Chapter 1; The Garden of Eden; Sophie receives a letter, with only the words “Who are you?

” printed on it. Initially she disregards the phrase as simple to answer, but as the day pasts she actually finds the seemingly simple question quite difficult to answer. After deeply pondering over this quandary, she starts to ask herself about life and life and death. (These questions and other thoughts that stream through her head as a result of the first letter cause to go check the mailbox again for another letter). Another letter is found saying “Where does the world come from?” She then asks herself, “Where did space come from then?” This leads her to answer “god”, but she then goes deeper to ask, “Who created god then?” “Had he created himself?” was the next thought. This leads her to believe that he has always been around. But something always had to have a beginning, she convinces herself... What is it that truly defines a person? Is it physical traits, personality, or how they perceive things? If the book claims it is about mostly philosophical, then why is it that the novel emphasizes details of her life rather than the philosophy? What is the author's goal in asking these philosophical questions to Sophie, and how do they tie into the novel? “You can't experience being alive without realizing that you have to die, she thought. But it's just as impossible to realize you have to die without thinking about how incredibly amazing it is to be alive (7).” I chose this quotation because it made me realize how precious life is rather than how life is precious and should not be wasted. Some are conservative in how they live life, and live longer, but their life in not enriching in the amount of risks they decide to take. Contrastingly though, others, a much smaller portion decide to achieve more in life by trying to find themselves, thus leveraging themselves significantly more than others in the process. It is not until a person is on their deathbed do they comprehend whether their life was worth living or they just could have done more, or simply they believe they missed out on something they now regret. Chapter 2; The Top Hat; Sophie receives another item in the mail, this time a course in philosophy from the unknown sender. This one defines philosophy, and emphasizes its importance simultaneously. He states by curiosity, and asking question, this enables one to become more knowledgeable about the world surrounding us. After this, the sender proceeds to compare life to the magic trick of the magician pulling the rabbit our of his hat, then aligning this to life itself and discovering the mysteries of the universe. All that is necessary to become a good philosopher, he insists is the “faculty of wonder.” Is there an afterlife of some form? How is the world created? “Grownups took the world for granted. They had let themselves be lulled into the enchanted sleep of their humdrum existence once and for all (21).” I chose this quote because it made me take notice of how adults act in the way they view the world. Normally, I view adults as the wiser group which teaches the younger society how to behave. This however, changed my perspective to being that adults are simply teaching children how they should behave, not to question themselves or how they operate. Chapter 3; The Myths; Around 600 BC, myths were the main vehicle for spreading ideas and knowledge. As myths were

probably proposed the most radical of either two. In addition though.” I chose this quote because this truly how human nature works currently. items consisted of an infinite amount and combinations of atoms. these atoms varied in number/shape and as well as indivisible. Christianity). Democritus. Thales believed that water was the origin of everything in the world. and they may not agree with the data. it refers to the origin of Greek philosophers. We can imagine how peoples' response to a drought or crop failure would be to enact a drama about the events in the myth (27). Why did it take so long after Democritus for the idea of atoms to truly become universal or more . But until they truly experience an event themselves. Paramenides. Democritus is credited for coming up with the first rudimentary idea of structures making up organisms/other structures. As a result philosophers now sought other ways of explaining the answers to life's questions. Initially. The Natural Philosophers. who came up with the basic idea of atoms. however.” I chose this quote because it lead to view the other shortcomings of myths in those periods and also the fragility of them.. leading them to thus call into question how accurate these myths/stories really were. how they were beforehand known as natural philosophers due to their concerns towards the natural world and it processes. eventually questioning their viability. when he suggested that everything was in changing all of the time. or eventually lead to a total turn around in religion (Hundreds of years later. (42). He also believed reason was universal.without losing our reason. named Democritus is introduced. This was mostly due to thinkers noticing how the gods possessed human-like traits. say. Parmenides. Another