Buckling of Stiffened Panels 1 overall buckling vs plate buckling PCCB Panel Collapse Combined Buckling
Various estimates have been developed to determine the minimum size stiffener to insure the plate buckles while the stiffener remains straight. this is equivalent to insuring that plate buckling occurs before overall buckling.
Timoshenko does so by calculating k in _{σ} _{c}_{r} :=
k ⋅
2
π
⋅ D
b ^{2} ⋅ t
and observing the
value of _{γ} which results in a critical stress above that which will cause plate buckling alone. where;
flexural_rigidity_of_combined_section
γ :=
flexural_rigidity_of_plate
γ :=
E ⋅
I x
D⋅ b
where;
I _{x} is the inertia of the plate with the attached plate associated with individual stiffener.
Bleich pg 365, 367, for plates with longitudinal stiffness determines minimum _{γ} to insure the plate buckles before the stiffener (overall buckling). unfortunately Bleich uses different ratios than Hughes. Bleich uses B where Hughes uses b.
for the following:
_{α} :=
a
B
δ :=
A x
B⋅ t
γ :=
E ⋅
I x
D⋅ B
α := 0.1 , 0.2
γ o
(
)
α , δ , n
:=
π
n ⋅
α
+
16 ⋅
α
n
10
δ := 0.1
(
)
α , n
κ _{1}
:=
16
α
⋅
π
2
n
3
1 ⋅ tanh
κ 1
(
)
α , n
2
−
(
)
α , n
1 κ 2
(
⋅ tan
κ 2
)
α , n
2
(
)
α , n
κ _{2}
(
)
α , n
2
⋅ δ
:=
^{γ} omax
(
α , δ
)
:=
π
n ⋅
α
max
γ o
(
γ o
(
γ o
(
α , δ , 1 α , δ , 2 α , δ , 3
)
)
)
γ _{o} ( α , δ , 1) 
γ _{o} ( α , δ , 2) 
γ _{o} ( α , δ , 3) 
40
γ _{o}_{m}_{a}_{x} ( α , δ )
20
0
1
curve fit:
one stiffener, combining Hughes and Bleich terms, N=1 stiffener
( 
α , δ 
) 
:= 
22.8 
2 

( 
α , δ 
) 
:= 
48.8 
2 

γ _{o}_{m}_{a}_{x} ( α , δ ) 

γ _{b}_{x} ( α , δ ) 
⋅ α
+
γ
bx
(
γ bx1
γ
bx2
)
γ bx1 
( 
α , δ 
) 

min 


( 
) 

γ bx2 
α , δ 

two stiffeners 

γ bx21 ( 
Π 
, δ x 
) 
:= 

γ bx22 (Π 
, δ 
x ):= 

800 

600 

^{γ} bx21 
(Π , 
δ x 
) 

^{γ} bx22 
(Π , 
δ x 
) 
400 

200 
:=
Hughes: 13.1.4
slightly
modified in
terms
α , δ
40
30
20
10
0
Fig. 180, Bleich
to move to Bleich relationships in Hughes terms (ratios) to match text:
where: 
_{Π} := 

