STEFAN ARTENI

Perspective as Form and Medium and the Interplay of Proportion Systems and Perspective VIII – Addenda

SolInvictus Press 2006

Communication

Niklas Luhmann defined communication explicitly as the unity of information, utterance [message, Mitteilung], and expectation of understanding. More specifically, communication “arises through a synthesis of three different selections, namely, selection of information, selection of utterance of this information, and a selective understanding or misunderstanding of this utterance and its information.” A helpful bridge is Luhmann's understanding of information: once information is expressed it is no longer information per se; it has exhausted itself. Though, this "automatic mechanism does not exclude the possibility of repetition." Repetition itself is a form of meta-information that can be interpreted as indicating the value of the repeated (now) non-information. James Carey argues that the ritual view focuses on the communication of this meta-information of commonality, instead of novelty.

In calligraphy, a well-known text could be written in many different ways; in painting, there may be many different instantiations of a well-known image. Since the works are often variations on established themes and usually allude to earlier works, the repeated and now familiar information (the content) appears as a construct that may be dissociated from the form of the utterance. There are two ways of looking at art and they are mutually exclusive: one either looks at/for the content or one gazes at the form of the utterance.

Arabic Calligraphy at Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan

Hakuin Ekaku, Zen Mu (No)

Angelos AKOTANTOS

BARNABA DA MODENA

Bicci di Lorenzo

NICCOLÒ DI SEGNA

DOMENICO VENEZIANO

Anonymous Spanish master

MASTER of Saint Veronica

Anonymous Florentine master

Zanobi Machiavelli

JUAN DE FLANDES

Hans MEMLING

LORENZO DI CREDI

RAFFAELLO Sanzio

RAFFAELLO Sanzio

Cristiano Castelfranchi distinguishes between communication [getting a message] and signification [getting a meaning.] There are empirical psychological data showing that humans and animals are sensitive to the form of signals [such as ornamentation and rituals] and not just to the information they convey. According to Magnus Enquist, spectacular cultural phenomena can evolve that convey little meaningful information, but still have strong impact on spectators. Signal forms or visual displays are highly redundant. High-context cultures will focus on 'how' something is done and on the extensive use of cumulative rhetorical style. For instance, it is well known that by altering specific aspects of a familiar stimulus supernormal effects — stronger reactions — can usually be produced, even when the new stimulus does not provide the receiver with more information The stimulus is data rich, and information poor. An increase in signal complexity may also allow qualitatively different stimulation to be effective...the ability...to recognize patterns in time may favor signals that are variable in time over monotonous repetitions of the same signal. Costly signals may evolve for a number of reasons. Biases in receiver's recognition mechanisms can promote the evolution of costly exaggeration in signals. Learned recognition gives rise to more exaggerated signals than inherited recognition .

Roman mosaic (photo by Dick Osseman)

Roman mosaic (photo by Dick Osseman)

Roman mosaic (photo by Dick Osseman)

Roman mosaic (photo by Dick Osseman)

Roman mosaic (photo by Dick Osseman)

Roman mosaic (photo by Dick Osseman)

Roman mosaic (photo by Dick Osseman)

Byzantine mosaic

Byzantine miniature

Byzantine wall painting, Cappadocia

Byzantine wall painting, Cappadocia

Byzantine wall painting, Cappadocia

Byzantine wall painting, Cappadocia

Byzantine wall painting, Cappadocia

Byzantine wall painting, Cappadocia

Novgorod Icon

Novgorod Icon

Novgorod Icon

Novgorod Icon

Icon

Serbian wall painting

Serbian wall painting

Serbian wall painting

Georgian Icon

Armenian miniature

Byzantine miniature

Moldavian wall painting

Romanesque miniature

Romanesque miniature

Romanesque stained glass window, Germany

Gothic stained glass window, Germany

MASTER of the Isaac Stories

MASTER of the Isaac Stories

Anonymous Italian master

Duccio di Buoninsegna

GIOVANNI DA MILANO

GIOVANNI DA MILANO

GIOVANNI DA MILANO

GIOVANNI DA MILANO

Greek Icon,16th century

Unknown 14th century Italian master

Anonymous 14th century Florentine master

Bicci di Lorenzo

Pietro Lorenzetti

Giotto (Ambrogio Bondone)

