S011 88779

This book


below and


due on the date indicated subject to an overdue

fine as posted at the circulation desk.

EXCEPTION: Date due will be earlier if this item is RECALLED.



s 2001





2 7 200?





BEEKEEPING SOUTH IN THE A Handbook on Seasons. S. 15 States South. AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL HAMILTON. Methods and Honey Flora of the Fifteen Southern States By KENNITH HAWKINS Beekeeping Specialist for G. Former Special Agent in Bee Culture U. B. ILLINOIS . Lewis Company. Department of Agriculture.

BY AMERICAN BEE JOUHNAI. 1920.Copyright. .

my beekeeping teacher.This volume is dedicated to my the father and mother and to memory of Sam first Mottinger.'^ns . d^.


An impression of southern beekeepers is their eagerness to learn modern methods. Mr. To credit the information to all the various sources is impossible for the lack of space. The Census Bureau. S. Watertown. . investigations and their record. Watertown. S. beekeeper. of Hamilton. In compiling these pages. Phillips. Lewis Company. We are indebted C. Bureau of Chemistry. except mainly in the time of We have little criticism of methods in vogue in the their application. Department of Agriculture have given valuable assistance. States Relations Service. We are also indebted to each of the bee in the 15 states. May 18. Kennith Hawkins. This volume is not intended as a manual for the beginner. S. Illinois. over a period of nearly two years. Sturtevant and to the U. and the G. S. Bee Culture Laboratory and the U. has been an almost constant advisor in the compiling of this volume and without the assistance of Dadant and Sons. associate editor of the American Bee Journal. Demuth. both for the opportunity to work in the Southern States and for guidance regarding these ington. Pellett. D. as this volume is a pioneer in blazing a way toward accurate information on beekeeping in the THE Southern States. Bee Culture Laboratory. Cale and A. H. Bureau of Entomology and Forest Service of the U. both federal and state. dozens of stration agents of the U. government county and home demonand to each of the state and experiment station entomologists who are interested in bee culture. this region. B. P. of whose methods and opportunities so much misinformation has been spread. South. "Dixie. S. S. except the lack of winter protection of any sort in too much of Box hives are too prevalent in many areas of the South. States Relations Service by the writer. this volume could not have been published. WashDr. where they happen to be unknown. culture extension men of the South. The impressions gained and recorded here. and to put them into practice. 1920." to escape the problems common to beekeepers It is also intended as a defense of the southern living in the North. No agency has worked so much for the betterment of southern beekeeping as the extension service. Frank C. G. are the result of 17 months travel in the 15 Southern States for the U. George S. We vouch for the attempt at accuracy in these pages and will hope for constructive criticism. but to supplement standard textbooks so as to show what differences exist in beekeeping methods in the North and the South. south. Wisconsin. Bureau of Plant Industry.PREFACE Information given in this bookis intended to clear the impressions of many that the South is altogether an undeveloped region so far as beekeeping is concerned and that one has only to move to that magic region. E. but so they are in the North. F. to the men of the U. Wis. continual work and correspondence with dozens of southern beekeepers has been necessary. An impression gained is that beekeeping operations differ but little in the South from those in vogue elsewhere.

97 105 11 Honev Plants of the South . The Seasons 35 45 53 61 Wintering Bees South . XI.. Making a V... PAGE I Shall Go South Must Learn South of the Start.-. VI.. Combless Packages and Queen Rearing. What a Beginner III.-. in the .. 87 XIL XI II. VIII. Apparatus 23 29 IV..'. Mountain Beekeeping The Lone Star State Bee Diseases and Inspection Southern Honey Markets. XIV.. 9 17 II. in the South. The Alluvial Region 69 79 X. The Tropical South IX.1 CONTENTS CHAPTER I. VII.

30. 14. 20. 22. 33. of Virginia. 25. Fig. Berry's Alabama yardsfor breeding package bees.. Packages crated for shipment A handy funnel for filling packages. Tig. Caraway at Mathis. Fig. 18. Fig. 32. a prominent Georgia beekeeper Chart of temperatures at Louisville. Leath at Corinth. 29. 72 Fig. Fig. Florida Semltroplcal conditions prevail in Florida and in the lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas The rich flora of a Georgia swamp An up-to-date apiary in the pine woods of Alabama There are many good locations along the streams in Georgia. 47 48 49 54 56 57 58 19.ILLUSTRATIONS — "Dixie Frontispiece Fig. Fig.. When a norther hits the South. Apiary of B. 73 75 A 77 Apiary in the Blue Ridge Mountains . 6. J. Fig. 26. Fig. 11. Thullen in Alabama A summer meeting in Tennessee » J. 28. Fig. 37.. Fig. Fig. Tig. C. Photo by Mrs. L. Miss OneofM. 31. 21. Fig. 42 Fig. (Chart) When snow falls in Tennessee. under Page 11 A 2. Grace Allen's backlot bees It is necessary to guard against high water in many locations Apiary of P. 10.. Fig. 34. Fig. _. It is a common practice to winter the bees with supers on the hives to prevent loss of combs by moths. 63 Fig. 23. Fig. Fig. Isbell on the Apalachlcola River.. Photo by G. Apiary of J. Fig. Fig. Wilder.. J. Bees" Apiary of Wilmon Newell moss hung trees in Brazos River Bottoms. A West Virginia apiary in double wrJlcd hives By rail and boat to Florida Walker's mating yard in Tennessee. Fig.. Typical apiary in log gums A Mississippi River bottom location in Arkansas. M.. Fig. 80 81 Fig. 4. 33 35 8. 9. Fig. Fig. 66 67 27. 36. Bent ley..~17. 12._ Queen mating nuclei in southwest Texas Home and queen yard of J. Apiary of box hives A modern Texas apiary developed from two box hives 13 18 19 25 31 A modern hive A Virginia swarm Mrs. Fig. Where Tennessee bees hum Virginia clover location One of J. 36 37 39 40 41 Fig. Georgia Table showing census data on southern beekeeping A relic of the old days. 7. 3. ' Attractive hillside location in Virginia. Fig. 70 71 Fig. Fig. 16. Fig. K. Box hive apiary of a typical 7 mountaineer 84 ^^ ^ . Texas Harry Hewitt's apiary at Lake Apopka in tropical Florida. 82 83 3S<. small apiary at Macon. Fig. Fig. Fig. Wilder's apiaries in south Georgia Fig. 1. 15. J. 35_. 13.. Grace Allen. 59 60 62 24. M. 5.

G. 56. Fig. Fig. 49. Fig. Fig. BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH Apiary of a Georgia farmer who is an up-to-date beekeeper. Fig. Fig. 95 Fig. 41.8 Fig. Fig. LeStourgeon. Smith's apiary at Llano. Manager of the Texas Honey Producers Association Bo. 43.. 45. Fig. Apiary shown at Fig. 44..111 Blossoms of bitterwecd in Tennessee 112 Blossoms of black locust in Virginia 114 Beehives among the wild asters of \'irginia 115 Mesquite is an important source of honey in Texas \rri iri:. Fig. 57. 94 built in the rocks. Florida Bee Inspector's Suit. Fig.- .. Fig. untreated 103 Gaklcr's wagon was long a familiar sight on the streets of 106 Memphis This Georgia beekeeper has a honey route served direct from the tank in his car 107 109 Lone star label of the Texas Association . 58.000 pounds from 90 colonies. Photo by Wilmon Newell 99 Texas bee inspector demonstrating transferring 100 Think of inspecting a yard like this 101 The wreck that follows an epidemic of disease when left — Fig. 39. Texas 93 Apiary in the Rio Grande Valley that produced 20. Fig. 48. 53.. Fig. 54. 89 90 91 Fig. Fig. Combs Scholl arranges his hives in groups of five in partial shade. 50. 46.. 52. Fig. 47.. 40. Fig. 41 after being transferred When Texas beemen meet by wild bees 92 L. 85 E. 55. 42.x hives are rapidly being replaced with 88 good equipment. B. 51.

one of the there remain many good bee locations. D. showed a country wide Probably many of the writers interest in southern beekeeping. Many inquiries sent Bee Culture Laboratory at Washington. The figure? compiled from the census of 1910. during his term of government bee culture extension work in the South. C. after seventeen months spent in investigating the honey producing resources of the South. than in all the balance of the United States. is that there are probably more bees in the fifteen southern states. the author hopes to give more accurate information about beekeeping prospects of the South. Many of the to the United States ideal bee locations are now taken.BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH CHAPTER Shall I I Go South? of bee- THIS question has been repeatedly asked by dozens various keepers whenever the author has appeared at beekeepers* conventions in the North. In these remote localities However. except in the localities rather remote from modern transportation. There are not so many bee locations which are readily accessible and untenanted in the South as the average beekeeper residing elsewhere in the United States might expect. and referred to the author. However. facts that should be taken into consideration by every man who has at any time considered going south for beekeeping. in this volum. which are Library . and has prompted. Northern Colonies Outnumbered. the writing of this volume. were disappointed at the lack of definite information and the conservative prospects pictured in the answers to these inquiries. than he was able to do before.e. in a measure.

while for the balance of the country.945 pounds of honey was reported on farms in the fifteen southern states by the census When figured out. a total yield of v38. These figures show conclusively. IX THE SOUl H accurate and indicali\e of conditions in the localities reported. In the 1910 census the number of colonies of Ix'es reported on farms in the fifteen southern states totalled 1.224 colonies of bees were reported as the total number on farms in the remaining thirty-three states on the same census date. It must be remembered that southern farms probably cover a smaller acreage than those in the North.444 farms reporting bees at the same time.886. while in the other thirty-three states of the union.511. and the probable greater numl)er of commercial honey producers in the North. |3er colonies of bees of 1910.782. A total annual production of 16. the average yield reported by the census was a trifle over nineteen pounds per colony. that if .003. there In all the other thirt>-three states were but 288.810. while but 1. the difference probably resulting because of the number of box hives found in many localities in the South. However. was more than fi\e per farm. in the author's opinion. beekeefx^Ts of the North may take heart when the production figures are compared. or practically 33 1-3 per cent more than in the South. as reported to 1910 census enumerators was fifteen pounds. This was more than the average per farm in the balance of the I'nited States on the same census date. It is also known as a certainty from jxTsonal observation.945 reported for the same period.558. and are therefore more numerous.10 BEEKEEPIN(. that the South has many more bees than the balance of the country. this shows that the average number of farm in the fifteen southern states on the 1910 census date. south. compared with the number found in the fifteen southern states. show the following interesting comparisons: The number of farms reporting bees in 1910 in the fifteen southern states were 297. of the union. pounds of honey produced on farms was The average yield per colony on farms in the fifteen states.

A small apiary belonging to J. But the better beekeeping opportunities lie in the bypaths of southern wooded mountains and lowlands. Durden. there are many locations who which could accommodate settlement from outsiders. of Macon. living accommodations near well populated centers in the South are fully as good as in the North. R. northern beekeepers are going to have a hard race to approximate the efficiency of their southern beekeeping neighbors. Fig. 1.BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH 11 honey production methods in the South are bettered during the coming five years as they have been in the past half decade. Are You Willing to Pioneer? which must be confronted by every One not he of the questions northerner is wishes to go south for beekeeping. On the other hand. . Georgia. If he is. is whether or willing to pioneer. under the stimulus of extension work and higher prices.

" This honey is bitter. This must be reckcovered more fully in the chapter on "Sources of Honey in the South. and Austin.12 BEEKEEPING Another feature which IX THE SOUTH is iiuisi be taken into consideration that in some portions of the South. Still another feature is that in many parts. A ." It would certainly haxe a "punch" with it. line queen breeding is carried on just as successfully. Queens can usually be raised successfully for early shipment to the North in April and May without fail. but breeders in this northern belt often exi^erience sudden changes of keeper. there are oned w ith. bees or queens? Good honey producing regions are found in nearly all portions of the southern states. which tastes like liquid quinine. would average darker in color than in the clover regions of the North. beekeeper to separate the flows. Mississippi. cspe(ially in the lowlands. is to extract and store away the entire crop of bitterweed honey. Louisiana. and the bitterweed honey fed back to the bees for winter stores. At the end of the season the frames of the brood chamber which may contain a fair grade of honey may be extracted. Honey. i^articularly Alabama. is is vast beekeeping regions where bitterwecd honey equal nectar sources are available an<l the season short ful usually when bitterweed honey is stored. and east Texas. unpalatable and However. of bitterweed The use honey for w^inter stores has never proved unsatisfactory. and put it on the market as a cold "cure. Texas. North of this Birmingham. A This enables the carefeasible plan which is now being used by some beekeepers of the bitterweed region. Alabama. to the knowledge of the author. bees do not work bitterweed when other unsalable. in all the territory below a line which might be drawn through Charleston. much of the honey produced year in and \ear out. Bees or Queens? problem which must be considered by any 'foreign" beeis whether or not he wishes to go south for the production of honey. We have often wondered why some enterprising patent medicine man did not buy up quantities of this bitterweed honey. Arkansas. South Carolina.


recorded near Goldsboro. Dav^s. Murry. Alabama. before mo\ing. Birmingham. for a period of This information is obtainable from the U. To locate in Dixie for queen breeding. they should by all means make a careful study of the average annual temperatures and rainfall. Louisiana. which may delay cell building. See especially charts on of bees. . with the intention of becoming a southern queen bee breeder. Georgia. If beekeepers from other paits of the country wish to locate in Dixie land. Waco. It probably would not be advisable for a beekeeper to locate north of a line which might be drawn through Charleston. D. with local beckee{)ers and in may study local conditions. and El Paso. and Fort Worth. and the rapid building of colonies. S." years of E\en at these points. D. C. South Carolina. North Carolina. Texas. it would be the advice of the author to go south of the line mentioned. H. Florida. if he wishes to engage in the pound package business. the mating of queens. River Junction. and several other southern queen breeders. talk many other ways. Weather Bureau at Washington. IX THE SOUTH weather in the spring of the year. at the point of interest. Alexandria. at the time the author made his first trips to Dixie. ascertain whether or not he is likely to make years. Augusta. Texas. If one is going south to engage in beekeeping in any branch which primarily requires continued warm weather early in the spring. then by all means one should locate as far south as is possible. If the motive of mo\ing south is primarily for the production trade. either for the nucleus or pound package winter temperatures at these points in the chapter on "Wintering Bees in the South. there are some when unusual weather in April may delay the shipment Zero temperatures have been packages for se\eral days. Then one should \isit the locality he has in mind foi at In this way one least one winter if possible. Texas. Visit the Locality.14 BEEKEEPIN(. This was the advice of Ben G. the beekeeper should go down into the real South.