letter comes! This time it asks a seemingly simple question a child would be able to answer. You could reveal to one person the results of a given survey. in direct conflict with Paramenides' belief.. “Why is Lego the most ingenious toy in the world?” A philosopher. Philosophers will not begin their work or quest until they discover or figure out what it is they would like to further learn more about. immutable. People also carried out religious ceremonies related to myths. their life flashing before their eyes. Their main topic of interest was over what the world consisted of. thinking that the study should leans towards the other answer. Were there other reasons why philosophers rejected the myths' notions other than what was discussed in the chapter? Why were myths the main way of explaining ideals early on in human history? “But a myth was not only an explanation. Just imagine how that little incident would have completely rewritten the entire history of mankind! Chapter 4. along with opposites causing the world to continue existing.begun to be written down however. He thought that throughout nature. “Can nothing come from something? Can something come from nothing?” “The only way we accept the transformations we can see with our own eyes. there came discussions alongside them. explicit knowledge in that time span. Thales. Chapter 5. Sophie receives another letter in the mail. It did not come to me how something as simple as a crop failure could change how stories. Three philosophers are discussed. and eternal. they will not fully accept that statement.” Heraclitus. and Heraclitus. believed that everything that was currently in the world was always around and “Nothing could become anything other than it was.

for the most part. or what college we will end up attending. Fatalism. nature's blocks had to be eternal.realized? “Moreover. He realized that you don't necessarily require intelligence to be a good thinker. But it also brings back the idea of where did that something come from? It had to some point come from nothing.” I chose this quote because it forced me to recall how even the belief of fate. such as god making people sick. I conceive an intelligent person. is discussed in the next letter Sophie receives. Socrates. such as how a day will go. In addition. In the US. He did not think about philosophy and claim he knew everything. the notion that a person's destiny is already written. That is why he constantly strives to achieve true insight. But in the case of Socrates. it further reinforces the notion that something has to come from something. Normally.” I chose this quote because it repeats the overall question so far. As Hippocrates began to become more influential. no matter the odds set against them.” I chose this quote because it made me reverse my thinking. as someone who knows everything. which is if something can come from nothing. Even what we now call nonsense. Chapter 7. As a matter of fact. He was able to gain this honor through his differentiability. What made Socrates use this method of gaining insight. we still believe in some form of fate in our own daily lives. a famous philosopher in Athens. Fate was an especially important belief during Greek times. not only throughout history but in our own day as well (54). This quote also made me rethink instances where fate was said to have occurred. or a small amount of something was created at some point. as demonstrated when Greek leaders would come to her for advice before thinking about declaring war on another country. did not actually write down a single word of his philosophy. We find this belief all over the world. in this case. yet he is one of the most well-known philosophers in history. [Socrates] knew that he knew nothing about life and the world (69).. he started to question the idea of fate. Can a person's fate be changed. he was intelligent because he knew little. a philosopher. Then the concept of fate began a gradual decline. as compared to how traditional philosophers thought? Why did Socrates never write down a single word of his philosophy? “A philosopher knows that in reality he knows little. in the area of health and sickness. Socrates. Chapter 6. Even then though. regardless of whether it actually occurs or not.. or a lot. or is it forever the same ending? What other events led to the decline in the popularity of fatalism? “Fatalism in the belief that whatever happens is predestined.because nothing can come from nothing (45). similar to other philosophers. however. we usually believe that a person can determine their own destiny. has shaped our lives. where they believed that if something went wrong. Fate. He asked questions to people and hoped to gain some insight from them in the process. was considered fact at that time. rather than try to silence opinions or ideas that may go against your grain. is tactics were actually very akin to that of an infant who is always asking “Why?”. The Oracle of Delphi was the main source of the revealing of a person's or country's fate. it was fate simply taking its course. instead you just have to have curiousity and the ability to listen and gain something from it. .

