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We are currently eating, sleeping and breathing a new found religion of everything green.

At the very heart of responsibility is industry and commerce, with everyone now racing to create their environmental business strategy. In line with this awareness, there is much discussion about the green marketing opportunity as a means of jumping on this bandwagon. We need to find a sustainable marketing that actually delivers on green objectives, not green theming. Marketers need to give up the many strategies and approaches that made sense in pure commercial terms but which are unsustainable. True green marketing must go beyond the ad models where everything is another excuse to make a brand look good; we need a green marketing that does good

INTRODUCTION:
In recent times, the environment has emerged as a hot issue for societies, governments, in addition to business organizations. Its significance originates from escalating environmental degradation such as solid wastes, ozone depletion, global warming, and air pollution. It is observed that different activities of business organizations like sourcing, manufacturing, logistics, and marketing have a negative impact on the environment and also considered to be the source of most of the environmental problems (Eltayeb, Zailani & Jayaraman, K, 2010). At present, customers are ever more aware of the seriousness of environmental degradation, resulting more ecologically consciousness and desire to purchase eco-friendly products and services, favoring businesses that prefer environmental practice (Kalafatis et al., 1999; Laroche et al., 2001; Roberts, 1996).

Green marketing
The term "Green marketing" refers to the planning, development and promotion of products or services that satisfy the needs of consumers for quality, output, prices and service, without however a negative effect on the environment, with regard to the use of raw material, the consumption of energy etc (Davis, 1991; Kangis, 1992; Meffet and Kirchgeorg, 1994; Jain and Kaur, 2004; Peattie and Grane, 2005; Grant, 2008; Prideand Ferrell, 2008). According to the American Marketing Association, green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe.Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging changes, as well as modifying advertising.

Other Similar Terms:


Other similar terms used are Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing.

History:
The term Green Marketing came into prominence in the late 1980s and early 1990s.Dodds, John (2007).

The American Marketing Association (AMA) held the first workshop on "Ecological Marketing" in 1975. Curtin, Emily (2006-09-14) The proceedings of this workshop resulted in one of the first books on green marketing entitled "Ecological Marketing".( Karl E., Henion; Thomas C. Kinnear (January 1976). "Ecological Marketing". Ecological Marketing. American Marketing Association. pp. 168. ) The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Reports started with the ice cream seller Ben & Jerry's where the financial report was supplemented by a greater view on the company's environmental impact. In 1987 a document prepared by the World Commission on Environment and Development defined sustainable development as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own need, this became known as the Brundtland Report and was another step towards widespread thinking on sustainability in everyday activity. Two tangible milestones for wave 1 of green marketing came in the form of published books, both of which were called Green Marketing. They were by Ken Peattie (1992) in the United Kingdom and byJacquelyn Ottman (1993) in the United States of America. ("Green Marketing: Challenges & Opportunities for the New Marketing Age") According to Jacquelyn Ottman, (author of "The New Rules of Green Marketing: Strategies, Tools, and Inspiration for Sustainable Branding" (Greenleaf Publishing[9] and Berrett-Koehler Publishers, February 2011)) from an organizational standpoint, environmental considerations should be integrated into all aspects of marketing new product development and communications and all points in between.( "Green Marketing") The holistic nature of green also suggests that besides suppliers and retailers new stakeholders be enlisted, including educators, members of the community, regulators, and NGOs. Environmental issues should be balanced with primary customer needs. The past decade has shown that harnessing consumer power to effect positive environmental change is far easier said than done. The so-called "green consumer" movements in the U.S. and other countries have struggled to reach critical mass and to remain in the forefront of shoppers' minds. While public opinion polls taken since the late 1980s have shown consistently that a significant percentage of consumers in the U.S. and elsewhere profess a strong willingness to favor environmentally conscious products and companies, consumers' efforts to do so in real life have remained sketchy at best. One of green marketing's challenges is the lack of standards or public consensus about what constitutes "green," according to Joel Makower, a writer on green marketing. In essence, there is no definition of "how good is good enough" when it comes to a product or company making green marketing claims. This lack of consensusby consumers, marketers, activists, regulators, and influential peoplehas slowed the growth of green products, says Makower, because companies are often reluctant to promote their green attributes, and consumers are often skeptical about claims.

