Friction b) Determine weight.

1 and 4.SF016 4. Figure 4.1.2 . the weakest forces in nature.1 Figure 54.1 Basic of forces CHAPTER 4 Force is defined as something capable of changing state of motion or size or dimension of a body. There are four types of fundamental forces in nature: Gravitational forces (refer to figures 4. is a long-range forces.2) The forces involve attraction between massive body.

SF016 CHAPTER 4 Electromagnetic forces (refer to figures 4. Strong nuclear forces (refer to figures 4.4) The attractive forces bonding neutron and proton in atomic nucleus.4 .3) The attractive and repulsive forces between electric charges. Figure 4. is a short-range forces and the strongest forces in nature. is a long-range forces.3 Figure 64.

.Is a vector quantity.5 Force .I.5) cause the unstable condition for atomic nucleus and is responsible for the radioactive decay. is a short-range forces and 12 times weak compare with electromagnetic forces.SF016 CHAPTER 4 Weak nuclear forces (refer to figures 4. F is kg m s-2 or newton (N) 7 . unit of force.The S. Figure 4.

2 Free body diagram CHAPTER 4 is defined as a diagram showing the chosen body by itself.SF016 4.1. A graphical tool which is a diagram of external forces on an object Is extremely useful analyzing forces and motion Drawn only on an object Picture that show the size and direction of all forces acting on an object in a given situation . with vectors drawn to show the magnitude and directions of all the forces applied to the body by the other bodies that interact with it.

SF016 CHAPTER 4 To construct free-body diagrams. it is extremely important to know the various types of forces Basic Forces are: Gravity Normal Forces (push of earth up on a load) Thrust Friction Tension Compression Torque Shear .

SF016 CHAPTER 4 Which one would you like to select to draw FBD? What do you think are the forces acting on this object? The force supporting the Gravitational force Steps to drawing a free body diagram N M FG M g N FG M g object exerted by the floor T FG M g N Me m FG M g N Which one would you like to select to draw FBD? T What do you think are the forces acting on this elevator? Gravitational force F GB mg The force pulling the elevator (Tension) F BG mg What about the box in the elevator? Gravitational force Normal force .

SF016 Free Body Diagram OR CHAPTER 4 N f Fapplied W W = mg N= W f = Fapplied .

because the value of g. W is defined as the force exerted on a body under gravitational field.3 The forces acting on a body i) Weight ii) Tension iii) Normal force iv) Friction - CHAPTER 4 Weight. The S.SF016 4. varies at different localities on the earth’s surface. W mg It is a vector quantity. g. It is dependant on where it is measured.I.1. 12 . unit is kg m s-2 or newton (N). It always directed toward the centre of the earth or in the same direction of acceleration due to gravity.

SF016 Horizontal plane CHAPTER 4 Suspended object Weight Incline plane Weight Weight 13 .

SF016 4.3 The forces acting on a body i) Weight ii) Tension iii) Normal force iv) Friction CHAPTER 4 - Tension. It is a vector quantity. T Is a force which is transmitted through a string.I. The S. The tension force is directed along the length of the wire and pulls equally on the objects on the opposite ends of the wire. cable or wire when it is pulled tight by forces acting from opposite ends. rope.1. unit is kg m s-2 or newton (N) 14 .

SF016 Rope attached to a wall Tension Tension CHAPTER 4 Pull Pulled object Suspended objects Pull Tension Tension Weight .

I.3 The forces acting on a body i) Weight ii) Tension iii) Normal force iv) Friction CHAPTER 4 - is defined as a reaction force that exerted by the surface to an object interact with it and the direction always perpendicular to the surface. It is a vector quantity. N 16 .1.SF016 4. unit is kg m s-2 or newton (N) Normal force. The S.

Weight is exerted on the horizontal surface . N on the object CHAPTER 4 Inclined plane N y x N Wx Wy W mg W mg Weight is exerted on the Wy : y-component of the horizontal surface object’s weight is exerted on the inclined surface.SF016 Horizontal surface Surface is exerted a force.