yet once they are cleaned and cut. my idea has changed to everything being somewhat similar and being a form of offspring of each other. but in detail. and he then proceeds to further discuss how Socrates would wander the streets and ask any person questions about life or philosophy. but there are some restrictions on the type of change. the main focus switches from Socrates to his younger prodigy.” I chose this quote because this ideal had not previously crossed my mind. I realize there are general ideas in which we all regard as true. Questions such as. they can actually look and feel quite similar to each other. Finally Alberto shows himself to Sophie. I also recollected the “something from nothing” phrase. for example.” Plato thought that everything was ever-evolving. Sophie learns more about philosophy. yet he believed that everything was composed of the same basic matter (atoms). The best example is diamonds. are asked. through the utilization of reason. Now. only Athens is discussed. It made me think of how something could not be something. less so than philosophy itself. A video rather than a letter comes this time. I originally held the notion that everything was different in its own way.Chapter 8. yet still be something. but happen to share given traits? “Plato believed similarly that all natural phenomena are merely shadows of the eternal forms or ideas (89). Plato. or are items completely different. all four sides are slightly curved to make the building appear less heavy. In spite of its colossal dimensions. it talks about the life in Athens and its culture as well. Plato. Chapter 9. the chicken or the egg?”. Chapter 10. In this chapter. it appealed to me because of it seemingly conflicting nature. of how they are all kinds of sizes and shapes. yet somehow it is still something. Despite this though. such as deism. he thought that we used our senses and reason to evaluate our surroundings. Athens. As a whole though. it could not be something. The Major's Cabin.” Even though this quote has little to do with philosophy. Is there going to be a later use or reference to the girl Sophie thought she saw winking at her in . Is there any particular reason why Plato would choose those seemingly unimportant questions to Sophie? What particularly is he trying to get her to think more deeply about? “The huge marble structure does not have a single straight line. we may disagree with. a mold. because. Is everything like a mold and then altered. and just happened to share traits. In addition. This confuses her. winking at her. which seems to be that of Plato and Aristotle. it gives the impression of lightness (74). but also what was able to 'flow'. or to visualize this better. He thought everything can change. As the video is being played. is when she believes she sees a version of herself in the mirror. But what stands out the most in the chapter. If it is nothing. Plato's main concern was “the relationship between what was eternal and immutable. she still doesn't believe what she saw. “Which came first. that is not possible.

Many groups were forms of Hellenism. and differences that could confirm or reject this belief. Aristotle loved to use all of his senses but sight to gain insight. without guidance. Does a life without pain mean you have truly lived life? “Plotinus believed that the world is a span between two poles (133). and people into different categories as well. we are able to distinguish fact from reality. the world would be lost in darkness (no pun intended). Without these gray areas. both of which have actually shown to produce just as much data if not more. and would be unable to achieve anything at all. Roman. and the Epicureans.” I chose this quote because it made me realize that the world. the spread of ideas. liberal and conservative. that is man's most distinguishing characteristic (108). Syrian. Babylonian. as an empire. than sight alone. believed that material luxury was the reward of life. and Greek culture combined into this. it is precisely reason. Aristotle also classified and sorted ideas. on the other hand. or learn from our mistakes. yet simultaneously. indeed is a span of two different poles. Plato. Persian. Plato and Aristotle are compared. Athens. Chapter 11. Egyptian. the Stoics. animals. but instead similarities which objects or animals had in common. Hellenism is a result of mobility. and thought they should live in as little pain as possible. humans cannot be without the gift of reason. Is mobility the only factor that allows animals to rise above plants? What other traits set us apart from other animals? “On the contrary. the main location for philosophy. as an example. No philosophy talked about in this section. Aristotle also believed that there were no “molds” as Plato called them. This quote though. The Epicureans. Without this. used reason to gain insight. Humans cannot be humans without curiosity. There were the Cynics. The Cynics and Stoics both shunned material luxury and did not believe that it brought true happiness. which was earlier a part of the Greeks. . Chapter 12. Hellenism rose from the ashes of Greek culture as Greece. opinions. that we are able to move along. I myself believe that the trait which we possess which sets humans apart is curiosity. Thus. Rome became the new player. It is a mix of this moderation and balance. Humans do not have to see things to understand them. this is why we possess other senses. also brought in the factor of reason. contrasting.the mirror? Are people born with ideas. humans would simply have the same capacities or think the same way as any other animals would. With that ability. Aristotle. We can hear of things.” I chose this quote because it has many viewpoints. On each side. Chapter 13. and borders becoming less of an importance.” I chose this quote because I do not necessarily regard this as valid. As a result. Alexandria soon became the center for science. in one way or another. The Postcards. according to Aristotle. began to lose its influence and dominance over the region. there are varying opinions. Dark and light. however. Hellenism. or do they gain them from their environment? “But surely we have to see things in the world before we can know anything about them (101). though. and we can feel things.

The Middle Ages. Jews belonged to the Semitic culture. I guess both at that time were reason. but apparently not. After Jesus had been crucified.” According to Jesus. Christians. The Renaissance. also known as the Middle Ages. Chapter 15. Christianity. scientific. As a result. What would have been different had the Renaissance not occurred? . To the Indo-Europeans. not the opposite. Moreover. arises. the region was thrown into the Dark Ages. or no similarities among each other? “In other words. Set aside from the others. History always comes as time passes. schools. Although history does have a tendency to repeat itself in some form. excluding those who speak FinnoUgrian languages though. Aquinas. Two Cultures. and experiment. it is indeed ongoing. To the citizens of Israel. was a period of a thousand years after the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance. god allows forgiveness to anyone who prays for it. but ellipses. The Indo-European culture includes all of the European region. Judaism. He was an important philosopher whom agreed with Plato's ideas. Newton's laws of motion also come into being. Jesus becomes Messiah. Roman Catholic. despite being mostly like convents. I thought that philosophy was reason-based and that theology was science-based. the former empire was split culturally into three areas. As an example. history is not exactly a line. history was seen as an ongoing line (151). Universities are founded. Hearing was also significant to them. Kepler then further improved on this by saying that planets don't move in exact circles. AND also religion based in some form. is also credited with creating a bridge between faith and reason. Across the Indo-European cultures are clear commonalities if notions and beliefs. A noted thinker. experience. The Semites had a completely different language and culture although. and Islam all share a Semitic background. Despite this. St. In this time. If religion did not exist in early times. Greeks and Romans were apart of this culture. In the Indo-European culture. Jerusalem is an important religious area for Jews.” I chose this quote because this is precisely how I view history. and Arabic. and Muslims. Additionally. Augustine is also discussed.“Son of god. would cultures have had more.” I chose this quote because I didn't know that was no real difference between those two. with the Middle Ages actually pouring the foundation for more widespread education. Byzantine. The empirical method was that every investigation of natural phenomenon has to be based on observation. less. Semites believed in monotheism. The Dark Ages. because lines cannot keep on going for an infinite amount of time. they believed in polytheism. rather than the Renaissance. St. What would have occurred culturally if the Arabians had not gained control of Spain? “There was no great difference between theology and philosophy at that time (177). that is how it has and will always continue to be. Chapter 16. The Renaissance was a period of great scientific achievement. sight was the most important sense.Chapter 14. Copernicus also discovers/claims that the Earth revolves around the sun. With the fall of the Roman Empire in 400 AD. Paul spread Christianity and converting himself in the process.

