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1 M ac ni w#?a v tc dii hg 5 hi ng / erial vdl head wi r l i t c t alemplp t l esut n he uter l / g o l l unsc ew t c r he huck Ver I c sar . y i ut e ght t ef ess i . her or ental

usnga 45t t gear or1 diii W h e i 00 h f 5 v sons. er t s i t c e t gear can be mar ed bi s he as he k appr i el pror t fti i ont t oprat y i o itng t o he dii ng h v di ead. c our c nagr penci A ol ed hi aph l i ex l n f t s. e b l eeln Phot s cel t or hi Th ulwh i e o 6 has been mar i t s way and ma b ked n hi y e vii e i t fnalprn ig per t i s bl f he i itn mi t s . H av g sai t at i t r s of t e n d h n em h m a ni oper ton t e i no di enc chi ng a i her s #er e bet ween nor mal m ii g oper i and ln l atons t os u ng a di dig head,t e i on h e si vi n her s e pot i diaserar Phot 15 s ent s t ea. al o hows a handw heeI bei g m ade by m achi i g n nn not hes ar und is edge. C ar f I c o t eu ob v i oft e s - r eal t t ser aton h etup ev s hat he cuti ac i w i be atem p i g t un ew tng ton l l t tn o scr t chuc fom i mcuntn l i ess i he kr t s ig. t s entaf t ef e t t chuck i ver fr l her or hat he s y im y scr ewed on andt onl v y I h cu sar hat y er i t t e g t en. oul t chuc bec efee,hen ak Sh d he k om r t t e wi c t nl be a s l com p en her l erai y f poi ed on t and pr obabl a br en c t al Do be y ok uter so. awar o t s and t gr c e when e f hi ake eat ar wor ng i t v tc mode.I can alo ki n he eriai t s occur i t horzont m ode j some n he i al s sp al ed si i n eci i s t o s. uat

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I y hav a f l equi p r ar t e, f ou e ul y p ed ot y abl h s t vdi a es ai ock s I usng ashopm ad di dig headwih t at i wih dii ng pl t and t lt , f i e vi n t h he ov pl i o l ar y l a geart r ace t dii ng plt t en t en t ab e ex anat ns wi l gel o epl he v di a e, h y t y l tef lyof j t l fn st det mi h acit adusabe iger o er ne appI w ih on1 som e sm aI changes i each dii on i notI y t be i l v si s i kei o ncuded. r di wor pi mountng. egar ng k ece i Ih f owever as i m os el,y hav , s t i y ou e k Thi sat s t ementba ont d gns 1 ave sed he esi h se icl n t os i t s b en,n udig h e n hi ook. Howev , j t hebasi r ar t eyouwi bef er us t c ot y abl l aced l t eti he vi ons ng he Ic see no r an eason why such a f ly wih s tng t di si by usi t acit i cannotbe bui i o suc desi W ih t m i om et di s at t hand wheel l nt t h gns. t ou cr er al he . t s iwi be a cas ofc tng t e nu ber Consi er usi a t e wih a 60: r i hi t l l e oun i h m d ng abl t 1 ato m/ m d vsi he o t t ta sed wih c i abl car f ee h r ver t onsder e e. wor wor wheelan 60 dii ons on t l i fequenty t c e t ts r l he as hough t t hat he di gii O. deg.r t i n perdi son.I al v ng l o at o vii f diii i achev wih one r ot in o we now c si , above,a r r v son s i ed t ev ut f o on der as equiemen t t ge ,suc as ev y t r t h when f 1 di sons t swi r r an out t he ar h er hid 00t or 4 vii hi l equie d pu l

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17 Ate pt t t k i phot 1 but . t m i he as n ng o 6 us n a dii hg head i t v tca m o i g vdl n he eri l de r r a I ofhead r .I i t gh a equies ot oom t s hou non sl l s comm entf Phot 1 arec ee Or o 5. 18. l r/? centes i pr ato f A/ / g ' ' g r r n epar i n or postonig wor pi e. ii n k ec

di i i ns m aki g t e 1 st have an v so n h a appr abl eror Do t eci e r . hough wor outa k fgur f each di si say 257. 43, i e or vi on, 1 51 286,771. 29,et 4. 4 c. Fr t s,wor out t t ns and om hi k he ur dii on 1 di, t ns + 1 1 2n di, v si s, st v 4 ur 7.43, d v 8 t ns+ 3 286, d di, 2t ns + 51. ur 4. 3r v 1 ur 429, et W his t s i possi e,i has t be c. 1t hi s bl t o ask i i pr tc e havng t car ul ed s t ac iabl i o ef l y set tp each poston? For t exam pl l ii he e

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t c o ountand s up each po t n i t s et sii n hi o way wi be a per on ch ce.fgear ar l l s al oi I s e t b c ora gr ernumberofdii ons o e ut eat vsi ar t be made Idoubti i i pr t abl eo f t s ac i e c an iwi be a c o equi ng you r t y dt l ! ase f ppi o ar t e wih di di pl es or obt ni g a abl t vi ng at ai n dii n h ofsome f m . v dig ead or Some di dig appl atonsar t vi n i i c e hough equ l, mor appr it f t e r ar al or e y opra e, or h ot y t e.Phot 16 s abl o hows a hex agon bei ng made f a I ge nut The m at i woul or ar . er al d hav been t ( ge t be hel s ur y i e oo ar o d ec el n

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di di head and s t r ar t e wih vi ng o he ot y abl t Keat angl plt wasbr s e ae oughtnt us The i o e. r ar t e t ef e coped wih t ot y abl her or t he st in adm i y and r rng ony si iuat o r abl equii l x dii ons t e t e' di s wer a vsi h abl s al e dequ e at f seti eac posion. or tng h t i Us n a di di head i is v tc ig vi ng n t erial m o andftedwi af epit f t t de i t t ac a e or he ask, h Phot 17,woul seem pos bl buti has o d si e t some s e l i i n Av l e hei ever i t o s. ai m at abl ght i t m ac ne and rgi t o t a embl, n he hi i di f he ss y y

es i l t l nat e o t f epl e pecal he i y ght ur f he ac at ar b h I el pr em ar s.Howev , as e ot i y obl k ea er mentoned eari i t chapt , i t s i l n he er er n hi mo r at of he cu t i endeav ig de ot i on t ters ourn t uns e t f cepl e.ti no t ef e o cr w he a at I s t her or a pr tcalpr ac i oposion and shoul n be t i d ot atempt ev wi a l tcu l t ed, en t i h gh t. Mou i a wor pi e on o t e r ar ntng k ec t h ot y t e,t pial as i Phot 16, i n as abl y c l y n o s ot Si pl as fr envi m e ist saged as i m us be t t c en rc wih t e t e.T do t s mar onc ti t h abl o hi k t wor ece wih a cen r punc mar , he kpi t te h k Orc te drl, en,plce a c r i b h en r i Th l a ente n ot t e r ar t e and t machi spi e h ot y abl he ne ndi and al t i hem as i Phot 1B u ng t gn n o si he mac ne' X a Y mov hi s nd ement . Pl t s ace he Wor pi e ont t e t e and t e iupusig k ec o h abl i t n n t mac ne' cente and cam p i posion, he hi s r l n t i Phot 1 . Thi s d be acc at en gh o 9 s houl ur e ou f a!but he mos demandi si i , i Or l t t ng t on n uat

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Dependi on t equim entbei u ng he p ng sed t e m ay b appr abl backash i t her e eci e l n he ass bl, ev wiht mor pr i on em y but en t he e ecsi iem s i wi notbe t al abs t l a1 t t l l ot l y en . n 1 cas ,i i adviabl t t e up b as es t s s e o ak ackl h m anualy by atem ptng t r at t l t i o ot e he wor pi e i t sam e diec i at each k ec n he r ton di si n prort I i t spi e r vi o i o ockng he ndl eady f machi ng.I some c or ni n ases a l h of engt st i wr r ng apped ar ound t chuck, he wor pi et and wei h ed wi p f m k ece, c. gt l eror l t t aut he ask omatc l f you. iai or y

30

C hapter 4
T he M athem ati cs

e ot y abl it t Bef e one get down t pr or s o oduci t ng he cas of a r ar t e not fted wih a vi ng at hen t num ber of he wor ec i wi be nec kpi e t l l essar t es abl yo t i sh di di pl e t al i br h and eel a l e l t e s - r r The pr s i m or c i atons on t e h wh dilwi b h etup equi ed. oces s e t e i porantf t . h m t ac or com pl t ex han m any w i envi l l sage, but For c mer aldi di heads 40 : om ci vi ng 1 f t or unat y t m at el he hem atcs isel i i t fs seems t b b f t e m os com mon,but o e y ar h t r atv y si e. el iel mpl n he ase ot y abl her s e The t c r v ues when caryi wo ental al r ng i t c ofr ar t es t e i mor i i 1 I n ou t e r r c culton ar t e wor t h equied al a i s e h m/ varaton,4O , 6O and 9O : aI bei g r l y l abl wor wheel ato and t numbero hol m r i he f es fequent avai e. Di di pl es by nat e of t r vi ng at ur hei on t di di pl e r g beig used.I t e he vi ng at i n n nh cons r i have mor varaton w ih t ucton e ii t smaler pl es havi ar l at ng ound 6 rngs of i hol and l ger on 1 rngs,m aybe es ar es 6 i m or i some cases.The s al pl e e n m l at s er m ay hav a m ax mum num berofhol of e i es 50 whi tt I gerpat may hav up t l he ar s l es e o 1OO h es.A smal head i l el t be ol l er si yo k s i wih t ee pl es maki 1 rngs uppl ed t hr at ng 8 i i al a l gerhead wi pr n l ar , l obabl h l y ave 2 plt wi 1 hol makig 32 rngsi t al a es t 6 es h n i n ot . Anot erf t i t di di heads h ac or s hat vi ng fom dier sour esmay be pr de wi r f ent c f ovi d t h pl es h ng dierng number ofhof i at avi f i f s es n each rng,addii i tonalpl es alo bei at s ng a l e t fl s vai abl o i ome oft e gaps.Thi aI l h s I 1 Sho made dii i g head hav n t . p vdn i g he abit l be used wi dif i wor ly o i t ferng h m/ wor wheelr i m at os.

adds up t c si abl v iton i what o on dec e ara i n i avai e an i eas t e num berof s l abl d ncr es h per atons, m aki i i pr i t mut i ng t m actcal o p i i t s book t es c i ev y ubl n hi sh abl overng er possbit . i ly i Becaus of hi an n havi ac es e t s d ot ng c s t t es coverng a wi r o abl i de ange of si i n I is l deci n i ude any t o s, fr ty uat ded ot ncl t es at al. However l f t t s was abl l , el hi u odunat and hav as a r tdev oped nf e e esul el ac omput pr am t pr de mewihan er ogr o ovi t y com bi i pos bl Fr t s I have naton si e. om hi ch en t pr de t es f plt havi os o ovi abl or a es ng rngs wi 15,16,17,1 1 20,21,23, i t h 8, 9, 27,29,31,33,37,39,41,43,47 an 49 d hol These ap es. pear t be ver com r o y nin com bi tons.Val h na i ues ave been wor ed k out usi t e and t ee wor wor ng hes hr m/ m wheelr i 40: .60: and 9 1 Havng atos 1, 1 0: . i pr ded t e i t t y wi be of t u ovi hes i s he l s pari ar c beneft t t i o hose who make t r own hei di di h vi ng eads Th l t can be f d i . e is s oun n Chapt 1 er 1. l pur asi g a new com m er i 1 f ch n ca dii ng head i wi o cour e b s i v di t l f l s e uppl ed wih t es f t e di dig plt i uded, t abl or h vi n a es ncl bu wi n cov any a tonalplt y t l ot er l ddi i a es ou m ak or pur ase I er t fl i s e of e ch at o i n om l t m isi dii ons. sec he s ng vsi A ondhand head may alo be m isi i manual l i worh s s ng t s .ts t r eatn h e t at onl t m uch m or ep ig er h y he e expensie unier dii ng h v v sal v di ead wi be l l abl t pr de aIdii on atI tup t e o ovi I v si s, eas o 3 As 80. emiunier alhead w i I el b v s li y e lk pr ded wi dii ng pl es t atwi gie ovi t v di at h h l v l aI num ber u t 50 wih pr es v y l s p o t ogr siel f wert hi e he ghert number t cal 29 he y , ypi l bet ween 51 an 1 butonl 1 bet d O0 y 2 ween 3 and 380. O0

as possbl lha c ie ve hosen t bas t o e hese on acombi tonof60: f hewor wor na i 1 ort m/ m wheelr i and 60 hol i t dii ng ato es n he v di pl e rn bei g us at ig n ed. Consi er c eatng a di lha n 1 d r i a vi g 25 di si f use wih an ei t eads per vi ons or t ght hr

i ( )I cr r rng an angl nch TPI eads ew equii e beweendi si so 2. degr ( 1 t vi on f 88 ees 360/25 = 2. ,W i t di di h havi a 88) t he vi ng ead h ng
60: wor and wor wheel a i and fted 1 m m r to i t wi a 60 hol dii ng pl e t r t i t h e v di at he o aton wi be 0. degr p hol movemen .I l l 1 ee er e t f we consi 29 hol gi n 2. degr der es vig 9 ees per di si a sm al er or of pl 0. vi on l r us 02 degr wi r t As t eror wi be ees l esul. l he r l l acc ultve a fnaldii on o onl 0.4 um a i i vsi f y degr woul r t obvi y f t ees d esul, ousl ar oo gr .Had t eror been ver much eat he r y

smal t j tpos bl imayh been l hen us si y t er ave


p be t I e wih i. ossil o i t t v Takig n t r r n ow he equiemen f a 1 t or 27 t h gear as us i an i peralo meti 00t , ed n m i t rc conver on on t changewheel f an si he s or i peralI he. l t s c m i at n hi ase t r r he equi ed angl b weeneach di son i 2. e et vii s 834645 6. Usig 28 hols on t e di si pl e woul n e h vi on at d be t near but as a gear i bei he est s ng pr oduced any er or at a1 w il be r 1 l unac abl . cept e Ot dii ons wi t her v si l hough be m uc l h si er One hu ed dii on as r ied mpl . ndr vsi s, equ r on a di f a 10 TPII al or eadsc ew,woul r d r r 3. degr equie 6 ees p di si easi er vi on, l y b n ac modat by 36 hol on t eig com ed es he sx y hol di son plt it e vii a e.

How m any hol es?