Canada. February * 21. In mentioning the army of the North." After spending the winter in Florida he "Outside of the Appalachicola districts this is said to be one of the best honey producing districts of the state. and likes a joke as well. Ontario. and whether or not he will like the community into which he settles. Lake Worth. Morley Pettit's Opinion. and where Jack Frost compels bugs and bees to take a few months rest in the wrote: year. said: "Hawkins. 1919. who breeds good queen bees.* Treating Him 'Handsome/' While once the guest of a well known Tennessee beekeeper the author was being entertained by the lady of the household with tales of exploits of her brothers in the war between states. and the long active season. where he knows what to expect.BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH 15 a go of the move. 1919. Insufficient investigation of every feature of the locality selected is probably the reason for most of the ultimate dissatisfaction which results. nothing was thought of the term until the young man of the household. the total surplus is probably no more than we get in a short sharp season and have done with it. "The Enemy. The South has been given a ''black eye" by many a man who went down there chasing a "pot of gold. strange pests. number of the was summed up by Morley "Domestic Beekeeper. in the April. the hostess always said." rather than a rational to engage in proposition. This northern beekeeper is satisfied to raise his honey and make his money in good old Ontario. Beekeepers who have gone south our industry and who have been dissatisfied. do you know I was fifteen years old before I knew that 'damn Yankee' was not all one word?" . Florida. well known beekeeper of Georgetown. The ultimate opinion that may be voiced by some northerners. Pettit. but with all its uncertainties. have only themselves to blame in many cases." Knowing the army of the North would always be "The Enemy" to this good woman.

don't impose upon an already well settled bee location. is certain in the South. if Your business a good one. then move down and determine grow has probably to be a booster. What You May So the to it yourself you would ^o ^cuth lo lake uj) beekeeping. Your chosen home in the for South an unqualified booster long since become. as the author has . your choice is The South made more progress agriculturalh'. is then certain to make of you Dixie beekeeping. investigate it many thoroughly. Find one of locations open. Careful investigation insures success. than the North in the past five years.16 BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH Expect.

harder. fundamentals of beekeeping are simple. 3 at all other seasons of the year. No colony can build up if not supplied with sufficient food. tail. Building Stimulating colonies If is Up Colonies. but often best in the long run. conditions are wrong. is to buy a few bees and work it out yourself. one must accomplish these three things: 1 Build up your colonies to the peak of storing strength coincident with the beginning of bloom of your most important honey plants. This is particularly tails THE — — — true of the South. Only the derequire time to learn. There are several ways these methods can be learned in deOne is to work for a season in the bee yard of a successful beekeeper. 1 the next bee season. Anyone who can master those three details will be a successful beekeeper anywhere. the medicine stimulates the If action. Must Learn. a good deal like giving a man medicine. requeen at least every two years. to last through the period of rest and until natural stores are available again in spring. Another. one must supply a few simple conditions and let the bees do the rest. body to So in beekeeping. artificial. to prepare again for No. Therefore. with the aid of other beekeepers and by attending conventions and beekeeping demon- strations. 2 Prevent any division of the strength or storing instinct of Conserve the strength of the colony the colonies thereafter. secured the fall before. 17 There- . To be successful in beekeeping.CHAPTER What a Beginner II. either natural or the conditions are right. no medicine will help. after you have first mastered the theory of beekeeping. No colony will build up well in spring to reach proper strength at the right time without a young queen.

ferred so rapidly that in many localities an apiary like this is a curiosity. fore. Giving the needed brood or surplus room too late is certain to induce swarming. The proper presentation of these necessities to the bees most frequently stops swarming. Given a young queen. the swarming problem becomes less. Therefore. 3. No colony can build up properly unless the queen and bees have ample comb room for brood and surplus honey.18 BEEKRFPIXG IX THE SOUTH \ A relic of the old days. stores. one must learn to enable the bees to produce really good combs and learn how to supply them at the right time to expand the brood nest and storage room. Of as much importance as room. A beekeeper should figure that he has failed in the case of every swarm which issues. hive and to feed the bees one must learn to gauge the amount of supplies within the when necessary. Bees in box hives are being transFig. Preventing Swarming. and a young queen. ample stores and sufficient room. Every beekeeper must have an acquaintance with the principal honey plants of . is the time of giving this additional room so vital to swarm prevention.

he can tell just when to give added brood room and can gauge the building up of his colonies to have the peak of this expansion coincident with the first honey flows. . if he does not gauge the speed of the incoming honey. too little.BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH 19 his locality and the time of their bloom. 4. a crop failure still looms ahead for the beginner. bears vitally on the success of swarm prevention Getting the Maximum Crop. else all previous efforts are lost. Too much surplus room will result in unfinished sections." as Dr. Miller says and after giving the bees ample brood room ard the first storage room. in swarming and a loss of part of the crop which might have been secured. The added surplus room must follow then. of giving this additional surplus room. Given "strong colonies of strong bees. Xo beekeeper can succeed in honey production or in swarm V'lg. A modern Texas apiary developed from two box hives. When this is available. especially in The method comb honey production.

. whether winter temperatures are low or not. than so many with a shortage of things essential to good beekeeping practice. as well as preparing the honey crop for the market. Conserving the Bees. Penurious beekeepers who try to run the season through with only two supers. Ample stores for winter and the succeeding spring. are essential. equipment. juggHng these between the hives and the honey house for filling and emptying. when the period of broodlessness coincident with requeening does not interfere with the strength of the colony immediately before a honey flow. Cooperative marketing associations will soon enable the beekeeper to sell his crop at a fair price without the losses incident to poor salesmanship so frequent in the beekeeping past. if IN THE SOUTH pre\ention. Wintering the Bees. when there is nothing ahead to demand more bees." Sufficient equipment Better run fewer colonies with ample is absolutely essential. This is also the period for removing supers and preparing the bee yard for another season. are in the class with the beekeeper who puts on one super and who takes it off only in the "full moon in June. His efforts from then on gauge far more than is frequently credited. until natural honey Space for the bees to heat and care is available. or in a land of sunshine.2U BEEKKi:i'lN(. when ^oung bees are so essential to produce a strong colony to live through the period of rest. winter At this time good is the time for the conservation of the bees. beekeeping makes definite plans for the next spring. the success he may have another season. This is also a time to discourage too much brood rearing. The introduction of young queens insures brood later. The beekeeper's "New Year" begins with the cessation of the honey flow for the season. he tries to operate his bees without sufficient sujx?rs and hive bodies. Whether the beekeeper be in a land where snows fall and temperatures drop low in w'inter. in the fall. Toward the end of the honey flow is the best time to requeen colonies.

and not theory Attend the short courses for beekeepers and witness alone." the vitality of The Theory and The Practice. invest modestly at first and make the bees keep you. fault as . the practice will not only become easy. too many men and women masquerading under the title "beefirst keeper. initiative If there are no such meetings near you. South is where snow falls and temperatures drop low. take the for and arrange some. tight. theories of successful beekeeping have been stated in the paragraph of this chapter. requires work on the part of the bees to prevent a lower temperature in their cluster. remain open-minded about your beekeeping methods and you will be sure to succeed. The more of this work they do.BEEKEEPING for in winter should EX THE SOUTH 21 be reduced to a minimum. which give the results of practice. This will enable you to separate the chaff from the wheat in what you read. give up beekeeping right now. In any event. Learn them well first. If your part trees. the more the colony loses in numbers and in Have good hives." Subscribe for bee papers and get one or two of the better bee books. or what >ou are told by beekeepers who may not be as well posted as they believe. Remember that a temperature of 57 F. Begin to put your theories into practice modestly. waterits individuals. demonstrations in handling bees made by the bee culture extension men. Given the mastered theory. reduced entrances. against the prevailing winds of winter days. if you are destined to be a beekeeper. There are already If you are not. of the your bees might profit by being packed. Above all. search your practices for a confession of you go. and protection by fence or proof covers.. Send for the government's free bulletin on "Wintering Bees Outdoors. but will prove the most interesting study you ever attempted.


CONTRARY to what might be expected. Probably the reason for this is because extracted honey is almost universally produced throughout the South among commercial honey producers. is that in most cases more honey is consumed by a colony of bees during southern winters than would be the case. 23 This is true of the . However. to the warmer winter. it is that the hive should not be too small. in view of the fact that comb honey always brings an average higher price in normal times. there are many the South where comb honey is produced and many where it ought to be produced. especially in the more tropical South. This is not due to cold weather. but on the contrary. during a great part of which some brood rearing may be carried on and the stores thus be rapidly depleted. If there is any pointed difference in the needs of the South so far as a hive is concerned. lighter secretions of nectar are locations in common. There is no style of hive which conditions in the South than the stand- ard ten-frame hive sold by all manufacturers. This is probably due to the difference in intensity in the nectar flows. has proved better for all the needs of the beekeeper in the South are quite similar to the needs of a beekeeper in the North. than extracted honey. There are many locations in the South where the honey contained in one ten-frame brood chamber in the fall will seldom sustain a colony until the next year's surplus nectar flows.CHAPTER III Apparatus of the South. Even for comb honey there is no necessity for reducing the size of the brood chamber for southern beekeeping. crease the use of the large brood Another factor which has probably tended to gradually inchamber in the South. where longer. The author was rather surprised to find at first that the ten-frame hive was perhaps more widely distributed and used in the South than elsewhere in the country. say in Illinois.

24 BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH author's apiaries in the vicinity of Dallas. M. it On the Appalachicola river in Florida. the author saw but comparatively few of the sectional hives there. such as used by Dadant. Texas. One might expect to find the long idea hives of Poppleton throughout central Florida where he lived in late years. The tendency throughout the South. No man has succeeded in making up a strictly "southern" hive. is problematical. The opinion of good beekeepers. they seem to get that "Millions at Our House" feeling described by G. Although this nears the idea intended in the use of the once popular sectional hive in parts of Texas. fail where even two ten-frame bodies for winter at times to supply sufficient honey. or by the use of a shallow extracting brood super above or below the brood chamber. is often necessary to store honey for brood use the next year. Whether or not a deeper frame. and in parts of Florida. The tendency. Consequently the bees might the sealed away combs frequently starve if left to their own lesources. store Many of southern beekeepers prefer to honey rather than to leave too much honey on the hive. this deepening has often been accomplished by the addition of another brood chamber. and proceed to turn it into brood out of This is inadvisable in most parts of Dixie. If left where the bees have access to it. A Southern Hive. has most certainly been toward a deeper hive. This is not true. to combine this increased brood room all in one body will be popular in the South or elsewhere. for a similar reason. is one of the safest guides to value. for instance. With the standard size hive taking Hoffman frames popular throughout Dixie. There have been numerous attempts to invent a hive which would exactly fulfill southern needs. Doolittle. sustaining honey flows often come many weeks after the beginning of brood rearing is possible. was to add another full brood chamber. It is the Library . and the Danzen baker hive popular throughout the vicinity of Richmond. like the choice of the majority in American political life. whether the beekeeper runs his bees for comb or extracted honey. Virginia. as elsewhere. since the season.

5. Wilder's bees in the south comb and extracted honey. Wilder of Waycross. 1919. Hive. Georgia. it. because of the winter The need of greater brood room later in the spring is mentioned by J. in the "Dixie Beekeeper. this number is appreciably increased by the number of box hives which are found in the Fig. J. The Box I While census figures show that there are more colonies of bees South than in the North and West. A modern hive." page twenty-two. He advocates the use of a nine-frame hive extracting super later in spring. . of Georgia are.run both for and the addition of a shallow Mr. April.BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH 25 opinion of the author that this style of hive will be adopted in the North long before the South accepts stores problem.

Pound packages are one or more pounds of bees. and this may be put into a hive. which arrive accompanied by a queen bee. there is little to be taken into consideration in choosing a hive. Making a To Start. the beginner in beekeeping anywhere in the South.'en the privilege of the writer to travel in the Middle West. Probably a safe choice for the South as a w^hole is the ten-frame "standard" hive. and which may be put into the hive which has been prepared for them. The work of the federal and state extension service has offered the best medium of spreading this information up to date. the box hives far exceed the number of standard hives. with which comes a queen. this is probably the case in any locality where commercial honey producers are less in number. transferring bees from box hives. The bees may be gotten by purchasing swarms. and it is known that there are many box hives in that region too.26 BEEKEEPlNCx IN IHK SOUTH throughout Dixieland. other than there is elsewhere in the country. It has lx. and bees. as are hives of modern style. However. or log gums. This is due to the fact that there may seldom have been anyone locally who has personally advocated the real advantages of the modern hive whose recommendation was valued. box hives containing bees are valued as highly for purposes of sale. without combs. . net weight. whether for the production of comb or extracted honey. honey. in the many portions of the various southern states where there are practically no commercial honey producers. Southern beekeepers are just as progressive as any other beekeepers. and under favorable circumstances. In most parts of the South. where opportunity is shown them to make a change for the better. or may be bought as pound packages of bees or nuclei from reliable breeders in the South. will soon increase in size to a full-fledged colony. Nuclei are one or more frames of brood. One then has the nucleus of a colony. It is necessary to have one hive for each colony of bees you wish to keep. However. It will probably always continue to bear a strong relation to the progress of beekeeping in the South.

and discuss with local beekeepers the best methods of making a start. send for all the free bulletins by the United States Departm. is IX THE SOUTH 27 to differentiate southern beekeeping conditions not intended as a manual of beekeeping.ent of Agriculture on beekeeping.BEEKEEPINC. but only from those of the Every beginner of beekeeping should purchase one or more issued of the standard bee books. . This book North.


to make a study of the work by studying bee culture before undertaking such an expedition. It is well. if their application is to be successexcellent way to gain much first hand knowledge. in the ful. and put on a bee veil. The beginner is any other way. and go with him through a day's work in the apiary. the specialist. When this is known. since it is necessary to One must grasp the theory before beginning to keep know why certain methods are used An production of honey. This is particularly true of bee culture. to be a successful beekeeper. 29 . you will know more have fully beekeeping than many beekeepers. in case he doesn't really know.CHAPTER Making IV a Start. practical beekeeping becomes applied bee behavior. ITas familiar with the care and habits of the honey bee as possible. Practical beekeeping requires a simple knowledge of a few fundamental reasons as to why bees increase and protect themselves against their natural situations. If you know when the beekeeper is right and WTong in his speculations regarding what happens in the hive. you will be able to avoid absorbing a lot of bee lore which you may have to unlearn. and much more from handling bees than hand information is easiest learned. who reaps a harvest where others may fail. or learning how to shape the work of the bees naturally toward your own ends. however. since not all beekeepers are good beekeepers. In every Hne of work. learn the essentials of bee culture from a study of bees. When you real grasped these fundamentals. IS necessary before beginning to keep bees to become is The more one knows about bees. the it is more cer- tain one is to succeed. One may bee books. who is best acquainted with his business. is to visit the yard of a neighbor beekeeper. It not necessary to learn a great mass of statistical and rule of will learn first thumb plans.

impossible to fully guide the beginner in these columns. Then the bees have the full season to build up in. Beginner's Needs Are Simple. which protects the face from stings. Department of Agriculture. The more timid may also buy bee gloves to protect the hands. Never make the mistake of buying a lot of bees before you have learned the essentials of beekeeping. and abreast of the times on beekeeping topics and methods. No beginner should attempt to handle bees without a bee veil. to prepare themselves against the rigors of cold weather. Secure from the United States Bee Culture Laboratory. This makes the bees rush to fill themselves with honey and to forget the intruder. of a beginner are rather simple. The government bulletins make excellent text books. Every beekeeper gets stung sometimes. if care is used. D. into the hive entrance. The trouble with many bee books is that they give too many different plans for the same work and go into such varied details that the beginner is lost in the maze and knows not where to start. By all means one should subscribe to one or more of the bee journals. when they may be handled without stings. be you professional or beginner.30 BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH Start in Spring. C. since they treat of but one topic at a time. Failure is as certain as death in of this chapter. When the cover is removed. Washington. Careful beekeepers seldom get The needs . as the space is limited. by driving a puff or two of smoke from rags or waste. The best time to start with bees is in the Spring of the year. It is one of their free bulletins on bees and learn to recognize the different parts of a hive and the hive inmates. depending largely on the scale which marks the beginning. a few more puffs to the tops of the frames follow. gram at the beginning that case. since this tends to keep one flush with bee lore. all right. If Study the dia- one wishes to invest in a bee book. and to return to you something for the labors of caring for them. Bees are smoked before handling. A smoker is an absolute necessity in every apiary.