Chapter 18. unlike others before him. The view of determinism also comes back. For example. Spinoza also thought that Natural law was in effect. Chapter 19. The best way to describe the Baroque period would be strife over differences. Philosophy does not necessarily prevent violence. reason provides an ending to knowledge than one might not have necessarily gotten otherwise. Half of forgiveness and moving on from there involves admitting you are wrong to some degree. materialism versus idealism. he despised it. Chapter 17. Descartes was a theologian whom believed that knowledge could only be gained through reason. that they could actually interlock more.” I chose this quote because I at first found it ironic. The Baroque. the way was to open both to new scientific methods and new religious fervor (194). People must doubt anything and everything until they are strongly certain that they obtain the knowledge and facts. yet very accurately. Why did Descartes believe that a person should never trust their senses? “Certain knowledge is only attainable through reason (230). Spinoza. that one should never fully trust their senses. it is viewed that science and religion are on opposite sides of the spectrum.“As religion and science could now relate more freely to each other. and that god was able to control everything through that. but it does a miniscule factor of it. as shown the case of Galileo versus the Catholic church. he thought that animals were complicated pieces of automation. as decades would past. materialism or idealism? “Perhaps the best remedy against violence would be a short-course in philosophy (218). but through reason. there would be increasing clashes. it was for the most part between the Catholics and Protestants. Spinoza believed that Christianity and Judaism were kept around only by dogma and ritual. However. In this period.” I chose this quote because it illustrates that information does not necessarily come from books. Idealistic conflicts involved two philosophies. other factors. He believed. Spinoza believed that humans had many thoughts which prevented them from from getting true happiness. like Plato. therefore. Reason is the only crystal-clear method that can give us certainty. “What really is an animal?” Which is more prevalent currently.” I chose this quote because this could be hotly debated. “Can you truly achieve happiness?” . Instead. Descartes liked o classify and define things as well. Newton also created what he called the “mechanistic world view”. Additionally. He was also one of the first to actually organize his ideas into a given philosophy. such as better environments and actual talking rather than violence would produce much better results. Yet. Usually. which was that it was possible for notions to determine every little change. this including ambition and lust. Descartes. the belief that everything is already planned out for the future. in the Renaissance different opinions actually managed to split both of them far enough apart.

However. Berkeley was an Irish bishop who thought that the new philosophical and scientific movements of the age were threatening Christianity.“There is almost something symbolic in the fact he lived by polishing lenses. just to comfort us more than actually find out. primary and secondary. He also believed that we can exist are those we perceive. he thought that things we can feel are simple sensations. he thought that the idea of god could never be proved or disproved. Hume claimed that just one thing may follow another does not mean there is a link between them. Locke was also one of the first to promote equal gender rights. How do we want to see life? Through or own eyes or someone else'? Chapter 20. Primary was extension. but what they want it to be. When humans are not sure if something truly exists. Hume believed there were two kinds of perceptions.” I chose this quote because it is very true in a sense. taste. Others prefer to see their life without any obstructions though This is how philosophy can be seen as. there is a reason or specifically. Locke was an empiricist. Chapter 22. Locke. number. and sound. Hume created the “Law of Causation”. impressions and ideas.” Furthermore. we had to see parts of it previously.” I chose this quote because this is how human nature is. However. which is one of the most outstanding traits. they make generalized statements often. Berkeley claimed that the question of whether god exists or not can be more easily perceived than that of . weight. a cause for it. this meant that everything that happens. Considered by many philosophers as the most important empiricists. Why was Hume one of the most important empiricists? “But even in everyday life we use complex ideas without stopping to wonder if they are valid (268).” I chose this quote because this quote is very parallel we all view life. Moreover. we sometime can make up our own perception or opinion over its validity. Chapter 21. Are we born with ideas? Do they directly come from our parents before any knowledge of anything else? “Locke believed that it was inherent in human reason to be able to know god exists (262). smell. and that can simultaneously bring us a false sense of security. Humans naturally comfort themselves and are always curious. I also think that humans tend to simplify ideals in order to better understand someone or something. Hume. Secondary was color. Hume believed that in order for us to visualize something. etc. Berkeley. A philosopher must help people to see life in a new perspective (245). Some like to put on their rose-colored glasses and not see life as it. and “division of powers” within the government. motion. Locke then sorted qualities into two portions. without fully reviewing the idea or completely thinking it through. Continuing from that. Humans have a natural tendency to jump to conclusions all the time. He was also known for being agnostic. or a “philosopher of experience.

humans being the mystery all on our own. As humans we could make generalized statements. They thought it was best to always remain skeptical about so-called “truths. or as we are as individuals? As individuals.” I chose this quote because it is a question humans having been striving to answer since their very origin. there is no clear way to truly answer how we. the same ones that can cure such diseases as polio.humans.” and that everyone should be able to respond to their own questions. laying down the foundation for individualism later on. the Enlightenment. After this. natural religion. or is how we can to be the bigger dilemma? How is it that science and religion can be so far apart.Are humans. But this theory introduces another dimension to the conversation. claiming that they should hold some of the same “natural rights” as men. Humans. it would be one of the most unstable of elements. rationalism. Does this question ask who humans are. Aristotle did not think anything that existed in our minds has not been first identified by the senses. The Enlightenment consisted of seven ideas: opposition to authority. in addition to being one of the most magnificent as well. both in reality and through the thoughts and knowledge of Locke. yet share the same origins? “In truth. Opposition to authority. and human reason. Chapter 23. even through the eyes and mind of our own selves. “Does our world consist of real things?” “The question is who we are (281). because it unshackled humans. because it was shown that “primitive peoples” were happier and better off than the civilized cultures. the Enlightenment movement. psychologically a mystery. leading them to think and act for themselves. The return to nature aspect of the Enlightenment was meant to de-civilize humans. It is not until deep moments of sorrow or happiness do we truly find ourselves also. Which is more of an unknown.” I chose this quote because I thought it to be quite contradictory.” I chose this quote because it is a very valid statement. Finally. was a belief held by French philosophers after their trips to the much more liberal England. Chapter 24. cultural optimism. but we must also learn to admire that about ourselves. Is everything we see the same as what others see? “But most of the Enlightenment philosophers thought it was irrational to imagine a world without god (313). If you were to put the human element into the periodic table. can also bring death to millions. the first one. Bjerkely Berkeley did not believe that there was such a thing as a material world past the human mind. a man by the name of Condorcet published a book on the rights of women. I would think that for men to . the return to nature. He also thought that everything should be split up into different categories and sub sections. At very rare moments we can experience that we ourselves are that divine mystery (295). a woman named Olympe de Gouges declared that women should have all the same rights as man. Humans themselves are inconsistent. Human reason and cultural optimism was another important trait held by the Enlightened. but this would be very inaccurate.

but don't believe what you see. this new society or line of thinking can lead to better ideals. Kant. the Middle Ages. This clearly illustrates that we truly don't know everything when even in reality we believe we do. the Renaissance. either (334). There were additionally two factors that led to knowledge of the world. Similarly.preach philosophy of this new. more scientific nature. poetry. and became popular with young university-educated men. one perceived through the senses. would that make them intelligent? “People usually say 'I'll believe it when I see'. Chapter 25. Romanticism. art could only “bring them closer to the unexpressible. you try to disprove the other side or change their opinion. when you try to argue for one side. however this expression is untrue and we cannot actually believe what we see due to the belief our senses can often trick us.” . Therefore we must analyze and infer in order to obtain more of an insight to the world around us. whether it be in our mind or with other people. such as environment. history. Is the universe finite or infinite? If one only had the gift of reason. we tend to create our own.” I chose this quote because this is how humans typically are. Romanticism consisted of the typical liberal arts. the world is not actually how we perceive it because we obtain too much unknown knowledge to actually gain the answers to everything. In this situation though. in a negative way. Why were artists so valued in this period over others? “We went inside ourselves and created a new world (347). If we are rejected/not accepted in our society. Romanticism focused on the worship of the freedom and individual as well. because our senses can often misleads us. In may ways. Chapter 26. and more creativity. this was not the case. Can history always reflect how humans psychologically are? “You cannot single out particular thoughts from antiquity. Romanticism arose from Germany. In addition. Folk tales and fairy tales were highly valued. Chapter 27. that they would believe that a world with god would interfere with their way of thinking. and that all knowledge was human knowledge. Hegel came up with and added on to the philosophies of Romanticism. He thought that truth was open to interpretation. and the other inside how the mind operates. or the Enlightenment and say they were wrong (359). Kant also believed that there were other factors that contributed to our views.” Romantics also thought that nature was a form of an organism. he thought that space and time were our two forms of intuition. he believed moves towards greater rationality and freedom. Normally.” I chose this quotation because most of us use this expression. Hegel's philosophy was mainly meant to help understand history more than anything else. In the view of the Romantics. Romanticism began in the late eighteenth century and ended in the mid-nineteenth century. Hegel. and art. Kant thought that senses and reason impacted our opinions to much. music. always developing.