The abov ex e ampl ser e t show t ti es v o ha t i neces yt choos a dii ng pl e t s sar o e v di at hat wi enabl a r r l l e equiementt be achi ed o ev e ty xac l. Letus f udherconsiert 60: r i d he 1 at o

Som e di si consi ed vi ons der


To make t i t l anat ns as si e he nii expl i a o mpl

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wor wi a 60 hol pat To r at t m t h e l e. ot e he

R,H and D bu wh i atem p i g t wor t at f t tn o k

out of t di di head one f l outt numb ofhol ( r r on put he vi ng ul he er es H) equied r ut nt wor wi need t r ae 60 t dii ng pl e f a gien diii ( . evol i he m l o l o ott he vdi at or v vson D) tmes.As t pl e has 60 hol t s wi I t s c t e ar t unkn i he at es hi l n hi ase her e wo l owns ( The
r ti t e s t devie pas ng 60 x 60 esul n h eti ng c si dii exact i o t s i an achi v e vdes l nt hi s y e abl dii on.Takig an eas exampl say 40 vsi n y e, di si t s wilequie t e seti de ce vi ons, hi lr r h tng vi t pass 3600/ hol s perdi si t i o 40 e vi on, hat s 80 hol b ng one f l ur pl s 20 h es. es, ei ult n u ol W hist 360O i a r l tve1 I r e l s ea i y a g number t n berofpossbl dii on . he um i e v si s i quie smal and ar aI wh on m i h s t l e ( at e g t cal sm pl number Th e ar 2,3,4,5, li e s. es e 6, 1 12,15,18,2O,2 3O,36, 45, 8, O, 4, 40, 50, 7 80,9O, 6O, 2, 100,1 1 1 200, 20, 50, 80, 2 300,360,450,600,720,800,1200, 40, 1800 an 3 d 600. K now i g t e di i i g head r to n h vdn ai t herwih t e number o h es on t e oget t h f ol h di dig pl e i wi be ea t det mi i vi n at t l l sy o er ne f t di si r he vi on equied i achi r s evabl e. However y ar I el t h , ou e i y o ave a setof k whol numberW andt num b ofhol e , he er es, stai f war Howev ,t v ue f W r ght or d. er he al or c be an num b pr dig i i whol an y er ovi n t s e. Consi t r der he equi ement f 57 r or di sons i whih t f m ul wi r vii n c he or a l ead. l 60 x H W = 57 The val f R an D,60 and 57 i ues or d n t s eyam pl ,sh d b si ied t t r hi e oul e mpli o hei f smal s val t ti b dii ng b h b l t ues, ha s y v di ot y e 3,gi n vig. 20 x H W = 1 9 Fr t s ican be s t W wi b om hi t een hat / e l wh e pr di H i 19 oran m ulpl of ol ovi ng s y t e i t s,1 38,5 76,et hi 9, 7, c. Havig es abl ed t di di plt n t i sh he vi ng a e t b us i wi be neces y t c cult o e ed t l l sar o al a e t num ber of hol taver ed f one he es r s or diii Assumi a plt h ng 38 h es v son. ng a e avi ol i chosen, t num ber of hol f a s he es or c plt r ol ton o t e wor pice wi om e e ev u i f h k e l l be, 60 x 38 = 2280 The number of hol taver per es r sed di son wil her f e be. vii l t e or 2280 = 40 57 Fory bei achi ed b one compl e t ng ev y et
w hi t60 i a c mon r i ,40 and l s s om at o

wor shop i I el t be I t and b aus k s i y o i ed k mi ec e o t spur asig anexpen v c mer i f hi ch n sie om cal

i may b diiult j ty.Becaus of t em e fc t o usi f f e


t s t e wor hop owner may choose t hi h ks o make on Ot s may go down t s r t e. her hi ou e f ng t manuf ct e ofa di ii head i ndi he a ur v d ng

hol tati 3600. wh e numbert t H)makigt pr es t appearl t es,h s Any ol ha n he oc s o ess han

an it esi prj ti i et. e aspec ner tng oec n t f On s t


of di di heads made i t hom e vi ng n he wor op i t at t ey m ay not hav t ksh s h h e he r ti i es rctons i nher ent i t n hose made c mer al om ci l y. Th di di h e vi ng ead s i Phot 1 i een n o s n I t t a sngl wor wor wheel ot i ed o i e mi m/ m r i as t e desi c c e wi di erng ato h gn an op t f i h f di met gear Rat of30: ,35: et a er s. i os 1 1, c. ar t er or ob ai e. l sm pl r e h ef e t nabl Tle i e head, ess i l an i er sh ental y ndex , own i Phot 2 n o c have addii an tonalgear added as i s n Phot 3.Thi op s up possbites t at o s en i li h i ar notavai e wih a c e l abl t ommer aluni. ci t T he addii naIgear i P hot 3 to s n o amoun t a r t n i angul r emen t o educ i n o a mov t

dii ng pl es( gear t coul r t vdi at or s) hat d esul


i a l of alul i alhoughsi e, i n ot c c at ons, t mpl unt l a s t e di dig plt i f d, m ay uiabl vi n a e s oun or be notf d. oun On s e occ on yourr r om asi s, equiement m ay not be cover by t publshed ed he i chads,ory may n hav aIt plt ou ot e I he a es quot butha o her I t s c e you ed ve t s. n hi as w ilhave t r t t cal aton.The l o esor o cul i ess i r r ental equiemen i t att e di di t s h h vi ng

head r i ( t est numbero h es at R) i he o m f ol ont pl e ( dii byt numberof he at H) vded he di si r r ( mus be a whot vi ons equied 0) t e t n ( hol pl 2hols. ur 38 es) us e number( )t i W ,hat s
R xH W =

D
Thi i a si e c cul i n i on h s s mpl al at f e as o

90ar al c e so ommon,( ver c 40 y ommonf or c ommer aldi dig h ) ci vi n eads.


Us f a di dig head i t e hom e e or vi n n h

2.Si e sngl geardii ng head,al mpl i e vdi so m ade i t wor hop. n he ks 3,t f mul gien on p he or a v age 3 wi s i 4, l tl l l appl. However i a r i of 9: i bei g y , f at o 5 s n hi l nt he or a 5 b weente di dig devie( geari t s used t swilgo i o t f m ui as 9/ and et h vi n c a n hi d ead. c e)and te di di head spidl i t as h vi ng n e n he woul r s e Way as a wor and wor Wheel am m m . 9x H However t r i wih a wor and wor , he at t o m m W = wheelwi al ys b a si pl one 40: , l wa e l m e 1 5x D 60: ,et W ih t s gear t 1 c. t wo pur s hough t e h Consi i a r derng equiem ent f 63 r or r tmay be com pex.Typcal , gear of di si i wi r d esul l i l y s vi ons t l ea l 6 and 20 t h wi h a r i of3: but 0 eet l ave at l o 1 gear of45 an 25 t h wi hav a r i s d eet l e at l o W = 9: W het ert s i usabl wi dep on 5. h hi s e l end l 5 x 63 t numberof posii on t di di he tons he vi ng Si i n t s by dii ng 9 an 63 mpl yig hi f v di d devie. c by 9 gies v Th f l n sh d gie an idiat n e ol g oul v owi n c i o 1x H as t whati p bl . o s ossi e One i poran poi m t t nt W = t mak i n t wor outt val i o e s ot o k he ues n 5x 7 dec mal er ast s c s easi shr i t ms hi an o l oud y Fi tm es seven bei 35,W wil ve i ng l t e m eani oft answer do s i t t ef e be whol i H = 35 or70,bot h ng he tck o her or ef h , fac i nal or . r t o f m s andar change wheel zes.l den al , t d si nci t l y W hen cal atng t r t f a 63 i a val notachi cul i he esuls or s ue evabl wi my 40 : e t h 1 dii ng head, t cal as s vdi ypi l y een i Phot n o com mer i s iunier al vdi hea or cal em - v s dii ng d

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$ .I. f. ..i u .k+1 . 5.1 d I

3.Two addtonal ii gear f t t t head s i ed o he t s n J?Phot 2 gii a gr at r ee ' r o vng e er ange of possbl dii ons i e vsi . gearan a 75/ t h gearchai t t i d 30 00t n ha s 15: 6 Th num b ofhol pas f one e er es sed or c plt t n oft e di dig head out om e e ur h vi n put

i ter or 50x75/ = 125 hols.Th s h ef e ( 30) e e


poi t not her i t teven t nt o e e s ha hough t he r i i 15: istlr t i a wh e n ber at s 6 t i esul n o s ol um f t numberof es Av l e dii on or he hol . ai abl vsi s ar onl 5,25 and 1 but 1 i us ul e y 25, 25 s ef

f c ir i a di f an 8 TPI(hr or al atng al or b t eads peri l nch) eadscr Agai t s i not ew. n hi s


av l e wih mycommer al vi ng h ai abl t ci di di ead orr ar t e. ot y abl Exam pl 3 e Fort s ex hi ampl Iam s e ugges i a s tup tng e wih a 40 t t di di gearand a 50 30 t 00 h vi ng / $ hgear n, ato 5: number hol s 00t chai r i 3, of e p sedf one c pet t nof he di di as or om l e ur t vi ng m y 90: r ar t e. 63 i fequen l 1 ot y abl s r ty sugges ed as a good c t hange wheel o use t i plce of1 trt wbeel bei s l , n a 27 c b , ng maler when c tn meti t eadson an i p i utig rc hr m eral It a he.

Exam pl 4 e Asa mor ex r ex pl , com biat n e teme am e a n i o ofa 40 t h dii ng gear and a p rof 00t v di ai gear c s omprsig 45 and 35 gi n a 9: in vig 7 r i and 51 3/ hol s.Seven c pl e at o - 7 e om et t ns wi t e or gie 51- 7 x 7 whi ur l her f e v l 3/ ch equal 360 hol pass I c t er f e s es ed. t an h e or be u when c i atng a r ar t e i sed al i br ot y abl n degr ees. Th e ex es ampl whi s es, ch how onl a y m i e facton of t nut r i hose p si e,do,l os bl hope,gie an i c i of t e r v ndiaton h ange of pos bit sw i t s s up, asa r t si l i t hi et and ie h esul enabl you t go down t s avenue es o hi k ng t i l pos bl nowi hat t s si e. For he s e Gf mpt l l ve i n ed t ak si l t ha g or cy t efec ofusi a f ked de entand f he f t ng or t or c s enc wih ot ex anatons,hav onsit y t her pl i e r f r t h es when usig gear as t e ered o ol n s he di di devi t sl bet vi ng ce; he ot ween t wo
aI o used f r m y expI natons, s o a i changew heel havi i em ent of 5 s ng ncr s be ween sies, 30,35, c,I r ie t z 25, et do eal s t a f w It wi u ot i r hat e a hes l se her nc ement , l s t cal by f s W hi tt r t wi be ypi l y our . I he esul l s s l dier tt m e hods wi stlappl . # en he t l i t l y

pl e eror .The ext twi no doubtc e at r s en l l om as a s pr t t uni tat ur i o he nii ed. se Con dera di si pl e wi 1 hol si vi on at t 8 es h

t etc l sp heor ial aced at20 degr ( y ees 360/ 1 = 20) buth ng an erorof1degr 8 , avi r ee
on t 12t hol t i s he h e, hat s paced at19 and

21 degr beween i adac thol I ees t t j en es. f s now atemptn 9 di si ( degr t ig vi ons 4O ee s ng)and usng a dii ng hea wiha paci i vdi d t
6O: r i t ar ont di di h d wi 1 ato, he m he vi ng ea l l h t pas 1 h esperdii on, t i ave o s 20 ol vsi hat s 60 x 18 /9.Thi i 6 c plt r atons s s om e e ot i

pl 1 hol (6x 18)+ 1 = 1 f t e us 2 es ( 2 20) or h


fr tdi son. i vii s l t s exam pl i n hi e, nput r aton wi ot i l l

t ef be,( x3 + ( x20)+ ( x19) her or 6 60) 11 1


degr t i 2399 degr f t e fr t ees, hat s ees or h is

dii on, f te n di si ( x360) vsi and or h ext vi on,6 +( 1x20)+ ( x21)degr t ti 2401 1 1 ees,ha s
degr es. A s t e w or / or w heeI e h m w m

adac tet wi of our b us I e arangement r j ente h l c se e ed. hav l r educes t r at by a he ot i on


f t of t an esatt wor pi e wi ac or 60 he gl he k ec l l

headout ti t ef e40x(/ = 66- 3 pu s her or 53) 2/ hol ( ot wewor i faci .Wihan es, n e k n r tons) t

ans wer o 66- 3 h es t se - woul f 2/ ol he tup d appeart be worhl s,as no numberwi o t es l l di de i o t s.l howev i t s cas t vi nt hi f er n hi e he out utsal p i l owed t r at af t t t n o ot e urher wo ur s t t s r t i 2O0 hol p hen hi esuls n es assed. Thi w i gie a r ge ofdi si n but s l v l an vi o s Som e M or Exam pl e es most obt nabl by easi gear ai e er Ex pl 1 am e om na i er l l se ul Consi a setup wi a 30 t h dii n der t h 00t vdi g c bi tons.Howev ,200 wi be u f br a n f hou' or en gearand a 60 20 t h gearchai t ti i c i atng a dili hal t s f a t / 00t n, ha s f al i 3: .The f mul i t ef e num ber of TPll a cr 1 or a s her or e ds ew. h es pas f 1 r a i n oft e dii ng ol sed or ot to h v di W ih t wor ec ( vi ng head t he kpi e di di

be 39. de e ( / an 40. 6 984 gres 239960) d 01 degr ( / . om t sic bes ees 240160)Fr hi t an een
t t sec di son wi be acc at y hat he ond vii l l ur el pl ed as i c pens es f t erori ac t om at or he r n

t fr ,( 984 +40. 6 = 8O)butt +/ he i 39. st 01 he


1 degr eror bet ee r ween t e t on t h wo he dii on pl e has been r ed t 0.01 v si at educ o 6 degr 1 60t t on t e di di pl e. ee, / h hat h vi ng at The val of1 60t i no coi i ue / hs ncdence bu t wi al ay be by t same f t aswor l w s l he ac or m/ wor wheelr i m ato. A f ur oft s i t at even pl es eat e hi s h at m ade i t hom e wor sh by r atv y n he k op el iel iacc at m et n ur e hodswi s i pr ce r ul l tl odu es t l l s accur e enough f aI but t m ost at or I he demandig r r en s.Ev her y n equiem t en e ou c us t e dii ng headt mak asec d an e h vdi o e on pl e and use t s f pr ci t e fnal at hi or odu ng h i pr oduct Byt s meansyouwi b ifom . hi l enef r l t i ov acc acy t ce over mpr ed ur wi .
-

Fur herdet l t ais


Chapt 7 i l des a desi f a sm pl er nc u gn or i e, t ee geardi dig h an f hr vi n ead d udher ai det l s r di t mat egar ng he hematc ofu ng suc a is si h devie.A I tofdi son p bl i alo c i s vii s ossi e s s i u nclded i Chapt 11 based on a setof n er c hange wh s of20 t 75 by fv s. eel o ie'

put ot i hr i t l ound l headout ti 30x( 20)=90hol Thi out )r atngt eetmes iwi bef pu s 60/ es. s
wilenabl t 30 t h wheelt gi l e he 00t o ve dii ons o 2,3,5,6,9,10,1 1 3O,45 vsi f 5, 8, an 9O. n 1 45 and90 bei addii n d Nie, 8, ng t al o t t e whih woul be possil wi t o hos c d b e t he h 30 t h geardiec . 00t r t Exam pl 2 e Consdera s up wih a 50 t h di di i et t 00t vi ng

t tt dii ons made ont s ha he v si he econd and t r r a i f l r r bet hi ot ton alas equi d ed ween t os h e made on t fr tr at n.1 he is ot i was i ln t o nc ied o pr e t s m at emat al butf t att s ov hi h i l c y eel h hi maybe over ompl atng t expl ins. c i i he c anat o I wi t ough wor wher era fac i ofa t lh l k ev r ton di si occur wiha s n e out tr t i n. vi on s t i gl pu o at o

Di si pl e er or m i m i vi on at r s ni sed
W hi tno a cal l i t att e r I t s cuaton h h eader wi be cal t cary out t e f lwi g l l l o r ed , h ol n o ius r es h a wor and wor wheel l tat ow l m m

c i at n( t spurgear i a gear onfgur i or wo o sn chai r es t efectofany di son n) educ he f vii

37

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dgesaabovea r idvigai wt ere cl lo wlgiaehey ue a u90deg. en tsvalh ct l l li t angl he es ,
a dwh teri i p st e o n g t e I n eh ts o iv r e ai . i v wo l s gg tterf r t ta b i ud u es h e oe ha asc
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i i t home worshop.Even beter t n he em k t woul be t obt n a pr ammabl d o ai ogr e

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Dime e ( a t r PCD) Th
e mat tcalmet hema i hod.

sreacc adte wi tesresi ci il n hn t h ci rtl b re h b l


atesmestn se rudtesr e th a et g tp o n h ci d i b
cicl Many appl i wi tough be r e. i ons l h cat l
.

o c ,h ne tr e u niltev rbe Ftj IrE yyyAFCcjFL DkT8 y, nete ne s q et l h ai ls (I j CLS0g rrTHC SE g yEEr ay a V C C g $ Ij j cjcgI jag g E I AA lg A r y yr y
( onl i t sexampl)t arie a each P y n hi e o r t v

cl ltrntics jsetrh fr l Y=0 - - k ac ao, hs aeutneteomua ' u i -4 5


rq idv le e ur au . e
Ads d a tg o temeh di sK. ia v na e fh to n 1

'f r / 1 / / I !
'. .h '! 1

T en e t paeh lso aP c n mul moebii e ta ta a da oh r h e d o lc oe n CD a c r dfcl h n h t n n te h fut oc u frma ydf rn ra o sb t s me a dwi en d d c ro n iee te s n u mo t to l e e f

SK1
I si et ms5-(3)=5+ n mpl er So ma s yta h ls b o te me y a h t oe elw h
. .