.BEEKEEPIXO IX THE SOUTH 31 Fig. A Virginia swarm. 6.

Here are some simple rules for guidance. and it is well worth while to pay a price which will bring 3'ou materials to last a lifetime. dealer's catalog. However. it requires a l)etter beekeejxjr to produce comb honey than cause the . intense flows. articles are useful. or or not to begin with give nectar over long. Short. Most beginners in the past have begun with comb honey. and dark colored nectar. IX THE SOUTH Your gentleness and actions with tlie bees largely determine their treatment of >ou. estimated. and whether or not they yield in short. Comb honey usually sells for more on the market than other styles of honey packages. In choos- must ing hives. rather than flimsy. You will find there why the various appliances are used. sharp flows of light colored nectar are excellent for section honey. shoddy goods at a lower price. Pick out your hive supers to correspond. and made ready for the bees. Waiting for hi\'es with the bees on hand means their certain loss to you.32 BEEKEEPIX(. This hive Do not choose more than one style or is a good one to choose. Delays of shipment make it imperative that the supplies be ordered long before they are needed for the bees. Comb Every beginner is or Extracted Honey? confronted with the problem of whether comb honey or extracted ("strained") honey production. or packages of bees are bought. The adoption of either should be governed also by what you can sell best in your locality. nuclei. Inability to interchange parts of hives is a nuisance The value of well made goods cannot be overin the apiary. Find out. Slower flows. set up. If and much of the "how" of their api)lication. A bee brush. size of hive. beinitial expense was less. Then learn what your principal nectar secreting plants are. the hives first be purchased. hi\e tool and other Get a supply catalog and study its pages. There is a wealth of information in the pages of a good supply stung. What does your grocer sell best? He is most willing to buy that. swarms. slow periods. The ten-frame so-called "stan- dard" hive is the standard of the bee world of today. are best for extracted honey. it is well to avoid fads.

A study of catalogs and bulletirs will Fig. No beginner should fail to use full sheets of bee comb foundation in the lower part of the hives. if it is possible to get them. but the use of full sheets is not so necessary there. the beginner should insist on Italian or yellow bees. Mrs. After a good hive has been found. Foundation should also be used in the surplus boxes. active against the inroads of wax moths and are good workers. more resistant to the bee disease European foul brood. They have proved in the hands of American beekeepers. choosing supers for your hive which are or extracted made to take either for a later By comb honey appliances. Nashville. Grace Allen's backlot bees. Tenn.BEEKEEPING extracted. to be the best from all points. is less change which may Choosing Paraphernalia. the cost api3ear advisable. . IX THE SOUTH 33 and the choice should be largely your own. They are gentler. where the bees live and rear their brood.

It seldom pays to do anything unless you will do it well. careful examina- tion of bee beha\'ior don't start destined to care. If study. of the colleges of agriculture in the several states are annually giving short courses in bee culture. be he beginner or expert. You are fail without them. When bees refuse to do what we think they should do under given circumstances. usually it is the beekeeper who is at fault. find out first why you do everything. and then you will make fewer mistakes. A Means Many of Study. The federal and state departments of agriculture have several men in the field teaching beekeeping. communion with good beekeepers. facing away from The and other minor details are the prevailing winds and toward the sunlight.34 BEEKEEPING IN (jf THE SOUTH comb foundation. The beekeeper who doesn't not learn is already a curse of beekeeping. beekeeping under any circumstances. and who will . Find out about these and take advantage of them. do not venture into the field at all. hive stands. are best. not to speak of your own financial loss and the eventual loss of vour own self-esteem. In every move you make toward becoming a beekeeper. and their guidance will be valuable to you as a beginner. They are usually men who know what they are talking about. If you do not intend to be a good beekeeper. The location of the bee yard of the bulletins as to may be determined after a study why partly shaded places. keeping down honey prices. style of covers. spreading bee diseases by carelessness and ignorance. even con\ince you of the value using though it costs more at first. and applied beekeeping do not interest you. more a matter of individual choice. That is only justice toward those you may hurt unintentionally.

only because of the difference in the exact time when most of the common manipulations of bee culture must be attended to. 8. It should be also the study of bee behavior. Since the condition of the bees influences largely time. It is necessary to guard against high water in 35 many desirable locations . bee culture in the South differs only slightly from the what the beekeeper must do at the same science in other parts of the country. PRACTICAL bee culture everywhere is largely an organized system of beekeeping manipulations. The more carefully one studies bee culture methods in vogue among Fig. Any difference in bee is culture in the South. from the same science elsewhere.CHAPTER V The Seasons in the South.

to the author. as beekeepers in other parts of the The prime differences. 9. Tluillt-n in Alabama . Apiary of V. J. result Fig. country might supi)ose. IX THE SOITH better beekeeix^rs in Dixie.36 BEEKEEPIXC. you can be a good beekeeper in the South. pro\iding you pay attention to the difference in honey sources. There appears to be no such entirely different system of bee culture in the South. the fact that more one is impressed \vilh the methods practiced there are common in their fundamentals. may be common several times during the season in the South. and the influence of these upon the bees. as they appear from the prolonged seasons when manipulations common at certain times only in the North. If you are a good beekeeper in the North.

In the South. main honey flow. this is longer season during which not quite so feasible. bees rear brood. which the beekeeper of the North is seldom accustomed to meet but once during the season. flow. A summer meeting of Tennessee beekeepers. 10. become impoverand bring about unusual conditions at seN'eral seasons of the year.BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH 37 Fig. the season of preparation. A Primary into Difference. speaking of and the season of honey the South as a whole. . In the North the beekeeping calendar may be readily divided two parts. A primary difference is in the much shorter much additional important point in connection season of inactivity and the An with the season during which bees may rear brood follows: Bees in parts of the South often begin rearing brood weeks before the ished for lack of stores They may swarm.

There is one offset to these situations. inspiration. time for a honey flow in some of these southern localities. — The "High" Such a type is Spots. which might be dubbed "languid" not without exception. There are a few locations in the South where the entire surplus honey crop of the locality is The Appalachicola River region harvested in a few days. To anyone who has tried to build up weak colonies. Honey flows in the South are usually longer than in the clover. in most cases. That remains largely a problem. and when but little natural pollen was available. Then there are some few locations in the .South where there is seldom ever a honey flow in spring. To see bees working tupelo in this region crazy. Here titi furnishes some stimulation. with sugar stores alone when all colonies in the yard were weak. blooming only a few weeks altogether. in many sections the reverse is true. to find plans to pre\c«nt too rapid building up and to prevent excessi\e swarming. of ho-ney flows. been paid to overstocking Rather the beekeepers of the nectar goes to how much waste. Naturally the bees are slow to build up in spring and may often face starvation unexpectedly. beekeepers have been forced to cope with such a situahoney dearth for a week or more between two honey This situation may face a beekeeper in certain parts of the South. half a dozen times in a season.38 BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH Many tion as a flows. . in Florida is one of these." is an They go "honey So great is the secretion of nectar that but little attention has any tupelo location while the flow there have tried to estimate is on. The problems become. that person knows what the beekeeper faces in such "late" locations of the South. sufficient to more than sustain the bees. with the speedy use of their honey for brood. except for the shippers of combless packages or the man who wants increase. Black and white tupelo follow immediately in February and March and furnish the total surplus crop. However. buckwheat or alfalfa regions Otherwise bees might seldom get in shape in of this country.

many difterent kinds of soils. slower flows of nectar. cli- mates. and extracted honey during the lighter flows.' . Wilder of "Dixie Beekeeper. The partridge pea region of south Together Georgia and north Florida is one of these locations. tupelo. This practice has pro\ed quite sensible when the usual price of comb honey is considered. In some of these. 11. J. during the several months of the season. A Changing There are so Prospect. J. honey plants. comb honey is produced during the heavy flows. and peculiar conditions found in the South as a whole. the beekeeper is enabled to run for both comb and extracted honey. with gallberry. Fig.BEEKEEPING Then IN THE SOUTH 39 there are other locations where there are one or more short. sharp flows and one or more longer. and some other nectar sources.

along the Blue Ridge Mountains. J. along the gulf coast only. it applies from Florida to Mexico. bring tices impossible to write eiccumtel>' of conditions that will These conditions necessitate different jx^riods for the application of the common manipulations of bee culture. Of this situation. Deo.'Ti." most as The statement concerning the winter problem. 12. Fig. li. Lowest teiiperatur? never above 57»F. Based on U. is This is a question upon which but few southern There certainly can be room for improvement in the practices of wintering common in many parts of the South (see chapter on "Wintering")." But the best pracdo not have to vary materially. >wco^ Ckf^ ">^*^ ^V— «- 3-X^ CUc^ KEI. W DAILY TEMPERATURES RELATIVT TO 57«F.J. and gradually sloping off region.40 BEEKEEPINC.ICKY. rigid sections We may have some winter problems but none elsewhere. '. AT LOUISVILLE.'ov. it is IX THE SOUTH that apply widely.P. The author has never been convinced that lhere was not some better beekeeping practice beekeepers agree. Kentucky. Loulevllle. Courtesy R.S. .Dletzman. up the old explanation of "locality. Daily Temperatures at Louisville. we have all down to sea level out along the great coast kinds of climate from the most rigid to the in the most mild. In Jan. except open to debate. Jh^^^tLJrt^ (?<ZAty^ i9/y en at eone time Only 43 days during the entire eeaeon the t perature did not fall below 57»F. Rather their time of application varies. Wilder says: "Starting at the highest point of our country. Fee. Weather Bureau reoorde.


where a good sized launch may go well up into a different type of country than that which may be found on the coast. there are good fall flows of nectar. told One of these localities in the far the author he could take bees up the Appalachicola River from his tupelo locations and locate them in the regions of southern Fig.42 BEEKEEPIXG IX THE SOUTH dominant differences between many bee ranges in the North and in the South. Florida. which tend to put bees in good shape for the coming season of inactivity. However. In many beekeeping localities in the South. (Photo by Grace Allen) . able. 14. Migration. when there for even in quantities to care may be little nectar availbrood rearing. who lives at Wewahitchka. In a number of localities in the South. any more than it has for beekeepers of the North. Of more import. Gus Hensler. it tends to put them in good condition for the longer of the season of spring activity. A Winter Snow in Tennessee. the great migration from South to North has never proved out for southerners. migration is practiced with some success. may be on any of the navigable rivers South.

the Missouri. By moving up there along in early fall. the author met several men who said they made a success of moving their l)ees down among the Keys off the coast. on the east coast. The value of combs never appears so pre-eminent to the beekeeper as in such a location as on the Appalachicola River where the principal feature of getting a tui^elo honey crop is to supply enough ready built combs. Bees can undoubtedly be moved to advantage in the swamp regions in many cases. no one was met who had made a great success of moving bees on the Mississippi. There is probably no nicer means of moving bees than on a quiet. the Red. where they could take advantage of valuable nectar sources. M^'ers. One beekeeper at Pensacola. such as black magrove. Further south in Florida. bees. However. or any of the other main water arteries of the South. But it's all off when the "blows" come up suddenly. This also proved to be the case on the west coast in the vicinity of Ft. at Miami. steady launch. recently lost a launch. .BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH 43 Georgia and Alabama to a great advantage. and a good share of his season's honey crop in a squall of wind which caught him unawares in Pensacola Bay. he could get sufficient honey in many years. to draw out one or two sets of foundation into combs and to frequently get twenty or thirty pounds of surplus honey to the colony. Florida.


This will give us a narrow belt along the gulf coast. to the writer that they had moths out of empty combs during this period. but where the mud wasps are great difficulty in keeping considered. Viewed in it named as For the sake of convenience in considering the winter problem of the southern beekeeper. The problem there is altogether one of combating pests and supplying stores. In that territory the problem is not one of low temperatures. Alabama. wintering of bees in the South is easiest to undernamely. the alluvial region and in the mountain sections. until in some cases the combs were ruined. THE in stand. touching Georgia. the problem is as different in the three belts possibly could be. even when these combs are left with the bees. winter stores and increase. Many beekeepers have complained Frames of foundation seem to 45- l)e particularly desired by . during the very short period of inactivity on the part of the queen. which nevertheless depletes the numerical strength of the colonies. Small entrances do not always completely do away with such conditions. and widening out at either end to take in most of Florida and the great region of south Texas. which practically coincide with the divisions cited in the chapter on honey sources. In parts of Florida the writer has seen frames of foundation or empty combs in hives of bees taken possession of during winter months by ants and mud wasps. Mississippi and Louisiana. from if viewed from three standpoints: the standpoint of the beekeepers who live in the tropics. but of working out feasible methods to solve the problems of insect pests. rather than one of combating the effect of low temperatures.CHAPTER VI Wintering Bees in the South. this w^ay. the problem is still largely to be solved. let us divide the territory into the three belts named above. In some cases this has been obviated by setting hive stands in troughs filled with oil or water.

except combating the ants often necessitates localities. if early sources of nectar such as back storing or feeding huajilla. carbon disulphide to eradicate them. catclaw. is then a problem indeed. as instance. weeks before a source of surplus nectar may be colony intact where no inHolding the numerical strength of the Similarly the excrease is desired. Arkanof the mountains in north Georgia. Mississippi. natural sources because of the frequent drouths. activity on the part of sas and Oklahoma. the foothills Extending north of this tropical belt well up into Alabama. however. reach swarming strength Otherwise the colonies often is available. here out of season in musing the bees. in Florida and west Texas. cactus problem is similar flowers fail. fire and tracing them to their nests and the use the wasps. frequently accompanied by Some rearing may begin. In south Florida there is of nectar may be available season. perhaps more so in the latter region. the bees. Even this remains a hard problem. these conditions that in certain do not applv much to southwest Texas. several for usually the case in northern Louisiana. Most makes the food supply an equally important sort of winter protection beekeepers in this region are against any With no means ot as it is understood bv northern beekeepers. the problem of of the spade. with these agencies. iruch as was the case many monlhb. The food supply to solve. In Texas the problem honey. when nectar is scarce often cessive use of stores to rear this brood problem.46 BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH So far as is known to the writer. is a region of early only light flows of nectar. unless the beekeeper not so hard and over goes through a period of drouth extending of Texas in 1916-17. The Alluvial Regions. wh'ch would be raised . both The problem of winter stores is pertinent at many times. and fresh nectar usually some source of nectar at every the brood combs in varying quantities at may often be found in becomes one of every month of the vear. when no material for months. until several months after brood enough to have early region are fortunate beekeepers in this surplus flows.