. .is directly proportional to the reaction force. . 18 f . .The frictional and the reaction forces are always perpendicular.The direction of the frictional force exerted by a surface on an object is always in the opposite direction of the motion. .is independent of the area of contact between the two surfaces.Is defined as a force that resists the motion of one surface relative to another with which it is in contact.SF016 CHAPTER 4 a) Identify the forces acting on a body in different situations : iv) Friction Friction.

F N Friction a horizontal force f F mg 19 .SF016 CHAPTER 4 Horizontal surface A box of mass m is pulled along a horizontal surface by a horizontal force.

CHAPTER 4 Consider a box of mass m is pulled down along an inclined plane by a force.SF016 Inclined plane Consider a box of mass m is pulled up along an inclined plane by a force. F F N y a Wx x F N y x a f Wx Wy f W Wy F mg W mg .

SF016 CHAPTER 4 4.4 Static and Kinetic Friction .1.

SF016 CHAPTER 4 . Without unit . Friction . .Always acts against the direction of motion.caused by irregularities in surfaces.a force that resists the motion f N f N where f : frictional force Coefficient of friction. • μ : coefficient of friction N : Normal force Is defined as the ratio between frictional force to normal force OR f N • • Depends on the nature of the surfaces.

Fapplied = fs and fs N s . s – frictional force act on the object before its move f N Fapplied fs W If static equilibrium.SF016 CHAPTER 4 Static Friction – no motion (v = 0 m s-1) Static Friction.

SF016 Static Friction – no motion CHAPTER 4 If increase Fapplied . fs(max) also increases N Fapplied fs W fs(max) α m On horizontal surface. fs also increases. up to fs(max) If increase m. N = mg fs(max) α N .

SF016 Static Friction – no motion CHAPTER 4 fs(max) is proportional to fs(max) N. N Fapplied = constant = μs N fs W μs = coefficient of static friction. fs ≤ μs N .

k – frictional force act on the object when its move f N Fapplied fk W .SF016 Kinetic Friction – moving CHAPTER 4 Kinetic Friction.

SF016 Kinetic Friction – moving CHAPTER 4 fk is proportional to N. fk N = constant = μk N Fapplied fk W μk = coefficient of kinetic friction. fk = μk N .

then speed changes ( a ≠ 0 m s-2) kinetic friction < static friction . then speed is constant ( a = 0 m s-2) If Fapplied ≠ fk .SF016 Kinetic Friction – moving CHAPTER 4 N Fapplied fk W If Fapplied = fk .

SF016 Static Friction Action Equation Magnitude Coefficient on the object before its move CHAPTER 4 Kinetic Friction on the object when its move Distinguish between static and kinetic friction fs Bigger s N fk k N Smaller Smaller Bigger fk fs k s 29 .

SF016 Frictional Forces CHAPTER 4 .

SF016 Frictional Forces CHAPTER 4 .

the baseball player will come to a complete stop due to the Force of Kinetic Friction .SF016 Types of Friction CHAPTER 4 To initiate motion of the box the man must overcome the Force of Static Friction I better be safe Ump!! Upon sliding.

SF016 CHAPTER 4 Static & Kinetic Friction Coefficients .

SF016 CHAPTER 4 Static Friction VS Kinetic Friction .

as shown in figure.SF016 CHAPTER 4 Case 1 : Horizontal surface Consider a box of mass m is pulled along a horizontal surface by a horizontal force. x-component : F N a f F Fx Fnett F f ma ma mg y-component : Fy 0 N mg 35 .

x-component a N (parallel to the inclined plane): x F Fx F Wx ma f ma Wx f f Fy 0 Wy F ma mg sin θ W mg y-component (perpendicular to the inclined plane): N 0 mg cos θ 36 N Wy . F as shown in y figure.SF016 Case 2 : Inclined plane CHAPTER 4 Consider a box of mass m is pulled along an inclined plane by a force.

(Given g = 9. (c) the static friction force. F which is applied at an angle of 30 above horizontal as shown in figure. (b) the applied force F. calculate (a) the normal reaction force.3 and the box moves at a constant speed.81 m s-2) 37 .SF016 Example 1: CHAPTER 4 F 30 A box of mass 20 kg is on a rough horizontal plane. The box is pulled by a force. If the coefficient of static friction between the box and the plane is 0.