.I j , . J; . j 1 2
I j ! I I I1 i. 1;
'I

otno l ivligas 1n mbro f ny novn ma1 u e f On sc mehdit wokoth e e uh to s o r u te hlstpcl 3o4whndin abng co-i n fahhlitemsoimachiY oe,yi l r e I rlodelak psinateand oentr ilngs ad ay l g l c oor oes c uses he m li tX nne i i t o f n m di
pl e t t a chuck. at o ake t i h e. engi i 5 or6 h es t fx t cy ider l ds e di s t posion eac hol The neerng ol o i he ln ea cr w al o c v r nasain r se m en n ma b a v na eo ti meh dita ia he e o e o tt ay ta gie y e d a tg fhs to s h tt c iv s o
.

itaii ovs 0hpsi adngte ng tevlece tgamiu miu sht n l bt oie n eai e ai au rai tv e t v v v n ns ns c-riae maestisme be r iif sussiuatonte taltieutsta oodntsval ig to t a dfcl plutnmahmai l hs qae o kn o those whteafut iai , t o i cy t equat t o e he u o d of t
t l he eadsc ew di s. Thi c easi be r al s an l y

3 = 8.

o ec meb c a gigterf en ep it v ro y h n n h eer c on

lI If 'I( fj
1 'I I I
.

d v si s hi e, ept cour e t hol wi be eihera di dig hea or ofdii onsi ac evabl exc of s he es l l t vi n

T eov u fscoc froi nn ah hdge oacrc,i ay u e h bi sithi opsi ig i ere fcuayas n nmbr o r e t o g o

ftheh ceme otecrleftpositqasl up rlc conventiengtein r ! rmtetrnrupperandetapiie u geom etriesol b s ee appledoma o ex et fh i Io on a pe i hudon arai f e c n vi t o tons
Thi s

)J ff I: fI I l 1I I:
.

r ar t l Howe , omeworsh swi f a pr tc ma mum.Bef e t s can ot y abe, vers k op l or acial xi l or hi


ev i t ar t m a n adequat y n t b calul ed.SK. s en f hey e hey y ot el eed o e c at 1 hows a ver y sup t hewor pi e, eih por t k ec t erduet i sie, smpl ex pe r r t post n5 hols ot z s i e am l equing o ii i o e

: II

1 1)

nteeu pdwtehrfhs ad b uddknt psi sot bl ob qi e i ieotee n e neae h oin fh o s p ht e t o e e


weg todibng. s ,evaiabl many o agvnda tc ihalrsdi e Alos vnias mi n ie imee a p e f e uni s vi head i a l e ver
b s l l e e. The For ul m ae num er over5o wi notbe achivabl

Teeuec-rit a esy r e ice s gvle bigra o te hrqidooda s r aiar d nrai aus en ed n h r ne e l i v n


atf X by addi t r us oft PCD t or ng he adi he o each val t f m ul f t s r ue he or a or hi eads: I cr di s.Adrlpl edov t z o eads ew al i ac l erhe er I i lmov t dst I newi l e owar he owerhol wh es en
.

i SK. makng aI c or naes p tv may b c r bu mycommensr at t n 2 i I o- di t osiie. e orect t t el e o

'I I/ f1 J' l j 1 . 1 .
I l i' l . I1 1 .
.

X = R Cos +

( - ) 30 P 1x 6
N

P - teradwhe irttdc cwiead CD th h nngontlsalae l k s n ehedioicr o he eadi n eas es


2 s miig machiesdo n conor t ome ln l n ot f m o
wi nott ou alert cal at v ues, l l h gh t he cul ed al

Howev , er

s1 '? l I: i I i k ' 1 1 I 1
I I I
'

aler tv me h d u st b fu d t na ie t o a o e o n
.

stai switeeoeai w eea Tefru frh( c-rntss i tn lhrfr re hr n h om l ot X-1)x3ae i uo l s a eP ood60 i


pr abl t mos iel r r en wher ob y he tl y equi k em t e X = R Cos

tk fom t e rdis o te PCD,te t b oh tani tetpIfa i SK I a en r h a u f h h o e terh n h o et s n 2.t


f mul t er or r or a h ef e eads:

Fr hw vrh vl are amute tis nad n t dtmpiwlae oY o eetea e rvd t sb h t dradh a o tihv u i sa e u n l
PCD Y= -R Si n ( -1 x360 P ) onl iow t ar appl d. y a hey e i e

1 . I ' ; I.

a I gernumberofhol ar r r wil ar es e equied l N be t mak a dii on plt r r but o e vsi ae, equied, wher R e al t r us(ha i PCD/ e qu s he adi t ts notpr l a l e i t wor hop, 2)P equal t e h e numbere. 1, 3, esent vai n he ks y abl s h ol , g. 2, 4 Oneofhec t ommones al nat eswi or5 and N equ st numbero hol 5 tt i l er v l al he f es, be when t r r he equiementi f si hols. i t scas Si l l f teY c or nat s or x e n hi e. mi y or h o- di es ar
38

2 N Hol generati e on Dot e noet t val f R Si (P- A varaton i ofen used i t home ak t hathe ue or n ( 1) ii s t n he x 3 / f s hol poston wi bea wor hopt en el gehol t becu i 6ON) or ome e ii s l l ks o abl ar es o tn
39

I1
I I

' t- Q.

- -

..
' . a. 1' ..k :. .

be drl However do mak t e number ied. l , e h di si e b 4 as t s wi mak t hol vi bl y hi l e he es i i l posii dentcaly toned i each 90deg, n segm ent and as a r t r esul educes t he amou ofc cultonr r appr i y nt al a i equied ecabl, Havig decied on t numberof es n d he hol

wor outt angl ( bet k he e A) ween each adj thol t i 3 / wher N i t acen e,hats 60N e s he
numberofhol Chos an out di er es. e er amet

1 Usng X and Y . . i c or nat t o- dl es o mar out ii k poston ' Ofhol t r es o emov e t c r Ofa f : he ente ) , r ar t e body ' ot y abl . T st t e t hi o ak he . t e' bearng. ? ' abl s i 1 t
) q-

' ,

t y ; ) . ' . ' ' . , 7

( j ts f en f fnali s ng. drl D)us ufi t ori fnihi The i ci l di er( c n be c cul ed u ng amet d) an ow al at si
t f mui i SK3.It e dr l k out oo he or a n f h i wor s t l s al ort I ge, hen r e ori r m j oo ar t educ , nc ease
!
.

2 ;,..n, @. j . .j q;; #j y , k .q y ;L I
L
j -) A : : ?. -.

. 7 ., . h .. . c7

; ; . '

''. tl' /rl i t )

(! 5 y ?

'

.. '' :

, ,). ..

tj 'y . t y r jy!yl ;xk. ...' a jt $.? ( .@ yt ., ) t. jy ' .y


.

. gy .

. .

---'

.. .

a wor pi e bydrln t k ec iig ouchi hol on a ng es pi cr e as ius r ed i SK3.W hi tt s t icl ch l tat n l I hi s c b done usi r at el i an e ng el i y naccur e v at met ods ial h t most t nl wi r ti t cerai y l esul n he l need f m or m anual ac i t - flng, or e tviy ii s ng,et awi c. I t i case t e PC D i not of n hs h s i p t e, m oranc whati i t di eron t s,s he amet he out edge oft drl d h es. e cl er er he ie ol Th os l t i i t t e uIi at hoI si w iI hs s o h tm e e ze I consder y m i mi t fni ng wor i abl ni se he i shi k n ecess y.W hat i r r i t wih ar s equied s, hat t t chos hol sie an ont calul ed he en e z d he c at PCD,t t out edge i cl e t t hat he er s os o he hol sie bei m ade.Thi m ay seem e z ng s r a i y s r ght war bu t drl sie eltvel tai f or d t he i z l and PCD h t be chos m or car ul ave o en e ef l y and i ves some cal aton.Havi nvol cul i ng

'. .

' .'

/
-

g g. --. c . m

) A A L 8 T E T E FO E hG E E AE N H L S N NUkBEF 0F HOL ES OUTEq CI TEF AME d EqIL DI EF I L AMET FC( F ON AFIH F E A9 ) CC I I S E C CL 7 8 ZiL E ' E IL D 0 :60 5 A = ---N

t num ber of hol estm at and he es i ed r cult The PCD on whih t hols ecal a e. c he e ar t be drl wi be equal o D -d. e o ied l l l t The c or nat c now be calul ed as i o- di es an c at n t e fr texam pl and t en drl h is e h ied, l Iu t s pr s when n ng t sed hi oces eedi o pr e a I r hol i a cas i Phot 1 oduc a ge e n tng. o shows t hol posii ns bei g i tal he e to n nii l y mar ed out Afer drli i was ver k . t ilng t y

wi easi cope wih sucb angl l t s l l l y t es. n hi cas a1 t wi be n e I hat l l eeded i t calul e s o c at t h e di erand t PCD. he ol amet he

Usi a com put ng er


Havng sugges ed u ng a pr ammabl i t si ogr e c c at ,even beterwoul be t us a alul or t d o e comput s eadsh t pr am .Thi wi er pr ee ogr s l i not y pr e t com plt I t v u onl oduc he e e i of al es s on scr butwi alo enabl a prnt t een l s e i out o be m a f us i t wor hop.I you de or e n he ks f ar an ac e compl ed us ofspr ds s i sh er ea heet you wi n need me t i or y oft l ot l o nf m ou he advan ages of u ng t t si hese f r ive or epet i t calul i I t c at ons.f hough y hav a c pu er ou e om t t ty abl u f ot erappl atonsmay ha ou y se or h i i c I encour age you t get t grps w ih o o i t spr eadsh appl atons. eet i i c A spr eadsheet i basi l a f m s cal y or dii i t c umns and r ws and ateac v ded n o ol o h poi wh e t cr s a blck i cr e nt er hey os o s eat d, cal a c l Col l ed el, umns bei r er ng ef encedA, B,C,D,et , d Rows num ber 1, 3, c, an ed 2,

gr i ng when t c te j tdr atf yi he enr us opped


a way ast I hol was drl Phot 2. he ast e ied, l o Thi m ad t c e t s e he ar aken wel worh t l t he efor ivoled. f tn v W hen adop i t e above appr tng h oach i t i l y t i m any c s i kel hat n ases t angl he e be weeneach h e wi bea compl val t ol l l ex ue, i wi t t l hough be ofn c equ ce i t l o ons en f he pr edur i adopt f l.Howev ,i t oc e s ed ul y er f he num b of h es i c er ol s hosen t arie ata o rv

sadedont prj tIhadant i edt t he oec i pat hat c


t s may pr qui c hi ove t ompl bu i f ti e ex t n ac t i n t atdif ul,AI t ati n ess y i s ot h fi t I h s ec ar s c tr o oughl es i e t e num b ofhol t y tmat h er es o

wh e numberf t angl (ay f 36 ol or he e, s or hol 360/ = 10degr ,tena r ar es, 36 ees) h ot y

SK3

t e coul be used i avai e as t abl d f l abl he I t c i atons on a basi r ar t e i ed al i mi br c ot y abl

40

x I' rj
,

'; Ij 1.
.

lI I
I

jj jl j '
iI .
-

2.Thecente f l r el
away as t f he i nal

I tal cel A2an 82wibeI tbank ni l l iy s d l ef l


wjh cel 02 h ng t f mul f t e t l avi he or a or h s heetwili ial appearas above.The l nt l i y

pr obabl b 8char t swi 5f whol ye acer de, or e


pounds,1 f t e deci poi tand 2 f or h mal n or a much l gerwi h,s 30 char t s. ar dt ay ac er

@f' 'l fI ' I


.

I,1 1. I

h l w sdior, oe a rld a l e v y s if t y er ats ac


conc u on! l si

v lmeo aclappear e . o v rte teppton wilbeou upt cr and have ou f yid r d idel weso,h descr ne Tl cset f t r teim n e a d cH C2 e the h e c . h lmn o a y h t e e f mul Wilnot or a l n l ii or ext
wh nte S renC rO:i glc d i ta oh r C tiigfr l,e dn c l ae e h ce US S a e n h t tes onann omua h a ig el r s
c l Th f m ul Vol el. e or a, ume = TxR2 wi al i l : xL l l so ncuded at t e spr h eadsheetdesgn i

1 fI' 't I i l j . ' pj l I /


I 'j r' 1 I
1 .- , 1 .

fmn,wrtl aperlrleboonl prvisocelsflnttngvalint oeeaihnpeIwewerunh dig llxanpuaiadia o h d ori tt ut d Sr l oleo taeehett oln u epi hin deon c u nl l n h o s i , e r may n y s
an

jp 7 f ' '
'' //' 2J

. . , . r : . . k
i m ayb a 'ngl cal at fom a v y t e si e cul i r ' , on er I ge number en er i s,y cal h ar of t ed t em t pi l e yt

toWilt stpnemA2/cleMosts sg.hnoaabov,arghadvl e huheeoritrsferfrne headiTeti eeeLnanexamplm gb efu o 2l eecf t e i hemtr e t n o a ngs u d l her ebelx( 2)xB2. ,i e e,
r talCmp t prgr ue*a te ' l o uer o ams s s h o ,

#, j j' ' j , ,. ,
.

mutlainsg s tefr lwlra S sand mulil f ma us eari lpi t in oh omua i ed undert ic o l t i or t ed l ne er


a. sry , :z.sjj j a ver si e i t e chaper as t s i t way f m ule ( ,;. ns s y mpl n j t , hi s he or a 4, et c
.

i e l f mat r hert t easi t ngl i or , at han he ne er o

'a ea oepeene tefr l i h v b v rs td h omua n

iF l p ' ' 1 7 . 7 '' @. jj I


j ; I p l j i

j ,

Ty c l t er or a c li c umn pial h ef e el n ol y
.

ca drw swib rfrn e c5 n o l e eee c d l


Each cel i es abl ls t i shed f a si e or ngl pur e b n c en fom f av l e pos eig hos r our ai abl

j ha y o er nt he Worh seti u i y ar a new c a pjatonuutonet twoul bever wel -iI have t be ent ed i o t pto jtng p f ou e d omertl W I o spr dsj . ea a eet Spf eadsheet You wil soon fnd t s. l i he

j j ue.rytxtentrdattespradsheet mknumlueoerlvaues.fma l 1socar e ee h e f s aea uid fautn Iohi t cclisr t o j ; . T s l mb o en e a mal er f t d l nt s


1 $ I l g
'

t al ey s on i pur has over ot mon pent t ems c ed a per oftme. t e ot erh d i may i od i On h h an t

ayvaotordi beiand orl gt erd f e en h an or o tpl cul i v ues agesamet ng abl t ent new M uli e cal atons aj f of er

vje spr a eadsheet r l pr eal oves i worh y t s t

dsntngadue f sc pree catrclliwolhedvales,he eieadie or hesheetua u ss hnat,au tt a t n Yto g a n dr p as a h sg f t s o ashwh oor Or pesfom jtg enerXad col di e rcan te u us
h a n sfridvd al ou s e dig o n iiu c lmn . n mb r f oe a dteda t onwhc u e o h ls n h imeer ih 2.T c r t t en er when t testaeoaaca ast st makest o arv ex t ed he h eiruchc dse hi hat ' I ss 'l e . he
sor eadsheet i used. I a fnanci s n i al

tjVwgooetadmeety ad wdemeiecllisa ilvd b juntap rijeie1 na aehrte aeaomrcoe Ooeeope i do, l w nr m t f0 m e a al r nrell rmn o nun jw upr c tn e ols he uay vm jy t o tj s ra wk raj o gj y j oa s j t j
'. ', >
v

c
,

a(rnatsatre tcjjtiagood n os ejto angl x n c y w,j numer at e a Y o- di es ej ca s d or ous es


e a l. o v ru l sy uaeep d x mp H wee, n s o r xe e e
is tigo thtomuaiwibus te shn eoceed s ematcal l e eake tr t l t pr n utefr il l.Let n c s av o t ys y e
iusrt i SK3. l taed n l

f ' I I .i II 1 ' 1 1.