the rich. . as a whole? “Thus the worker transfers his own labor. society's conditions of production. To sum it up.” I chose this quote because it is a valid statement. Means of production. but simultaneously. Marx was not only known for his publication of “The Communist Manifesto”. When a worker works. do his job. that is the job of the management. and the religious stage. sociologist. rather than sit there and criticize them. the working class and the “management” style class. but also for being a historian. He also criticized Christianity could not make up its mind on what it wanted it to be. study them. He believed life was made up of three stages. how many people lived in the times of slavery. Did Marx actually prove his theories correct.I chose this quote because despite this phrase everyone does it anyway. because then it makes it harder to convince them how right we are. and mode of production. It is very hard to debate with people whom have no ideals. Chapter 29. the whole of his life. All he has to do is come to work. it does produce something in which the bourgeoisie class benefits from. or running it at peak levels. Marx. or simply put. Marx believed that there was strife between two classes. but the worker is the one whom only makes the item. For example. ethical.and with it. Do we have to look inside ourselves to truly find the answers to our questions? “The most important thing is not what may think is precisely right or wrong. no one can deny that. and we may disagree over those. when it was actually somewhat normal to have slaves. which he can then use on whatever he likes. and through this he demonstrated how materialism and economic factors can rapidly change society and history itself. mode of production which is whom produces or controls production. and actually owned slaves? Now why is it we go back and say how wrong it was. philosopher. They do not have to worry about how the company is running. He identified three bases of society. who are we judge how things operated in those times. Marx's specialty was into materialism. Conditions of production were the condition of the resources available for the consumption of society.the aesthetic. He thought that eventually there would be a form of revolution which would overthrow the upper class. he does not take the risk of starting the company. Slavery is wrong. What matters is that you have an opinion at all on what is right or wrong.. We all have opinions of some form. when we ourselvs have our own deep faults as well? We are meant to look back into other events. And finally. and an economist. and for themselves as well. Kierkegaard thought that the Romantic idealism and Hegel's historism had prevented people' responsibility for their own life. the worker is getting compensated for his labor. means of production. Kierkegaard. and return home. Chapter 28. Kierkegaard's philosophy was a deep form of individualism in which people should only be looking out for relying solely upon themselves.” I chose this quote because it is not fully true to its meaning. He believe that people should be searching for truths (through faith) by themselves. and learn from them. to the bourgeoisie (393). Additionally. which is how a product or good is made. but what lays forgotten are those whom have no views whatsoever.