μs constant speed 0.3N F cos 30 (1) 38 .SF016 Solution : CHAPTER 4 m 20 kg.3 fs N F sin 30 30 F F cos 30 a) Since the box moves at constant speed thus x-component : F 0 a 0 x mg F cos 30 f s F cos 30 μs N 0 0 0.

3 N sin 30 196 cos 30 N 167 N F 0.3 167 cos 30 57.9 N c) The static friction force is fs f μs N 0. (1) into eq.3 167 50.81 N F sin 30 196 By substituting eq. (2). hence (2) N b) Therefore the applied force is given by 0.1 N 39 .SF016 y-component : CHAPTER 4 N Fy 0 F sin 30 mg 0 N F sin 30 20 9.

(Given g = 9. Determine: (a) the normal force. F = 2 kN as shown in figure. (b) the nett force.4. (d) the time taken for the block to travel 30 m from rest.81 m s-2) CHAPTER 4 F 20 30 40 . (c) the acceleration of the block. The coefficient of kinetic friction of the plane is 0.SF016 Example 2: A block of mass 200 kg is pulled along an inclined plane of 30 by a force.

F a 2000 N.SF016 Solution : CHAPTER 4 m 200 kg. μk F sin 20 mg a) y-component : Fy 0 N F sin 20 mg cos 30 0 N 2000 sin 20 200 9.81 cos 30 0 30 mg sin 30 fk N y F 20 F cos 20 0.4 x 30 mg cos 30 N 1015 N 41 .

46 t 2 2 2 42 t 4.46 m s 2 492 200a d) Given s 30 m. u 0 1 2 1 s ut at 30 0 2.4 1015 Fnett 492 N Fnett ma c) a 2.94 s . Fnett Fx x-component : Fnett F cos 20 mg sin 30 f k Fnett F cos 20 mg sin 30 μk N Fnett 2000 cos 20 200 9.81 sin 30 0.SF016 CHAPTER 4 b) The nett force is directed along the inclined plane surface.

31.00 kg object placed on a frictionless. (Given g = 9. : 6.81 m s 2) ANS. horizontal table is connected to a string that passes over a pulley and then is fastened to a hanging 9.SF016 Exercise 1 : A 5.00 kg object as in the figure. (b) Calculate the acceleration of the two objects and the tension in the string.30 m s 2. CHAPTER 4 (a) Sketch free body diagrams of both objects.5 N 43 .

31 m s 2.00 kg.00 s after being released from rest. a) Sketch free body diagrams of both objects. m2 = 6.3 and m1 = 2.SF016 Exercise 2 : CHAPTER 4 Two object are connected by a light string that passes over a frictionless pulley as in figure. The coefficient of kinetic friction of the plane is 0.24.62 m s 1 44 .4.81 m s 2) ANS. b) Determine (i) the accelerations of the objects.:2.2 N. (g = 9.00 kg and = 55 . (ii) the tension in the string (iii) the speed of each object 2.

which is observed to slide 0.20. : 229 m s 1 . Equation of motion for linear motion.00 g bullet is fired horizontally into a 1.81 m s 2) Tips : Use Newton’s second law of motion involving acceleration.20 kg wooden block resting on a horizontal surface. Calculate the initial speed of the bullet. Principle of conservation of linear momentum. The coefficient of kinetic friction between block and surface is 0.SF016 Exercise 3 : CHAPTER 4 A 5. 45 ANS. The bullet remains embedded in the block.230 m along the surface before stopping. (Given g = 9.