2y q Ys l**1 2 WU E7 1) e o** V Y1 $ l j y ** 5 a: ' t h .


f t c l ' * ( 2) * B2'wilbe Or hat el,n A2/ 2 l lt i. s
b ackgr ound,t e ans s t ver m any h wer o y

'. 1' /t 't 1 J .. fI1 I I ' 1' 1 1


l I iI jI. l j .
'

. jI. .I I. :

' 1 '.
?

a oi t nticudb ted s rt no u eo sra s et s ueuiteh me oco ' jai hs o l e h e cii f s foe d h es o sfl h o oo n 'iem chas ' kh' T e p e t i ti a e p c s an' pur e. t wor so . h s e da wh h h tks
a.T r eie numerc daa ast sh o ec v ial t he eet pl canbe asur ie t a n us ofa ace prs o ew er
i bei used. Agai i a fnanci s ng n n i al

- lteio rm c ro ipa e o C , sg t moec mpe e a l o wok a n fh t ga ,s rs lc d n 2 lhl r o lx x mne f ri , r u i y n 'O OS Wr r o tesre tefr l o tte tu hn h lso a PCD a R R 'e l e n n ce n h omua u h o c ig oe ' e n s W
dipa e , it tl iplyn 1 7. ite s ly d whl sids a ig 5 1 n h s l

jf g; gi p Ij .
'

'1 )) '
' i
II I
.. .

appl ton t i c d be t e v ue ofan i i ls oul ca n l al a


i pur ased. t em ch 4 To dipl numer val c cult s ay i cal ues al a ed

per sonal comput . new v u f t er add , al es or he

numberoflol and t PCD an t a es he d he


r r val wi appearal tist l. equied ues l l mos n ant y

zj prgrm wi c c lt i te ten mb ro h esco e l addii t j o a l aluae,n h h u e fol h s n n ton o e l


,

c c at bas on te out r u and alul ed ed h er adis

Fis ,t e hol di ermu tb rt h e amet s e

i' l! I

. by t spr he eadsheet usi t val ng he ues G i i a tr ve t y

headi , et se up att e desi s age, ngs c, t h gn t

d i pl es bu y can f mateach f cel mu be pr ded asf lws: ecmal ac t ou or our l st ovi s ol o

:: f .j j ?
1. 1
' .
'

I , j

e tr asi 3a du igfr lee t e Th fl wig i a e a l o a smpe need n n sn omua nerd e ol n s n x mpe f i l o


b te s e td sgn a t e s r a h e s ra s ders t pt c usertdds v lme y h h e e i er t h p e ds e t ofa cylne t e ue o ac aa tebot is pe d i e wher t lul e h ou t h he h desi s age gn t
Ther c. be many en r c l and e an ty el s di erand l h. amet engt

c jmnt ds lyv le wi ten mb r 1 F ten mb ro h lsc o e . ou o ipa au s t h u e . orh u e f oe h s n h

EI I' I

o deci alpl f m aces as appr it t t opra e o he 2 Fort ou erdi er he t amet . Zp iat n. l um nscan b i vdual /l i Alcol c o e ndii l 3. cel i whih t pr am di l s y . The l n c he ogr sp ay c fgur i t ms ofwi h,number of t e c cul ed v ue f he angl b we on i ed n er dt h al at al ort e et en

1' tomucalined valotuvmake li ,Dl e'eR .- nf Yoo-z ' fr l g i may uthata e.ts , r ue I hese a culg nuespt l s the ' ev u o e at v '
o ef . n ian al t a spr dsheets us ul l afn ci shee 2 ea

dc ll e,t. ai niset e 4d cnhie.chthe program di ays ei pcse I fac lhet aj ecelo s ma a c n n a h The tllwhi a n spl
C um n f he v u oft i pur ased ol ort ale he t em ch Wilbe set up f num ercaldat and l or i a
.

t c cult v ue f t e hol di er he al a ed al or h e amet .

/
I

42

43

'

X.. . . =

I Ij g I-I I
. II

J ! ? '
.

''. !1 l

If l i l I i
1j fI jI :

cets A2 and 82 shoul be s up f Chang hef mul or =si ( zl l ' d et or et or at ead n cz/ and
i enty an c2 and o2 havig t cal r d n he num er checkt s agai tsome ti t es oryour hi ns rg abl

j i t c ofte wor ' es'' f n he ase h d hol '' number COS( 1 X 3 / .T mak t f mul (P- ) 60N) o e he or ae
o

fhol 'was pr ered t t e headi es ef r hen h ng


.

a l e o l Wor t ough R, p and N wi hav t be k l

. !' I Ii ' I

f mul f c cul i t angl bet or ae or al at he e ween ng

s enti cal aor Th br et ()ar ci ic cult . e ack s f e es eni eletepr am wigieyouhal s tal s h ogr l v l f

c d span r 1 and 2 wi t val oul ows t he ue Subsiuedwiht c lr er cesf t h ttt t he el ef en or he um I ai n he ues. bei al at t r 3 The col ns do CelS cont nig t val ng l ed o ow oc

I' I ! i l j j ,,' I ' 2 ! I i I

A
1HOLES

B
OD

c
ANGLE

D
DRI Sl. LL zE

f tlsifval Cfhal iq t nieet tevheeosnue 2taofC2i dfrn h au ne ie o hts ubeigf e what r om f


i r r Th br kess doC22pror s equi ed. e ac t ay / i
t cho i t e si val o osng h ne ue. Agai ent edi and change t n er t he

0taethese ar eog t dslath ohv ob wie diplhosepar te e de nu yed ipa el yy f mul t or ae sa


,

Dkplcat and Past l i e e

I i I. I. I I I

2 3

nd i he el s eced a one ata tme as t c li sel t .

Ij ) g I f / '

hol and t drlsie.As aleadyst ed es he i z l r at

'h t scr prn s h pt iustat t s r e wo een it el o l r e hi, l or I er e at .

I y u s tu y u s r a s e tf ru t f o e p o r pe d h e o p o
1 hol ormor y may f t t pi O0 es, e, ou eelhat y ng

II k Ir l I:
, , ,

t fru ed ntpernh des u OrtlVaied=1ed(22)n cee h om l p oapait clbt tathetr 1di/iCsi)adi tk e a e l mt oue vi(n / C2/ hc l a ds by n( 2)s h a lshoul add at b
eiewh e on t s een. s er he cr tas st ji age t as w ih aI com put hat t I er C UI,t not ofte exta br et OS t ake e h r ack s.
t e wi b subt dif enc her l e l l fer es e p... . pcoi rrr rl i ai- oa i t i x. l . xa o xi o o. ' rnt n l q a a a a a Contnue goi t ough t f l ng i ng hr he olowi s encechec ng t ev ue a equ ki h al teac s a h t ge,
,

lcri iuhenaoew sober teohrhe cl n, ats byn farn oth ouv a teta h ts tre ou sit ak eod yg t b d e e e m s el he one- cultont y woul beb t what i accept e.Forunat y,t ofcal a abl
wi api eofpaperandyourc cul orI f s i ' upl at 'and d ast 'I tt t h ec al at . f acites ' i e' i d c ' e' i he p mi t hough y wer expec i t mak t e wor i oled consier y. ou e tng o e h k nv v d abl gp calul i n fequent t en sav t s c at r o l h y e he heet t e f m ul i f a si e I Hai eck d h or a n or ngl i andn t e ne vch yed

i te f mul 1 tmes an smi l f n h or a OO i d i l y or ar

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f mul hast be ent ed asa sn e I or a o er igl i ne dt c r tus of ack sobs v he orec age br et ered an ensur t pars oft f mul ar t o e hat t he or a e
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k- t=<.' ''''.-'-- --' -- nx =(/snc22)+ a df al,=B / 't, '-L '':Fu-- '-- - p ' v> .'-?' ' ' = ,, a e t 1(i( / ) 1 n i l 2 ) ny

t afea dc liu n xt y un e i ta iwokdicudtenb d piae o i n alt p eti o e dt h tt re t o l h e u l td l me , c


a1 t wi be needed woul be t ent I hat l l d o ef

c lc nb s me a c mpe a te P o e s b t a te v le a p as el a e o wh t o lx s h rc s u s h au p e r

n wv l so n mbr foe a doo tr h vn d piae sy4idvd al te e au fru e oh ls n/r ue a ig u l td a n iiu l h e c y


di erl an c e, sment n abov amet .n y as a i ed o e, bl o 5 c d be dupl t and pase ock f oul i ed ca td evenf asi eappl tonyouma h or ngl i i ca y ave i fve at a tme r n i i educi t wor ng he k t c r outt cal at n a numberof si f l. o ary he cul i o gnicant i y

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o v s f e i bes wa i t bui te f mul i sages t sole,ofcour e i you ar experenced t y s o l h or a n t d

a do s reta tec r t au iarv d F ute e t iao eg n b ev h th or v le s re O h n nert n o. ec i

o u igas ra s e tb o sap ar t h ls ar c san, n wib pc e f m f sn pe d h e ec me p en oe ) e on t ta d l e ik d r l o

. Thst i houghi n t uist yaswhi t s ot hef l or l s As aleady men i , t r benef te v u f R (adi and N ( r toned he eal i h ales or r us) t numberof

ateach sa tge. Onef udherpoi r di t eab ntegar ng h ove, st t frtwi teeasyon c2. ari is t h ng h e The F S eadsh tmayus r ans r her oUC pr ee e adi at fr l frageAigvni s 3ad taddgstngs shtaotefr lwhol omua o nl s i n K n hnadjre t teForve omuawi e eueis o ui b h reader l o Whenpl ed i celc2woul r =36oN nee ac n l d ead /
.

wher muli e cal at s ar r r e tpl cul i on e equied t c l att t ofheshee ( i i C1 he el he op t s tR sn 1 wih t need f muli e X and Y co- and N i i A6 i t s een prnt2) t t he or tpl s n n he cr i , he

odnolsbiga eneeded ea ll. riae en ln xeln as f oe t cl txmpws: e ol yie c umns wi be v l


col n A . Hol Number um e .
.

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w her N bei t num berof hol . e ng he es

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)pr ess byoneon ea r AIi ogr es ch ow. Is

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However t e val f N wilhave been equaI 2x' r an I t scas si C2/ s n adi s,n hi e n( 2) ue or l , h d ead ener i c l ter or t f mul i Woul r t ed n elA2 h ef e he or a n .c /6 ) 2 c2 s oud ra =and/ f Noe tay i celsi(2.:B22ao/) setup f h or e d 6 * or t tpl s h n d f ldi de 3 0A2. muli t/i vi lsn(and A2 J have been or use
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Col B.X c or nat r at e t t umn o- di e el i o he t frti tepr am wis ou eac v he is tme,h ogr l eek t h l cr ecente icl r varabl an askiii ab ut (h s i e d fts sol e te ame
Cr ecente. icl r
Col n D. X co- di e r atve t um or nat el i o

c lmnc. c-riae rltet te v l e c t )r eai (h n e e c ou Y oodn t eai o h au a hi o R lte ca g s a h v e me v


e r co- di t xteme or naes. cOl n E.v co- di e r atve t um or nat el i o
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Thef mul i D2it or a n s houghmuchmor f A2 ( t 999 hol and 7 ch act s e or up o es) ar er ,i sK3. f 82 ( t 999. f t out de c ex beig t tgien f ' n ompl n ha v or d or up o 999 or he si

tme r atve t anot cel) Havi i el i o her l. ng idiat t atR an N ar abs ut an P n c ed h d e ol e d r atv iwi no askwhen te f mul i el ie t l t l h or a s
p ed i f l c l sote t i si an ast n urher el s h ask s tl l
.

p f .
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i er ostexpr on, t i A/ Now nn m essi hat s 2. o t depend on t e headi r r at fen h ng equied

e tehe c -riae .hese wilbe t e ea ys n tq iko e a d c atb td n i xrr fomuln ts t me od or s a d uc n ni an e me e n o ' or ae f l hos bock r hert one I e a i l a han n
Do

r ememberngt t t angl i t v u t t Forexampl col A may h i ha Athe e)s he ale he op. e umn ave
i c l t e or ent t or ul = c2/ n elc2, her f e er hef m a 2 and obser e t att r t i hal t e v l he esul s f h a

i uded i t par aph headed ' ncl n he agr The t houghs uponl af I an t ty et y ew i nes d es our
pr am t oughl b or p tn i t e ogr hor y ef e as ig n h f lnum b ofI es. ul er i n

v t be 7 ch ac er wi , t ti f e f t o ar t s de ha s i or he wor ' es' and a s d hol ' pace eiher si t t de o

an e i c2. gl o
Ent t e edi mode f t cel an er h t or he l d

separ e i fom is adj entheadi at t r t ac ng.