BEEKEEPING X THE SOUTH who 47 creased numbers. finds his colonies at swarming strength several weeks before they would be otherwise. and too strong a number of weeks before he has available a surplus source of nectar. under northern winter j^rotection. heavy winter protection for this belt is a mooted question. the packing of bees in winter cases would be proper in most parts of this belt. . 15. the average beekeeper in this region. Natchitoches. Alabama. shall say that they are not right? The winter problem has been long considered from the temperature standpoint only. Natchez. sippi. Louisiana. ig. S. Gauged only by temperatures. Consequently. However. Missis- Waco and El Paso. In this case the rule of temperature alone does not apply always. Note that the U. Flomaton. Weather Bureau reports that a temperature of zero has been recorded as far south as Raleigh. Texas. when heavy protection is given against his normal winter temperatures. It is a common practice to winter the bees with supers on the hives to guard against moths. North Carolina.

ds^. and Oklahoma.<'" IN" THE SOUTH 1 ff I \ :.1: -^IkZtjLs:*. North Carolina. so that it would seem that some packing might pay. the proposition of heavier winter protection deserves the serious attention of the beekeepers. and Oklahoma to assert that such a practice was wholly unnecessary. The truth of the proposition will never be known until the practice has been tried out on many colonies for a period of years and the results in honey production compared with colonies not so protected. Such an experiment is now being carried on in a small way by Mrs.48 BEEKEEriNG ^. Fig.ii^^CSk^2^. It has been customary for beekeepers of Kentucky. . temperatures and seasons. A West Virginia apiary in double walled hives. However the test is far from comand the best feature of Mrs.^'''^l.' '. The winters and the honey plants in much of this section approximate in source. Tennessee. Kentucky. with results so far not particularly this alluvial North of South. Tennessee.jA^i. country begin the mountains of the West Virginia. Armstrong (Grace) Allen at Nashville. the white clover belt of the North. It is certain from the favorable to heavy packing. Arkansas. Tennessee. plete. 16.^ Z . Mrginia. and in most parts of Maryland. Allen's work is her openmindedness on the proposition. The Mountain Region.

since Temperatures here are good indicators of the need of protecswarming time and honey flows approximate those of in the white clover belt. lem than The beekeeper here has a different probthe alluvial regions. tion. European foulbrood finds a ready and fertile area for its deadly work. W. spring losses are frequently foulbrood ravages. since we know weak more susceptible and less resistant to European foulbrood than strong colonies.. where late flows and early i iji. Ul iio. 17.BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH men and from 49 census. colonics are in the Appalachian mounenormous. from reports of extension other reliable sources. . By rail and boat to Florida (F. this disease should be considered embraced as an effect and not a cause in this case. With great losses in numerical strength certain among many of the colonies of this region which usually are not adequately protected. Somniei held. In the portion of this region tains. due to European However. that winter losses of this region are frequently appalling.

as is the use of a small entrance. little Sources of Winter Supplies. Hon. hives set on the cold ground and similar faults are frequent among our fraternity. Association at Lexington. Next is the hive. loose bottom boards. even in the South. When packing all is these things have first been supplied. showed a chart taken from the U.50 BEEKEEPINi. Constant attention to details leads to beekeeping success. for 1917 at Louis\ille.. The value of adequate (See Page 40. Too many leaky covers. the critical temperature at What locations the use of Is Protection? Adequate wmter protection need not mean in all southern heavy packing. S. which should be adequate to keep the colony in seasonable condition from the end of the honey flow one year to the beginning of the honey flow the next. which are too often considered to be minor. Of prime importance is a vigorous queen to insure many young bees in the hive in the fall. Too many supers should not be left on the hi\e. Even packing will not remedy all mistakes on the part of the beekeeper. to begin clustering in the hive to continue heat relation to 57° F.) protection in such a locality is evident. Too many beekeepers do not supply them. It always means first the several other necessities. Why heat the "spare rooms" when there are no "guests?" The location of the hives in winter in relation to moisture and wind protection is important. the need of not great. Next is the supply of honey. There were in 1917 but sixty-nine consecutive days during which the temperature did not at vSome time go below 57 F. Richard Priest Dietzman. An instance of temperatures in the which bees have and life. whether or not all of it is left on the hive in the fall. in parts of the South. North With a greater flow is not so of honey . was brought out at a meeting of the Kentucky State Beekeepers The association president. IX THE SOUTH swarming are common. Weather Bureau records. This feature of successful wintering in the pertinent a problem in the South.

January and February. by owned by the writer and it is possible that the humble aster has been blamed for a lot of winter troubles really due to other causes. December. is know well the normal The question of more protection than now given bees in the South during winter is one for experiment. Open minded beekeepers there can do a great service for beekeeping.BEEKEEPING dew and IX THE SOUTH 51 similar poor winter foods available for bees in is many parts of the South. It is probable that aster honey makes an excellent winter food for bees in most parts of the country from the clover belt south. Successful Methods. more frequent periods when the bees may fly In parts of the South where cane grinding goes on. land. Mrginia and Marywhere asters are found flowering in the There is as yet but little fall. one must seasons and honey flows. in vast beds on the hillsides. No trouble was ever In the regions of Kentucky. Root is quoted as saying of good winter protection: is "We believe this advice as valuable for beemen of the South. In the latter two months. Tests Are Best. there are areas experienced with this winter food in bees Illinois. bees need it for the sake of early breeding. Texas." The writer does not mean to unreservedly recommend heavy winter packing for the South. Narrow minded beekeepers never do any good anywhere. evidence that the winter losses of this territory may be attributed solely to aster honey for winter stores. this pro\'identially offset by the fact that during the winter. as it is further north. and this must be done in the South. But he does wish to emphasize . the two former for the sake of the life of the bees and the conservation of honey. especially where lower temperatures are recorded. To winter bees successfully in the vSouth. but without serious effects in most cases. because of there are usually the much shorter period of winter confinement in the hive. especially so in November. even in Florida. West Virginia. or Florida. R. E. great quantities of cane juice are often appropriated by the bees.





the need of

more winter protection


i)arts of this region.




to ask really satisfied with his present yields of honey.


the beekeeper


If not,

sound during the rest of the season, look to wintering and springing for a remedy. Experience should furnish the best means to judge. Be open minded and try out better methods of wintering.




of beekeeping practice are



Combless Packages.


of the


kept in

most serious problems which faces the southern swarm prevention, whether or not the bees are modern hives. While readers will say this is just as

true of the beekeeping problems elsewhere,

it is

especially true in

the South below Tennessee

and east

of the Mississippi River, since




even the Heddon method of after-swarm


often a failure.

So are most methods of swarm

beekeepers of this region. Because of the long brood rearing season, when bees may begin to breed up sometimes four months before the main nectar flow, and be sustained by a continual light flow of nectar, swarm prevention becomes a
prevention, for


problem indeed. In such localities bees frequently cast a swarm and after all, store about as much honey as those which do not happen to swarm. Imagine the northern beekeeper confronted with such a problem as that. Probably this excessive swarming

one of the reasons for the great number of colonies of bees


the southern states, compared to

area in this country.


to this

any other region of similar the box hive and swarming

seems at first the bane of southern beekeeping. So far as is known to the author there is no method of swarm prevention which is widely used in the South, that differs from swarm prevention methods in the North. In the Carolinas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, Arkansas, Oklahoma and north Texas, swarm prevention methods used in the North are feasible and in use by all commercial honey producers of the region named. Adequate room seems to be a paramount requisite. In much of the area of Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and south Texas, all swarm prevention methods too often fail. The writer never met a beekeeper in this region who did not face the swarm problem every year and who was not often, in a good year, without remedy except to take bees away from the colonies. Increase is a simple method in most parts of






a change from extracted to comb honey in much of the South will probably await the disco\ery of more successful swarm prevention methods for outapiaries. First. The combless package has pro\cn a blessing to dozens of The early failures in package in the South. A hindrance to comb honey production in this region. shipping caused many of the best known beekeepers of the honey producers North to put the future of the comble§s package business. Another fault w^as that for bees. or have been left behind in beekeeping progress. told the author recently that he had shipped several hundred combless packages in a year without W. . some shippers in the South took orders. The shipping problem is rapidly being solved and has been found to be largely the fault of some who advocated the use of too small a shipping cage for combless packages. honey could be successfully produced and some where comb honey is being produced extensively. the loss of more than a dozen packages.BEEKEEPIXG the South IX THE SOUTH 55 and the extent to which it could be successfully carried the regions where the early summer honey flow is constant but light. they had little faith that shipments would ever be made successlittle faith in fully. is the large number of bees operated by most commercial honey producers. The direct relation of the swarm problem is probably the reason behind the popularity of bulk comb honey in Texas and probably explains the proin duction of extracted and chunk honey rather than comb honey There are many regions where section in much of the South. of Texas. Combless Packages. too far from Those who them. to insure reasonable safety in shipping. There are dealers in the South now who T. and second. Burleson. to insure reasonable success in shipping. condemned combless packages when the industry first started either executed a right about face as to their value. the northerners did not know the value of taking bees from colonies in the South to prevent swarming. With an aggravated swarm problem. as seen by the author. ship hundreds of packages annually wdth little loss. is only to be conjectured.

T. Tennessee and Arkansas. Texas. their problem was solved. that to prevent swarming was an almost impossible task. Such package shippers as M. 19. Mississippi. But since they are enabled to fill combless package orders for ship- ment to the North in latter April and May. C. Berry. as well as many Georgia. and north Florida come into bloom in these localities about May fifteenth on the average. . bees frequently begin breeding up in January and February. Along came the combless package demand and behold. In the localities mentioned. and Mississippi beekeepers. Burleson. Waxahatchie. Georgia. Alabama. With breeding up well on the way by March first and two whole months ahead before surplus honey may often be expected. Fitzpatrick. This was particularly true of the region south of the Carolinas. D. W. and W. feel that combless packages have solved a problem for them. Southern beekeepers have always krown that in most years up too fast and were so strong long Ix'fore the main honey flow began. Packages crated for shipment.56 BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH Swarm their bees bred Prevention by Packages. Hayne\'ille. Achord. their swarming prob- Pig. and at the same time offered a means of increasing the profit from their bee yards several fold. The most important honey plants of south Alabama. one can readily see the swarming problem which results. Florida.

Tennessee and Arkansas. This belt extends up into Virginia. . often as They are enabled to many as five or remove enough more pounds from each of their strong colonies. lem has disappeared. bees. the combless package has a demand in the North and in the South. of the Rearing Qvieen Bees. 20. where the same long. Kentucky. slow nectar flow early in the year. belt of country wider common of in many parts of the South. and the hatching brood after this depletion will usually bring the colony to full field strength for the beginning main honey flow. in a than that from which combless packages may be shipped. By giving plenty of room at all times and watching the yards carefully. Thus. A handy funnel for filling packages. Another prominent feature of beekeeping in the South. is the early rearing of queen bees for the market.BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH 57 Fig. and solves a real problem at either end. is ideal for the production good queen cells and the rearing of vigorous queen bees. they experience little further trouble from swarming in average years.

reared in strong colonies and mated in nuclei strong enough to be worthy of the name. of Tennessee. There are or all many beekeepers in this region. . is the opinion of the author.58 BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH Fig. one of the greatest hindrances to successful queen rearing has been the early advocacy of the "baby" nuclei. and John M. Like the small combless package for shipping bees. Needless to say this trend has improved the quality of the fjueens. Davis. yueen mating nuclei in Southwest Texas. That there are fewer beekeepers really fitted for this work than any other phase of of their time to the production of queen bees. The production of good queen bees. is a science by itself. With a large home apiary for a mating yard and several outyards from which to draw bees for mating nuclei. beekeeping. Every queen breeder whose business is growing in the South. swarm prevention in the outyards loses its significance and an interesting and profitable business results. Probably one of the first ambitions of most beginners in beekeeping is to be a breeder of queen bees. Some even have gone to the extreme of using four and five full Hoffman frame nuclei. and whose yards have been visited by the author. who devote much like Ben G. is leaning more strongly toward the use of larger queen mating nuclei each year. 21.

flow until midsummer or later. it is not so necessary. swarms are the result. L. on the Control of European Foul"If it is certain that there will be no honeyis written: brood.BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH 59 Early Breeding Up. if the last federal census figures are to be to northern conditions this of the credited. from the standpoint of good beekeeping. Home and queen mating yard of J. unless they are careful beekeepers indeed. With others. to have all colonies strong so early in the year." Applied Applied to much is eminently true. 22. but it is surely an exceptional locality where there is nothing for the bees to get in early summer. Mississippi. Fig. . At present. South and the need of a use other than swarms for early hatched bees is plainly seen. Leath of Corinth. In Farmers Bulletin 975. Excessive swarming is probably the best reason for the average lower yield per colony of honey in the South. swarm prevention is being handled largely by shipping combless packages or in making queen mating nuclei.

southern queen breeders to proshortages of honey come be- common among tect their supply of drones. A Drone The tween practice Reservoir. C. Queenless bees welcome drones and seldom kill them off in any number. This is called by some beekeepers. One of M.60 BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH Fig. drones will congregate there and be available for queen mating purposes long after they might otherwise be driven out. when flows. a instinct "drone reservoir. 23. Berry's yards for breeding package bees." . is interesting in the application of a known bee which it makes use of. By keeping certain colonies in the yard permanent!}^ queenless at the approach of a dearth of honey or fall weather.

The effect of soils on the secretion of nectar by honey plants has not been studied to any great extent. The fact that this land is sandy does not mean is in all cases that it is infertile. The honey plants are also quite different and are in turn influenced in their nectar secretion by both the excessive rainfall and the dry weather common to that part of the "Great American Desert" which lies in southern Texas. Alabama. In Florida the rainfall the state and the beekeeper here benefits thereby. are not necessarily of commercial importance to other lines of agriculture. Primary among these is the average higher temperatures and relative freedom from frost. and a much longer one when bees are than in other parts of the country.CHAPTER VIII The Tropical South. and Louisiana. available for commercial plant Honey plants. Mississippi. in many ways. THE area which may be called tropical really occupies a small It differs part of Florida. where tropical temperatures are approximated in most years. loamy land. Louisiana. Much of tropical Florida is sandy. while most of southwest Texas is sandy and rocky. with occasional patches of black. The climate of southern California approximates it. sufficient water supply fortunately. Throughout much of this region the type of soil is somewhat known that sandy. The opposite is true of many parts of Florida and Texas alike. Because of the higher temperatures which prevail throughout Texas. so far as beekeeping is concerned. but it is soils have a considerable effect on honey plants. where a life. There are regions along the coast of Alabama. However. the soil. Mississippi. the chances of frost in this latter area are greater than further south. the year in this tropical area. there inactivity is a much shorter period of active. One of the primary differences in this area. is fairly constant and many parts of where tropical temperatures prevail are so near sea 61 . and south from other parts of the South. is when compared to others.

Black mangrove has a similar tendency and frequently yields Cabbage palmetto bloom. Mathis. Carraway. of Georgia and home Florida. Apiiiry of B. by the tem- for instance. have practiced migratory beekeeping with some success. is nil level. cool weather seems to stunt its bloom. like buckwheat in New York state. while very hot weather seems to "burn" the blossoms. M. Migratory Beekeeping. but gave up the practice in later years. who lived for a time at Stuart. Drouths do not figure largely in beekeeping in Florida. or ceases nectar secretion altogether. particularly Florida.62 BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH Fig. It yields best in even. although several of the mOvSt important honey plants of the state are greatly affected. moderately warm temperatures. . that the moisture problem so far as the beekeeper is concerned. This tropical country. at certain hours of the day. The Marchants. 24. as to yield of nectar. Poppleton. will stand Rainy. O. O. and whose locality was visited by the writer. neither extremes of heat or cold. was the original of migratory beekeeping. Texas. peratures. was perhaps the first exponent of migratory beekeeping.

the value of such locations to raise queen ^?«^"-^: :v. HNij'^^a. this plan has not been so thoroughly tried.» 1% ^m V\g. Queens and Packages. Most for of the beekeepers have permanent locations most of their bee yards. as have IN THE SOUTH 63 many other beekeepers of the Appalachicola section. has been largely given up. or from other states to Florida. migratory beekeeping. On the west coast. 25. who place their bees on Hghters and tow them further down the east coast to the mangrove locations on the Keys. One feature of tropical locations. but is proving feasible. both in south Florida is and southwest Texas. .«?\'U*.: •.BEEKEEPIN.-. However. Beekeepers have been visited at Miami. Success has not usually attended the efforts to of this area make it pay. either in Florida. Harry Hewitt's apiary at Lake Apopka in Tropical Florida.