Existentialism is a collective term for philosophy that helps find man's point of departure. At what moment does life begin? Did life on Earth come from nothing? “You could say that life is just one big lottery in which only the winning numbers are visible (416). which held suppressed thoughts and conscious. But. Moreover. but also for his publications which rocked both the scientific and religious order of the time. He also thought that it was useless to search for the meaning of life because humans themselves have nothing. Why do some believe women are subjects merely meant for them? What made absurdism come into popularity? . Darwin. In this situation. yet being of somewhat random odds. whom specialized in psychoanalysis. being similar to art is surreal. A German philosopher named Nietzsche believed that Christianity had become too idealistic. but still being relevant in one way or another. Freud. after all. a little work of art. Our Own Time. It can be whatever you would like it to be. he thought those best adapted to their surroundings would be likely to survive. life is compared to a lottery ticket. Sigmund Freud was an Austrian psychologist. This quote alone helped me to comprehend how Freud believed that deciphering a person's dreams could actually be key to understanding their “suppressed” thoughts. Chapter 32. having the strongest remaining. and that life kept this in check. Jean-Paul Satre believed in “atheistic existentialism” and that existentialists begin with nothing but humanity itself. yet lose most of their “iron-clad” status in the 30s? According to psychologists today. A nihilist is someone who thinks nothing means anything and anything is allowed. but he knows that it all started with DNA. what would happen if those suppressed thoughts would released? “A dream is. Darwin was best known as a biologist and natural scientist. Thus the ones one best suited to their environment will eventually be eliminated. yet have a meaning deep within. Through his studies. Chapter 31. He believed vegetables and animals were all descendents of another through evolution (which was the result of natural speciation). Freud also believed in two areas the unconscious. he came to the conclusion that human actions are due to suppressed mental thoughts. Moreover. which was like a tape recorder and could play back any previous thoughts/feelings. he thought people experienced parapraxes. Finally. or slips of the tongue.” I chose this quote because I never thought of dreams being akin to art. Darwin said it is unknown how life truly began. and there are new dreams every night (436). What made Freud's theories become so well known in the 20s.” I chose this quote because it intertwines with Darwin's beliefs. which could serve as an entry way into the person's mind. a dream. This can be compared to Darwin's view of survival of the fittest in which only the strongest survive. Darwin suggests that history shows that we have all clearly evolved from one another.Chapter 30. Usually I refer to dreams being somewhat random.

it is important to conclude that although we might not always come across answers. The minute we are born. isn't it better to have had a life never to have really lived? (497). She chose to end the book by demonstrating how everything is inter-correlated in some way or another. In conclusion. This quotation was a superb way to sum and tie up the loose knots and meanings of the entire novel. This then caused gravity to produce intense heat. Otherwise. no real philosophy is discussed. . and later reminisce upon? Chapter 35: The Big Bang A long time ago. Will it be the path less trodden or the road more traveled? Chapter 33: The Garden Party No major philosophy is discussed in this chapter. Once we make that decision though. we ourselves have to decide what to do with ourselves. it is still our personal responsibility that we must choose the road that we desire to take. Why is it beneficial for one to learn more about Philosophy? “It's never wrong for a real philosopher to ask questions (471). by asking questions we are able to gain a better understanding and meaning to life. If we don't take risks. which then proceeded to cause an explosion. thereupon we can do nothing to reverse course. Although we do not always have the answers to all the questions we ask.” I chose this quote because it demonstrates how one must ask questions in order to discover and acquire more knowledge. Will there ever be any proof of the origin of the universe? “We are a spark from the great fire that was ignited many billions of years ago. However.” I chose this quote because it seems to me Gaarder concluded the novel in a rather odd way.” I chose this quote because this is a question in which we never truly be able to answer ourselves until we are on our deathbed.” I chose this quote because it shows the importance of life. Chapter 34: Counterpoint Sophie and Albert are seeing Hilde's real world through another world. This will cause us to appreciate our lives more and make it more fulfilling. To exist is to create your own life (452). and that in we have all evolved from each other..But it is we ourselves who must create this meaning in our own lives. what do we have to live for. By asking questions. by asking these questions it allows us to make future discovers and inferences. it enables one to get a better understanding of life.“Satre believed that life must have meaning. This explosion came to be known as the Big Bang. How do you know if you have lived a fulfilled life? “But still.. this is when meaning comes into our lives. all substances of the galaxy were in one small area.

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