SF016

Exercise 4 :

CHAPTER 4

The block shown in figure, has mass, m =7.0 kg and lies on a smooth frictionless plane tilted at an angle, = 22.0 to the horizontal. a) Determine the acceleration of the block as it slides down the plane. b) If the block starts from rest 12.0 m up the plane from its base, calculate the block’s speed when it reaches the bottom of the incline plane. (g = 9.81 m s 2) ANS. : 3.68 m s 2; 9.40 m s 1 46

SF016

CHAPTER 4

Exercise 5 : A block is dragged by forces, F1 and F2 of the magnitude 20 N and 30 N respectively as shown in figure 3.12. The frictional force f exerted on the block is 5 N. If the weight of the block is 200 N and it is move horizontally, determine the acceleration of the block. (Given g = 9.81 m s 2)

a

f

ANS. : 1.77 m s

2

F1

50

20

F2

47

SF016

4.1

CHAPTER 4

Basic of forces and free body diagram (3 hours) 4.1.1 Basic of forces 4.1.2 Free body diagram 4.1.3 The forces acting on a body i) Weight ii) Tension iii) Normal force iv) Friction 4.1.4 Static friction and kinetic friction

4.2

Newton’s laws of motion (2 hours) 4.2.1 Newton’s First Law and inertia 4.2.2 The equilibrium of a particle 4.2.3 Newton’s First Law in equilibrium of forces 4.2.4 Newton’s Second Law 4.2.5 Newton’s Third Law

SF016 Learning Outcome: CHAPTER 4 4. d) Apply Newton’s First Law in equilibrium of forces. e) State and apply Newton’s Second Law F F dp dt dp dt d mv dt dm dv v m dt dt 49 f) State and apply Newton’s Third Law. . c) Define the equilibrium of a particle. students should be able to: a) State Newton’s First Law b) Define mass as a measure of inertia.2 Newton’s laws of motion (2 hours) At the end of this chapter.

2 Newton’s laws of motion 4.1 Newton’s first law and inertia Newton’s first law Newton’s First Law of Motion states – an object at rest will remain at rest.SF016 CHAPTER 4 4.2. or continues to move with uniform velocity in a straight line unless it is acted upon by an external forces OR Fnett F 0 Newton’s first law is often called the law of inertia 50 .

.is defined as the tendency of an object to resist any change in its state of rest or motion.SF016 CHAPTER 4 Define mass as a measure of inertia .is a scalar quantity. 51 The examples of real experience of inertia The Inertia first law gives the idea of inertia .

mass inertia 52 . The S. unit of mass is kilogram (kg).SF016 Mass. The value of mass is independent of location. is a scalar quantity. m CHAPTER 4 is defined as a measure of a body’s inertia. If the mass of a body increases then its inertia will increase.I.

CHAPTER 4 F2 F3 4. (whether inside or outside of the body).7 53 .2.6 and Figure 4.2 The equilibrium of a particle F1 F1 Figure 4.SF016 Concurrent forces • is defined as the forces whose lines of action pass through a single common point. • Figure 4.7 show the examples of concurrent forces. • The forces cause the translational motion on the body.6 F2 F3 Figure 4.

SF016 The Equilibrium of a particle CHAPTER 4 • is defined as the vector sum of all forces acting on a particle (point) must be zero. • The equilibrium of a particle ensures the body in translational equilibrium and its condition is given by F Fnett 0 Newton’s first law of motion 54 .

Dynamic equilibrium body moving at a uniform (constant) velocity.SF016 This is equivalent to the three independent scalar equations along the direction of the coordinate axes. 0. 0 (v = 0) (a = 0 ) 55 . It is Static equilibrium body remains at rest stationary. CHAPTER 4 Fx Fy Fz 0. There are two types of equilibrium of a particle.

SF016 Polygon of forces Case 1: A particle in equilibrium as a result of two forces acting on it as shown in Figure. thus CHAPTER 4 F2 F1 F F1 F2 0 Fx OR 0 Fy 56 0 . They are equal in magnitude but opposite in the direction.

They are form a closed triangle of forces. F1 Fx F2 0 and F3 Fy 0 0 F1 F3 57 F2 .e.SF016 Case 2: A particle in equilibrium as a result of three forces acting on it as shown in Figure. thus CHAPTER 4 F3 F1 F2 F i.

thus CHAPTER 4 F3 F4 F1 F2 F i. They will form a closed polygon of forces.SF016 Case 3: A particle in equilibrium as a result of four forces acting on it as shown in Figure. F1 Fx F2 0 and F3 F4 Fy 0 0 F1 F4 F2 58 F3 .e.