In many cases the package shipper is not a queen breeder.ore northern points. Mud wasps have proved to be another source of frequent annoyance in portions of couth Florida where they often take possession of empty combs and sheets of foundation. M. The shipment of queens and packages ceases earlier in the tropical locations. W. at certain seasons of the year. Queen bees pro\e easy prey to the dragon flies. With their bees at swarming pitch by the time the package man makes ready to ship. than a little further north. Many bees in such locations are run for packages alone. it is possible to get honey in addition to bees. the queens to accompany the packages are often reared a few hundred miles further south. have often proved to be preventatives of successful rearing queen bees in the swampy tropics. Caraway for T. and many missing queens is frequently the lot of the breeder in such localities. The beekeepers reported having . Bee Pests.64 BEEKEEPIXG I\ THE SOUTH bees and for the early shiiMiient of pound j^ackages of bees. where mesquite. may bloom two or three times in a season. One of the hardest problems of the man who ships packages of bees. because of the higher temperatures of summer and because of the later demand for bees from m. from any of the locations north of the tropics. In locations like Texas. Burleson. In Florida the writer visited a number of beekeepers who showed him combs with patches of brood chewed out nearly as large as the hand. which was blamed to tree-toads. is to furnish the necessary queen bees at the time the packages are shipped. both of Texas. Breeders of the far South have solved this problem. This is more especially true of Florida than Texas. There is no locality in the tropics where insect pests and even animal pests do not have to be figured on. "Bee hawks. The demand for packages without queens is comparatively light." a common name for large dragon flies. while bees may be in possession of other parts of the hive. as the surplus season frequently closes early. a principal source of v^urplus honey. as by B.

W. with the variety of plants available as nectar sources for bees. Baldwin. w^ax is one of the principal sources of income of the beekeeper. with the legs of the stands resting in troughs. In Texas. In many tropical countries where there is usually much dark honey produced. E. W. Variety of Honey Plants. Predatory animals also figure as }3ests.547 pounds of beeswax in one pile. Uvalde. in order to decrease evaporation. One is impressed in visiting any good location in tropical MoriAlabama and Mississippi. Reid. Quantities of wax are also shipped from Florida. One is impressed by the fact that fewer of the surplus nectar sources are small plants and more are shrubs or trees. Wax Production. In Texas at the apiary of J. it frequently becomes necessary to keep the surface of such water co\'ered with oil.BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH 65 caught the animals in the act. as well as Florida. G. in Texas. in the trop- . attempt to destroy the nests of the maurauders. In southwest Texas where mostly extracted honey is produced. near lowlands. Probably the most common insect pest is the ant. In both these states the bee moth is a serious menace where combs are left without the bees to cover them. the spade. At DeLand. the ant pest is probably the most serious one and with J. which are kept full of water. the writer was shown a list of about 120 plants on which bees had been seen working at some time. the home of Prof. the writer saw 3. beekeepers frequently make a practice of pro- ducing all the in wax possible. the bees are kept on raised platforms. both in Texas and Florida. where the custom of using eight frames in a ten frame super for extracted honey adds to the crop of wax in uncapping. but this pest never proves to be serious in the hands of the careful beekeeper. Reid near Uvalde it is often necessary to hunt out ant nests and by the use of scalding w^atcr. In many places in the latter state. da. Wax production alone was not found any locality visited by the writer in either Florida or Texas. In the case of outyards. carbon bisulphide and fire.

R. Florida. ics. B. anrl which is a very dependable . Isbell on the Apa- lachicola River. Primary among these is the saw or scrub palmetto. Apiary of 300 colonies belonging to J. probably due to the greater available water supply in Florida. pro- This is seldom true in in nearly every case. Willson reports an enormous variety of honey plants. where the trees which yield nectar are simply featured by the rank growth which is typical of the lowland tropics. There are probabh' four or fi\e plants or trees in l-'iorida which would be considered the important nectar sources of the state. K. which grows practically throughout the state. the variety is not so great as in Florida. 26. In Texas. growing along the Gulf in southern Mississippi.66 BEEKEEPINXx IX THE SOUTH Fig. tected Florida. by thorns Nectar Sources. as yet largely unclassified. In Texas they are typically desert trees and shrubs.

Orange honey is somewhat important in Florida. . is an important source of spring stimulation throughout tropical Florida. It is like the fruit bloom of the North and in some pecially in the locality near Orlando. which destroyed the trees throughout the Florida and is state. It does not seem to yield so well further south. Black mangrove is a very important honey plant in southern gradually assuming the importance throughout the greater part of the lowlands and coast that it had before the big freeze of 1 894. although it is a question which of the two yields the better quality honey. es- but is not often gotten in Gallberry is found growing throughout a great porits purity. a low growing plant. Pennyroyal. tion of Florida and increases in value as a honey plant as one goes toward Georgia.BEEKEEPING source. IX THE SOUTH 67 Black tupelo probably comes second. particularly back from the coast.

Further west alfalfa is becoming quite important.) . (See Chapter on Honey Plants. which may bloom as many as three times a year. where colonies are in shape to gather it beginning early in the year. Mesquite is probably the most important and is a tree varying in size up to fifteen feet in height.68 BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH parts of the state frequently yields surplus honey. where a greater water supply is available. Texas tropical honey plants are fewer. Catclaw and huajilla are other important nectar sources coming early in the year.

the seasons approximate tropical beekeeping conditions. BETWEEN the tropics of the South and the mountain regions clay- toward the North lies a vast alluvial region of rolling sand hills. Oklahoma and Arkansas. many of the most important honey plants are found among the trees. However. while as one goes north toward the distant mountains of winters Tennessee and the Carolinas. Mississippi. Georgia. In both the tropics and the mountainous section of the South. between the mountain ranges there. Georgia. it is quite interesting to notice that the alluvial region differs in soil types from both the mountain 69 . lighter winters and longer summers. We are concerned principally with the region east of the Mississippi. Marchant of Columbus. the territory may be roughly divided into belts. where beekeeping conditions differ radically from the tropics and from the mountain regions and where beekeeping conditions more nearly apj. conditions are not unlike those of the Middle West. is that most of the honey sources of the alluvial section are plants and shrubs and few of them are trees. which has impressed the writer. E. Another influence on the secretion of nectar in honey plants is the soil and climate.roximate the Northern ** white clover It is this vast alluvial region which forms what most of belt.CHAPTER IX The Alluvial Regions. as with J. Alabama." On the line next the tropics. as to the most important honey plants. One of the cardinal points. except for shorter. black land. Neither of these features has been studied much as yet. Louisiana." us are accustomed to think of as the "South. the season shortens and the become more severe. Texas and up into parts of Tennessee. While there are a great variety of honey plants in this alluvial section. interspersed here and there with patches of rich. In the centre of this belt from north to south. This belt extends across South Carolina.

as in Alabama and limestone Mississippi Mississippi. scarce. Morgan. the red and blue clay types being in the majority. IX THE SOUTH Fig. where this plant alone is often sufficient In all these lowlands. the soil is usually of the black type. . sand predomiit is nates. The rich flora of a Georgia swamp and tropical parts of the South. where the clover supplied with Along the and Arkansas. On the Atlantic coast of Georgia. North Carolina. the swamp flora of the tropics is somewhat duplicated and we find again trees largely dominating as honey plants.70 BEEKEEPINC. and the shrubs and smaller honey plants are largely in the majority. River Louisiana. and Frank Pease of Louisiana. according to F. Archdekin. and where in sweet abounds. M. Just back from the Mississippi River. 28. J. In the tropics. while in the alluvial section. vines to give an entire crop of honey. Mississippi. F. South Carolina and north Florida extends the famous gallberry region. There are many soil is well sections.





figure also largely in the list of honey plants, as for instance the rattan in west Louisiana and east Texas.

Queens and Packages.
In this alluvial section queen rearing and pound packages of bees figure as an important source of income for the beekeeper.

The season when nectar may be found by the bees is long enough to permit queen rearing to continue through most of the season
that queensare needed in other parts of the country. In the tropics, however, the honey fiows often cut off when \-ery hot weather comes. Then, too, the alluvial section honey flows, except in a few localities, are long and steady, or at least are not so intensive as the beekeeper in the white clover belt



For the most part extracted honey


produced, although there

many parts of this vast region where some comb honey is produced and many more where it would pay well for the beekeeper who has not too many bees, to hardle the problems of

Fig. 29.


up-to-date apiary in the pine woods of Alabama.







one of the
the author.




instances of this plant's yielding surplus honey

east of the Mississippi River which has


to the attention of

The Melilotus Area.
Northern beekeepers who are accustomed to seeing
fields of

cultivated sweet clover grow, should visit the sw^eet clover or

"black land" belt of Mississippi and Alabama, w^here thousand grow wild. The land is of a limestone typ^ and the plant makes a thriving growth. This makes a veritabl
of acres of this plant

paradise for bees, and as sweet clover wherever found makes a dependable honey plant in spite of drouth or flood, the value of However, this region as a honey producer can easily be seen. much of this land in Alabama, near W. D. Achord, is being bought up for pasturing and is being fenced, where blooded stock This may mark the end of honey plants is being introduced.


of this region at a not far distant time.







Fig. 31.

Where Tennessee Bees hum.


of J.


Da\is at Spring

but where a stimulative nectar flow may begin weeks before sweet clover blooms.and the northern states. the colonies easily regain surplus strength for the sweet and a crop of honey follows the crop of bees. The apiarist of this region is enabled to take from one to ten pounds of bees from his colonies at the time they may approach the swarming strength. . over. being of light amber or lighter. clover flow. Answers to this query from some of the extensive beekeepers in Alabama indicate that there was often nothing to do but let the bees swarm. We wonder what in the world the beekeepers of this region did before the advent of the package business. With the package shipping season In this territory the proportions only equaled in parts of Texas. the package trade has become the vsalvation of the beekeeper.74 ^. pound package business has assumed Thousands of pounds of bees in combless packages go north each year to Canada. even where no more increase was wanted and the honey flow was yet several weeks distant. Most of the honey of this belt is light in color. often Much Honey is Produced. but when it is yet several weeks until the sweet clover may bloom. where melilotus is the principal source of surplus honey. This enables him to handle the swarming problem at an advantage to himself. both financially and from a standpoint of beekeeping practice. In this vast sweet clover belt. BEEKEEPIXC. By far the greater portion of the honey produced in the South secured in this alluvial region and one of the weakest points of beekeeping here is the absence of any marketing organization. There is no more beautiful honey in the comb than the partridge pea honey of Georgia and the gallberry regions of the costal lands produce a product worthy of greater attention than it has received in the past from the connoisseur of honey. This has made it impossible in the past for some of the beekeepers to secure an equitable return on their investment. and add to the income of the southern beekeeper. This may account for the hundreds of colonies of "wild" bees found in the woods of this region. IX THE SOUTH Pound Packages.

This is because of the discrepancy in the time between the peak of strength of the colonies of bees and the beginning of the main honey flow through most of this belt.BEEKEEPIXCx IX THE SOUTH 75 Winter Losses. Low winter temperatures are not unusual here and snow often falls in winter in much of this entire region. it seldom remains on the ground for long and there is seldom a stretch of manv davs when bees mav not flv. accord- r . w hen an unusual winter occurs. at the season when there is no immediate need for bees and no way to use them. While winter losses in this region are frequently heavy. However. In the North there is every reason for packing bees. so as to reach the peak of brood rearing before the main honey flow is in progress. There is as yet but little reason for using methods of wintering which will increase the number of bees in a colony in parts of the South. it is doubtful if beekeepers of this region will ever adopt northern methods of winter protection.

below zero has been recorded near Atlanta. One of the distinct features of the honey plants of the alluvial . However. so necessary to a honey crop further north. Deeper Brood Chambers. However in much of this alluvial territory. In all parts of this territory. hi\e. them are found some Cotton as a Honey Plant. across the South. he can build them in time for the crop. is noticeable.76 BEEKEEPINC. Birmingham. Mississippi. I. HuninuT of Prairie Point. even though weak. But the need of a chamber than is afforded by the eight -frame hive and in some cases by the ten-frame hive. excesvsive swarmis left the entire supply of honey on the ing is a real problem. Georgia. into the discard. If the beekeeper in many parts of this belt c an bring his colonies through alive. This is continued to some extent and is also serviceable where it is not feasible to leave all the "winter" honey in the brood chamber in the fall. S. to the v. according Weather Bureau. A temperature as low as 10° F. Alabama. sentiment is also changing toward a bigger body. and Greenville. for the brood chamber. this is the exception. where smaller hives have been used in the past. which is to be noticed here is the gradual placing of the eight-frame hive and all hi\es of small brood chamber size. Bees wintered with the brood chamber filled with honey may then be given the shallow super of honey in the spring when a dearth may threaten. The excellent wintering. is not so necessary here. main honey larger brood flow. Many beekeepers of this section run the year through with two full tenframe bodies for the brood chamber. Some of the largest apiaries in the world are located in the centre of this belt and with of the best beekeepers in the country. The standard ten-frame dovetailed of progress One item found in use by most of the beekeepers in the western In Georgia and South Carolina. Mississippi. In Georgia and northern Florida many beekeepers ha\e in the past used an eight-frame body and a shallow extracting super in addition. It is our opinion that this custom increases as one goes west from the Atlantic coast.\ THE SOUTH ing to George H. or a few weeks before the hive is section of this region.

cotton does not rank as an important plant for the beekeeper. than elsewhere in this region.BEEKEEPIXc. since in northeast Texas. This is a peculiar fact. and is possibly due to the difference in soil types. waxy loam. in this portion of Texas the soil is a deep. region all is IX THE SOUTH much 77 the frequent failure of cotton to yield nectar in There are some locations in Alabama and Mississippi where cotton is scheduled as a nectar producer. m--^^^'imMi^ . while in some of the Alabama and Mississippi cotton belt red and blue parts of this belt. but for the most part throughout the entire allu^'ial region. black. This is an interesting topic for research by southern beekeepers. However. It is the opinion of the writer that where cotton yields in the alluvial section. clays often predominate. cotton is the principal honey plant and there often yields enormous quantities of nectar. the soil types more nearly approximate the black land of Texas.


79 . Mrginia. in the rolling hills of Kentucky. particularly along the lines of the Louis\ille & Nash\-ille and Queen & Crescent Railroads. West of the Mississippi River in this same hilly region. many of the most important sources of honey Prominent among them rank the tulip poplar. ACROSS season and the northern tier of states usually classed as part of alti- Dixieland. basswood and sourwood. ranges of mountains extend. it is the white clover region. rather than to show a different type of bee culture or bee appliances. the type of soil found throughout the alluvial region is absent. Trees Predominate. Mar\'land and Tennessee. through the Ozarks of Arkansas and their continuation into eastern Oklahoma. This plant is also an important source of nectar in some parts of West Virginia. some of this mountain bee terri* tory is included by flora. but the presence of the mountains brings about an entire change of flora from that of the alluvial region. sumac." Indeed. white clover is seldom mentioned as a source of honey and nectar comes from other sources too numerous to name. and lesser As in the tropics. one finds a soil not unlike that of Illinois and Indiana in some places. Nearing the famous bluegrass regions.CHAPTER X Mountain Beekeeping. It is this region with which we will deal in this chapter. are again trees. principally to differentiate the seasons and honey plants. With the arrival of the beekeeper in the mountains of Tennessee and Kentucky. increasing the tude of most of the country and transforming much of the many of the types of honey plants. Ward. as well as locust. These latter are much the same as in other parts of the South. East of the Mississippi River. in what is commonly known as the "white clover region. for no beekeeper ever tasted finer white clo\xr horxy than that produced by such men as Porter C.