one stiffener 

γ 
bx11 
( 
Π , 
δ 
x 
) 
:= 
γ 
bx12 
( 
Π , 
δ 
x 
) 
:= 
Π := 1 , 1.1 
5 
+
2 δ x
43.5
36 Π
⋅
⋅
0
0246
12345
Π
Π
2
combination
γ b
Π
,
δ
x
, N)
:=
if
N = 1 min
,
^{γ} bx11
^{γ} bx12
Π ,
Π ,
δ x
δ x
,
min
^{γ} bx21
^{γ} bx22
Π ,
Π ,
δ x
δ x
minimum ratio of EI/Db (A/bt = 0.1)
12345
panel aspect ratio = a/B
2 stiffeners
1 stiffener
A more direct approach is to calculate the overall buckling stress and insure it is larger
than the plate critical stress.
The overall buckling stress is the value at which the stiffeners reach critical stress,
modeling each stiffener as a column of stiffener with attached (portion) of plate with some
equivalent slenderness ratio.
λ
:=
L_over_ρ _{e}_{q}
We will continue to model the plate failure as a gradual failure i.e the center of the plate
"fails" in buckling while the outer section remains effective at an effective breadth _{b} _{e}
paradoxically, the column is "stiffer" when the plate flange ( _{b} _{e} ) is reduced for ratios typical
of ship structure: let's first evaluate the plate and column critical stresses for a short panel.
As we assumed in plate buckling (and bending) the width is such that we can model a slice
independently:
the column is a stiffener with an attached plate of width b
the plate is a width b
some typical scantlings:
stiffener web
stiffener flange
A
_{w} := 0.8
A
f
:= 0.85
stiffener area
A
s
:=
^{A} w
+
^{A} f
stiffener depth panel length
d := 5
L := 96
breadth between set above
stiffeners b
b := 30
t = 0.5
3
calculate in terms of b _{e} , initially b _{e} = b
moment of inertia using 8.3.6 to calculate radius of gyration:
A e
column critical stress:
C
_{1}
b
e
:=
A w
⋅
A e
b
e
A w
−
3
4
+
A
f
⋅
b
e
⋅ t
A
e
b
e
I e
b
e
:=
A
e
b
e
⋅ ( d)
2
⋅
C
1
b
e
^{σ} _{e}_{_}_{c}_{r}
b
e
:=
π
2
⋅ E
L
ρ e
b
e
2
; initial value
_{σ} _{e}_{_}_{c}_{r} _{(} _{b}_{)} _{=} _{4}_{9}_{3}_{4}_{1}
plate critical stress:
^{σ} _{a}_{_}_{c}_{r}
b
e
:=
3.615⋅ E
⋅
t
2
b e
initial value _{σ} _{a}_{_}_{c}_{r} _{(} _{b}_{)} _{=} _{3}_{0}_{1}_{2}_{5}
things are ok as column > plate => plate "fails" first. now consider increasing stress
beyond _{σ} _{a}_{_}_{c}_{r} _{(} _{b}_{)} and plate gradually fails reducing effective breadth. Note that we are using
an assumption due to von Karman, that the "failed" center region has no compressive
stress while the outer regions are fully effective at _{σ} _{e} defined from force equilibrium as
σ e
b
e
:=
σ _{a} ⋅ b
b e
now consider what happens to the values of critical stress as effective
breadth is reduced. the definitions above are still active; repeated here for info:
_{b} _{e} _{:}_{=} _{1}_{5}
_{.}_{.}
_{b}
these values are not "short" but with
appropriate scantlings the result is the
column (stiffener with plate)
plate alone
4
even though the numbers above represent a long column (plate), the analysis is only
appropriate for short panels. to analyze long panels a correction is needed to _{λ} =
Some calculations to validate the column becoming "stiffer" with less effective plate. Think of the location of the
neutral axis or the radius of gyration as the plate is reduced. With a wide plate flange the neutral axis is close to
the plate. The radius of gyration which plays in the critical stress varies as follows: (recall larger _{ρ} => larger
critical stress:
b _{e} ⋅ t
A s
now for our design rules for PCCB Panel Collapse Combined Buckling:
5
 PCCB  Panel Collapse Combined Buckling
function of b _{e} , graphical approach
Checks??
input data 

input := 1 
ignore numerical 

values shown 

here 

TSF := .215 
TSW := .17 
t p
SDEPTH := 5.
try this with SDEPTH = 6, to see yield effect
b := 25 
t := .5 
N := 2 

L = 96 

6 
E t ⋅ 
3 

υ := 0.3 
E 
:= 29.6 10 ⋅ 
D 
:= 

12 
⋅ 
( 
1 
− 

A 
f 
:= BSF⋅ TSF 
A 
s 
:= 
^{A} w 
+ 
^{A} f 

A 
f 
= 0.85 
A 
s 
= 1.66 

b⋅ t 
A s 

= 7.53 
δ _{x} := 

A s 
b⋅ t 

δ _{x} = 0.13 
υ
as a place to start and for printing purposes. Can also use be directly and
/ b < start use result until converges.
min
6
critical stress relationships:
stiffener & plate as a column
effective portion of plate
original plate
now obseving intersection:
b
e
:=
b
rat
⋅ b
b e
b
e
= 19.14
assuming iteration complete and matched above.
7
stiffener & plate as a column
σ
ecr
b
e
:=
−
π
2
⋅ E
C _{π} ⋅ L
ρ e
b
e
2
effective portion of plate
σ
ecr_pl
b
e
:=
−4
⋅
π
2
⋅ D
b e
2
⋅ t
translation back to applied stress
σ
axcr
:=
b _{e} ⋅ t +
A s
b⋅ t +
A s
⋅
^{σ} ecr
b
e
σ
ecr
^{b} e
_{)} = −73018
σ
ecr_pl
^{b} e
_{)} = −73015
partial safety factor
γ
_{C} := 1.5
σ
C
:= −20000
^{γ}^{R} PCCB
:=
σ C
γ
C
⋅
^{σ} axcr
input
λ :=
a
π ⋅
ρ e
b
e
σ
axcr
= −57913
is it slender?? _{λ}_{>}_{1} ??
λ = 1.05
γR _{P}_{C}_{C}_{B} = 0.51801
8