Evolution
The green marketing has evolved over a period of time. According to Peattie (2001), the evolution of green marketing has three phases. First phase was termed as"Ecological"green marketing, and during this period all marketing activities were concerned to helpenvironment problems and provide remedies for environmental problems. Second phase was "Environmental"green marketing and the focus shifted on clean technology that involveddesigning of innovative new products, which take care of pollution and waste issues. Thirdphase was "Sustainable"green marketing. It came into prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000.

Organic foods, cosmetics and toiletries (OCT) produced are the examples of the ecofriendly/environmental friendly products/brands. The organic constituents in the cosmetics categorically are considered as ecological/natural products and are marketed through the course and plan of green marketing strategy (Rajagopal, 2007).

Greenwashing:
Corporations are increasingly recognizing the benefits of green marketing, although there is often a thin line between doing so for its own benefit and for social responsibility reasons. The term greenwashing refers to all industries that adopt outwardly green acts with an underlying purpose to increase profits. The primary objective of greenwashing is to provide consumers with the feeling that the organization is taking the necessary steps to responsibly manage its ecological footprint. In reality, the company may be doing very little that is environmentally beneficial.(Orange, E. (2010): From eco-friendly to eco-intelligent. THE FUTURIST, SeptemberOctober 2010, 28-32) The term greenwashing was first used by environmentalist Jay Westerveld when objecting to hotelier's practice of placing notices in hotel rooms which asked their guests to reuse towels to save the environment. Westerveld noted that there was little else to suggest that the hoteliers were interested in reducing their environmental impacts, and that their interest in washing fewer towels seemed to be motivated by a concern to save costs rather than the environment. Since then greenwashing has become a central feature of debates about marketing communications and sustainability, with awards for greenwashing established and numerous campaigns, law and advices developed in an attempt to reduce or curb it.( Belz F., Peattie K.(2009): Sustainability Marketing: A Global Perspective. John Wiley & Sons)

Green Advertising
Environmental (or green) advertisements refer to all appeals that include ecological, environmental sustainability, or nature-friendly messages that target the needs and desires of environmentally concerned stakeholders (Zinkhan and Carlson, 1995).

Green brand:
A green brand identity is defined by a specific set of brand attributes and benefits related to the reduced environmental impact of the brand and its perception as being environmentally sound. A wellimplemented green brand identity should provide benefits to environmentally conscious consumers.(Roozen and De Pelsmacker, 1998)

Positioning as a green brand:


Positioning a brand as a green brand entails an active communication and differentiation of the brand from its competitors through its environmentally sound attributes. Ecologically sustainable products will not be commercially successful if green brand attributes are not effectively communicated (Pickett et al., 1995).

Green consumer:

Green consumer can defined as a person who is mindful of environment related issues and obligations and is supportive of environmental causes to the extent of switching allegiance from one product or supplier to another even if it entails higher cost (Business Dictionary.com, 2012).

Green consumerism:
Green consumerism refers to an attempt by individuals to protect themselves and the planet by buying only green products on the shelves (Ottman, 1992). Lee (2008) studied gender differences in green purchasing behaviour of adolescent consumers and found that female were the main green consumers.

Green Marketing and Sustainable Development


According to the World Commission on Environmental Development (1978), Sustainable Development is meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs. The common theme throughout this strategy of sustainable development, is the need to integrate economic and ecological considerations in decision making by making policies that conserve the quality of agricultural development and environmental protection. This is what the end product of green marketing is, environmental protection for the present and the future generation. The development of energy- efficient operations, better pollution controls, recyclable and biodegradable packaging, ecologically safe products are all part of green marketing which also leads to sustainable development ( International Conference on Computer Communication and Management ,Proc .of CSIT vol.5 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore, Article: The impact of Green Marketing on Customer satisfaction and Environmental safety Authors:Rashad Yazdanifard, Igbazua Erdoo Mercy )

Green Marketing in terms of Price, Product, Place and Promotion: A model of a green marketing-mix should, of course, contain all 4Ps:

Product: A producer should offer ecological products which not only must not contaminate the environment but should protect it and even liquidate existing environmental damages. Price: Prices for such products may be a little higher than conventional alternatives. But target groups like for example LOHAS are willing to pay extra for green products. Place: A distribution logistics is of crucial importance; main focus is on ecological packaging. Marketing local and seasonal products e.g. vegetables from regional farms is more easy to be marketed green than products imported.

Promotion: A communication with the market should put stress on environmental aspects, for example that the company possesses a CP certificate or is ISO 14000 certified. This may be

publicized to improve a firms image. Furthermore, the fact that a company spends expenditures on environmental protection should be advertised. Third, sponsoring the natural environment is also very important. And last but not least, ecological products will probably require special sales promotions. ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_marketing)

Stakeholders in Green Marketing Strategy:


Based on marketing literature, stakeholders play one of the most influencing roles in any organization and market. They influence all aspect of green strategy also in areas such as purchase of green product, nature of the product, the packaging, advertisement, promotion and also Green awareness programs. When a particular company wants to go green, the stakeholders are at the fore front of their green marketing strategy. Jaime Rivera-Camino said that stakeholders in green marketing include the plant, various animals, plant species and the future generations. ( International Conference on Computer Communication and Management ,Proc .of CSIT vol.5 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore, Article: The impact of Green Marketing on Customer satisfaction and Environmental safety Authors:Rashad Yazdanifard, Igbazua Erdoo Mercy )

Customer Satisfaction and Green Marketing:


Customer satisfaction has been defined in two basic ways: as either an outcome or as a process. As an outcome, satisfying the end state resulting from the consumption experience .As a process, it is the perceptual evaluative and psychological process that contributes to satisfaction. The definition is varied with regards to their level of simplicity which includes; Product satisfaction Satisfaction with the purchase decision experience. Satisfaction with the performance attribute Satisfaction with the store or institution Satisfaction with pre-purchase experience.

Marketing literature suggests that there is a relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty. Satisfaction leads to attitudinal loyalty. It could be seen as the intension to purchase.Satisfaction is an outcome that occurs without comparing expectations . Customer satisfaction could also be defined as an evaluative response to perceived outcome of a particular consumption experience. It is an overall judgment on satisfaction, based on the assumption that satisfaction is the outcome of service quality .

Many Authors believe that customers have a high level of involvement regarding environmental issuesas a consequence of growing environmental consciousness. Studies have shown the significant influence of environmental knowledge and consciousness on consumer environmental attitude. Consequently, companies that communicate their green product in their packaging, advertisement or manufacturing process, gain satisfied customers. Because of the green trend, companies that fail to go green are not failing to fail in their industry. Customers want to associate themselves with companies and products that are eco-friendly. ( International Conference on Computer Communication and Management ,Proc .of CSIT vol.5 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore, Article: The impact of Green Marketing on Customer satisfaction and Environmental safety Authors:Rashad Yazdanifard, Igbazua Erdoo Mercy )

DEGREES OF GREEN CONSUMER:


While certain research does suggest that the most predominant demographic in the green market is both men and women over the age of 55, there are varying degrees of green consumers in all demographics. These degrees are often referred to as shades of green.

DEEP GREENS:
Deep greens are the most loyal and the most willing to pay more for green products. They buy green or go home. These consumers make up 19 percent of the U.S. population.

MEDIUM GREENS:
Next down the ladder are the medium greens. These consumers embrace the environment, but usually only let it sway purchase decisions when such purchases add to their lifestyle and if the results of a green product are evident.

LIGHT GREENS:
The so-called agnostics of the green market are the light greens. Making up 16 percent of the U.S. population, these consumers will only buy green products if the products fit into their lifestyle and their budget. (Weinberg, Irv, and Carolyn Parrs. The Tao of Green Marketing. MarketingProfs: Marketing Resources for Marketing Professionals. 4 Aug. 2009. Web. 15 Jan. 2010..)

MODEL

The realms of influence represent a hierarchy of where marketing activities are applied. These include:

A) Public: Companies, Markets, Political and Cultural Values B) Social: Identity, Group Affiliation, Meaning, and Branding C) Personal: Products and Practical Benefits
Going from the outer to inner circles, we have progressive degrees of green contribution with an associated marketing objective:

A) Green: Set New Standards Communicate B) Greener: Share Responsibility Collaborate C) Greenest: Support Innovation Culture Reshaped
The idea is that as we go from light to dark green, were moving from having only commercial objectives to an increasing amount of environmental and social objectives. Its going from basic compliance to proactive action to systemic innovation & transformation.

IMPORTANCE OF GOING GREEN:


As resources are limited and human wants are unlimited, it is important for the marketers toutilize the resources efficiently without waste as well as to achieve the

organization'sobjective. So green marketing is inevitable.There is growing interest among the consumers all over the world regarding protection of environment. Worldwide evidence indicates people are concerned about the environment and are changing their behavior. As a result of this, green marketing has emerged which speaks for growing market for sustainable and socially responsible products and services.

BENEFITS OF GREEN MARKETING:


A green marketing approach has several benefits. First of all from a business perspective it is potentially profitable. While the organic sector is suffering, other green and ethical choices, such as local produce, Fair trade and animal welfare, are gaining ground (Carrigan and de Pelsmacker, 2009) Consumer research has indicated that in markets in which differences between the leading brands are marginal, eco-performance can act as a decision maker (Christensen, 1995; Peattie, 1999).This creates the potential for winwin situations in which companies can pursue strategies that benefit both the environment and the company (Elkington, 1994). Finally, green marketing, if performed with integrity ,is brandand corporate image enhancing, and likely to engender goodwill for public and media relations.

PROBLEMS WITH GREEN MARKETING: There are several issues and concerns to ponder when considering green marketing. First, green marketing often needs to be incentivised by the government, or the regulatory orbusiness environment. However, such initiatives are limited both in scope and impact (Thgersen and Crompton, 2009). Furthermore, consumer doubts still persist about green product performance, exacerbated by the competing views expressed around the benefits of organic food(FSA, 2009; Ginsberg and Bloom, 2004). There is also an issue with exaggeration and over-estimation of the impact of green marketing efforts (Saha and Darnton, 2005).

EXAMPLES: Electronics sector: Hewlett-Packard Company:


The consumer electronics sector provides room for using green marketing to attract new customers. One example of this is HP's promise to cut its global energy use 20 percent by the year 2010.To accomplish this reduction below 2005 levels, The Hewlett-Packard Company announced plans to deliver

energy-efficient products and services and institute energy-efficient operating practices in its facilities worldwide.HP engaged in eco-marketing with its "Motherboard ad," which showcases the company's priorities of sustainability and energy efficiency. The company also flaunts its recycling program, which has recycled over one billion pounds of electronic waste since 1987. The reason for this type of advertising, according to Gary Elliot, HP Vice President of Brand Marketing, is that the company feels its customers are socially and environmentally conscious and would prefer to buy from a company that conducts business in a responsible way.

Toyota
Toyota, one of the world's largest auto manufacturers, unleashed their Prius model in 2000, and it has since become the best-selling hybrid vehicle in the United States. While the introduction of a hybrid vehicle is itself a sign that the company seeks to appeal to an environmentally conscious customer base, Toyota also engages in eco-marketing to promote its environmentally friendly image. In 2005, Toyota budgeted 50 million dollars into its hybrid vehicle advertising campaign, which dwarfed any other auto maker, according to Advertising Age. Another example of Toyota's eco-marketing came through a commercial that aired during the 2007 Super Bowl, showcasing Toyota's "Hybrid Synergy Drive." This system allows the driver to constantly monitor the amount of energy drawn from its electric motor, as opposed to the less eco-friendly gas motor. Toyota has engaged in eco-marketing by promoting products that allow consumers to drive in an environmentally conscious way.

Phillips's "Marathon" CFL lightbulb:


Philips Lighting's first shot at marketing a standalone compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulb was Earth Light, at $15 each versus 75 cents for incandescent bulbs.The product had difficulty climbing out of its deep green niche. The company re-launched the product as "Marathon," underscoring its new "super long life" positioning and promise of saving $26 in energy costs over its five-year lifetime. Finally, with the U.S. EPA's Energy Star label to add credibility as well as new sensitivity to rising utility costs and electricity shortages, sales climbed 12 percent in an otherwise flat market.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_marketing)

Car sharing services:


Car-sharing services address the longer-term solutions to consumer needs for better fuel savings and fewer traffic tie-ups and parking nightmares, to complement the environmental benefit of more open space and reduction of greenhouse gases.They may be thought of as a "time-sharing" system for cars.

Consumers who drive less than 7,500 miles a year and do not need a car for work can save thousands of dollars annually by joining one of the many services springing up, including ZipCar (East Coast), I-GO Car (Chicago),Flex Car (Washington State), and Hour Car (Twin Cities).

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_marketing)

Products & Services:


Now companies are offering more eco-friendly alternatives for their customers. Recycled products for example, are one of the most popular alternatives that can benefit the environment. These benefits include sustainable forestry, clean air, energy efficiency, water conservation, and a healthy office. One example, is the E-commerce business and office supply company Shoplet which offers a web tool that allows you to replace similar items in your shopping cart with greener products.(

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_marketing)