Tulip poplar also varies in yield according to its elevation and the type of soil in which it is growing. according to G. in exactly similar weather conditions throughout the year. nectar abundantly. j during its period of bloom. Basswood yields in greater quantity as one approaches the mountain country where temperature conditions of climate. The reasons for this are as yet a mystery and offer a fertile field for investigation. are similar to those of Wisconsin. It has been noticed that the tulip. apparently yields other. Tennessee. there are regions where tulip poplar grows in abundance and where. often fail soil. 34. Trees growing further down the slope. Apiary in Blue Ridge Mountains of \'irginia. H. Cale. to yield nectar appreciably. Bentley. which is .80 BEEKEEPIXG IX THE SOUTH Fig. growing on an elevation. of Knoxville. with identical trees within a few dozen feet of each some fail to yield nectar. according to G. has much to do with this variation in value of tulip poplar as a nectar producing plant. trees. for instance. M. of College Park. ' In Maryland. It is believed that the type of know^n to vary in such cases. while others do.

eastern Kentucky and western where hea\^ snowfall. the winters and summers approximate in length and intensity. Fig. in the so-called "White Clover Belt. in altitudes in the Webster Springs." In West Virginia. for instance.BEEKEEPIXCx IX THE SOUTH 81 Basswood also shows a difference. This also vicinity of applies to much territory in eastern Tennessee. since basswood from trees in Tennessee. This is particularly true of those which grow on lower land in the South and Southeast. has never given satisfaction when used for section making by manufacturers of bee supplies. heavy rainfall. The climate in the higher altitudes in this region is almost identical with that in many parts of the North. oj^erations as in the North. . This makes it almost needless to say that bee culture in such localities in the South requires almost identical bee behavior Virginia. those of Wisconsin. An attractive hillside location in Virginia. quite low winter temperatures and shorter hot summers are common. 35. in the type of wood. Mountain Climate.


as extension workers in bee culture. Reese. H. A. formerly of Tennessee. the success of one influential beekeeper in their vicinity. have frequently reported very hea\y winter losses in their respective sections. This does not that there are no good beekeepers in this mountain region. using more modern methods. where the success of has attracted others. >>/. Bartholomew. But they are somewhat the exception and are usually found in some modern pioneer scattered localities. McMurray. A Mississippi River bottom location in Arkansas . and C. However. formerly of Kentucky. L. E.BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH 83 are skeptical of the initial expense incident to the adoption of better methods. of West Virginia. Winter Losses Heavy. usually turns the scale in favor of mean modern beekeeping. C. Winter losses among the uninitiated of these mountain bee keepers are often enormous. The writer is inclined to believe this is due primarily Mg.

hard to convince beekeepers in these regions that they can . five or six are enough honey to winter is on. The fact that excessive swarming account for the great number of bees in these localities. The application of modern methods of uniting late swarms and the prevenallowed tion of excessive It is may swarming works wonders in this fertile country. build up slowly for winter and are often hived so late that it is impossible to suppose they can gather to exces?i^'e swarming. 38." These later swarms are always smaller. as the census map of bee culture shows. Box hive apiary of a typical mountaineer. After-swarms even to the number of not infrequent from a single "gum.84 BEEKEEPIXG IX THE SOUTH Fig.

It has come to hundreds of colonies were lost that year from European foulbrood. in the mountains of the South. A glance at the census figures for 1910.. when their average annual yield is frequently Custom plays an imless than twenty pounds to the colony. European foulbrood is endemic to this territory and epidemics of the disease frequently devastate large areas. shows a depreciation in the number of colonies. Apiary of a Georgia farmer who is an up-to-date beekeeper. among other causes. Yet it exists throughout their territory. Among these box hive beekeepers European foulbrood is seldom recognized and never treated. BEEKEEPING often get ten times the IX THE SOUTH 85 amount of their average annual yield by modern methods. to the habit in some localities of ''robbing" the bees but once in a season Diseases Are Endemic. The writer remembers one Spring trip through Virginia. where not a single county of the two dozen or more \-isited failed to show evidence of European foullight that Fig. 39. too. . Happily American foulbrood has not yet found its way into many of the localities mentioned. from the previous year. portant part with some of these mountain people. for excessive swarming is undoubtedly due.

where the Ozarks of Arkansas and Oklahoma give lower altitudes than the mountains of Kentucky. IN 11 IK SOUTH Similar conditions ha\c been reported in Tennessee and Kentucky. . runs across a colony of beautifully marked Italians which the mountain beekeeper has caught as a swarm in the woods. w^hich are as yet but partly developed and which The offer a field for extension work and modern bee cull tire. of Arkansas. according to C. The territory west of the Mississippi Ri\er is similar to that of the region previously discussed. There is hand. of Oklahoma. This brood. Bees in the lower foothills of Tennessee are seldom protected. Most Occasionally one of the bees kept in this territory are blacks. This probably accounts for the fact that bees in this region survive the poor methods of beekeeping. and successful beekeepers there make the adoption of heavy winter packing in their territory doubtful. good protection pays well. However. since excessive swarming and poor wintering go hand in Fall flows are usual in all states mentioned. Tennessee." The writer is not so familiar with honey sources in that locality. climate in this region is somewhat mild in both winter and summer and the honey sources in good locaHtics are equally varied. brings up speculation as to how far these bees traveled before they were hived and became "mountain" bees. Sanborn.86 BEEKEEPINC. and the Virginias. The winters are often severe and. Honey sources are different and but few of the common plants of the eastern belt of the mountains are known across the "Father of Waters. No up-to-date beekeeper has much to fear from European foulbrood in this territory. in the higher regions. and Frank llorsefal. there arc some fertile fields in both states. on which the bees make an excellent harvest. Fall Flows Dependable. There are fewer commercial beekeepers located there and not as many colonies of bees. E. in the mountains. of the mountain regions of the no more beautiful sight in the South than a West Virginia or Virginia mountain side covered for acres with masses of aster and goldenrod in the fall. for the adoption of good strains of Italians usually results in its eradication.

Until writers point out the vast differences in beekeeping which necessarily obtain in so vast a region as Texas. some of the finest cotton honey in the world is produced. Some horsemint. ITof conditions in that state. and often not best suited to bees. Mesquite is found in some portions of this area and in certain sections. Here the winters are frequently severe and the summers usually hot and dry. the writer prefers to divide Texas apiculturally The Scholl into six divisions. South. only just to readers and to Texas beekeepers. East. divisions are: "North. few Americans realized the vast extent of the state. Nearing the Oklahoma line. Following the lead of Louis Scholl in his bulletin on "Texas Beekeeping. beekeeping is rather lax. even in the meagre way possible this short chapter. Sweet clo\'er is entering the state here in a wild growth. such as the black land portion north and east of Dallas. to include the famous Panhandle district.CHAPTER XI The Lone Star is State. beekeepers elsewhere may never get a proper conception of the variations in methods." published by the Texas State Department of Agriculture. in a separate classification. which would cut off the northern tier of counties of the state. Imagine a line drawn through from east to west. Central. in comparing bee culture there. flora and honey sources which are peculiar to the state. W." North Texas. West and Southwest. 1912. Near the Arkansas line better practices are in vogue and in the vicinity of Texarkana. according to E. of Roxton. climate. to treat in Until "Four Minute Men" of the late war told millions that Texas alone had more acreage than the whole of Germany. a famous honey plant of the state. is found on the southern edges of this district. are some of the best 87 . Cothran.

In some localities the lack of early honey sources prevents rapid building up in spring and probably not enough attention to scientific wintering is given. and in some sections fruit growing is adding materially to the stimulative and surplus sources for the beekeeper. East Texas abounds in minor honey plants.88 BEEKEEPIXC IX THE SOUTH Fig. East Texas. 40. Wisconsin and Michigan. It is unlikeh' that basswood in this secit tion ever yields as has been is known to yield in Ohio. especially along the river bottoms. LeStourgeon. G. the genial manager of the Texas Honey Producers Association. Neither the timber suitable for honey sections. E. of Near the Louisiana line and farther south large growths basswood are found. . beekeepers of the state.

Box hives like these are rapidly being replaced \vith good equipment. is famous blue mesquite is In the southern belt of this region. Bowden of Palesthe northern linden. of honey. In this region are tne main black land fields of the famous horsemint flourishes in all its glory. Texas and here However. giving a large share of the product a light or light amber color. . Holly and chinquapin are mentioned as important honey plants and innumerable vines figure in honey production. there are some reliable heavy flows from this source. A. according to T.BEEKEEPING as is IX THE SOUTH 89 However. 41. Central Texas. like the is gradually decreasing in acreage before cultivathistle of Virginia. this famous plant tion. common and is an important source and in Sumac named as important here some sec- Fig. reports of tine.

sometimes called summer farewell. tions broomweed. Much alfalfa is of this section is unsuitable for bee cultiu'e because of conditions. South Texas. is an im- portant source. protracted drouths and soil In some of the valleys in mentioned as an important honey plant and some . In much of this country beekeeping is not profitable and a share of the honey produced here is of dark color. 42. 41 after it had been transferred to good hives. in the eastern portion of this belt. is which one hears wherever he goes an important >iclder. The apiary shown in Fig.90 BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH Fig. Reports have reached the author which indicate that frequent heavy winds from the \'ine of The famous rattan Gulf interfere with the bees' region. flight in many localities in this West Texas.


Mesquite is probably the most important honey producing plant and in some years. here. which generally over this belt. the first occurring usually in April. drouths devastate the country and necessitate the abandonment of portions of it. seasons heavy yields are secured from mesquite. is found There are many lesser honey plants such as catsclaw. such as during 1917 and 1918. is one of the most important honey producing areas in the world.92 BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH Fig. three blooms to a season have been known from this source. In others. Southwest Texas. Huajilla honey is rated by many. 44. This honey is very light colored. catsclaw and innumerable flowers of the desert regions of much of this terri- In some years this region tory. which figure in the total yield of the apiary. Combs builL by wild bees in the rocks oi Texas. of a fine flavor and forms the principal source in the famous "Uvalde" region. Other honey plants are huajilla. as . among them Scholl.

B. Texas. style of production is honey is Fig. in Not long since. probably the favorite method followed in this state at present. Commercial beekeeping in the state is mainly modern and the extension service of the state and disease eradication work. which honey produced in extracting supers was cut out and sold in pails or other shallow This receptacles.BEEKEEPINCx IX THE SOUTH 93 one of the finest honeys of tha state. Smith's modern apiary at Llano. 45. L. the flows are usually very heavy and big yields frequently result. it . is likely to long remain popular. in this state. principal methods used Methods in Use. and because of the intensity of flows and their short duration in many portions. but the main surplus flows usually come early in the season and are frequently of short duration. There are sources in this region which are available most of the year. bulk comb honey production was one of the Extracted still quite popular in Texas. However. being first covered w4th extracted honey.

94 BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH Fig. College Station. D. but there are still others where more bees could be kept profitably. Murry reports: *T do not mean to say that bees do not work on dandelion here. Many of the better sections of the state for honey production are well taken up. under the direction of F. but H. Soils and Climate. northeast Texas to the desert of the southwest and the sands of northwest. from the black loam of Texas varies radically in soil types. I have caught them in the act. 46.000 pounds of honey from 90 colonies. dantly in north Texas. A Texas apiary in the Rio Grande Valley that produced 20. but you would never know it by looking in the . (now of Iowa) is probably second to that of no other state in the union. B. Paddock. Many plants are found in the state which do not Dandelion is found abunyield as they do in other localities.

However. snows are not infrequent winter and quite low temperatures are common at that season. throughout the state high summer temperatures are common and well in the southwest.BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH 95 hives. temperatures of the desert are All this naturally tends to have a vital influence on the seasons when honey plants will yield and more as to the intensity of the honey flows. There is no prettier sight than the prairies of the state colored with flowers as far as the eye can see. In some such sections a bee is seldom seen on these flowers. there are probably more commercial Fig. Commercial Production. CUmate varies here as one might expect. SchoU arranges his hives in groups of five in partial shade . known. in the in Worth and Dallas. vicinity of Fort In the north." This seems indeed pecuHar to the beekeeper of the North where dandeHon is a mainstay of spring. 47. Excepting California. who knows the vast stretches of territory included in the state.

The breeding of queen bees and shipment of combless packages forms an important source of revenue for dozens of Texas bee men. since not all of the Alabama and Mississippi. The shipment of combless packages in Texas is somewhat different than in other parts honey producers Texas than pressed in visiting the state package shippers are confronted with colonies at swarming strength long before the honey flows. In spite of the enormous quantities of honey produced in Texas. where heavy winter losses had threatened the production of honey. These. . there are many localities occupied too much by box hive men. one is impressed by the similar quantity of honey which is sold within the state and consumed there.T of beekeepers who do things in a big way. are not the counties where one would be most successful. ojx^rating hundreds of colonies and marketing In the southern part of the state. according to E. Le Stourgeon. with the exception of a few counties in ths northern and eastern parts. much of their honey in carlots. However. which would be the better for settlement by in bee men of modern tendencies. the common labor in the SchoU apiaries has been managed by the use of Mexicans. Many of the flows come nearer the natural peak of strength than of the South. G. and it is in this part of the state that the most honey is produced and marketed. One is imby the numb. when Texas beekeepers shipped thousands of pounds of their surplus bees to western states. Texas beekeeping has already taken advantage of most of the good locations.96 BEEKEEPING in IX THE SOUTH in any other slate. for the most part. as in all other states. The value of this work was evidenced during the European war.

Most of the South is as yet unorganized to fight bee diseases. the bees would probably have been lost in a short time. S. Such. ALTHOUGH brood. however. In one case the writer visited in a southeastern state for one month in 1916 and found actual evidence of European foulbrood in every one of forty. when the regions mentioned were visited by a European foulbrood epidemic. investigating such conditions for the U. causing the losses of thousands of colonies at least once in a decade. one might think its ravages in the South might be nil. In this state there was no inspection or extension service for bee culture and consequently but few real commercial beekeepers. use Italian stocks are slight. as it is the opinion of the writer that more losses. bee diseases are quite prevalent throughout the southern states. European foulbrood is endemic and frequently epidemic. This was noticeably true in the year 1909. are due to European foulspring disease and to often cure itself 97 . fortunately but a small percentage of the total infections have been found to be American foul- Consequently the losses to commercial beekeepers who On the other hand. government. is not the case.two counties visited. and if American foulbrood had ever gained a substantial foothold in this section. and fortunately the writer does not remember of having seen but one or two cases of American foulbrood in seventeen months spent in this territory. where the hundreds of "beekeepers" have 90 per cent black bees. in the Appalachian mountains. winter and summer.CHAPTER XII Bee Diseases. however. Such conditions do not obtain in most of the South. is foulbrood considered to be primarily a when settled warm weather comes. A Since European Prospect.