59 .3 Newton’s First Law in equilibrium of forces Equilibrium: The state of a body in which there is no change in motion. ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0. The net external force acting on a body in equilibrium must be equal to zero.2. The force that brings an accelerating object into equilibrium must be equal and opposite to the force causing the object to accelerate. At rest or with constant velocity.SF016 CHAPTER 4 4.

SF016 CHAPTER 4 Body is in equilibrium when it is at rest or moving with constant velocity in an inertial frame of reference. o o o o Hanging lamp Suspension bridge Airplane flying at constant speed Other examples? 60 .

b) the magnitude of the horizontal force. The load is pulled by a horizontal force such that the cable makes a 30 angle to the vertical plane. (Given g =9. If the load is in the equilibrium.81 m s 2) CHAPTER 4 Solution :m 250 kg 30 F Free body diagram of the load : T Ty 30 60 F Tx mg 61 .SF016 Example 1 : A load of 250 kg is hung by a crane’s cable. calculate a) the magnitude of the tension in the cable.

then F 0 mg 0 mg 250 9.SF016 Solution : 1st method : a) Force x-comp (N) y-comp (N) CHAPTER 4 Since the load is in the equilibrium. therefore T 2833 N F 2833 cos 60 0 F 1417 N . (2) into eq.81 2453 Thus Fx 0 0 (1) F T cos 60 F T Fy T sin 60 0 2453 0 (2) F T cos 60 0 T sin 60 b) By substituting eq. (1).

From the closed triangle of forces. then a closed triangle of forces can be sketched as shown below. hence mg 30 mg T cos 30 b) F sin 30 cos 30 F T T (250)(9.81) T 2833 N T F (2833)sin 30 F T sin 30 F 1417 N 63 .SF016 CHAPTER 4 Solution : 2nd method a) Since the load is in the equilibrium.

0 F3 30 N Calculate the magnitude and direction of a force that balance the three forces acted at point A as shown in Figure above.0 A 30.SF016 Example 2 : CHAPTER 4 F2 20 N F1 12 N 55.0 45. 64 .

F2 20 N. F3 30 N 12 sin 55.0 6.88 17.2 Fy x-component (N) y-component (N) F1 F2 F3 F 12 cos 55.0 21.0 17.2 Fx 0 65 Fx 31.6 N .2 Fx To find a force to balance the three forces means the system must be in equilibrium hence Fx 0 6.0 21.SF016 Solution : Force CHAPTER 4 F1 12 N.0 9.83 20 sin 30.0 10.88 20 cos 30.0 30 sin 45.3 30 cos 45.3 21.

6 2 1.37 N 0 The magnitude of the force.6 N and its direction.37 2 F 31. 2 2 F Fx Fy 31.6 θ from the +x-axis 66 2. θ tan 1 Fy Fx θ tan 1 1.83 10.2 Fy Fy 1.0 21.SF016 Solution : CHAPTER 4 Fy 0 9.48 anticlockwise .37 31.

125.SF016 Example 3 : A window washer pushes his scrub brush up a vertical window at constant speed by applying a force F as shown in Figure 5.7.0 N and the coefficient of kinetic friction is k = 0. CHAPTER 4 F 50.0 N 67 W fk . Calculate a) the magnitude of the force F b) the normal force exerted by the window on the brush. The brush weighs 10.0 constant speed F 50.

μk 0.0 N 0 10.125 The brush moves up at constant speed (a = 0) so that F ma 0 Thus a) The free body diagram of the brush : Force x-comp (N) y-comp (N) Fx 0 (1) F W N fk F cos 50.SF016 Solution : CHAPTER 4 W 10.0 N=? .125 N Fy 0 (2) F sin 50.125N 10.0 N F cos 50.0 0 F sin 50.0 0 μk N 0.0 N.0 F=? 0.