Headi gs can t e up mor t one r w . n ak e han o

i t r r plces,t c l f t X n he equied a ypial or he y


C or n e r at e t t e ci e c te = R o- diat el i o h r en r v cl

Thi stl has t c umn ' 'whi s i l he ol A' ch


c ai t hol posion num b . 1,f ont ns he e t i er f or

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A 1 3 4 5 6 NUMBER OF HOLES

B C D CALCULATES CO-ORDINATES OF HOLES ON A PCD USE: ENTERED ITEMS Radius at hole centre 5 40.000

CALCULATES CO-ORBINATES OF HOLES IN AN ENCLOSEING OUTSIDE BI ARETER


USER ENTERED ITEYS

NeMBER OF HOLES
5

QUTER RADIUS 0. 650

8 9 1G 11 13 14 15 HOLE NU#BER 16 17 18 19 20 21

CALCULATED VALUES Angle Between holes 72. 000 RELATIVE T0 RELATIVE T0 CIRCLE CENTRE EXTREQE CO-ORDINATES Ce-ordlnate X C/-ardlnate Y X Y 40. 000 0 80. 000 40. 000 12. 361 38. 042 52. 361 1. 958 32.361 23.511 7. 639 16. 489 32.361 23.511 7. 629 63. 511 12. 361 38.042 52. 361 78. 042 0 0 0 0

0 1 3 4

PROGRAR CALCULATED ITEMS Hole diameter Radius at Angle hole Centre Between Holes 0. 481 0. 409 72.000 RELATIVE T0 CIRCLE CENTRE 1 2 3 4 5 0 RELATI T0 VE EXTRERE CO-ORDINATES

1 2 3 4 5 0

s BOLE NUQBER 6 17 18
1 9 0 1

Co-ordinate X Coordinate Y 0. 409 0 0 .127 0. 389 -. 0 331 0. 241


-. 0 331 0. 127 0 -0. 241 -0.389 0

X 0.81 9 0. 536 0. 078


0. 078 0.536 0

Y 0. 409 0. 020 0169


0. 650 0. 799 0

B1 F mu IF( 6j C ( 6- *( 2* I)/ 0)* 1) O) 6/ @r 1a: A1 C6* 0S(A1 1) (( P 36 C1 )j

l F mu : IF( 6, 1 C0 ( 6- ) ( ( PI / 6 * 11) j 6/ er la A1 C1 * S( A1 1 * ( 2* ) 3 0) D ) 0)

CREEN PRI 1 NT
ex pl y ar wor i t a m axm um am e, ou e kng o i num b ofhols of1OO i whih c y er e n c ase ou

CREEN PRI 2 NT
i CelA1 woul t ough hav t e si e n. l 7 d h e h mpt f m ul = A16+1.W hen pas i i f t or a tng n urher cel an r l d eques ig t e t be r at s tn hes o el i ve we woul ge , A17+1 = A1 ,et d t= , 8+1 c. Havi n aried at he hol number ng ow r v t e byt s mean i wi open up t possbit hi st l l he i ly i ofex endi t f m ua so as t hal t e t ng he or l o th pr esson a t numberhol r r ogr i t he es equied. Ho wever t do t s wi ivole i u n ,o hi l n v ncldig l some lgi expr si i t f mul an o c es ons n he or a d t s w i i ease t compl t quie hi l ncr l he exi y t consder y an i ne t s eadsheet i i abl d f w o pr st i bes If a t s s age. i t s d t e s t e t t hi t W t hi one h h pr am wi c cul e t v u f t ogr l al at he al es or he l numberof es r r bu t c tnue hol equi ed t hen on i as igoig r f n ound a s econd tme an mor i d e. To achi e a t y r ti woul t ev i esul t d d hen b a good iea t c t fl t an her e d o opy he i o ot e and i t s bl del e aI t r or n hi ock et I he ec ds

coul j t i when desi ng t d ust ype n, gni he


spr heet t num b s 1 t 1OO down eads , he er o col n A.Th woul wor qui wel but um s d k t e l when r es i c or nat f s 10 equ tng o- di es or ay hoI s on a P C D i w ouI contnue e t d i calul i t ou t 100 I es ast gh c atng hr gh he i n hou y wer goig r d t ci e 1 tmes. ou e n oun he r 0 i cl W hen on t scr t l bey he een he i nes ond 11 up coul b i nor but i as i I el a d e g ed f s i y k prn outi t be t en, r sheet woul it s o ak exta s d be prnt ou .I t e or t sh coul i ed t f her f e he eet d be made t s op at h e 1 an aI r o t ol 0 I ound t i si i woul r ul. i er t on d uat d es t

a bove t val r quied. scoul t he ues e r Thi d hen b prnt out orus i t wor sh . Th e i ed f e n he k op e she woul s i c t n t e f m ul up t et d tl on ai h or ae o l t tval and c d be used agai wi ha ue oul n t h t num ber of hol f subsequent hat es or a i i ns. ppl o cat

f l ng shoul gie an i si i o t e ol owi d v n ght nt h


Consi col m n A , car yi t der u r ng he rumberofeach h e, t s c d be setup ol hi oul w ih som e si pl l c t hals t t m e ogi hat t he c cul i onc t hol num ber has al atons e he e r eached t num ber of hol r r . he es equied

s ect ubj .

Logi c
W i t s we ar no ari n at a m uch t hi h e w rvig mor c e ompl us of spr ex e eadsheet and s on t tmos wi n e ha t l eversee a need t u . o se Iwoul t ef e sugges t atunl s y d her or th es ou ar c e onver wi I c expr si y sant t ogi h es ons ou l e yours eav heetatt s s a . Ev t l, hi t ge en ual y When bec i f l conver om ng uly sant wih t S eads s t s f ,y coul t t e pr heet hi ar ou d hen ak tme t I it t lgi pr sonsof i o ook n o he o c ovii your pr am , ogr Howev ,r h t an I avig t er at er h e n he

Tr ng t expr s t s ver l t I c yi o es hi bal he ogi y


woul sat , 'F t val i t e pr ous d t e I he ue n h evi cel equal t e num ber o hol r r l s h f es equied en er' 'F NOT en era val on hi t d I O' t ue e gher t an i t e pr ous c l h n h evi el. W hi tt s woul wor f t fr I I hi s d k or he i i st ne afer com pl i t num ber of hol t etng he es F r d i woul no wor f t n l eguie t d t k or he ext i ne as t e pr ous val woul no equal h h evi ue d t te numberofhol r r bu woul equal es equi ed t d nough .I woul as a r tadd on t t s tt d esul e o hi Sari te sequence agai, because of t tng h n

Rahert j t ng1and up ds t han ustypi war


i coul be aranged f t e f m ul t do t d r or h or a o t s Taki s een prnt2 as an exam pl hi. ng cr i e

celA1 woul j th t fgur 1t ed l 6 d us ave he i e yp


46

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47

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t s a m ulpl I hast ef e t be us hi t eF i her or o ed. Thi woul st e 'F t val i t above s d at ' he ue n he I c lequal . 't ent ' , I NOT1I el s 0' hen er . ' F 01 F t val i t pr ousceli t c umn he ue n he evi ln he ol equ st numberofhol r r en er al he es equied t . 'F NOT en era vale one hi t i ' I 0' t u gher han n t c I. hat eI ' T en e t tt X and Y v ues alo o sur ha he al s di a a val ofz o t f m ua sh d sply ue er he or l oul i ud an I cl u as iustat att e ncl e F a se l r ed l h botom oft sc een prnt it s wer not t he r i s f hi e done t e c or n eswoul b wor ed out h o- diat d e k on basi of zer i col n ' ' gi ng s o n um ' A vi ir I nt vaI es. Fr m t ese bref r e eva u o h i commen son t us ofogi ic beseen t he e l c t an t t com pl t has been r sed hat he exiy ai sgniianty Pl e do notho i fc l. eas wever1tt s e hi put of atem p i t us spr heet you f t tng o e eads s i t rsi erf m . n hei mpl or

r epeat i t ty spr ds i s ha our ea heet ayus ng m e r ans t descrbe angl r her t adi o i es at han degr ees.Ther or as t e ar 2 Pi ef e, her e r an i a cicl t en say f 70 degr adi s n r e h 0r ees t numbero r ans i 70* / he f adi s 2p 360. s Thi s d be e denti t e f mul f B1 houl vi n h or a or 6. The s een prn salo iusr eanot er cr it s l tat l h i t t f ur ofspr mporan eat e eadsh desi n. eet g Consi ig s een prnt2 i c b s dern cr i t an e een t atI 3 t 6 ar us f da e i ed h i nes o e ed or t nput by t userwi t r he t he emai derdipl ng h n s ayi val cal at by t spr ues cul ed he eads heet . Thes t e hough can be di ded i t t vi n o wo ca egores,i 8 t 1 dipl ng v ues t i i nes o 1 s ayi al cal at t onc onl whi I cul ed he e y l i 13 st nes upwar s r peat basi Iy t e sam e d e ca I h c culton butf each hol posion. al a i or e t i Ofgr ersi f anc i t atwhen a eat gnii e s h c col umn has been al c ed a wi h anc l at o dt l

G hapt 6 er
S i pl S ho p-m ade D i i i m e v d ng D evi ces
Th ne f c er deal t i e xt our hapt s wi t t h ems hat c be made i t e home wor shop. The an n h k r onsf t s appr h wi be num er eas or hi oac l l ous bu ar I el t be mai y. t ei yo k nl 1. The wor kshop owner get m uch s s if i i makng wor hop t s. at act n s on i ks ool exam pl es of iem s not avaiabl t l e com mer i l.ti as cal I s sumed t atan r y h y eader

embar n onprj sivoli dii ngwi kig oect n vng vdi l l


havearied at r on e un s andi r v a eas abi dert ng ofbasi wor shop pr ies. Bec se of c k actc au t s,de ai o m anuf urng t hi t l f s act i echni ques wil r v I gel t ar o gr er l be eser ed ar y o eas f eat c ompl t , exi y

f mated( ero deci pl es, c. or t numb f mal ac et ) Scr een Pri s nt


t i wi appl t aIiems do t c um n. hs l l y o It wn he ol pi l ad Ou er adi ' een pl ed y ac Iwi fni wi a f bre c ment on Ty cal ,h ' t r us b l i sh t ew if om l h s ' of Hol ' i C6,hol No. es' n e t s een prn s pub ihed.Scr he cr it l s een 1 i i A6 and ' s n s d o s ay 000, f cal atng hol on a PCD whis number woul have t dipl as 1. or cul i es lt Scr 2 calul es v ues f hol i an 2. een c at al or es n 000,3. 000,e c.and numberofhol as t es 5. -t s c c pl at t desi n of 000 hi an om i e he c g encl i cr e. osng icl s. ng nt t The onl maordier cesar t i som e sheet Havi m ade the poi i y j f en f e hatn hat e n 2 t e ho1 di m et r ( 11) has been m aybe t some m or m oder and h e a e B calul ed byt pr am as h t r dis adap abl spr c at he ogr as he a u t e eadsh pr ams do al w eet ogr l o ac ers i um o onwhiht hol ar t b pl ed ( 1) char t itcsofa col nt change down c he es e o e ac C1 . I i not vi bl on t prnt butt ts si e he i he t ei I h. h r engt c s was a c l 6 wh t e s eenpr ur or t elB1 en h cr i nt was t en and t f m ul f t c li ak he or a or hat el s I t eisi es f m spr dsheet ar n h r mpl t or ea s e di ayed att botom l toft s een. nott at c pl and yets i v y u ul spl he t ef he cr h om ex tl er sef l M ovi t cur t ot cels woul and tme s ng.They al avoi any ng he sor o her l d i avi so d caus t ei f mul t be shown.Not t e h r or a o e he possbit of r s du t t ng i orect i ly eror e o appi nc r i ues n o cul t , i y I com mand t bascal s at I A 1 i vai i t yourcal a or easl done F hat i l t es F 6 s y dr f al at o e zer di ay zer i B1 I NOT t o spl o n 6 F hen when many hun eds o c cul i ns ar t be cari ou . wha ar y waing o red t So t e ou t i calul e as perf m ul c at or a. or go gi pr et r. One ot her i por ant poi wor h f , on, ve s eadshe s a ty m t nt t

2. Becau ofi t us canno j tf t se lmied e tusi he y


e xpens ofa c mer al made iem . e om ci l y t 3.l no avai e comm er i l . t em t l abl cal y Some of h i t e t i t i chap er al n ems n hs t , og wih t Li ng t i Chapt 9 ar t he ni ool n er e

Lathe m andr gearm ounti el ng


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1 The t pars . wo t t m ake up t hat he I he mandr at el gearmou i ntng as sembl. y

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F ES k5 j 1 kk DE 1 OF OL 0 E?, F kA Fi 46 8 S EE 6 :2 JE AL I L 70 C

end of t l he spi e f di di he at ndl or vi ng pur poses i show n i t publshed s n he i assem bl and pars dr ngs. No y t awi di mensons ar gier ast wi var fom i e v hey l y r l It t lt a he o a he. Manuf urn t s i s r ghtor d, act i g hi s tai f war plcet mat i i t chuc f t out a he eraln he k or he er

DRI NG PLATE. VI

FOL S E h 5 5 k: 08 9 kk / 5 5 02E . . ? 8 1 kk C 30 kk 2 k6 RA iIL 4 k 8 S EE 0 0k2 TE A 0 T L 7 0

CO M PONENT PLATE.
50

woul s d eem a good st tng poi f ar i nt or c si aton.The pl on der i ungeri t det t n he en as embl sh d b made a cl e sl ng s y oul e os i di fti i h si s ast m i mie b ash i n t ou ng o o ni s ackl s when i us Despi t s, n e. t hi backas s d e l h houl al ays be t en up manual and i t w ak l y n he sam e diecton, even wih a pr si r i t eci on vi n n n uded par and wih sufi ent pr ec i t di dig head.Agai lhave not icl t t fci oj tng o mach n t whol par att s sage.Use any det l f t det as bl but i e he e t hi t ai or he s ent sem y l tand rghthand kni t s t machi ef i f ool o e ne tosei Chapt 8( t 41an 42) oul h n er pars d sh d t e t par l lp ons wi tr h wo al odi e t hou emovi ng pr e a basi f an desin. ov s or y g t par fom t chu en i asa r ul he tr he ck surng es t Slti t out com ponent i itng he er s t att ar c en rc. Sett angi of ius r ed i Phot 2 an a c b seen i h hey e onc ti he e l tat n l o d s an e t t e t sl e and mak t e i er t , i a si e op aton f t di di head. h op i d e h nt nal aper s mpl er i or he vi ng I i t t s ie att s angl f t eavng he op l d hi e or he Howev ,ts v t ius r e a f ur of er i er es o l tat eat e l Qt pad. Nex mach n t par l pori her t i e he al el t on t s f m of head w hi has not been hi or ch Oft e i h nner pad makng t t ead alo. ment i he hr s i oned s f .Jus vii e b n t o ar t s bl ehid he Tur t pad i t e chuc hol ng on t n he n h k di he chuck i a pl e c t nig a rng of24 s at on ai n i es. s mi r n ng s p t j t ned and machi t t ori ust ur on ne he aper hol Thi per t diectidexi ofany Phot 1sho t t p on complton. di son possbl wih a 24 hol pl e,t o ws he wo ads ei vii ie t e at hat Iam n icl ng an det l f t ot n udi y ai or he i 2,3,4,6,8 and 1 The head i s i s s 2. s tl l desi of t det m ountng as t gn he ent i he r a ed vi t wor wor wheel r t ot t a he m/ m fom he met od of mountng t s wi var wi y m anual h i hi l y del. t handl buti I ked i pl usig e s oc n ace n Bo erusi t ch ewheel wev , ng he ang quadr t a p i t e t hol posion.The peg i an eg n h op e t i s

I .L 1k I

advanced usi t sm al I ng he l ever parl ty vsi e t rghtoft dii ng head. i bl op i he v di Phot 3shows a t c ass o ypial embl, y but do n be c us due t I ofspac ot onf ed, o ack e t e phot aph hasbeen t h ogr akenvi a mir . a ror

5. c ck back pl e bei pr par f A hu at ng e ed or drlng hol f di i ng pur es on t ii l es or vdi pos he I he. at mak i di cul t a d t e back pl e' e t f t o voi h h at s fxigs. in

Bul w heeldet l ent


Thi i anot cas wh e t desi wi ss her e er he gn l l depend ver m uc on t I he t whih j y h he at o c t i bei appl d.Howev ,once agai t e s ng i e er n h det tass bl i Ch t 8 sh d pr en em y n ap er oul ove a bass. i Phot 4 s o howst e m e hod appl h t i ed t a Myf d Ser Seven lt o or i es a he.