Giotto (Ambrogio Bondone)

Giotto (Ambrogio Bondone)

Giotto (Ambrogio Bondone)

Giotto (Ambrogio Bondone)

Giotto (Ambrogio Bondone)

Master of Osservanza

Sano di Pietro

Paolo Schiavo (Paolo di Stefano Badaloni)

Anonymous Spanish master

Juan de BURGOS

MASTER FRANCKE

Lucas MOSER

Hans MULTSCHER

Jan van EYCK

MASTER of the Lyversberg Passion

Anonymous German master

Attributed to Nicolás Francés

Jaume Huguet

Jaume Huguet

LORENZO Monaco

LORENZO Monaco

Paolo Schiavo (Paolo di Stefano Badaloni)

Jaume Baço JACOMART

ARCANGELO DI JACOPO DEL SELLAIO

Luca della Robbia

Prayer Book of Lorenzo de' Medici 1458

Bona Sforza's Book of Prayers

Benozzo GOZZOLI

Benozzo GOZZOLI

Benozzo GOZZOLI

Ercole de’Roberti

Domenico Ghirlandaio

Domenico Ghirlandaio

Domenico Ghirlandaio

Domenico Ghirlandaio

Filippo Lippi

Filippo Lippi

Francesco del COSSA

Francesco del COSSA

Anonymous Flemish master

Anonymous Flemish master

Anonymous Flemish master

MASTER of the Virgo inter Virgines

Rogier de la Pasture van der Weyden

Rogier de la Pasture van der Weyden

Circle of Rogier de la Pasture van der Weyden

Follower of Hugo van der Goes

Petrus Christus

Gerard David

Master of Apotheosis of the Virgin

Albrecht Bouts

Albrecht Bouts

Anonymous Flemish master

Anonymous Flemish master

Luca Signorelli (Luca d’Egidio di Ventura)

Luca Signorelli (Luca d’Egidio di Ventura)

Luca Signorelli (Luca d’Egidio di Ventura)

Luca Signorelli (Luca d’Egidio di Ventura)

Luca Signorelli (Luca d’Egidio di Ventura) and Bartolomeo della Gatta

Sandro Botticelli (Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi), unfinished work

Filippino Lippi

Filippino Lippi

Filippino LIPPI

Francesco SQUARCIONE

Vittore Carpaccio

Vittore Carpaccio

Vittore Carpaccio

Vittore Carpaccio

Francesco di Giorgio Martini

Francesco di Giorgio Martini

Francesco di Giorgio Martini

Francesco di Giorgio Martini

MELOZZO DA FORLI

MELOZZO DA FORLI

Vincenzo Foppa

Vincenzo Foppa

Pietro Perugino (Pietro di Cristoforo Vanucci)

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

RAFFAELLO Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Andrea del Sarto

Andrea del Sarto

Andrea del Sarto

Domenico BECCAFUMI

MICHELANGELO Buonarroti

MICHELANGELO Buonarroti

MICHELANGELO Buonarroti

Gaudenzio FERRARI

Tiziano Vecellio

Tiziano Vecellio

Tiziano Vecellio

Tiziano Vecellio

Tiziano Vecellio

Tiziano Vecellio

FRANCIABIGIO

FRANCIABIGIO

Maerten van HEEMSKERCK

Maerten van HEEMSKERCK

Andrea del BRESCIANINO

CORREGGIO (Antonio Allegri)

Paolo Caliari Veronese

Paolo Caliari Veronese

Paolo Caliari Veronese

Paolo Caliari Veronese

Paolo Caliari Veronese

Paolo Caliari Veronese

Paolo Caliari Veronese

Paolo Caliari Veronese

Paolo Caliari Veronese

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos)