ANS.81 m s 2 1. The system in Figure 5. 28 N. 57 N. 29 . : 49 N. with the string at the centre exactly horizontal. T2 and T3.SF016 CHAPTER 4 Exercise : Use gravitational acceleration. Calculate a) the tensions T1 . b) the angle . g = 9.8 is in equilibrium.

SF016 Exercise : 2.9 . CHAPTER 4 A 20 kg ball is supported from the ceiling by a rope A. Determine the tension in ropes A and B. ANS. If the angle of A to the vertical is 20 and if B makes an angle of 50 to the vertical as shown in Figure 5.9. 300 N 70 Figure 5. Rope B pulls downward and to the side on the ball. : 134 N.

SF016

Exercise : 3.

CHAPTER 4

A block of mass 3.00 kg is pushed up against a wall by a force P that makes a 50.0 angle with the horizontal as show in Figure 5.10. The coefficient of static friction between the block and the wall is 0.250. Determine the possible values for the magnitude of P that allow the block to remain stationary. ANS. : 31.8 N; 48.6 N

71

SF016

CHAPTER 4

4.2.4 Newton’s Second Law states “the rate of change of linear momentum of a moving body is proportional to the resultant force and is in the same direction as the force acting on it” OR its can be represented by where

F

dp dt

F : resultant force

dp : change in linear momentum

dt : time interval

SF016

CHAPTER 4

From the Newton’s 2nd law of motion, it also can be written as dp p mv F and dt dm d mv dv F v m F dt dt dt

73

F where F dv dt dm dv v m dt dt 0 and dm dv v m dt dt dm 0 and dt F dv dt 0 0 Newton’s 1st law of motion Thus F F dm v dt p constant dp dt 0 74 . For example : Rocket CHAPTER 4 Case 2: Object at rest or in motion with constant velocity and constant mass.SF016 Case 1: Object at rest or in motion with constant velocity but with changing mass.

75 .SF016 dv dm and m 0 dt dt dv and a dt where CHAPTER 4 Case 3: Object with constant mass but changing velocity. F dm v dt dv F m dt F ma F : resultant force m : mass of an object a : accelerati on The direction of the resultant force always in the same direction of the motion or acceleration.

OR 1 N = 1 kg m s-2 a F m 76 .SF016 CHAPTER 4 Newton’s 2nd law of motion restates that “The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the nett force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass”. OR One newton (1 N) is defined as the amount of net force that gives an acceleration of one metre per second squared to a body with a mass of one kilogramme.

If the forces act on an object and the object moving at uniform acceleration (not at rest or not in the equilibrium) hence Fnett F ma 77 .SF016 CHAPTER 4 F is a nett force or effective force or Notes: resultant force. The force which causes the motion of an object.

Choose a system of coordinates so that calculations may be simplified. Apply the equation above. we arrived at equation F Fnett ma There are five steps in applying the equation above to solve problems in mechanics: Identify the object whose motion is considered. Draw a free body diagram for each object.SF016 CHAPTER 4 Applications of Newton’s 2nd law of motion From the Newton’s second law of motion. Fx ma x Along x-axis: Along y-axis: Fy may 78 . Determine the forces exerted on the object.

m1 = 3 kg. Determine a) the acceleration of blocks system. Neglect the friction between the floor and the wooden blocks.SF016 CHAPTER 4 Example 1 : Three wooden blocks connected by a rope of negligible mass are being dragged by a horizontal force. F m1 T1 m2 T2 m3 Suppose that F = 1000 N. m2 = 15 kg and m3 = 30 kg. T1 and T2. F in figure. 79 . b) the tension of the rope.

SF016 Solution : a) For the block. m1 = 3 kg CHAPTER 4 a F T1 m1 T1 T1 Fx F T1 m1a Fx 1000 T1 3a 3a 1000 Fx T1 T2 m2 a (1) For the block. m3 = 30 kg T1 Fx T2 Fx T1 T2 15a 15a T2 m3 a (2) T2 a m3 T2 30a 80 (3) . m2 = 15 kg a m2 T2 For the block.

(2) thus T1 45a 0 (4) 1000 Eq. therefore T1 936 N T2 624 N 81 . (1) (4) : a 48 a 20. (3) into eq.8 m s 2 b) By substituting the value of acceleration into equations (4) and (3).SF016 Solution : CHAPTER 4 a) By substituting eq.

T1 a W1 m1 g Fy where T1 m1 g T1 T2 T m1a (1) 82 m1 T 10 g 10a . (Given g = 9. b) the tension in each string. Calculate a) the acceleration of the object of mass 10 kg.SF016 Example : Two objects of masses m1 = 10 kg and m2 = 15 kg are connected by a light string which passes over a smooth pulley as shown in figure 3.10.81 m s 2) m2 Solution : CHAPTER 4 a) For the object m1= 10 kg.

81 Therefore 10 1.96 T 118N Fy m2 g T2 m2 a Fy 15 g T 15a T 15 g 15a (2) 5g 5 9.96 m s 2 . T 2 CHAPTER 4 b) Substitute the value of acceleration into equation (1) thus a W2 m2 g T 10 9. (1) + (2) : a 25 25 T1 T2 T 118 N a 1.81 Eq.SF016 Solution : a) For the object m2= 15 kg.

SF016 CHAPTER 4 4.5 Newton’s Third Law states “every action force has a reaction force that is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction”. FBA FAB B (wall) Where FAB A (hand) FBA FAB is a force by the wall on the hand (reaction) 84 FBA is a force by the hand on the wall (action) .2. For example : When the student push on the wall it will push back with the same force.

In all cases when two bodies interact. 85 . it is because its tyres are pushing backward on the road and the road is pushing forward on the tyres.SF016 CHAPTER 4 When a book is placed on the table. A rocket moves forward as a result of the push exerted on it by the exhaust gases which the rocket has pushed out. the action and reaction forces act on different bodies. Force by the table on the book (reaction) Force by the book on the table (action) If a car is accelerating forward.

thus N Therefore ay 0 Fy 0 N mg 0 W N mg mg 86 .SF016 CHAPTER 4 Motion of a lift Consider a person standing inside a lift as shown in figures (a). (b) and (c). (a) Lift moving upward at a uniform velocity Since the lift moving at a uniform velocity.

thus N Fy may N mg ma N ma g a W mg 87 .SF016 CHAPTER 4 (b) Lift moving upwards at a constant acceleration. a By applying the newton’s 2nd law of motion.

a By applying the newton’s 2nd law of motion.SF016 CHAPTER 4 (c) Lift moving downwards at a constant acceleration. thus Fy a W may N mg N N ma mg a mg 88 Caution : N is also known as apparent weight and W is true weight. .

SF016 CHAPTER 4 Example: Two blocks. are side by side and F in contact with each another. Therefore magnitude 200 N applied to A as shown in figure.0 m s 2 89 on B. 200 10 30 a b) the force exerted by A a 5. . mB 30 kg. A of mass 10 kg and B of mass 30 B A kg. Fx mA mB a Determine F mA mB a a) the acceleration of the blocks. F 200 N floor under the action of a)Let the acceleration of a constant force F of the blocks is a. They are Solution : pushed along a smooth mA 10 kg.

0 90 FBA 150 N . For the object A.0 F A FAB FAB 150 N From the Newton’s 3rd law.SF016 Solution : b. FBA FAB 150 N a mB a FBA FBA B 30 5. CHAPTER 4 a Fx F FAB 200 FAB mAa 10 5. thus * FAB : force acted on A by B FBA : force acted on B by A OR Fx FBA For the object B.

13.9 N. 79.5 kg paint bucket.SF016 CHAPTER 4 Exercise : One 3. calculate the tension in each cord.5 kg paint bucket is hanging by a massless cord from another 3.81 m s 2) ANS. : 39. (Given g = 9.60 m s 2 by the upper cord. If the two buckets are pulled upward with an acceleration of 1.8 N 91 . also hanging by a massless cord as shown in figure 3.

Energy and Power Next Chapter… 92 .SF016 CHAPTER 4 THE END… CHAPTER 5 : Work.

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