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Political Systems: one group of people leading or controlling another. A goverment.

Feudalism: Political system (lords incharge of surfs, yes)

Feudalism on the decline: Agricultureal productivity is increasing. Too much surplus, surfs are unessiary.

Surfs leave when they don't need the Lords.

The church is on the down. The church is the only central power, starting to be attacked by 1450, in 1517,

the Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther-he meant a social change, the church is not an intermediary. The

political power of the church goes down, the church, the glue, falls apart when people challange it. John

Calvin agrees and disagrees, God has predetermined those for salvation.

Henry 8- Church of England, he wants a son, but his wife can't get one out. There is no direct line, thus, there

could be civil war. So, a new church that blends this protestant/catholic problem, and he wants a son, he

wants a divorse. Benefit to those in the CoE, there wan't a place for other beliefs.

Feudalism --> Absolute Monarchy

Total political power, power from God. Divine Right Monarchy.

He's the one person deciding.

Louis 14: Absolute Monarch of France. Versailles, 4 wars for little reason other than empire gain, revocation

of Edict of nantes.

English Revolution: 2 centries before everyone else, the earliest thought of the future. The earliest idea of

Enlightment. 700-800 wealthiest men, those who feel a need for balance. Oliver Cromwell: 12 year rule that

isn't a monarch.

-> Glorious Revolution: William and Mary, English Bill of Rights.

But, Absoluteism keeps on going around the world.

Similar ideas to Absolutism, in all of these empires. Centralizer, Expander

OE: Sultan with absolute power: Osman, Suliman Calvary and Janissaries. Expands to Kosovo. As far as


SE: Theorocacy, Abslolute Monarch, and the LAw of Man is the LAw of God. Sha with absolute power:

Ismail, and Abbas. No national economic system. They build great city square, but the greatest city is in the

center of the empire, no river, no trade.

ME: Babur, Ackbar. Religious Tolerance, abolishes the taxes on hindus. Intergrates religion, but those after,

Aranzeb who undoes Ackbar's polecies. No economic system

JE: Hideoyshi and Ieyasu. EXCEPTION: Expansion before centralization. Had to get the dynos (feudal

lords) to sacrafice power. Well, shoot. They are a smart Military Goverment. The greatest achievement: they

shut out the rest of the world from trade.

CE: Ming -> Ching Empire. Kangxi holds all political power, and instates Religious Tolerance, and the

Canton system. Allready centralized.

RE: Ivan seizes power from the mongols. He wants the animal pelt trade. Peter the Great: Westernization.

St. Petersburg, an improvement on their port systems. Calls in western engineers to make a western military.

Issues a series of Edicts, boyars are required to be western.

Absolute Monarchy -> Representive Goverment


People giving up some freedoms to have a goverment rule them, but the goverment gives some up freedom.

God justifiying power to people justifying power. People don't put other people into power, the ruler only

needs to acknowledge that he gets power from the people.

Big change: Revolutions.

American: Decleration of Independence is a bit of the enlightment, to prove the social contract has been

broken. There is no social contract, so, they can overthrow

Haitian Revolution - French Revolution


Changing the govement in the own country. Was it really revolutionary, or was it conservative? Divide

between mercantilism, and people ruling. Since the wealthy don't have any say, there's a serious problem.

The class structure based on old ideas, and changes it to equal chance at rule. Things take a turn for the

worse, then Ropespierre takes power. The directors take power after that, then Napoleon comes to power.

Latin American Revolution

They wanted a change of power, the natives are not given power

Industrial Revolution

• "Full Democracy"

• Wealth=Production = mass wealth. GB is the first industrializer, they therefor are the greatest at it.

• Sufferage: everyone can vote.

• Cost of living goes down, less money payed.

• Full sufferage is not reached, women are not invited yet. -Pankhurst and Adams says women deserve
to vote.

• Slavery is against the belief of the Enlightment, fuels the industrial revolution, but that's about it.

Africa not taken over by europeans. Money is in full circulation. The slave trade leads to some sort of

centralized power. Most slaves go to SA and the Carribian, and the most profatible insdustry for them

was sugar.

• Imperialism "spreading the enlightment," or, trying to get raw materials.



A single country will use feudalism as an internal system, and something else externally. Like the OE.



1. Goverment controlls economy

2. Wealth of the nation = weakth of money in treasury.

Spain fails: they spend money on stupid wars, stupid goods from china, and inflation


Let the economy roll.

Offers a balance for law of supply and demand.

There is no direct, direct control of economy, in theory.

Dutch Republic, England

Marx and Eagles.

Proliteratite- Workers in the Communist manifesto.

If wealth = production, the producers should share that wealth.




Protestant Reformation

Industrial Revolution

Scientific Revolution (empirism, fight the original theories for the new!)

Capitalism (The Bourse, comericial infrastructure)

World Trade




French Revolution (Napoleonic Code, people are people, meritocarcy. Through imperialism, he's trying to get

rid of feudalism.)





Industrial Revolution (huh? Some of it is negative, most of it is positive.)

World Trade

Social Darwinism


French Revolution

Absolute Monarchy


Urbanization begins

Exploration -> Slave Trade -> Importion of Silver -> Columbian Exchange

Religious Reformation

Absolutism begins

Protestant Reformation

English Revolution <-> Enlightment

Capatilism starts

Absolutism ends

Imperialism begins

Industrial Revolution 1st

American Revolution

Haitain Revolution

French Revolution

Treaty of Nainking -> Reform Bills

Industrial Revolution 2nd (Seopoy Mutiny

Berlin Conference

Female Sufferage