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Introduction 1Epidemic,

outbreak of contagious disease affecting an unusually large number of people or involving an extensive geographical area. Epidemics, which may be short-lived or last for years, are brought on by the widening reach of disease-causing organisms. These organisms can spread by contaminated food or water, directly from one person to another through physical contact, or by the exchange of bodily secretions such as saliva, semen, or blood. Insects, rodents, and other diseasecarrying animals, known as vectors, are agents that may infect human populations with epidemic diseases. Among the diseases that have occurred in epidemic proportions throughout history are bubonic plague, influenza, smallpox, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, cholera, bacterial meningitis, and diphtheria. Occasionally, childhood diseases such as mumps and German measles become epidemics. But since the 1970s, a number of new diseases, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Ebola hemorrhagic fever, hepatitis C, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) have been identified. New drug-resistant strains of influenza, tuberculosis, meningitis, and cholera have also appeared, causing a resurgence in the number of cases of these diseases. Programs that identify and control disease are now in place through most of the world and have repeatedly shown themselves capable of responding quickly and effectively to sudden outbreaks of disease. In particular, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an agency of the federal government of the United States, and the World Health Organization (WHO), an agency of the United Nations, are active in monitoring and providing rapid response to potentially epidemic outbreaks (see Epidemiology).
CAUSES Epidemics of malaria or dengue have been caused by mosquitoes. These insects bite an infected person, and suck in the microbes causing the disease. When they next bite another healthy person, they pass these germs into the blood of that person. HIV/AIDS is caused by contaminated syringes, medical injection needles or through infected blood transfusions. Relevance of spread of epidemics today: The boom in international air travel has increased the risk of spreading these infectious and contagious diseases even more rapidly.

Preventing Spread Of Epidemic Disease

It is thus very important to first prevent the spread of an epidemic disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) has called on all the countries to co-operate whole-heartedly in order to prevent such world-wide health emergencies. Immunization: Getting immunized is the first step. The countries which are prone to certain disease epidemics, must ensure that their population is immunized against it. Immunization drives against polio, small pox or yellow fever are some examples.

These countries must also ensure that any resident of that country, when traveling abroad, must be immunized to avoid being a carrier of the disease. Similarly, any person entering that country must also be immunized before entry, so that they do not become infected by it. Information Sharing: All countries must frankly share information about an outbreak in their country, and what steps are being taken to contain it. Other preventive measures: Each country must also take health measures to completely eradicate such diseases, by making stringent rules about cleanliness and hygiene. Drinking water, milk, maintenance of swimming and spas can be regulated by strict government laws.


A study was conducted that included 10 of the 31 provinces in China. Thats a population of 1.36 billion people. Isoniazid and rifampin are generic drugs that are generally used for treating TB. But, when a patient has a drug-resistant bacteria, he or she needs to turn to combinations of newer, more costly multi-therapy treatments. As of today, around 8.8 million people have become sick due to tuberculosis in 2010. That same year, 1.4 million people died from the infectious disease. These numbers make TB the second leading infectious disease killer, with on HIV/AIDS having more victims. About 650,000 reported cases of patients resistant to the multi-drug treatment exist. Around 150,000 of those people have died. Important Note: When coming into contact with TB patients, wash your hands regularly using a An epidemic is a public health emergency requiring immediate investigation. The steps in investigating an epidemic are as follows: 1. Confirm the diagnosis. 2. Verify that the number of cases is outside normal expectations. 3. Define features in common among the cases (including inapparent cases). 4. Distinguish cases from members of the community who are not affected. 5. Compare the exposure history of the cases with a sample of noncases. 6. Conduct appropriate laboratory tests for pathogenic organisms. 7. Review environment and social conditions. 8. Arrange, classify, and analyze the data. 9. Plot graphs of time trends and the number of cases; create maps of the distribution of cases. 10. Report findings to the public health authorities for action to control the epidemic TREATING TB1 One third of new cases and one half of people with previously treated TB in 2007 had a form of the disease that didnt respond to medicine, according to research published in the New England Journal of Medicine today. At 5.7 percent, the presence of TB that was resistant to multiple therapies among new cases was almost twice the global average, the study said. Its bad enough that the strain of TB thats becoming an epidemic in China is resisting drug treatment. But, the fact that the public hospitals and clinics are providing inadequate treatment makes it even worse. Patients who arent responding to treatment include one-half those who were treated for TB in 2007, as well as one-third of the new reported cases.

Back in 2007, there were about 110,000 reported cases of TB in China that just wouldnt respond to the many different drugs used to try to treat the disease. This was the highest number of drugresistant TB cases around the globe. This situation could actually get even worse soon. It seems that 25 percent of Chinas TB patients are actually receiving incompetent care through the public health system. This is because the initial drugs prescribed arent capable of fighting off the form of the disease they are suffering from. TB Program officer at Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in Beijing, Danial Chin, is one of the coauthors of the study being done on the epidemic and treatments. Chin says that the current situation is already critical, making them desperate to figure things out. Nothing has shown that the situation is improving as time passed on. TB is a very infectious disease that has struck the entire countryside. Theres no safe place to get away from it. Its one of the most common infectious diseases affecting the population of China. Somewhere around 44 percent who are suffering from a multi-drug resistant from of the disease havent completed their final drug course treatment. Their previous treatments will not have a positive, long-term effect unless the treatments are completed.

Endemic typhus causes about 12 days of high fever, with chills and headache. A light rash may occur. The symptoms of Typhus include; severe headache, sustained high fever, depression, delirium, and red rashes all over the skin abdominal pain, backache, high fever, joint pain, vomiting, headache, nausea and more. The symptoms appear then days after the victems has been infected, they include high fever, pain in the muscles and joints, stiffness, headache, and cerebral disturbance. This type of impetigo involves the formation of a small vesicle surrounded by a circle of reddened skin. The vesicles appear first on the face and legs. When a child has several of these vesicles...

DOs & DON'Ts in post disaster situation for control of Epidemic Prone Communicable Diseases
DO's Water Borne Diseases


Drink water from a safe source or water that has been disinfected (boiled or chlorinated). Store water in narrow mouthed container. Cook food or reheat it thoroughly and eat it while it is still hot. Keep food items covered. Wash hands before preparing or eating food and after defecation. Increase fluid intake in case of diarrhoea. Use ORS solution or home available

Don't drink water from unsafe sources. Don't eat uncooked food unless it is peeled or shelled. Don't eat cut fruits. Don't defecate indiscriminately.

fluids as soon as diarrhoea starts. Refer the diarrhoea case to a health facility in case of following: Child is irritable, restless or lethargic or unconscious. Eating or drinking poorly. Child has marked thirst. Child has fever or blood in stool. Vector Borne Diseases

Use insecticide treated bed nets (ITBN) or insect repellents while sleeping to keep away mosquitoes. Wear cloths that cover arms and legs. Keep patients protected from mosquito bite in acute phase. Empty water containers at least once a week. Cover and seal septic tanks and soak away pits. Remove water from coolers and other places where water has remained stagnant. All fever cases to be given vaccine presumptive treatment for malaria.

Don't allow water to stagnate. Do not allow discarded items to accumulate such as tyres, tubes, empty coconut shells, household items and objects where water may collect. Don't allow children to wear shorts and half sleeved cloths.