Franklin. the consequences are fatal in so large a percentage of cases because of the prevalence of black bees in most of the apiaries conducted by non-commercial beekeepers and novices. the few states where American foulbrood continually crops out in a minor fashion. Practically speaking. Wilmon Newell and staff are doing good work in Florida. inspection work will be necessary and probably more successful. Fortunately too. American Foulbrood. and his work was entirely successful. Tennessee a good inspection service is maintained at this writing. that so long as the present system of handling bee diseases in vogue in Texas is contmued. When American foulbrood shall have made some inroads into the territory. Charleston was in charge of the work in West Virginia (now abandoned). Buchanan. For this reason. beekeepers there will have nothing to fear from American foulbrood. Charles A. Probably the infection is a sequence of excessive swarming. The writer has visited hundreds of bee yards in spring. since the disease is known to readily affect weak colonies. Again. it is the opinion of the writer and many of the beekeepers of this region. widespread infections from this bee dis- ease in the South are rare. for the preceding educational work which may have been done by the extension men and women. Reese at in charge of J. The inspection work in Texas has been by areas. No other . Examination of combs showed in many cases that the death of colonies was often due to European foulbrood. Some cases of the disease have been found In in Tennessee and Kentucky and some in West Virginia. than inspection work. This is true especially of Texas and it is the opinion of the writer. except excessive swarming. that extension work in bee culture is is more vital to the immediate future of beekeeping. which disease may at least be retarded by the introduction of pure Italian queens.98 BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH brood than any other cause. where the beekeepers were discouraged with the outlook and believed the cutting of timber had ruined the territory for bee pasture. M. in counties where the beekeepers thought enough of their profession to organize. have an adequate inspection service.

KEEKEEPIXG IN THE SOUTH ')9 Fig. . Suit worn by a Florida Inspector. 48.

Two drances: first. Modern beekeeping has no place for the man who it comb hive. too many noncommercial beekeepers. Big Hindrances. I\ THE SOUTH Fig. whether is primar}^ object than a movable be manufactured or home made. Both can be ob\iatcd by extension work. 49. many box ods or be forced to get out of business. there are two great hm- and second.100 BEEKEEPI. Texas inspector giving a demonstration of transferring. The non -commercial l)eekeo])ers will be largely done away with when modern methods have been taught by the extension . In the eradication of bee diseases. The box men can either be taught to adopt modern methtoo hives. southern state is known to the writer to be maintaining an adequate inspection service at this time.\(. The the ability of examination afforded by the kec^ps bees in other movable comb hive.

boxes. . even though 48 per cent of the total number of colonies of bees in the United States are said to be located in this This means that more commercial beekeepers could territory. E\en the fellow who keeps only a few bees for his own honey supply has no excuse for not using movable frame hives. if he does not wish to buy Every well posted beekeeper knows not only that it is impossible to eradicate bee diseases efficiently in non-movable frame hives.BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH 101 men. be welcomed without overstocking either the pasture or the market. At present the South is not by any means overstocked with bees. where the bees are kept in logs and since he can supplies. but he knows what is of more import: that disease cannot be recognized until much harm has already been done in the vicinity by its spread. make them himself.

Most men who buy bees in the South buy them from their own region and consequently run a smaller risk of buying disease than if purchased in the North. is unknown. it is quite unlikely that much disease is ever transmitted by pound packages. However. it is reasonable to suspect that shipment of honey from apiaries where diseases exist is responsible for much disease spreading. which unfortunately. through the robbing of used honey cans. of acquainting beekeepers with the is symptoms of seen throughout the country as well as in the South. either by purely extension or by inspectors who are authorized to give part time to educational work. as a rule. A conjecture which the writer believes a good one is this: There is little honey shipped into the region for human consumption and most of the shipping of bees is out of the South. There is no more efficient method of accomplishing this than by extension work. Just why the South with its great number of colonies of bees should be fairly immune from American foulbrood so far. but there have been few really serious losses from this disease.102 BEEKEEPIX(. seldom harbor the disease present. and the shipment of nuclei is rapidly gi\ing place to package shipments. Not enough publicity is given the dangers of disease incident . the end of serious disease losses would soon come. etc. While the facts are not known. Need The need bee diseases it is of Education. IX THE SOUTH Other Diseases. where parts of the From some more tropical reports of considerable trouble from bee paralysis. South come frequent This disease is common to hot climates. Beekeepers. Whether or not much disease is usually shipped with bees is only to be conjectured. does not There have been reports of a yield to treatment in all cases. **Disapjx?arins^ Disease" but most of these have revealed nothing of import when investigated. when they know Taught to recognize the symptoms and to recognize the infections at sight. disease is all too prevalent.

We are a wealthy people. which. The total would easily reach thousands of dollars. when left un- Too few of the beekeepers who must be eventually reached. Of necessity the appeal must be to his greater chances of financial success by the change to modern methods and the eradication to various phases of beekeeping. of diseases. 51. The wreck that follows an epidemic of disease treated.BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH 103 Fig. too much given to belittling losses from waste. Too much time has been given his to patriotic appeals and attempts to reach sympathy. The newspaper columns of most dailies are open to short articles on such subThis fact is being taken jects. No one can estimate the financial loss from epidemics of European foul brood in the Appalachians. advantage of by some of the extension forces. in order to get the box hive beekeeper thinking and to reading free government bulletins. are largely preordained to failure. except in war time. Every southern beekeeper should get behind . when written by reliable men. where most of the honey is consumed at home. even when he will not buy bee journals and books. take bee journals.

before they leave the premThe success ises where bee disease may have been found. will be watched with interest. which is also disinfected. since the latter are happily rather scarce in that state. B. F.104 BEEKEEPI\(. engage actively in extensive extension work. than they have ever had in the past. Newell famous. under the provisions of the law. and the treat- ment of disease. Very thorough methods are taken in disinfecting instruments used. and workers wear a regular suit. While we have taken the stand that we could not legitimately. I\ THE SOUTH the txlucational forces of his stale and should see that the free government bulletins on bee diseases and bees receive far wider distribution among the little fellows. . as are their shoes. among southern beekeepers is centering on the inspection work in Florida begun in 1919. We are going farther and sqggest that the inspectors put on demonstrations of transferring. has brought about extreme methods in asepsis among the inspectors. The work is under the direction of Wilmon Newell. Dr." The Value Considerable interest of Asepsis. Paddock wrote of Texas extension and inspection work: "We have always felt that the inspection work in this state was most entirely a matter of education. where success in the eradication of this plant disease has made Mr. as Florida has more of this project to gain from preventive measures than from treatment of bee diseases. Experience with the citrus canker in Florida. where a large appropriation has been granted to fight bee diseases. we ha\e nevertheless gi\en the inspector every encouragement in this work.

amber For the most part. is obviously unfair. Nearly half the bees of the whole country are there and not much more honey than could be consumed locally has ever been produced in hundreds of southEmergency funds could bring ern localities. The present honey based largely on color and not on food value and "foreign" content. when his price for honey is compared with that of the producer of dark colored is THERE honey honey. Texas excepted. some of it in the South. Southern Honeys. the honey produced in the South is light or amber in color. However. Most of the emergency funds of the Bee Culture Laboratory during the war were spent in increasing honey production. great results there where producers are anxious to increase their output and where their mental attitude was far more receptive to changes in their methods. when sold in northern markets. There are some regions where quite 105 .CHAPTER Xlli Southern Marketing Problems. One of the good features of the work there was or- who may ganization. This was right. In this case the producer of light colored honey does not fare as well as he should. An obsolete and unfair classification of all honey produced in this region as "Southern" has been common. than in much of the North and East. but it will take years of education to eliminate it. no matter where produced. probably no region of this country in which the produced in any area is discriminated against as much as the honey produced in the South. The best remedy is organization and honest grading. classification of also sell on the northern market. it will not take years to eliminate unfair discrimination against the fine honeys of the South. east of the Mississippi River.

where of in black and white tupelo honey the finest honey which is produced. Similarly southwest Texas. (Jakler's wagon was long a familiar Memphis. 52. IN THE SOUTH Fig. fine grade of For the consumer of the middle South. it is hard to better his purchases. where wild sweet clover where partridge pea abounds." From some regions. than from the regions of Mississippi and Alabama. or in south Georgia. the unjust classification "Southern. sight on the streets of dark colored honey of is produced. there comes some any man has ever eaten. elsewhere in the country and 3'iclds. . white honey. namely Florida.106 BEEKKEPIXc. huajilla yields a wonderfully nicely flavored. but these regions can not fairly bring upon the balance of the product. Yet how many consumers ot hone}^ how many beekeepers ever heard of these honc}T> at bee conxentions orinthe market? The need is j)ublicity and cooperative marketing.

Not alone to justify the standing of the South as a honey producing region. is cooperative marketing advisable. color. 53. It is quite likely that the average southern producer has received less for his honey than the producer of the other parts of this country. and resold in New York City to a foreign government for seventeen and a Surely this is not fair to the producer. in this case. he deserves a higher market price. whose honey. was one of the finest samples ever seen by the writer anywhere.BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH 107 Honey Prices. Organization is beginning in parts of the South. his and in many cases. his cus- . mainly through Fig. and body. half cents per pound. were bought during the war at six cents per pound. This Georgia beekeeper has a honey route and serves tomers direct from the tank in the back of his car. considering product as graded by flavor. give a more important reason for inIn one region. many barrels of honey telligent marketing. Honey Exchanges. The unfair prices paid many southern producers by unscrupulous buyers of the North and South.

has its many other sections and is a method which must be adopted in some form. of travel means where an auto could not go and the best was horseback. movement which is bound to spread. IX l'. who have gone into such regions. The work of county agents. as the region served by this exchange has received but little of the benefits of war time ])rices. enforces honest grading and safe packing. notably northern South Caro- .xc One of the best of these. )('i)arinKMU of Agriculture. Some whole counties have been gone o\'er by the writer. THE SOUTH 1 ihc acli\it\' of agents of xhv S. B. There can be no doubt but that this was a move in the right direction. Willson that a number of the county agents. the Tui)elo Honey hange at Wewah- was organized dining a \isit made there by the writer. in localities where much honey is produced. This is a system which manager. Southern Production. of most of the large apiaries of Texas. This association handles the output own brand. The association is also cooperative in buying supplies for the beekeeper and has served to put beekeeping of Texas on a more safe and sound basis. Florida. In Mississippi the writer has been informed by R. a have aided their beekeepers in marketing cooperatively. h. in many cases. is the case of the beekeepers of the South for marketing their honey and receiving an adequate payment Texas Honey Producers LeStourgeon is Association of San Antonio. with never a sight of a modern hive. This is The Texas Honey Producers. The total production of the South is low. itchka. and has added several cents per pound. to the total recei\-ed by Texas beekeepers for their product. before the South as a whole is to receive her just deserts in the honey markets of could be adopted safely by of selling the world. of which E. G. with a modern hive strapped on the back of their buggies. One of the most notable and most successful moves among for their labor. wheit the total number of colonies of bees in the entire region is considered.108 BEEKEEPINC.

Southern box hive beekeepers will have to get together and work to eliminate the man by changing him into a modern beekeeper or elimi- nating him from the will receive its game by honest means. but where honey plants abounded in numbers. cannot be estimated as to the total ultimate value.BEEKEEPING IX THE SOUTH 109 Una. half pounds per capita Progress in Marketing. if properly managed. Although the South probably has made greater strides than of the country in the past five years. in bettering any other part TEN I'OC. before over production ever need become a bogey. where often enough bees are already there to handle the flora. There is great room for expansion and education of the market.NDS . country for honey. before the South proper share of the money spent annually in this Present production for the entire is about two and one country and this probably is cut in half in the South. The opportunities are great in most parts of the South.

IX THE SOTTH methods of hunc\' j)r()ductioii. This is absolutely necessary if sales are to keep pace with j^roduction. with their fingers on the pulse of sales and prices. coinparalivcly little has been done to better the marketing conditions. and prices A few beekeepers remain within reason for the producer. J. The good effect of such ventures has already been felt in all such territories where the work is under way.no BEEKEKPINC. and still others are venturing into bottling and exploiting their own markets. should endeavor to keep up prices in comparison with increased production and to educate all markets to use southern honey. Southern beekeepers.' . The classification "Southern" should soon become as famous as that of "Uvalde" or "Lone Star. like J. Wilder are pioneering in aiding others to sell their honey at a reasonable price.

This does not mean that information which has been furnished the writer has been unreliable. Blossoms of bitterwced Ill in Tennessee. this topic ia the space of one chapter is obviously impossible. However. 55. TO COVER plants. . no book about beekeeping would be complete without some reference to honey The greatest difficulty in arranging the contents of this chapter has been to get reliable information. That the task of Fig. but that the scientific name of individual honey plants was seldom known by the informants.CHAPTER XIV Surplus Honey Plants of the South.

. 56. Blossoms of black locust in Virginia. IN THE SOUTH Fig.112 BEEKEEPIXr.

Attempts are made. but they undoubtedly explain the buckwheat or alfalfa to yield .erely because such crops or methods suc- ceeded in the North. The mistakes of northern farmers who settle in the South. Not enough attention has been given by beekeepers to the influence of tem- wheat or perature or soils on nectar secretion failure of of honey plants. by government men in that territory. Many plant buckalfalfa. although every effort has been taken to make this report worthy of credence. What Is a Surplus is Honey Plant? is Another feature which plants. is secured. have frequently been pointed out to the writer. Therefore the contents of this chapter will show only the ten or twelve plants in each state from which a sufficient portion of the surplus honey tural importance. The writer assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of other than the common names. No atten- tion can be given to these factors in this chapter. Many cases investigated have shown that the plant ordinarily yielded surplus honey. seldom recognized by beekeepers that frequently honey plants should be classed as surplus honey when they are pollen-producing column. by custom placed in the stimulative or Too frequently beekeepers say this or that plant does not yield surplus.BEEKEEPINCx IN is THE SOUTH 113 tracing these to a reliable source too great to accomplish in a short time is certain. or to recognized scientific workers in the locality. Too frequently this is because of poor beekeeping. rather than be- cause of the season or other conditions. unsuccessfully. to raise crops wholly unadapted to the South or by methods predestined to failure. but that the bees owned by the man in question were seldom in shape to get surplus from the plant at the season of its bloom. m. The Northern beekeeper settling in the South frequently makes the same mistakes. to scientific The make the plants of real apiculname of the plant has been de- termined by reference of the case in question to the botany department of the several states in question. because they have come from portions of the United States where these were staple honey plants.

Plants connearly as it sidered as surplus honey plants in this list are those credited by better beekeepers in the several states as being their principal sources of surplus honey. entire state. in which less is known of the "why" There are few industries than in beekeeping. varies too greatly because of the elevation and latitude to list. We leave their accuracy to the test of things of time. Method commonest plus of Listing. The usual order of its bloom in a normal season. Doubtless many will criticize the lists given here. or those which the author knows to be . compared with others on the list. when in reality such plants are seldom visited by bees.lU BEEKEEriXG IN THE SOUTH Fig. Beehiv^es among the wild asters in X'irginia. 57. nectar in nearly every part of the southern states. We enter a plea that beekeepers do more careful ob- serving in their beekeeping practice. Many plants have nectar secreting qualities attributed to them. Plants are listed by states in the alphabetical order of their local names. There are few surhoney plants which are always important throughout one The scientific name follows the common name as has been determined. No attempt has been made to arrange the plants in the order of their importance.

although worked hard at times by the bees. 5S. Clover (Sweet) TrifoUiim re- Melilotus alba Clover (White) pens Cotton Gossypitim hhstittim Ilex Glabra Gallberry Fig. . are omitted. Aster Aster Spp. The states chosen as southern states are those classed as such by the United States Department important sources. Mesquite is an important source of honey in Texas. of Agriculture. Alabama.— — BEEKEEPING IX —— — THE SOUTH 115 All other plants.