El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos)

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci), detached frescos

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci)

Pordenone (Giovanni Antonio de'Sacchis)

Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo di Mariano Tori)

Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo di Mariano Tori)

Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo di Mariano Tori)

Marten de VOS

Marten de VOS

Marten de VOS

Marten de VOS

DANIELE da Volterra

DANIELE da Volterra

Federico and Taddeo Zuccaro

Federico and Taddeo Zuccaro

Giorgio Vasari and Federico Zuccaro

Giorgio Vasari

Jacopo ZUCCHI

Jan MULLER

Jacob JORDAENS

Jacob JORDAENS

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Bartholomeus BREENBERGH

Jacob Adriaensz. BACKER

Jacob Adriaensz. BACKER

Jacob Adriaensz. BACKER

Balthasar van der AST

Balthasar van der AST

Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velásquez

Attributed to Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velásquez

Attributed to Nicolas Poussin

Jan Jansz. van de VELDE

Anthony Van Dyck

Anthony Van Dyck

Anthony Van Dyck

Jean-Antoine WATTEAU

Jean-Honoré Fragonard

Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin

Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

Francisco de Goya y Lucientes

Francisco de Goya y Lucientes

Francisco de Goya y Lucientes

Francisco de Goya y Lucientes

Francisco de Goya y Lucientes

Francisco de Goya y Lucientes

Eugène Delacroix

Eugène Delacroix

Eugène Delacroix

Eugène Delacroix

Eugène Delacroix

Eugène Delacroix

Paul Sérusier

Paul Sérusier

Maurice Denis

Maurice Denis

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Edouard Vuillard

Edouard Vuillard

Théo van Rysselberghe

Théo van Rysselberghe

Théo van Rysselberghe

Félix Vallotton

Lovis Corinth

Lovis Corinth

Armando Spadini

Armando Spadini

Armando Spadini

Gian Emilio Malerba

Alberto Ziveri

Alberto Ziveri

Alberto Ziveri

Alberto Ziveri

Giorgio De Chirico

Giorgio De Chirico

Giorgio De Chirico

Giorgio De Chirico

Giorgio de Chirico

Giorgio De Chirico

Giorgio de Chirico

Giorgio de Chirico

Giorgio de Chirico

Giorgio de Chirico

Felice Carena

Felice Carena

Felice Carena

Felice Carena

Emanuele Cavalli

Emanuele Cavalli

István Szőnyi

István Szőnyi

Vilmos Aba-Novák

Vilmos Aba-Novák

Carlo Socrate

Carlo Socrate

Carlo Socrate

Mario Tozzi

Gregorio Sciltian

Gregorio Sciltian

Jenő Medveczky

Jenő Medveczky

Felice Casorati

Felice Casorati

Mario Mafai

Mario Mafai

Mario Mafai

Mario Mafai

Roger de la Fresnaye

bozzetto for fresco

fresco

mosaic

Gino Severini

Gino Severini, mosaics

Gino Severini, mosaics

Max Beckmann

Max Beckmann

Max Beckmann

Max Beckmann

Marc Chagall

Marc Chagall

Marc Chagall

Marc Chagall

Marc Chagall

Marc Chagall

Marc Chagall, ceramic

Marc Chagall, mosaic

Marc Chagall, ceramic

Marc Chagall

Marc Chagall

Georges Rouault

Georges Rouault

Georges Rouault

Georges Rouault

Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse, tapestry

Bruno Saetti, bozzetto for fresco

Bruno Saetti, mosaic

Bruno Saetti, fresco

Bruno Saetti, fresco

Bruno Saetti, fresco on canvas

Massimo Campigli

Massimo Campigli

Massimo Campigli

Massimo Campigli

Massimo Campigli

Massimo Campigli

Albert Gleizes

Marino Marini

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Stefan Arteni, Assembled Orpheus Cartoni

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