Di di pl es vi ng at
Ha ng a sem iunier al vi ng h and vi - v s di di ead a good r ange ofdii ng plt t e wi v di a es her l l si be manydiii t ar not tl l v sons hat e possil b e, e a Iwernum b s. cal a n of ven t o er Typi l eed y 53 di si can onl be acheved usng a vi ons y i i di di pl e h ng 53 di si is f As vi ng at avi vi ons t el. t s i a num bergr ert i nor l hi s eat han s mal y avaiabt on t sm aler pl e si l e he l at zes s i anot erpl e woul hav t be FoI m or i or i r uppl ed, h at d e o e nf maton egar ng prm e di i pur chased, l al i i f a one of num b s s Ch er 1 f so t s or f er ee apt O. applcaton such an expens m ay be i i e

Chuck back pl e di di at vi ng
W hi tno appl e t t I t i s cabl o oday' wor hops s ks t t e same ex entas i t pas ,di dig o h t n he t vi n usi drl hol ar ng ied es ound t chuck' l he s bac at c s i ha i pl kpl e an tl ve t ace.Drlng l s ii l t h es mayt oughseem a daun i t he ol h tng ask butast s t i r l onl appr i e he ys em s eal y y opr at f Iwernum ber t er i no r or o s h es eason why t s shoul be. Usi t met hi d ng he hod of a dii p ers rp, desc i i Chapt v ded ap ti as rbed n er 3,w i m ake t pr l l he ocess an eas one. y Phot 5 sh a chu pr e f t ve o ows ck epar d or wel di sins.The bac plt i t be c r vi o k ae s o ente p unched on t mar i an t drl he kngs d hen ied l wiht e r r hol 3 mm di et and t b equied es, am er 3 mm deep woul be ab trght Car i d ou i . e n posii ni g t e m ar d st i w i1 be to n h ke rp I nec ar t ensur t t hol do not ess y o e hat he es c fitwih t back pl e' fxi as t on l t he c at s i ng hey may b cl e t t edge. e os o he Havig alo dii ons o 5 and 10 may n s vsi f be desr e i whih c e a r g of hol iabl n c as i 60 es n woul appeart be r r Thi n d n d o equied. s ee ot be t c as t rngs ofhol on o he ase wo i es, e f 10 an one o 12 coul be made.l t s d f d n hi c ase,p ii ns 1 an 7,fom t 1 hol ost o d r he 2 e rng,sh ig t e s e pl i arn h am aces as h es 1 ol and 6 fom t 10 h e rng.I may t r he ol i t hough

ng or nat dif tt j tf Makng ones own may Usi X and Y co- di es fi o usi cul y. i
t ef e be t way f war her or he or d. An i er i f ur of usi a nt estng eat e ng di dig pl e vi a wor wor wheel t vi n at a m/ m wih Byf t e m os acc at met odt pr e ar h t ur e h o oduc a di son plt woul b t wor ou t X vii a e d eo k t he & Y co- di es and use t m ilng or nat he li machi t p ton t e hol Fort l ne o osi h i es. he ower num ber t swoul cedai l be t e way t s hi d ny h o pr eed but orhiher b st met od oc f g num er he h c d be a lte t ous and gr t car oul i l edi t ea e woul be needed i seti t t e' d n tng he abl s poston f each di son. a pr auton, ii or vii As ec i I l m ar outt posions wi a cente i y ght k he t i t h r drland i ect he r tbe or r ovig i l nsp t esul f e em n t plt fom t t e, y ob ousl ou he a e r he abl An vi y t ofposton h e can b setup agai usng ii ol e n i t av l l co- di es,m ar i agai he ai e or nat ab kng n, t s t e wih a I gercente drl,Do alo hi i m t ar r i l s mar t pl es cente posion whi on k he at r t i l st t t e as c en rci o t m ount g he abl onc ti t f he y i n poston i i p ii s m odant .

3Abov A tpi aldet m ountng,i wi e. y c ent i t l l ofcou se t y depe n on t I he t r / al ndi g he at o whi i i bei f t Because ofI i ch t s ng i ed. t i t m ed s e t s phot aph has been t ken pac hi ogr a vi a mir . a ror 4.Bel Bul wheeldi di at ow. l vi ng t achment .

te s numberofhol ont e plt ( h ame es h ae 53 i t s exampl as t e ar di sons n hi e) her e vii


r r i t t num ber of hol equied, s hat he es ta s wi al r ver ed l ways b equalo t e wor l e t h m r i . sum ig a r i of40: t e num b at As o n at o 1h er ofhol tav sed f one t n att ou put e r er or ur he t wi be 40 x 53 and t num ber ofhol l l he es ta s f one dii on wi be 40 y 53/ r ver ed or v si l l 53 = 40.Thi woul be achived wih one s d e t t n pl 1 hol ur us 3 es. Havi ment ned 53as a dii onan ng i o v si d S a i t ti c onl b achi ed wih a t tng ha t an y e ev t 5 h e pl e, I 3 ol at shoul p n outt t s i d oit hat hi s b ecause i i a prm e num b . Unl s a ts i er e s Unier al vi ng h i a l e, r h v s di di ead s vai abl at er t an a Semi ver al h uni s head, prme number i s al ways r ie a pl e hav ng t sam e equ r at i he num ber of hol exceptng f I es, i or ower n umber wher a m ulpl maybe pr tc , s e t e i ac ial t c l f 19 dii ons a 38 h e pl e. ypial or y v si ol at

Usi a Rot y t e ng ar abl


Usi a r ar t e woul alo be worh ng ot y abl d s t c derng and wher possi e be as onsi i e bl ac at asusng c or nat The I tn cur e i o- di es. i ig mi

52

53

Izl .la k l

6. 1 dii i pl e m ade usng an A 25 v dng at i ac u sie CAD prnt t al z i. val fom t s ar coul be pr ues r he t ' t d oduced 7. 826087, 15. 174, 23. 8261 and 652 47 31. 304348,et Thes coul t c. e d hen be c onveded t 1 t n + 1. o ur 826087,2 t ns + ur 3. 74,3 t ns + 5. 261 an 5 t ns 6521 ur 478 d ur + 1. 3043 et Fi l t coul be 48, c. nal hey y d si iid 1 t n + 183,2 t ns + 3. 5,, mpl e f ur . ur 6 . 3 t ns + 5. and 5 t n + 1. et t en ur 48 ur s 30, c. h u t se up each posion as ac a el sed o t t i cur t y as i possi I . Thi wouI avoi an s be s d d accum ul i er or and pr atng r obabl be y accept e w her a hi degr of abl e gh ee ac ac i notbei ai at I t e pl e cur y s ng med . f h at wer us vi a wor / m wheel t e ed a m wor , he i pr em ent i ac acy t s pr des m ov n cur hi ovi woul be a ditnc a d s i t dvant ge. a

7 Phot oft dii ng pl e prntotf . o he vdi at i /. diii v sons.Phot 6 shows a plt havig o ae n 1 dii ons b ng us whih was made 25 v si ei ed c t s way.Phot 7 shows t com put hi o he er prn out Maki t cicls on t e prnt t it . ng he r e h i ou smal s 1 m m di et ,wilhel t i ay , am er l p o ens e t t cente punc mar s ar ur hat he r h k e made acc at y. ur el W his f , t syst does have I t ast he em I i tons, ai yacc acy Th c pu er i t i m nl ur . e om t m a da a i ofcour e extemel acc at bu t s s r y ur e t maynot mai ai a t e prn ou s age. be nt ned t h it t t Havi ti t e m et od wi a num berof ng red h h t h prnt s v y smal eror i t prnt s i er er l r s n he i er ' f eed m echani s r t i t PCD sm esul n he sometm es bei ver sl l oval Not i ng y i y ght . sur i n y, prn ou usig a pr essi n pr gl a it t n si of o al pen pl t pr oter oduced a perec r t a f t esul, t l st as f r as avaiabI m easur ng ea a I e i met ds woul sho A ch ho d w. eap dotmati r x prn er al di r ar abl wel,wih i it so d em k y i t nk
J aokoofOQ'toQ7oo )% ) 1 Oo roO x QoO a0' ok ' , c oo C o ' o o o cp o t. o r ' o o o o ( 7 o

J ' 3 , . @ ? , % % o

j 7

o. o o o o o oh fO o

o q u) o o o o co o Do o to ogo QooQooooooooooooqu t

' 7 , 7 @ o

CA1 ?ihT OdT F0l 1 5 ) I k 2 DI SI OI ZI FL VI ON VI hG ATE


An i er tng f ur was t t t wie nt es i eat e ha he r h i a si t eron i end t r t avng l ap ght t s he esul wast al bac l fe al ti ot l kash r e, mos mpos bl y si e wih a c vent nal ent t on i det . o I i al t pt e was us t sl a ncdent l he at y ed o i t smaldik 125 tmes t make an el r c l s i o ectoni pule unif us w i a di t r s t or e t h gi eadoutf al or an ei TPll ads e ght e cr w.

A Com put M et er hod


I you, or a f i f rend, have acc ess t a o com pu er equi t pped wi a CAD pr am t h ogr h e s her hod hat ove f or woul be i t angl bet act d f he e ween t er i anot met t may pr ef . a ng y er ol dii ons coul easi be est ihed usi v si d l y abl s ng us ul Plci an num b ofh es on a i ogr s h y t e t e' cal at Ty cal , n f h abl s i i br on. pi l a eed or PCD usng a CAD pr am i bot eas y 45 dii onswoul r r anangl of360/ andf t Pl e a smalcice f t e di dig v si d equi e e as . ac l r i or h vi n 45 p diii bei 8 degr er v son, ng ees,W i a pl ec te plsj t e onte PCD t t h at enr u us on h hen n he ogr o epeat hi r d t t s oun he 60: r i wor wor wheelt s woul askig t pr am t r 1 ato m/ m hi d r l he tm equied he r r onet n( degr pl 2whol cice t numberof i esr r and t equie, ur 6 ees) us e esul l ear m t mm a el l degr ees usi t t e' calbr i ng he abl s i aton r twi app al os i edit y. Prn t s out an fx i t t pl e it hi d i t o he at makng i a pr tc pr i t ac ial oposion. t i r epar r hr It n f he eed i f 46 di ii atfr t aleady pr ed.Cente punch t ough s or v s ons, is l r e s hat n he ente, si a r at el si e r r en ,t ght el i y mpl equiem t he each smal cicl ,alo t i t c r v emov t pr an ex ie r ll n e he i d am n esutookig nt an e bet gl ween dii ons woud be 360 46, r v si l / or ks ch e ousy bei 7.260 degr ng 8 87 ees.Ths woul be f any punch mar whi ar obvi l i d one t n pl 1. ur us 826087 degr on t ees he mi aced. Make any adj ment spl ust s eces y and us a cente drl t mar sar e r i o l k t bI ' calbr i n f r each di i i n, n a es i ato o v so t i nn t ig obvi i ani pr tc pr ousy m ac ial oposion. i g each posion,agai ispec .The rn of t Us n i l an hen i d. ng er ck l t e r ar t e bas t ef e l i us b ot y abl her or i t m ed e ho es c t be drle Bei v y qui c p ed t wor n t X/ c or n es i om ar o kig o Y o- diat t f m akng di di pl es. or i vi ng at s dealm et od f I ge num ber of h or ar s However as a l t r or, a I of i an i , as es t i st

j s and I erprnt s showi var ng et as i er ng yi


amoun s oferor ev her no mor t t r , en e e han 1 m m on t PCD. he Atwor t t eror i t di s , he r s n he amet er woul pr e ons m iut eror i an ar d oduc y n e r s n gul spaci and so woul be per ecty ng d f l adequat pr di t r us eroroft e ovi ng he adi r he PC D coul be accom m odat i t d ed n he mechanis.l usi a c vent c f ng on i det onal ent i pl t ungerwoul no en s d t gage r i bl due el y a t t var ng r us. Phot 6 shows how o he yi adi o t i was over ome usi a h hs c ng eavy gauge, Sprng wie det t woul cope w i i r ent hat d t h Sieway eror whi t tlhol ngt pl e d s r s l s i di he at s l i t ms o r aton. I t pl e was t b n er f ot i f he at o e us fequen l on a nor al vi ig head ed r ty m di d n Wih pl t ungert pe det , t pl e c d y ent he at oul be us t makea sec d plt -t e h es ed o on a e h ol Ont swoul t be on a c t tr us. hi d hen onsan adi

M ade on the I he' f at s acepl e at


For a si pl pl e, usi t m andr m e at ng he el m ount gearas desc i att s ad o ed rbed he t f t s ch t woul be an obvi u choi hi ap er d os ce. Formor c e ompl n ber mounta di ex um s, sc ont t f e pl e and usig a suiabl o he ac at n t y dii p v ded apers rp r ti ound t e out edge of h er t f he aceplt wilenabl t dic t be ae l e he s o m ar f m aki a dii n pl e. The ked or ng v dig at posii can be es ablshed usi an tons t i ng au omatcc te punc mount on t t t i en r h ed he op slde,or a sm al drli g spi dl . Thi i I iln n e s pr ocess shoul m ake a di di pl e d vi ng at accur e enough f m os appl i at or t i ons, cat

54

55

&

8.Drvig dog f in or bet ween c r entes wor t her k, oget

wihdrv (n t t ier o he y lst pl wih e# l i t p ed


t dii i g head. he v d n

especal i use vi a wor wor il f d a y m/ mwheel , r hert diec .See Phot 4 Ch er3. at han r t o apt Taki t need f 53 di si ng he or vi ons,as m en i n eari i t c t .I us n a to ed l n he hap er f i g er 1 mm di erf 5O amet acepl e and mar at ked wi 53 dii onson i p i yiwi r t t h v si t er s pher t l esul l i di si of 8. mm wi s a f r n vi ons 89 de, o ai degr ofa ac shoul be a ev e. ee ccur y d chi abl

Th p ihed dr ng shoul gie aI t e e ubl s awi d v lh det l nec ar f manu ac ur ai s ess y or f t e.

Rot t es ary abl


M akng r ar t es i t home wor shop i ot y abl n he k i n r l i k ng w i t t l oft s s ot eal n eepi y t he i e hi h t chapt ,' i pl di di devies' but i er sm e vi ng c ' , s icl n uded as ii t mos appr i e pl t s he t oprat ace i vi o onl a par aph bei g r r n ew f y agr n equi ed. A num ber of suppl r t t home i s o he e w or kshop pr de desi and kis of ovi gns t mat i s f maki wor s equi eral or ng k hop pment , r ar t es b n one su i Phot 9 ot y abl eig ch t em. o s howsa t c 1O0m m t et t h b ypial abl ha as een m ade t s way, I ger si ar al hi ar zes e so avai bl l you Ike m aki wor l e. f a i ng kshop ac s i st a r t yt e woul mak ces or hen o ar abl e d e

9 A 1 mm home made r ar t e.Cas igs f t . 00 ol y abl t n or hese ar av l e fom a number e al abl r ofsu i s and y?ot szes ppl er ' her i . r

A Bet een Centr drvi dog w es i ng


N ot havi g been abI t 1 cat a n e o o e c omm er aldrvi dog s t e f us ci i ng ui abl or e when di di bet een centes,I am vi ng w r i u n det l oft i 1hav m a ncldig ai s he t em e de

! (i iE @ 3
u-1 -.

my f As descrbed i Chaper3 (ee sel. i n t s Phot 12 and 13)t dog needs t b os he o e


fr y hel b t dr i devie ont head iml d y he i ng v c he isel.To cope w i dif i wor pi t f t ferng h k ece di met s a fatplt i use f t drven a er l a e s d or he i pori oft dog,i i ato drl and ton he t s s ied l t d o fc r so t ati can be r at appe f ente h t ot ed t ext o end t r he ange even f t , see urher as sembi dr ng.Phot 8 shows t y awi o he dr er suppl d wi t di dig h i , v i e t he vi n ead,on h t If,and t dr i dog on t e rght he e t he i ng v h i .

an i er tng pr ec . None, t my nt es i oj t o
kno edge i ude f l i s f mountng wl ncl acit or ie i di si pl es butdesi nig t s i s d vi on at g n hi n houl notbe undul dii t y f cul f . The desgnf a basi dii ng head i i or c v di s

EE !
8 2A A8 qE 95 k 1 kk SO T C FE SC A, 0 CE A? AZ qE kb 40 kk SO T C HE SC A, CKE kF AC FE

tesubect t nex chapt . Itbasc, h j ofhe t erWhi s i


i wi b su f i l adapt e t meett t l e fi enty l c abl o he n eeds ofmany wor shop owner k s.

BETW EEN CENTRES DRI NG DOG VI


57

56

& '

C hapt 7 er
S ho p -m ad e B as i D i i i g c v d n H ead
For many wor op ow n s t e dii n ksh er h v di g head f ur i t s c erwi be mor eat ed n hi hapt l l e t an adequat f r t ei di i i g h e o h r vd n r r equiemen s.l does t t t hough r y on a set el ofIt changewh s bei avai e as a he eel ng l abl iusest es t pr d t di si Usig t h e o ovie he vi ons. n a sigl gear Phot 1,wi pr de many n e , o l ovi l o t e mor us di si nam el 2, 4, fh e ual vi ons y 3, 5,6,7,8,9,1O,1 1 13,1 15,2O,25, 1, 2, 4, 3O,35,4O, 5 55,6O,65,70,and 75 45, 0, u ng t e most mon s ofgear 20 t si h com et s, o 75 b 5' W ih a f k det t Phot 2, y s. t ored en , o 1 1 22,24,26,28,8O,9O,1 1 6, 8, 00, 10, 1 1 1 and 1 ar al p si e. 20, 30, 4O 5O e so os bl The r ange i f er ex ended by t e s udh t h addii o a pai ofgear as ius r ed i ton f r s l tat n l Phot 3.Thi ess tal t same as o s, en i l he y addi a wor an wor ng m d mwheelb weer et di dig pl e and t dii ng h spidl vi n at he v di ead n e. Ther i t e s hough one f undam ent al dif ence, a wor f er m/ w or wheel m c fgur tonwi al yshav a r tot on on i a i l wa l e a i o e, t c l 40 :1,60 :1,et A p ro spur ypial y c. ai f gear may t s hough hav a mor c plx e e om e r i f ex pl gear of45 and 20 wi at or am e, o, s l l hav a r i of9 :4. e ato Consi i t e r derng h ange ofgear above, s butonl one o each,ar d 6OO di er t y f oun f en f c ombi i n wi b p bl .Thi bas nat s l e ossi e o l s ed on,anyon oft e gear b n u as t e e h s eig sed h di di g wheel and as t drven.Al vi n . he i so, r iatn t e si i when usng awor epl ig h t on c uat i m/ wor mwheel t i i , hat s nputr f ert an uns ast h t ou put t drv wheelmustal s he t , he ier way
3.The t eehr gearv s o er i n.

1 The si e . ngl gearv si o er on f t di i hg head. he vdl

(ndexer i )
58

59

. .x , .a . ' f

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Phot 4 dipl t r r on f o s ays he eai eas or es abl hi g t desi n,t e i l on ofa t i n he s g h ncusi wor and wor m mwheel Unl e com mer al . i k ci di di heads, and pr vi ng obabl m ost y publ hed desi f hom e wor i s gns or kshop c stuc i n,t desi i notImi t a on r t he o gn s i t o ed sigl wor wor wheel a i Usng 20 DP n e m/ m r to. i gear t e as bl wi cope wi a gear s h sem y l l t h up t 65 t h,I t by t gear hi i o eet i ed mi he t ng t t r oft di si n pl e.Th h es i he ear he vi o at e ol n t end pl e wi t he at l hough pr de suf ci n l ovi het 65m m di mensi n f Par 8 t 80mm and o or t o

t ee,te metod on sy em,( ng adjst hr h h e st needi u mentf gear up t 75 t h and or s o eet d ed ncr ng he Onl t si e addiin i ,i wel coul be accommodat by i easi t y wo mpl t alt o ems) s l

t I gt oft spi e ( acc digl. he en h he ndl 27) or n y


Chap er11i udest esf t t r t ncl abl or he h ee

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can eas l be i cr ed i l h when i y n eas n engt 15 m di er at c dalo b use 0m amet pl es oul s e d The uni i t ph os i bei used wi t n he ot s ng t h di di pl es m ade f om sheet st . vi ng at r eel These punched pl es ar m ade on at e c ompu er c r l machi and ar , t ontol ed nes e ev t ough v yeconom ial prc ver en h er c l ied, y y accur e. They ar 3m m t ck but t at e hi he desgn s d c wih pl es up t 6m m i houl ope t at o t ck.I woul t hi t d hough be tdi t i eas i er o ncr e t 1 x 1 m t ead on Pad 8 t 1 m he 4 m hr o 5m I and t 79m m di enson on Par 27 ong he m i t t 82mm .Some modic i per o f aton, haps a i bush, ay b may be needed f diern m e, or f ig f bor dim e er l i al , ng p ch e a t s.ncdent l bei un ed y pl es t hol go t ough w hi t at he es hr st he commer aihi plt h hol st atar ci t ck a es ave e h e bl s el I easyt k t cl i ur y ess nd, o eep hem ean. Th desgn i bas on b n us wih e i s ed eig ed t a 3 l i c te hei Myf d Ser s Sev 4 n en r ght or i e en I h t enabl it be us wi t I he' at e o e to ed t he at s h t d ock f bet ai st or ween centes wor For r k. ot cent e hei s t appr i e her r ght he oprat di ensi ns can easiy be changed. m o i m ountng arangem ent may al need i r s so changi g. I pr ie,bet n n actc ween centes r wor on t l he i I el t b ofl t i k he at s i y o e i ed,f k mi an us i man wor shopsi whi c y, e n y k n ch ase t us maydeci t I ve t desgn as he er de o ea he i pu i ed,t r h e b n ont mii bl sh i eal om eig he lng s l machi ne.

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REAR BEARI 1. NG
fr tbearn Machi t ou erdi e er is ig. ne he t am t s and bot endf est di enson, ng t s h ac o m i doi hi usi g I t an rgh had kni t s and n ef d i t f ool e wi t r hout emovi t par fom t e m an el ng he tr b dr . Thi pr ess en i t end f s oc surng hat aces ar e squar an t ou er am e er con rc, e, d he t di t s centi Sl , i make r s and drlan t M6. t eces i d ap l Posii ng t e hol f t n i easi toni h e or appig s l y done as ius r ed i Phot 6 usi t l tat n l o ng he bus det l i SKI. h ai n ed Spi e -Par 8 ndl t

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END PLATES 2.

A *bE K 2DFu x 1 E Er4 frp ..A C 8 rZ d o r5 ( 68d z or . . ) ) &i )F ' P F'

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CLAM P PLATE 13.

LOCATI PI NG ECE 12.

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PART V1 Z EW

DETENT C A R R I 41. ER
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t vi v y si l t f m a di j t he ce er lght o or y sh us
su f i t pr de adequat fiton. fi ent o ovi c e rc i Th r ai ig padssh d not es e em n n oul pr ent any pr em . hen ass bld y wi b obl W em e ou l e i poss i of a qualy dii ng head, n esson i v di t ver r y obus ,and abl t pr de m or t e o ovi e di si n t ata c vi o s h ommer al i v sal ci sem unier di di head.You wilal have t vi ng l so he sat f i ofhavi made t e iem . i act s on ng h t

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0.025 mm makng i v y cl e t 0. ' i t er os o 001' .

Thi woul need a r che h ng 8 t h s d at t avi eet an gi n , one I ( 1mm)t eeshor d vig ong 0. hr t ( 0 mm) one I ( 1mm)and t ee 0.25 , ong 0. hr s t( 025 mm) hor 0 . Tj uni woul nor l be used on n t d mal e y
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. I hs by obser ng i I cr di l engt vi t eads ew a s

r ngsan ha ng t c te numb eadi d vi o ount h er ofI made ofeach I gt Phot 3 i nes en h. o s howsibei us i c unct wi t t ng ed n onj i t he on h bascass yofte di di hea i t i embl h vi ng d n he pr ou ch ermouned on te l he' evi s apt t h at s
bed. I l t cuti t shoul be dealy he tng ool d nomi l at he It cente hei t imay nal t a hes y r gh , t t ef e be nec ar t chan t e 40 her or ess y o ge h mm an 72 mm di ensons oft angl d m i he e

J The Li ng devc not t r ses l ni ie, e he eces b

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41 wi gie 47 alo f l v l s ound t be a prme o i n umber Th prmef or t ef e41x . e i act s her or 49 w1 927.Ob ousl a tme cons ng t vi y i umi ask wi t houtt ai oft e t es. he d h abl Un orunat yt f t el hough, pac I i tons s ei t i m a i t s book r ti t e t e t 2000.T n hi es r h abl o ct o mi mi t t off n prm e number ni se he ask i g i ndi s ab t s a I t ofpr e number up t ove hi i s i m s o 1 0O0 i al i uded.Thi wilav d 0 s so ncl s l oi l i f t e prme f or ofa n ber ookng or h i act s um whch i i i fa prme num b ,t cal , i s nt sel i er ypi l y 4933.

h ng a wor / m wheelr to of40: avi m wor ai 1 t f 1t n at he out 40x hol on hen or ur t put 49 es t pl e wi be pas ed,t i 1 he at l l s hat s 960.As ex ai i eari chapt s an number pl ned n l er er y t di des exacty i o t s wilbe a hat vi l nt hi l pos bl di si To easi arie atval si e vi on. l rv y ues pos bl iwi be n si e f l eces yt fn isprme l sar o id t i num b s as e aied ab er xpl n ove.Di di by vi ng 2,2, 5, 7 gi ng 980, 2, 7, vi 490,2 49,7, 45, 1. The r twi be 2, 2, 7, whi esul l l 2, 5, 7. ch ar ofcour n ber ofhol an m us e se, um s es d t be di ded i o 1960 t det m i t vi nt o er ne he

Num ber gr ert 2000 s eat han


The r eader may ask,w hat ar prm e e i num ber an whati t rr evanc t t s d s hei el e o he

di si possi e.I i t hi vi on bl gnorng he gher


number possbl as t ar unl el t s ie hey e i y o k h a pr t al se, t e mor us ul u ave ac i u h c e ef vales ar t cal . e ypi l y 1960 2x7=1 / 40 1960 2x2x5 / =98 1 2x2x7=70 960/ 1 5 960/ x7=5 6 1 7x 960/ 7=40 1 2x5x7=28 960/ 1 avealo i edt l h s gnor he ower b s num er , suc as 1 2x h 960/ 2x5x = 1 as t e ar 7 4 hes e bound t be achivabl by an easi rr t o e e e ou e. As aleady m entoned t prm e f t s r i he i ac or r a e t t number of h es tav sed, elt o he ol r er t ef e f 28 di son t e numberof her or or vii s h hol staver ed wi be 2x = 7O. t e r s l l 5x7 As he dii on plt bei u has a rn o 49 v si a e ng sed ig f hol t s wi be achi ed wih 1 t n pl es. hi l l ev t ur us 21 hol es.

subec oft sbook j t hi ?

T i prme num ber fr . ese ar akng i s ist Th e n ber whih ar onl dii be by 1 and um s c e y v sil i el't c l,1, 3,5,7,11 1 , and on t f ypial s , y 2, ,3 up t i i i . er ar t ef e v y many o nf t Th e e her or er ny and ev a v y advanc mat en er ed hematci i an wi be unabl t r ogni b l l e o ec se eyond val ues ofa hun ed ors Fort s r dr o. hi easor t es abl of prm e num ber ar an essental i s e i r equiem ent w hen dealng wih such r i t num b s. er

6.L up 7 whi i f ook ch s ound t b a prmq o e i num ber . 7.The prme f t s ar t er or 3, an l i ac or e h ef e 5 c Z'

Pri e f or ofan even m act s num ber


Fort sfnd t e prm e f t s of1 . hi i h i ac or 32 1.Bei an even num ber t smalest ng he l f ori 2. act s 2. vi 132 b 2t gie 66, n an ev Di de y o v agai en num b . er 3.Dii 66 by 2 t gie 33, v de o v 4.33 i an odd num b s er 5.Look up 33 and t e smal tf t i 3 h l ac or s es 6.Dii 33 by 3 t gie 1 . v de o v 1 7.L up 1 whi i f ook 1 ch s ound t be a prme o i num b . er 8.Th prme f or ar t ef e 2, 2,7 e i act s e her or

Prm e f or i act s
Th ar t e prme number t when ese e hos i s hat m ulpl t et gie t num b bei t i og her v he i ed er ng c der Forexampi prme f or o onsi ed. e, i act s f 1 ar 3,5, d 7. O5 e an 3 x5x7 = 1 O5 The met ofarii att es fom a I t hod rvng h e r i s ofprme num ber i as f l i s s ol ows 1.I t numberev s he en? No t er or s ar h ef e t t usng t t es, i he abl 2. Look up 105 andt e smal f t i 3. h l ac or s est 3.Di de by 3 t gie 35. vi o v 4.L up 35 and t s al s f t i 5. ook he m l t ac or s e 5.Di de by 5 t gie 7. vi o v

Fi tt e not t tn numberi t r r ak s e ha o n he ange 2 t 1 000 o 0000 has a pr'e f t gr er i ac ol eat f n t 97, t ti 24 pos bites.nt i r han ha s si li I hs ange i t ef e t e t f l ng appr h: her or ak he ol owi oac Fi ,fev di de by2,fn ty 3, r i en, vi st i ot r 5, 7 j et . unti t e lwest prme f t i l c lh o i ac or s f d. Havig f t s, vie t number oun n ound hi di d he by t s val and i mos cas t r ul hi ue n t es he es t wi t be bel 2000 and t t e can l hen l ow he abl t be us hen ed. l not r f , epeat afer fr t ist checki t s t i i not a prm e ng o ee hat t s i number , The pr ocedur i uniel t be astme es l y o k i c onsumi a mayfr tbet ng s is hough asever t y t r num b i dii bl byt ee, y f t hi d ers v si e hr ever i h f n b by fve,ev y s um er i er event numberby h S ven and s on. a r tmos number e o As esul t s h e a I fr prme f t . av ow i i ac or st

an 11 d .

W hat use ar Pri e num ber e m s?


Ho t wi t s b ofus when di dig? w hen l hi e l e vi n W el,y may have acquied a sec l ou r ond manual l t i t e c ' i , n hes ases you wi h s s l ave l t r od t c c at ns. o es o alul i o Con dera di si n plt havi a rng si vi o a e ng i Wi 49 hol . I t s i used wih a head t h es f hi s t

Some r eader willam sur hav s l e e


not t att prm e f t s 2,2, 5,7 i ced h he i ac or 2, and 7 ar i f tt prme f t s oft e e n ac he i ac or h expl ton i t s f m as when wor n ana i n hi or kig wi t et ee geardii ng h d i Chap er t h hr h vdi ea n t 7 t r to may notbe a si pl one,s he a i m e ay 60: ,butwi gear of45 and 35 t r to 1 t h s he a i

2x x1 = 132 2x3 1 Bot t ese exampl ar si pl an prme hh es e m e d i

f t sc d easl beesabl hedwih t acor oul i y t i s tou t ai t es. he d abl


However consderfndi t f ct s , i i ng he a or of19 Thi iwi be f d, i not vii e 27. s,t l oun s di sbl l b 3,5,7, 1 1 n 1 , et I Iwes y 1, 3, or 7 c. t o t s vi ng prme f t i i f t41. Di di 1927 by i ac or s n ac

han dii ng h wihou i manual or t i t lval 40 (2x 5 )an 49 ( d vdi ead t t t s , wo nii ues, a 2x2x d pur ed an addii plt notonyour 7x7 ) However lhave pr ed t chas tonai ae . , esent he

90

91

i . .1a p.u 1d

wi be 9: I t s st in i wi be easi r l l 7. n hi iuat t l o l e t wor wi t numberof h es p ed o k t he h ol ass whih i s c n ome c aseswi bewih mor t an l l t eh one r uton of t w or ece, as evol i he kpi expl ied i Ch t 4 Exam pe 3. a n n ap er l Havi pr ded t Ist of prme ng ovi he i i num b s lhav deci t i ude bre l er e ded o ncl ify som e det l on anot ais her and m or e dem andi g use f r t em . Thi i n o h s s es abl n gearsies f compl r i s, t i g shi z or ex at o i may ofcour e c eat a need t us y t s r e o e our di di f l is f makig a specfc sze vi ng acit or ie n ii i gear .

1 000
315 Thati muli yng bot t and bo t by s tpli h op tom 1000. Fac or i bot 1000 and 31 usig t e t i ng h s 5, n h t es, get abl we 2x2x 2x5x5 x5

3x3 x5x7 Can l ou one 5 we get celng t i 2x2x 2x5x 5

'hi gies a TPl r s v 40 x50x75 8 x = 25. 3968254 30x 35x45 pi i m ii r i v y cose at t n lmetes s er l ch l 25. 4 = 1 OOO125m m . 25. 396825 4 At25 pic t s i a t alerorof pl t hes hi s ot r us 0. 003125 m m or i you ar i f e mperaly il icl O. 23i i pr tc a negl i e n i ned O001 n n ac ie i bl g amount , Thi c b sm pl id bydii ng 50 by 10 s an e i ie f v di

and 5,30 by 1 and 35 by 5 t gie 0 o v 4Ox1 x 75 8 A 3 7 X 45 X si pli gi ng m ied vi f 40 x 75

3x3 x7 I n i t e f t ha gear cann be made g or h ac t t ng s ot Desi ng gearchai gni ns wi so f t h,we s i hav a pr em t h ew eet tl e l obl A t calus f prme f t t es i i ypi e or i ac or abl s n as t e ar 5 drven gear but onl 3 her e i s y t desi ofg chais r rng c plx he gn ear n equi om e i ier Iwe t y 2 i . # r i suc a when det mi ng change drv s.f m ulpl 2x and 2x5we getatos, h s er ni drv s and 3 drven as f l ier i ol ows wheelcom bi i f cuti Met i natons or tng rc 4x1 0x5 t eads on a I he wih an i peral hr at t m i I eadscr and via ver Al when ew, s sa. so 3x3x 7 cuti wor wh swhi si l l r r tng m eel ch mi y equie ar M uli yi each number by 1 wi gi tpl ng 0 l ve l comps r i ex at os. pr ialgearsies and bei i 1 s ar act c z ng n 0' e I el t be av lbl wih t e It W e ge i yo k ai e t h a he. a t Exam pl e 40x1 00x5O I r rn t c a t ead wi a pic f equiig o ut hr t h th o l or a It e havig an8 TPIeads e f mm ah n I cr w 30x x70 30 t lt s man el l hav t r at 25, he a he' dr wi l e o ot e 4 A 1OO t t geari unl el t be a l e 00 h s i yo k vai abl tm eswhi tt l i l he eadsc ew r a es 8 tmes. s r ot t i o edu ng hi o h o l l Thi t ef e r r a r i of25. :8. s r ci t s t 50 and t e 70 t 35 wi s her or equies at o 4 et n he at o Expr ng t s as a fac i we ge : r ai t r i . essi hi r ton t 40x50x 50 8 1
=

= 25. 3968254 21 x 45 Thi wi be easert s up usi onl t s l l i o et ng y wo drv s and t dr en butr r a 21 ier wo i v equies t h geart wilbe speci f most 00t hat t al or changewh set eel s.

8x

25. 4 . 4960629 31 Acc tng t at an exac r i wi not b ep i h t at l o l e possbl t s can b si ii t i e, hi e mpl ed o f 1


.3 5 1 Asdeci sar no appr it t fac i mal e t opra e o r tons t s mus be wrten as hi t i t

30x30x 35 Th c e ombi i n now r r t 30 acd nat o equies wo t 50 t h gear but i easng one o wo 00t s, , ncr i f eac bya f t o 1. t b h ac or f 5 hey ecome 45 ard 75 $ h gear a n r ai ng t r i 00t s, gai et ni he ato. Th r tng gearc n becomes: e esul i hai 40x75x 50 30x 35 45x

92

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1

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94
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95

c) = h u >.>. >. c) >. = = >.= v = c c)c) >. o s.= = t c) n >.>.* o) % = v = >.t n t >.>.c % o o = >.c v v9 u f >.c % 7o o c)t m = >. n t ) t k r n o o 9 t >.>.s.= n c % t % e q n ) v.c t t = nn n c = c t v u 9 n = c = c >. 9 o m m x m c N > c & c c c v O = c O > & c & c & c = C ( t u 7 k u t u % o 7o n n

t n c o () r

v J) = ( n

* = t = n

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= = * b. = c)>.>. c = >. ( o D J) >.= m >.= >.( D t e) ( = n D >. >.t t o o >.e) e t = )n t ( ( t c o D o o p t = N t = n n k t t % c o o o o >. e >.s.t ) n % % % t >. D ( t c = c) n n n % t ol( t n N o >. = = t = n t t G1c k n n u o = = >. > c) . = m % = O m m N = m m > N v O m = c c c c & = O e ( ( c % D D

c) c o ch (: J c) > . >. ( 9

= ry(: 7 0) = t F) n = c) c o m = = m >. ( = c >.>. D o >.= = c)= N ( >.( >. D D = = t O >. n >.>. ( f o D o = t v >.v n ( b.( u ( D o 7 o t v- >.= c) n t ( r % k o D o o e)c)O t c n t t O O % o o v t c)c)>. -n t t = t % o o N >.>.= >.>. % O D = & O O X = = c = = > = X N W c & & & u ( N * 0 3D ( ( ( D D D )

h = ( = = D

= * O c o ? = <

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.

>. = t m n

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s.

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= 0 ) = c o
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( v D * = >.= >.

c 9 = ( s. 9 * J)

c) c) c 9 ( m
& cz J)

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r o

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r w

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O =

vC) r < *

m X U < C) C D * f = O N' < J) * * ( D

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( X U * * C) * O >' C X

v = c >.N . ) * >. c N >. C m >. = O < t c >.>. o O ( = N >. 9 ) u k 7 o ( t X m c) 9% % t n t t o o o ( = = N >' M

0) m m c m >. c)s.u c 7 n N ( c)>.c) >.u % c D 3 = f o = % = = >.t u % 7n c)( m n ( t ( D o 9 > v = ' >. t o t n t o v -

0 =t )M n * ( b.
>. cj()c 7 * h c * m m c s.s. o * b.( * ( D D c)s. o s.m ( ( % b.t D D o cjm s. 0) s. t I X ( * o D D e s. g) r g) ) o

m = =O * * >' ( D
t s.m o b.? ( < D e) c) ( l ( k D D n o = ( M t C o c) v % t <

b* O m X .= D D ( D * C (
= O v- s.m u ? * P ( 7 < - D c m s.m c) % ( U U W) D < c >.s. c)s. o % L u * O D 7 m m m t r n o * ( V * O D uj s.c) .... W O O V O e c s s.m )o . = O tl O W x = U = X * v ( t Glv - N Nl G c & O O o & & m v = o & c X o = c O o m c D m X c X o % c

>N v ..r * N' <


v v = t - n ( * t ? D D < c)c) >. s. * ( k ( D D D p e s.v- c) - ) X * & t % D x x o g)m - - t Y' O V O * s. cje) e) m * W V O O m ( ct o; oj o O W O B1W X OtO U C < 9 C) v' O = Gl m X m = O m m o m m m c o m o c c O m N c O o c c m o o c

O% c%% 9 * >. > = = ' c tc %% un 9


P = < C O < hm w= m
m m X & D a X m = = =

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= O = D
= O c C m

m s.t c v f t c c t o o n o o o c)v = >. t o % k t s. % o o N o = p v

= C C X q X X = &
N c X c m = m & & X

>' * O N
N m m = %

C * 9 t = n = O m = & c X m N & N

O N. ( e 9 q @)b. m > = c X O & O a

X C >
m m = & c X

N * =
c m & & = X

= = 03 t v % Y >. ( ( 9 9 = = m
c o O c X N c m & X X o m N o % O

= X >.O ( O N >.>.0 O ) m m m
N m = = c X * m N & c O c c = & N D = m X & X X

= = >. m
= m N & c X

O O = t n s.m = o
O o m c & % N m m m m %

c) = m m % % s.c) c o m m
m m m c % N o N m O % = c c % %

c c c t m p p un o m c c = c o >.>.( m . c) ns m m m a
O m N o o % m a O o c % m m & o N % o m m o % c o O c c %

N m O c m m o c

t * O X * D c)F) v O vO m O L O O > b.= @) c) . = v' Q GlGl N > m N O m m = =


c o o m o o c o o m m o c w % o

m e) s.c) on % ( % O t D O c s.x s.c o X V * O C D s. . s.m . X V O O t o >.Ct= = = X C O Q V V N v b.= C) O ( v- = C N 9 X X X N O v m m o v o o o O o c o N o N o O o o o X m c o

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othdio,n iohtisvahvate freve vl tegaIairqihit n isnad eibeendi siiae oe ht.u arer tati y do e vi he o y ce b a They rel velr wi any one oft sg vuli on pl l achi c iaeh e aI r oeuegh
v ues.Twent wi si i ry be aried a al y l m ll l a rv t wiht f lur s p di son. t e same t wo ult n er vii For h r son 20, an 60 ar om i e fom t e ea 30 d e t d r abl t number and mos l n s ty umber oflte us s i l e. t O n hundr an t t -ie i t ou on e ed d wen y fv s h gh t l t he i hat wi be usef f t di st l l ul 0r hat al

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Col n Headi um ngs
The col headi D,P, an H r at umn ngs T d el e tt f l n o he ol g owi

wor kshop ownerwho constuct t r s he


di di hea i t i addion t t e abov vi ng d s hat n t o h i e exta diii he orshe wi get23 f r v sons l l udher

D. Di son achived vii e


i st x or l t fnal ec i of hi booka numberof di di head, I s si setups f 24 n he i s ton t s vi ng t es ar icl abl e n uded t as s i ari ng ata di ii o sit n rvi v s ons. p. Num bero hol on t di si n plt f es he vi o a e t be us o ed T. Numbero f lt n a t i f ul ur s t he nput any .

di sons ( bei te l t usng te vii 51 ng h owes) i h


60 : r to t atar nota l e wi t e 40 1 ai h e vai abl t h h :1 r to,bei by f t mos com mon ai ng ar he t c mer al avai e dii ng head. om ci l y l abl v di The dii n head i chap er7 uses ei vdi g n t t her Pr di t s ovi ng he ame f ct nas a wor an un i o m d

suiabl s up f t pr ecti hand, t e et or he oj n Havi pur ed a new dii n head a Based on Di si Pl e si ng chas vdig vi on at zes
t e ofpossbl di si wi be i l abl i e vi ons l ncuded l ci r cumst es.However a sec d han anc , on d head may h ave pared c pan fom is t om y r t manual sh d y makeon your el, and oul ou e s f t cal t i chapt 8,ari ng at a ypi l hat n y er rvi s t e s up woul n esst t r uiabi et d ec ia e ecour e s do notr f t 'he sui e se up' b t e er o t t abl t ' ut o ' sui e s up't s i becau i many a t abl et ' hi s se n C ases t er i mor t one met of h e s e han hod ari ng at t sam e r t ofen man rvi he esul, t y met hods. The m anual suppled w ih a i t com mer alhead under t ci s andabl quot y es Thet esc of se onl c er r abl an cour y ov a ange ont e com monl suppl wiha smal hos y i t ed l er 6' 1 1 2O, , hea Thes ar 15, 1 17, 8, 9, 21 d. e e , 43, 23, 29, 31 33,37,39,41, 47 and 27, 49. To l it e sie oft e t esf publ ton i th z m h abl or i i ca Val some val h e been om i ed. ues ues av t t b ow 20 ar notnclded ast c easi el e i u hey an l y be ari at by obser ton and some rved va i sm pl mat i e hematc . O b ousl,val of is vi y ues 15and abo wi us di si pl es ha ng ve l e vi on at l vi t num b ofhol , s f 1 us t hat er es ay or 7 e he bei g equalt t e h s r i , say 40 f n o h ead' at o or a 40: head. Typial f ot val f 1 c l or her ues, or y 7 di sons t 21 hol pl e woul b t vii he e at d e he ob ous choi . Val es ab vi ce u ove 200,36O excuded, h b om i ed on t bass l ave een t t he i oft rI i appl aton. hei i t m ed i i c O b vig t e one, f a 40 :1head, ser n abl or iwi be s t atno val ar gi f t l l een h ues e ven or eih 20 or40 dii ons Thi i bec t er v si , s s ause

H. The numbero a tonalhol t be f ddi i es o takered at te numberoff lL ns,i Thr GearDi di Head r ' s fer h ul ur f ee vi ng

Wih i t wil be fne i most o di si pl e numb s and ar bas t t hat l i n f vi on at er e ed

R.Rai ( siel i t t bl 4ony. asi egearoraddional apaiofgear to gear z Appl o a e l es ngl t l i y r s


W or / or W heelr i mW m atos wor mwheelTher i wi t . ato l houghbeI , l ower
T es 1,2 and 3 ar f t c abl e or he ommonl t pi l gear of60 and 20 havi a r i y y cal y s ng at o a l e r i of40 :1, :1and 90 :1. of3 : 1 or c pl gear of65 and 45 vai abl atos 60 , om ex, s However t head f hom e wor , he or kshop h ng a r i of1 : avi at o 3 9.

t c cul in. mayhavenot edt I Possi e di si o al at You o i hat c bl vi ons noti uded ncl

constuc i i chapt 8 can have 9 r ton n er

addii r i f ex pl 35 :1 usig tonal atos, or am e, n t 35 t h changewheel Publ hi 9 he 00t . i ng s Ot erit i f lsob ousy i ac ial d h I s n uli vi l mpr tc an s i any cas m os o t e possi l di sons n e t fh b e vii Wih t e wi al b achivabl w i t t hes l so e l e e t he h 40 :1 and 60 :1 r is I t i t es one at i ed n abl o s an t d WO.

No t e i pr ded f t s n e gear abl s ovi or he i gl as i t s case t r t shoul be n hi he esuls d obvous. i Two ex pl bei a f t t am es ng, ody 00 h gearpr di 2, 5, 1 and 2O, t ry ovi ng 4, 8, 0 a hitfv t h gear5 and 7. ie 00t Agai t t e i n he abl s I ied t 16 t 200 pl 36O bu al i t o m o us t so I ng out di si t can easi be eavi vi ons hat l y

jstonesetupf eachv u ont basi plt wih 1 h es,t hol tavered u or ale he s a e t 7 ol he es r s
t t suppl dii on pl es wi r n hat he i vsi at ed l emai wih t e head.However we aI kn t t t h , I ow ha t s so ofen i nott c e and one plt hi t s he as ae may go m isig.Form an v u t s wi s n y ales hi l l n be a pr em as t e r r d di si ot obl h equie vi on wi be achevabl usi anot erpl e.For l l i e ng h at t sr hi eason t e publ h i shed t es i ude abl ncl e y setup t at pr i an achi v e ver - h ovdes e abl dii on,t cal ,t e one,f a 40 : 1 v si ypi l abl y or

Fort r on,abl f i l onl achi ed wi a sngl gear hateas t e ourncudes y ev t i e h .

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