Tupelo (Black) Nyssa Spp. Holly {White)— Ilex opaca? Mangrove (Black) Rhizophora mangle Linn? Orange Citrus Spp. Rhus Spp. Aster Spp. Prairie Clover Oxydendrnm arbo- DC. — Arkansas. Cassia chamae- Gum (Black) — AH'^^a Spp. Sumac Rhus Spp. L. L. Blackberry Ruhus Clover (Sweet) Melilotus alba Clover (White) Trifolium repens Cotton Gossypium hirsutiim Huckleberrv Vacciniaceae Persimmon ian a Diospyros Virgin- Spanish Sumac Tupelo — Nyssa Spp. L. L. Locust (Honey) Gleditsia triacanthos. needle Bid ns Spp. Trifolium Caro- Spanish needle Bidens Spp. Wicky (Basswood) Tilia americana carpa Georgia. Clover (Prairie) Trifolium Palmetto bal palmetto (Cabbage) Sa- caroli?tianum? Chinquapin Gallberry Castanea pumila Ilex glabra Partridge pea crista. Spanish needle Bidens Spp. Florida. Gleditsia tri :- Prairie clover Trifolium caro- lifiianum? . Palmetto (Saw) Sabal mega- Summer farewell Helianthus Sunflower (Wild) Spp. Sahal megacarpa Cassia chamae- Partridge pea L. Willow Salix Spp. Ilex glabra Locust (Honey) canthos.—— ———— — ———— — — — 116 — — ———— — — —— — — IN — BEEKEEPING THE SOUTH Sourwood re u 771 (L) Huckleberry Vaccinium Spp. Aster Aster spp. Partridge pea Cassia chamaecrista. Black tupelo Gallberry Nyssa sylvatica Huckleberry Vaccinium spp. Titi linian um'^ Cyrilla racemiflora Palmetto crista.

— ———— — — — —— — — —
reiim (L)

— —— ———— — — ——





Cyrilla racemiflora

Liriodendron tu-

White tupelo

Nyssa aquatica
Ilex opaca

Tulip poplar
lipifera, L.

White holly

Aster Spp.

Locust (Black)

Robinia pseu-

Buckwheat pyrum

Fagopyrtim fagoTrifolium

Melilotus Trifolium hyTrifolium


Clover (White)

Tilia americana

Clover (Alsike)

—Melilotus alba



Melons (Cultivated)


incarnatum Vigna sinensis Dandelion Taraxacum taraxa-


Maple Acer rubrum Persimmon Diospyros



Red bud

Cercis canadensis

Daisy (Whiteweed) Chrysanthemum leucanthemum Goldenrod Solidago Spp.




Liriodendron tulipifera


Salix Spp.



Medicago sativa Eupatorium perfoliaTrifolium


Citrus Spp.

Partridge pea

Cassia chamae-

Clover (White)


Ampelopsis arbo-


Gossypium hirsutum
Ilex glabra



sic aria

Solidago Spp.

Heartsease (Smartweed)
per sic aria

Rattan Berchemia scandens. Palmetto Sabal megacar pa Tupelo (^Black) Nyssa Spp. Willow (Button) Salix Spp.




Pseudoacacia, L.

—— — — — — — —— — —


— — — ——— — — — ——


Aster Spp.

Chestnut Castanea dentata Clover (\\^hite) TH folium

Joe pye weed (Boneset) patorium purpureiim





Trifoliiim hy-

Clover (Alsike) bridum

Rhus Spp.


Solidaoo Spp.

Thistle (Blue



MeJilotiis alba

Liriodendron ttdipifera.



Aster Spp.

Holly (White)

Ilex opaca?


(N o commercial




Pseudoacacia, L.


(wild) Dauctis Spp.? Clover {White) ^Tri folium repens

Palmetto (Saw) Sabal megacar pa Partridge Pea Cassia chamaecrista, L.

Clover (Sweet) Melilotus alba Cotton Gossypium hirsutum
Gall berry
Ilex glabra






Nyssa aquasylvatica


— Nyssa

eum Danish Needle Bidens Spp. Sumac Rhus Spp.

Cyrilla racemiflora





Salix Spp.

North Carolina.
Aster Spp. Blackberry Vaccinium Spp. Clethra Clethracae Gallberry Ilex Glabra


Sourwood Oxydendrum arboreum Sweet Bay (Laurel Tree)
Persea Borbonia,



Goldenrod Solidago Spj:). Holly (White) Ilex opaca} Ironwood (White Titi) Cyrilla racemiflora,


Liriodendron tu-



— ——— — — — —— —

— — ——— — — — —— — — — —


Aster Spp.


Locust (Honey)




Clover (Sweet) Clover (White) pens

Melilotus alba

crisla, L.

Asclepias Spp.



Partridge pea

Cassia chamaeDiospyrosvirgini-

Cotton Gossypium hirsulum Goldenrod Solidago Spp. Heartsease (Smartweed) Persicaria per sicar ia



Rhus Spp.

South Carolina,
Alniis Spp. Clover (White) Trifolium pens
Ilex glabra


Ligtistrum Spp.

Tulip poplar




Gum Gum


— Nyssa






Nyssa aqua-

Rattan Berchemia scandens Vetch Vicia Spp.

Holly (White)— //e.T opaca'^ Persimmon Diospyros virgini-

Aster Spp.
Tilia Spp.


Solidago Spp.


Heartsease (Smartweed)
sicaria per sicaria


— (N o

Locust (Black)





doacacia, L.




Clover (White) pens Clover (Alsike)

Spanish needle Bidens Spp. Tulip poplar Liriodendron

Trifolium hyTrifolium


(Crimson) incarnatum

Persimmon (Mexican) pyras Texana Diosopaca.———— — — — ——— — —— 120 e ———— — — ——— —— IN — BEEKEEPING THE SOUTH Texas. Virginia. Gutierrezia Rattan Berchemia scajidens White brush Lippia ligustrina Tex- Broomweed ana Virginia. (Rosa- Gall berry Ilex glabra Goldenrod Tilia Spp. Solidago Spp.te^-''^r>•<S| . (Youpon) Ilex Cactus Opuntia Spp. Tilia spp. Liriodendron tu- Tulip poplar lipifera West Aster Aster spp. Basswood Buckwheat Gum escu- (Black) Nyssa sylvatica Fagopyrum lentum Clover (White) pens Clover (Sweet) Trifolium re- Red bud Cercis canadensis Sourwood Oxydendrum arboreum Sumac Rhus spp. Tulip poplar lipifera Melilotus alba Liriodendron tu- Clover (Alsike) Trifolium hy- bridum Library W. Stvr. Apple ceae) Malaceae Aster Spp. etc. Aster Basswood Persimmon ana Sourvvood Diospyros virgini- Blue thistle Echium vulgar Clover (White) Trifolium repens Clover (Crimson) Trifolium incarnatum Oxydendrum arbor- eum Sumac Rhus Spp. Holly etc. Cotton Gossypium hirsutum Horsemint Monarda punctata Mesquite Pro so pis gla^idulosa Huajilla Havardia brevifolia Catsclaw Acacia Greggii & Wright a Sumac Rhus Spp. C. Goldenrod Solidago spp.

Time of Honey Flows. Honey for Wintering 48-79 Selling Bee Pests Beginners' Needs 64 30 17 Honey 108-109 101 Building Up Colonies Overstocking Palmettos Affected by Heat 62 107 12-13-105 Color of Southern Honey 32-39 Comb or Extracted Honey 55 Combless Shipping Packages 20 Conserving the Bees 77 Cotton as a Honey Plant 72 Cultivated Nectar Secreting Plants Prices Paid for Honey Queens for Package Bees.„ Alluvial Regions Amount of Bees Aster 98-102-104 84 46-69 10-13 51 Making a Start 29 73 Melilotus Area Migratory Beekeeping.5 INDEX Pages A.40 Yields of Honey in the South 10-13 .47-76 Inspection Service for Bee Disease.. 76 B in the 85-97-104 Fall Flows Mountains 86 Hindrance to Disease Eradication Honey Flows. Greater Use of 23 Winter Supplies 51 Winter Temperatures.- 116 116 116-117 117 Trees as Honey Plants. Zero Temperatures . Chart of Kentucky. What is a 113 Swarm Prevention 53 Swarm Prevention by Packages 56 38 102 Texas Beekeeping Notes 87 Time Time to Ship Bees to Start Beekeeping in the South 56 30 79 1 1 Georgia. Type of Honey Shipments and Disease Honey Sources: Alabama Arkansas Florida 100 37 35 Seasonal Operations 24 Shallow Supers as Brood Chambers 41 Snowfallin the South 61-69-80 Soils and Nectar Secretion "Southern Honey" Classifications 105 23-26 Style of Hive for the South _ Surplus Honey Plant. F._ 42-43-62 25 81 Modern Hive.. F. Tropical Regions Tulip Poplar Yields \'ariety of 45-61 80 65 Kentucky. A Mountain Climates Mountain Regions Organizations. Louisiana Honey Plants Marjland Mississippi 117 118 118 118 North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia 119 119 119 West Virginia 120 120 120 White Clover in the Mountains 79 Wilder on Wintering 40 Winter Losses Heavy 83 Winter Protection 50 Winter Stores._ Rearing Queen Bees 64 57 Deeper Brood Chambers E. After Pages B Swarm Losses Necessarv'.

Doolittle and others. III. PELLETT preparation for this book Mr. Price $1. . PELLETT book in the English language on the subject of honey plants A knowledge of the sources of nectar is fundamental to the success of the beekeeper.50. Price $2. both north and south. make the book valuable alike to the ordinary beekeeper and commercial queen breeder. 300 large pages. cloth bound. Tliis book is the result of years of study and visits to important honey producing sections.BOOKS ON BEEKEEPING FOR SALE BY AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL Practical Queen Rearing BY FRANK In C. from New England to California. are explained with the variations which are the development of later years. American Honey Plants BY FRANK The first C. and from Canada to Florida and Texas. 40 illustrations. AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL Hamilton. The methods of the older queenbreeders and writers. 155 fine illustrations. Alley. as well as Cloth binding. Simple methods of rearing a few queens in a small apiary. and has described their methods fully. methods used for rearing queens in wholesale quantity. An authoritative book by an expert beekeeper and reliable naturalist. as the difference of a mile or two in distance often doubles the returns from the apiary on account of better pasturage. Profusely illustrated with original jdiotographs. Pellett visited many of America's foremost beekeepers and queen breeders. 105 pages.

illustrated with original photographs. Cloth Bound. 111. PELLETT Book in the of the English Language on the Subject Honey Plants is A knowledge of the sources of nectar fundamental to the success of the beekeeper. fine illustrations. Special chapters devoted to Apiary Sites. 3 pages. Moving.50. An authoritative book by an expert beekeeper. because of better pasture. Autos and Trucks. . from New England to California and from Canada to Florida and Texas. American Honey Plants BY FRANK The First C. Honey Houses and Equipment.BOOKS ON BEEKEEPING FOR SALE BY AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL OUTAPIARIES BY M. Hamilton. This book apiarist is especially valuable to the beginning out- and will contain many items of interest to the older veteran. Mailing weight one pound. Price 5^1. Price $2. as the difference of a mile or two in distance often doubles the returns from the apiary. as applied to outapiaries. Systems of Management. 125 Pages. DADANT and concise explanation of the requirements for arranging and managing outapiaries. apiary w^ork during different seasons. G. w^ith treatment of clear A proper placing. This book is the result of many years of study and personal visits to important honey producing districts. Profusely 8vo Mailing weight 300 large American Bee Journal.00. 155 pounds. Basis of Placing the Apiary. 50 Illustrations.

was an investigator w^ho became well known on both sides of the Atantic. $L00. The best methods of producing and marketing large crops of honey are made clear. This book is nicely bound in attractive cloth cover and contains 575 pages. has been revised and kept up to date by the editor of the American Bee Journal. Price $2. and care of the apiary throughout the year are included. cloth bound. Full and reliable information concerning the detection and treatment of disease. the inventor of the movable frame hive. You may safely recommend First Lessons in Beekeeping to your friends. in a style easily understood and with many pictures to explain the text. It is the one book that no beekeeper can afford to be without.BOOKS ON BEEKEEPING FOR SALE BY AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL Langstroth on the Honeybee REVISED BY DADANT This book. the author of this book w^as associated with his father in honey production and assisted him in the many experiments which he conducted in his efforts to make bee- C P DADAKT keeping a practical success. originally written by Rev. The price is very low for a book of this size and qualitv. the sources of nectar and pollen. P. L. American Bee Journal. Contains just the things you want to know. L. 167 pages. It contains careful and accurate accounts of the life and habits of the honeybee and the mysteries of the hive. First Lessons in BY C. His father. Hamilton.50. Price. III . who the American the author of this FIRST LESSONS IN BEEKEEPING book. well illustrated. has spent nearly all his life in beekeeping atmosphere. As a young man. the late Charles Dadant. Langstroth. Beekeeping editor is DADANT of The senior a Bee Journal.

The market page alone is worth several times the subscription price to beekeepers with honey for sale. 111. and best in its field. DOOLITTLE old work that has had a big sale.25 to the regular price of the book and both book and Journal will be sent postpaid. Hamilton. add $1. every section of the country receives attention. A 36-page Monthly Magazine Subscription $L50 per year. latest news. Price. We advise " Practical Queen Rearing " as preferable. but the student or commercial breeder who desires to practice cell grafting will find this work interesting.BOOKS ON BEEKEEPING FOR SALE BY AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL Scientific BY An G. ADIhJilCAN Bth-JOLRNAI beekeeping is covered in the Journal.00. . American Bee Journal. Every phase of New articles methods. $1. Pellett Oldest Bee Journal in the English Language. Gives Doolittle's methods of queen rearing by artificial grafting. Canadian postage Foreign 25c extra 15c. Leatherette. If the American Bee Journal is wanted in combination with any one of our bee books. questions anFirst swered. profusely illustrated. P. free legal service department. Dadant and Frank C. Queen Rearing M. cloth binding. illustrated on honey plants. 50c American Bee Journal Edited by C.

OUTAPIARIES BY M. 276 pages illustrated. These have been sifted and more than 1. This book is especially valuable to the beginning outapiarist. basis of placing the apiary. Price $1. Dadant. C. Attractive cloth cover. has 125 pages and 50 illustrations. Price $1. and is printed on fine paper.000 of in this new book. honey houses and equipment. The result is that apiaries are often located improperly and have to be moved after errors are discovered bj^ costly clear A experience. Hamilton. while this takes up singly the many questions which perplex the beekeeper in every-day practice about his bees. systems of management. The bee texts life all tell a connected story of and the principles of honey production. but will contain many items of value to the experienced outyard man. to Beekeeping Questions MILLER For over 25 years Doctor Miller answered questions for beginners and veterans alike through the columns of the American 10. autos and trucks. edited by Alaurice G. Should be in every list of bee books. C. these questions in this More than answered have been manner. up many problems not touched by other bee books.25.000 of Bee Journal. ^'5 (14/19/00 . Too many beekeepers expand mto outapiary beekeeping without fundamental knowledge of its requirements. moving. and treatment of apiary during different seasons of the year. American Bee Journal. The book is cloth bound. with special apparatus used by large beekeepers.BOOKS ON BEEKEEPING FOR SALE BY AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL A Thousand Answers CY DR. j3*| . arranging and managing of outapiaries.00. them included Alphabetically this book will clear arranged by subject. DADANT and concise explanation of the requirements for proper placing. G. Special chapters are devoted to apiary sites. 111.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful