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A. RESEARCH BACKGROUND
The mastery of speaking skills is considered as a priority by many teachers and students who teach and learn English as a foreign language. Most students and administrative of schools will evaluate the effectiveness of the English teaching on the basis of how well the students can speak. Other reason why speaking skill is a priority is people who know a language will be referred as the “speaker” of that language, therefore most people are interested in learning to speak (Ur:2003). Such speaking skills are to express ideas orally without any confusion in the message due to the incorrect pronunciation, grammar, and/or vocabulary. Stovall (1998) proposed three areas of knowledge learners should recognize in speaking, “Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary), functions (transaction and interaction), and social and cultural rules and norms (turn-taking, rate of speech, length of pauses between speakers, relative roles of participants)” (http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/speaking/spindex.htm). Harmer
pointed out two elements of speaking in order to speak fluently; a knowledge of language features (connected speech, expressive devices, lexis and grammar, and negotiation language) and mental processing (language processing, interacting with others, and information processing) (2001: 269-271).
functions. rather than teach about English language. and sentence for translation. lists of vocabularies. but also their usage of the language outside the school (e. interaction. the goal of English learning is to provide students ability to communicate orally or written in the context of their technical skills. not only students’ linguistic competence but also students’ communicative ability is emphasized. and mental processing. and performance) have different features. especially in the English language teaching. In KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan) 2006 for Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (Vocational High School). In recent years. By helping students develop knowledge of language features (mechanics and expressive devices). One of the basic competence is students must be able to understand words and terms and also simple sentences 2 . Education in Indonesia has been reformed.g. mechanics and language features are important to make the message become clear as well as the mental processing. Thus. It affects the focus of the language features. teachers may enable students to use the language in a variety of contexts inside and outside classroom. working world and social life). Thus. the students must be able to communicate using English in novice level. Few decades ago. In the competence standard of the tenth grade of vocational school. the teaching was emphasized on the grammar rules. Different functions of spoken language (transaction. English language teaching has focused more on teach English language.As the goal of speaking is to convey messages through spoken language. English is important to be developed not only to meet the students’ academic achievement at school.
Ur seemed note problems with speaking activities in psychological point of view which is anxiety. and interaction (2001 : 270-271). rhythm. words and expressions used to talk about capabilities. 3 . especially in transactional talk. it is important that the message is clearly expressed so that there is less chance for misunderstanding (1998 :5). yet it is one of the most difficult skills to be mastered. colloquial language. message is the most important factor. Speaking is important. While Brown outlined in more mechanical view. redundancy. lack of motivation. Harmer stated that transactional talk is to get business done and so it is message oriented (1998:5). and at the same time they have to develop their knowledge on language features. shyness. Stovall was in agreement with Harmer by saying that in transactional talk. stress. domination from other students. The main material for this basic competence are words and expressions used in expressing preference. It can be concluded that to communicate orally. performance variables. and the use of same mother-tongue in the classroom (1991:121). rate of delivery. not the accuracy. conditional sentence type 1. students must overcome their anxiety. reduced forms. Richard in his article also agreed that the message and making oneself understood clearly and accurately is the central focus (2006 : 3). The type of spoken language in the basic competence mentioned above is transactional. fear. clustering.in a correct grammar structure. and words and expression used in asking for and giving direction (location). We may conclude that to speak inside or outside classroom. and intonation.
conversational phrases and expression) in teaching-learning process does not allow students to participate and practice the conversational interaction.The lack of motivation also seems to be one of the problems caused by their boredom of certain teaching atmosphere. the writer is interested in investigating a method to develop the students’ speaking skill. and create a context which Students must be more active in the 4 . grammar. The method that is going to be applied is role play. This situation is a result of lack of motivation for learners to speak in English and insufficient fluency to carry on a spontaneous interaction (Richards : 1984). allows natural learning. process to practice the language. Moreover. provide “whole-task practice”. The teaching atmosphere can cause boredom for students and give very little improvement in students’ speaking skill. Most of English teachings consist of dialogue reading or question and answer. Various problems in motivation and knowledge on language features also occurred in the eleventh grade students of Bina Putra Vocational High School. teacher can give the students opportunity to practice improvising a range of real-life spoken language in the classroom (1991 : 133). role-play is one of the technique that based on communicative language teaching method which improves motivation. By indicating the problems in improving students’ ability in convey message and making themselves understood clearly and accurately. The interaction in the classroom is also dominated by the teacher rather than the students. Ur stated that by using role play. Focus on the formal aspect of conversational language (vocabulary.
Most students found it enjoyable and it leads to better attention in learning and stimulate them to participate in role play activities. Varela and Torre support this idea by stating that role-play contributes to the development of conversational skills and are suitable to develop student’s fluency and interaction (http://www. The effectiveness of role play in teaching speaking had been proven by Ayu Diyah Harni Susanti. a student at English Department Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. State Islamic University.spertus. It means that the use of role play in teaching speaking is quite effective. this activity also motivates them to speak in English with the other students. the main objective of this technique is to prepare students for the real-life language use by practicing in the classroom the situation that may happen in real life. role play can be used as a technique that require students to be involved in information sharing and participate a lot in order to convey the message. Therefore. In practicing transactional talk where message is more important than accuracy. in 2007 who had investigated the effectiveness of this technique in improving students’ score of speaking at junior high school. Unconsciously. The investigation had proven that the students’ score taught by using role play is better. Richards and Rogers (1986 : 76) mentioned role play as one of example of the social interaction activities compatible with a communicative approach which fluency and acceptable language is the primary goal rather than accuracy. 5 .pdf).supports learning (Littlewood in Xu Liu ).es/Publications/Luisa/NEW%20INSIGHTS.
6 . However. 2.This classroom action research will be arranged in Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Bina Putra Sungai Raya. In conducting the study in this class. field notes and scoring criterions are used to support the data collecting. most of them have lack confidence in expressing themselves. observation. the problems of this research needs to be formulated as follows: 1. The subject of this research is tenth grade students. RESEARCH QUESTIONS In order to carry out this research systematically. This research is expected to be one solution to improve speaking skills of the tenth grade students of Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Bina Putra Sungai Raya. Besides. What makes role play effective in improving speaking skill of tenth grade students of Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Bina Putra Sungai Raya in academic year 2011/2012. and low English proficiency. the writer as the teacher will prepare an interview for each students in order to know the real students’ communicative competence. The students will have to take performance test in every meeting in order to be administered to the sample as the comparison of the significant improving in speaking skill. less motivation in learning English. The students had learnt about the expressions in transactional talk at junior high school. How effective is the use of role play to improve the speaking skill of tenth grade students of Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Bina Putra Sungai Raya in academic year 2011/2012. questionnaire. B.
C. E. SCOPE OF RESEARCH To clarify the limits of research. 2. ACTION HYPOTHESIS The action hypothesis is proposed as follows : 1. Role play improves quite effectively the speaking skill of tenth grade students of Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Bina Putra Sungai Raya in academic year 2011/2012. it is required to state the scope of this research. D. The scope of this research covers: 1. Research Variable 7 . Role play improves very effectively the speaking skill of tenth grade students of Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Bina Putra Sungai Raya in academic year 2011/2012. 3. RESEARCH PURPOSE The purpose of the research is to find out the effectiveness of role play in improving the speaking skill in transactional talk to the first semester of tenth grade students of Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Bina Putra Sungai Raya in academic year 2011/2012. Role play does not improve very effectively the speaking skill of tenth grade students of Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Bina Putra Sungai Raya in academic year 2011/2012.
b. a. things. Dependent Variable The dependent variable in this research is the students’ speaking skill. Independent Variable The independent variable of this research is role play technique. Students’ speaking skill is the students’ ability to speak fluently and clearly. groups. 8 . Role play refers to the technique of teaching to improve learners’ ability in spoken language where learners are assigned roles which they act out in a given scenario.Research variables are the characteristics of persons. 2008). b. Terminology In order to clarify the terms and avoid misunderstanding and misinterpreting writing. Transactional talk refers to a type of talk where the central focus is the message and making oneself understood clearly and accurately (Richards. the researcher provides the following explanation: a. programs. 2. c. and so forth that can take one value.